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PHILOSOPHICAL

PRINCIPLES
O
F

Natural Religion
Containing the

:

ELEMENTS
O F

Natural Pbilofopby
And
the

,
ri

PROOFS

for

NATURAL
Arifjtng

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RELIGION.,
from them.
F.

By GEORGE CHEYNE, M. D. and

R.

S.

Printed for the Gol den Ball in Cornhill over againft the Rojal Exchange. 1705.

L N D N: U GEORGE STRAHAN at

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faing undertaken in Obedience to lour Commands. My Lord. taming . and Caver- Principal Secretary dom of State for the King of Scotland. Cefsford. HE following Treatife may in fome ttte Meafure. loun. and con- jw A 3.T O The Right Honourable JOHN. of Lord Ker.. EARL ROXBURGH. as claim Honour of Tour Lord/hips Patronage.

I Jbotid not think it. Thtf Tour LordJJitfs uncommon Advances. anfwer. I had with your Lordflrip. Such . the Dignity of the Siibjeft. even in the more abftrufe parts ofGeo- metry. haw made you f ogreat a Mafter of Reafonwgs of this kind. r&amp. yet did hit the Performance.tfw/NaturalKnowledge. imworthy of Tour Lordfoips Protection. that I am not capable of offer ing any thing to Tou worthy Tour own Perufal. to talk with you on Philofophical Subjects.gt.Epillle Dedicatory.**&amp.. taimng part ofthofeDifcourfes. when you allow d me the Honour.gt.

and doing good to Man ledge . to layfuch Foundations hoth for Know ledge. and Conduct m Tour Studies. has not retarded Tour deeplnqutries. to become Moft ufeful to Mankind. Such has heen Tour Lord/hip* happy Genius. What . that Tour great Progrefs in the nobler -parts of Philofbphy. that they left it to their Stars to de termine^ which of the two afford them Occa/iort. and for Buftneis. in the Know of civil Government nor Tour univerfal Learning rendredyou more unfit for an active Life.Epiftle Dedicatory.lt.s the peculiar Wif- dom of the Antients. It wa&amp. kind.

Epiftle Dedicatory. And the ^tieeiis Choice. it is becaufe they have not had Occafion to Dtfcourfe with Tou on Subjects of Learn ing. I wotfd fay too. in the moft difficult Times. if others know not as I do. It was Tour LordJJjip s Opithat the Providence of the Almighty Governour of the Univerfe. had refertfd to this . ifany thing could he reckorid fo. for the prefent Reign. pacity r\ i for /-v^ * Her Ma~t A* Tour Country. ProvifwnTour Lordflrip has laid inforthefirft. is an undoubted Proofof Tour Ca the other.

to expofe the Folly ofa cor rupt Generation of Men. And upon the fame account. thofe &amp. who from their vithas Practices . by which the Se crets of Nature have been more than in happily unravelfd any former Times. being prone to Atheifm. great Advantages . the Oracles of Reafon to be on their fide. as well a$ an Ornament to lour Country.gt. and that Greatnefs and Honefty receive A 4 addl* true Knowledge.Epiftle Dedicatory. who are a Living Exerriple/Zw/- and Probity go Hand in Hand. on purlaft this Age. pofe. I cannot but look upon Tour Lordflnp a& a fingular BlefTing. . have vainlypretended.

or which is more valuable. as the Motives upon which you accepted . mention. additional Liifk e from one ano ther.Epiftle Dedicatory. But. or Fortune. ) jnom J Si May Tour Jjwd { ^\ happy in your Adminiftration. that Probity and Candor that foincs in all Tou fay or do. hut Jliatt only make good Wifljes.?r Tem per. / J/iall choofe to tranfgrcfs again ft to the common Rules of Dedica either tions.fup- pfy tie Place of a juft Enco mium. Tour Modefty. hecaiife I would not offend Tour Lordrip s darling Vertue. or Breedingy&amp. andJJyallnot prefume. Tour Birth.lt.

are the only Returns. this fmall Treadle is the only Prefent . as l&amp. the World in And your Temper.it. as your noble Mind. May your Endeavours for fettling the Peace and Hapfinefs of your Country . my Lord. has fecufd you from mean and nar row Prejudices. as you are to all ftccepted.e as your Love to it is fmcere.gt.Epiftle Dedicatory. May your In tegrity -protect you from unjuft Malice . I can make your Lordflip. for the many Favours I have received from you and Thefe. . were Juft and Ho nourable. fuccefsful. May you lye as eafie in your Office.

than My Lord.W ^^ V *^j moft obliged Servant. . Lordfliip s Your moft humble. andthatyour Lordfiip woiid believe. y ^ti CEO.! beg your Lord- Jhips Acceptance. .Epiftle Dedicatory. frefent ll)ave to offer you\ of winch however. that no one can Honour you more. and &quot. CHEYNE.

the Commands and Converfation of that noble Perfon . TH whom I E End and Defign and of thefe Difcourfes. I have had Occafion to be converfant in . for I induftrioufly avoided all Quotations.e&. wi*.THE PREFACE. I give every doing Juftice to Man Liberty to lay in his own Claim. (bme of them I borrowed from the Works of thofe Learned Men. by a little reflexion on my Sub. and aflert his juft Right. without their Names. If any one think. and the Contents-^ I have alrea dy hinted. As for the Ma terials. may be gathered from the Title Page. others had. I have made free with their Inventions. to they are infcribed. becaufe my Subjeft wanted not .. what gave the Occafion and Rife to them.

Newton s Store. points. eoncern d the Animal Oeconomy . moft plentifully. Archibald fitcairn his Differ tat ions fupply d me the I borrowed but little. I hope the Goodnefs to pardon they will have me. That . from thofe* who have written on the fame Subje&s with my felf. Dr. on Principles (tho juft and demonftrative) Nature from mine. For what without particular Innuendo s. and his Inven tions have fuch peculiar Marks. Borclli and Bellini^ that Friend to Mankind^ my conftant good Friend.. Some part of the Matter was furnifhed me from Mr.The Preface. having treated their Opinions. with all the Candor and Regard due to their filer its j without mentioning their Names ^ and a mannerly Liberty in Philofopbical is allow d to ev ry Body.. not Authorities^ but Demonstration... befides. diftinguifli them... both to avoid Re and bccaufe they generally went petitions. yet of a different If I have had the Misfortune^ to differ in fome few Philosophical points^ from fome great and deferving Men. as will even in my rude Drefo.

The Preface. may not be faying fo If my Occaiion of Performance excite others^ of more Leifure and Capacity to do it the Juftice it deferves. and the John 5 Craig^ I^zzmeA Oxford^ Dr. I ted^ wifh there ftill. and Dr.Wealth of Learning y not to want any Paneygrick from me. I have obtain d the end of my Ambition. If I am not over fond of my Subject.ArbuthnonPhyfician al Highnefs.gt.. I think I may a Treatife on it was wan fay. to bis Roy Men fufficiently eminent Chrift-Church in the Common. That thefe Sheets have not many more Faults than they have.. is owing to thejudiciqus Corre&ions and Advices of the Reverend and Excellent Mr. THE . Friend of :&amp.

THE CONTENTS. as to the Mate r rial The Phyfical Lam */ Nature. p. Rticle 2. about 3. Part of this Univerfe. p. The true Scheme of Nature. p. 3 4. A Demonftration of the j| ture. The firft LAW of Nature. p. ^ . 2 the Philofophers . p. 9 8. 1 1 it felf. and of ifs $ $ Laws. Definition A Pag i of Nature. Of the I. can move in a curve of That no Body 9. Appearances^ confuted . That Bodies cannot ofthemfelves either move An or alter the Dire&ion of their Motion^ p. CHAP... 7 & 4 & 5 feq. I. 8 and Demonftration Explication of the 7. 12 IP* S . p. 6 firft Law of Na p. The Opinions of s it and Nature. 6. ?^ Phyfical Laws. Vis inertiae in Bodies. The Introduction. and uniform Apfea* ranees of Nature. p. $ 5.

Mechanifm/razz what isnotfo. p. The Conrfe of a Body The Method of compounding. 2O&2I 5 impelled at the fame time. f 04 perpen dicular Stroak. 25 Ibjd. p. /?/ p. 13 J 12. I/&/W Law of a perpetual Motion. $ 15. in its Motion. The T&amp. p. That the Influence of an omnipotent er. 22 17. The Proportion of an Oblique. p. i. 24 Ibid. That there can be no perpetual Motion to diftinguift A p. by two different Forces. drawing in Three different Directions a Body in 4quili1 8. 13 13. p. p. is the only Canfe of the Prefervation of a Body moving. do not move of ibid. when their Direftions wAkp an Angle. that neither of thefe particularly . 1 6. That neither Motion nor Reft. 2$ Rule .The 10. or iMpulfe. 28 2Q. II. 7/6e Proportions of Three Forces. Tto ^ JEW)/ cannot move in an Orbit perpetit ally. That the Celeftial Bodies. is eflential to p. with it s De14 monftration. i88c 19 w/V/6 iVV De Nature. and refolving Motions. monftration.gt. Pow $ The Necejfity of a Vacuum demonftrated. e. Matter. themfelves. Ibid. p. The Second Law of Nature. 27 19. p. p. Contents. from one Jingle impulfe. with one another. 15 14. brio. in their Orbits.6e Impossibility demovftrated.

is 47 of Bo dies upon one another. 30 22. That the Attra&ion or Gravitation of Bo dies upon one another. 30. to Matter. about the Mechanical Production of Gravitati on. do not their Orbits from one /ingle Impulfe. This Hypothefis. or retaind in their Orbits by a central attra&ive Force i p. p. That the Celeftial Bodies muft be either turnd round^ by a circulating Vortex. about the Formation of the Univerfe. That the Attraction or Gravitation p. y . 29 move in ibid. by fome Being p. 34 feq. not fufficient^ nor fat if- fatiory. 48 & 49 Ibid. in his Aftronomy. 24. Ibid. or imprefs d upon Matter.3 2. tial not a Property effenp. 3 7 feq. p. The Hypothefis of other Philofophers. 27. $ p. one /ingle Impulfe^ 21. is a Faculty communica ted to. Mr. & & $25. produced and confuted. Ibid. and the Des Cartes Caufes ofthe Celeftial Motions. 26. Des Cartes his Hypothefis confuted at large from the Arguments adducd by Dr. Leibnitz s Opinion about theCzuksof the Celeftial Motions. 42 feq. 33 23. 41 feq. p. Gregory. p. is the only Principle to account for all the Appearances of fuffident Nature. 49 Ibid* intt from Matter.3 1. his Opinion. and Do&rine. That the Celeftial Bodies. That the Attra&ion or Gravitation of Bo & & dies upon one another .The Contents.

jHW ticles extreamly fmall.?/ for from this Principle. /Ae covflituent Par*re. The Nature and Caufcof Fluidity explain W. 56 $29. agzinji Attraction. the on Water Ibid. 55 Ibid. ThcFigure of rances of the Element of Water explain d. 68 How from fo feiv Primitive Fluids as. The Figure of -the Particles p. 50 Sc feq. the and feq. Air. Mercury and Light. the infinite Vari eties of compounded Fluids may be accounted and feq. p. and the Conditions the necejjary to conjlitute p. jlancc. 72 & feq. Fluid of Light is projected from the Sun fixt Star. and the manner of p. p. of the Fluid of Light. The Nature of Cold. Light Body 34. p. ^ 37. 74 & feq. $36. and the Perpetuity thereof. accounted Principle &amp.?/ p. accounted for from this The Objections. p. The Motion of the Celeftial Bodies. 7/fc Nature and &amp. p. 67 Mercury explain d. JF/VA 2r/&amp. 32. 28.gt. p. Contents. Water.lt. material Suba or is a T/ta/ 35. p. 69 for. p. 61 $31. 62 Freezing explaind.The Ibid.^ ^ prodigious Velocity.. Appea 30. 7^ & 38 . or Gravi Attraction or Gravitation.lt. That the Quantity of Earth^ denfcr Fluids producd^ does continually decreafe. tation being JMpreJs d on Matter^ and the man ner of it s Operation. and Properties of Air explain d y p. 66 the Nature $ $ Properties 33. . 59 and the Nature the? arts. The Flux or Reflux of the Sea. anfwcred.

95 Mr. and Original Colours p. 41. &amp. 3&. That all Bodies have p. ibid. The Caufe why different Co lours. Newton. T&tf Bodies. of of Light and Colours the Nature and Pro p. That p. jeft. 78 39. and Solidi- . That Light ^w///?/ 0/ Rays differently re- frangible Ibid. Ibid. and in our Seniatioris. What Colours are made by the leaft refrangi What $ ble Light. 89 feq. Summary. is & constantly diminishing^ to Light. ftwrt 88 Ibid. from the Principle are not confin d to one Jingle Condition thereof\ but muft alter thefe as the Appearances re &amp.lt. p. 96 in accounting for the Appearances of Gravitation. That the Quantity of Heat and Light. p. in the Obibid. by Mr. Bernoulli s Experiment on Barometrical Tubes relating J 43. we Nature. their refraftive 84 Powers p. 79 Ibid. and reflexible. Ibid. exhibit Bodies $42.?/Cohefion 44. and RefraftiReflexions The the 40. *# mutually upon one another. 0/Opticks. 86 proportional to their Denfities. The Appearances 99 & feq. and what by the mojl. The Nature of the Sun and fat Stars. A perties down as they are fet . in that admirable Treatife at full length. p. p. in themfelves. Ibid. Caufe of ons ef Light. and the Bulk of the Body of the Sun and fixt-StafS.The Contents. p. 82 Colours are. and Light. 81 What the Primitive are y Ibid. p.?/ quire.lt.

explain d from the. the Origination of tint World. The Appearances and Caufe of Elafticity. about 2 Origin of the TJniverfe. fttppofes Matter end?wd y p. Condition -of the Caufe thereof* $ p. general Principle of At p. not being ejfential to Matter. with which this Hypothefis. p. Ibid. 2. p.. tewufe Motion ejfential to matter. Two different Demonftrations. Of II. Contents. of ral principle of Gravitation. 3 4. and /hewn to be one the flanenefs of the Cohering Surfaces. I and of I/ the \He Introduction. I JL TtaEpicareaa Hypothecs. if not p. tha t feews beft to An account for the Appearances^/Cohefion. That there ^arefcveral Degrees of Cohefion obfervable in Bodies . 101 the gene 45. Mankind in particular. 4 of Motions p. coud not have Lccit 3. 114 CHAP.The ty. 5 & 6 . Inquiry into the Condition. 113 46. p. Mechanically froducd. pag. which fam to require dif ferent Conditions of the general Principle of Attraftion. $ That Matter has no other gnxlity anfoerable to Self-Exiftence. 104 Ibid. traftion. This Syftem of things.

15 and Terreftial Appearances that have been explain W. are unaccountable from meer Me chanifm. Allowing Matter. All the Celeftial Mechanifm. Mechaniim. in- confijlcnt with. apowcr. yet it coud not have producd thisprcfent Sy ftem ofthings. from this Principle of Attraction. is to makp it a free-will d coud produce no Agent. to be perpetua Mobilia. p. in confident p. Animals dc wonjlratcd. Ibid. and an oblique Direction. p. p. wcer p.. That Solidity or Cohefion. and an 5 oblique Direction. p. the Nature of Matter . . Ibid. and Jo p. to change it s Dire&ion. it Obliquity of Dirc&ion . yet nothing but fluid or/olid Spheres. Attraction. Ibid. The Production ^/Animals above p. ^ Ibid. Self-Motion. 6. Contents. I? 8. coud he prodncd. 7 s Suppofivg Motion ejfential to Mutter. 1 1 7. to one another. That to afcribe to Matter. unaccountable from. and in- cwjiftent with meer 9. and unaccountable frotn. Allowing Matter a ibid. coud never have ar if en from one or all ofthefe Properties^ p. 9 Body*. 14 or the Gravitation of Bodies one upon another. 9 7. ^ There are federal Appearances in Nature. and therefore above the Powers of Meibid. Self-Exiftence. Self-Motion. yet farts (confijlcnt to their Nature} coud only move in Lines Parallel. 1 6 the Powers 1C. 17 of Mechanifm.The 5.

p. p. above the Powers of p. How the voluntary. The fpontaneous Motions. Ibid. Mechanifm. 29 0/ Mechanifm. 27 the Icing offowethittg. inconjiftent with above 12. Ibid. The voluntary Motions.. that all the parts (liquid and folid. 36 Freedom and Liberty of Rational Creatures. of the Origin $f the Univerfe^ p. 40 $15. Contents. Mechanifm. Ibid. 18 Mechanifhi. is formd at the fame and therefore the Production of Animals. Freedom and $ 13. 1 6.. Liberty. 30 &c feq. A Demonstration p. of the p. an life or Defign^ that every thing is ne+ other th}ng y which is an in$ fa Hi It I? . 24 $11. injlant. of tive the Senfi- Kingdom. in Animals arc Number. and therefore the Prodn(iion of Animals. 37 14. The Ariftotelian Scheme. there was a Neccjfity. is above the Powers of ally infinite in Ibid. That from all this TJniverfe^ coud not have been bccaufe its it Eternity of it felf. -aStt- That the red Organs. That In the Production of Animals. 42 That every thing in this 1)nivcrfc has an end. frefcnt Snbfip. requires^ an Extrinfick Principle for ftence.The Ibid. of Rational Crea tures above the Powers p. of 28 Mechanifm in the Brutes. and involuntary Mo tions of Animals arc perform d^ p.) of which jkoud have been ^ they conjift. Several Demonftrations . p. are above the Powers of Me chanifm.

That all p. 49 and Bulk. and conthe World been from all Eternity . is not infinite in his Extent. they p. from all upon another had al World ^ tertiity. 5 6 Since the material Part of this Univerfe. had the World them qittte deftroyd all Eternity. no Liquids extant in our Syftem at frefent. 17. fixt p. and have not been for ever of Mark. which wiift have eer now. That ftnce had ft the Heat. Jiefiftance to their but fitch as make fome fi Motions . $19. they coud not. fequently had there had been. p. 47 That the Quantity of Fluids. Had the World UftedfroM all Eternity. World been from Eternity. Since Motion is not eflential/0 Matter. 44 Eternity fons. theft Animals have wufl the frft of every Species of . coud not have been from. and Light. 53 Idfled from 21. of the Sun and the Stars all conftantly decreafe. That the Celeftial Bodies. of themfelves for both thefe Reap. do not move in void or emfty Spaces. p.have movd from all Eternity.The fallible Contents. by . 1 8. and the celeftial Bodies do not move in their fence Orbits by Mechanifm. in all the Planets has been conftavtly decreasing.the Attraction of thefe Bodies one the World been. fome that they have been Created by wife Being. themfelves. the Celeftial Bodies had been all amafs d in the Center of the materi ^22. had 51 been all Extingnifoed e er now. Animals. 20. P- 5^ 2 5.

p.The been infinitely big^ 24. 7 2 C H A Of P. p. A Demonftration that Self-Eixflcnce involves p. by any finite Number\ how f then this World coud not have been from all p. Arts and Sciences. 7? . Introduftion. 70 ertafed^ in anyfinite Ibid. Number ofTears^ how great mall fo ever^ foever. p. arefo many Demonftrations. of the Exiftence offowe fupreme Power. is a f lain Proof p. 2 5* this than they have attain d. of the Being of a God. Contents. the Exiftence of a Deity. p. 63 the Number of any generated thing on If Globe had either constantly encreafed or de &amp. and confequently that whatever is Self-exiftent muft neall the other Perfections ce/arily be God. 76 That the Exiftence of Matter.gt. Ibid. 60 Had the Word lifted from all Eternity. III. That all tlte p. p. it of the Deity. a 4 3. and particularly Mathematicks had arrivd at a greater Degree of Perfection. That this World has no other Quality fttitable to Self-Exiftence. whett was his Pleafure. 73 Arguments of tie preceding Chapter. 68 Eternity. 2. That this World 7 1 have been created^ by the mnft Supreme Being. 26.

quire the Power ^/Omnipotence. but alfo their firft Impulses. 88 and Being. and Ar That 5. all the Appearances of which are above the Powers 0/MecbanifilL tie Being of a g* y. a moving Body in it s motion. nor of Motion. many Proofs of p. That the prefent State of things. require a Power above Matter. The Preservation of the Faculties of Things. not only the firji Formation. of irratio nal^ and the voluntary Motions. does ttot depend A on the Nature of Matter. p. that. anddofkill. 85 Thai: the Exiftence 0j Animals. 87 7. 84 That not only the Formation and fir ft Itxpulthe in did reLines.The 4. p. that the Prefervation. neceffarily requires the Pow er. 81 telligent Being. of rational Creatures^ their Freedom and Liberty and Nature . 90 . from what they are now govern d. but alfo their centripetal Irnpulfes. p. Bodies. 89 Demonftration. necejjarilj in fers the Exiftence of a Deity. That the Spontaneous Motions. which is God. did. and ccjjity Principles. of the p. of Ibid. and consequently.. of right great fes. 8. by different Laws. nmft ofnehave been fomtd. and confequently the Exiftence of a Deity. it Muft flow from fom Power from thefc. rangement of the great Bodies of the Univerje. and therefore txitft have been producd by an in p. along the Ta gents of their Orbits. p. 6. Contents. did require the Power of an Almighty Being. are fo God.

p. 94 II. Diftances. the Motions of the Bodies in our Pla Celeftidl Range and Or the Diftances and $ netary Syftem. The Analogy. r and Light of the p i?4 t . 95 that represent the Periods. is that which produces ^ihe nobleft Ef fects on the Minds of Men p. ^ and a Reprcfintation of the whole Syftem of things. That the Argument f-r the Exijhnce of a Deity. and p. Reflexion on the Beauty.The IO. A general View of the Worlds of Creation. A $14. of this neat and com$a& Syftem of things. which have afforded Means fir determining the fame . in thoje of the Celeftial Bodies. through the univerfal Space. The Nature of the Sun. The Motions Moon. 108 JJ 1 6. and Rcfcwblance of the Pla nets. Irregularities of the the Affions ari/ingfrom of the Sun and . to our Earth. p. p. from the Wildom and Mdiority of the Creation. pittance 1xt Stars. and of their Satellits to our lyloon. 12. their Periods and Moti ons. p. in 17. J/jcwing how the Celeftial Bodies are rangd. the der. The Numbers. 103 15. Order and Simplicity. Earth. Contents. from the moft accurate Obfervations . 98 & feq. Diameters. Vicijjltudes of Seafons. Of the Nature. with their Ufes. p. detaonjlrated. Gravities and giitwtities of Matter. the end of their Creation. IO2 15.

Some more . producing the conftant Motions of all the Celeftial Bodies. the Comets. 127 Ibid. hatie fitted the whole Syftem fo well. Ibid. 135 ?bid. viz. in refpeft of their Denfities. of this our Planetary Syftem. of and Meliority. the Sun. 126 the Diftances of the Planets from the Sun. in all their Affe^ions. &quot. 129 Ibid. 118 the Demonftration Wifdom Beauty. 128 refpett of Ibid. by a Raj from p. of cj J their Atmofphere. in an infini over or under. with a Conje&ure of The Nature of their +J * $ and dejign. between the Times of the Periodical Revolutions. between the and the Area s defcrib d. p. 19. 123 their ufe A Ibid. Contents. p. p. p. From which fuits the whole Syftem beft. they might have been irregular. the conftant Proportion. and one Condition thereof. 125 the fame Principle. in their Diftances from the Sun. and Tails.The j 8. their being in a conftant regular Pro in a fettled uniform Order. the Laws of the Caufe and Magnitude Motions * . From Times Ibid. From p.From the conftant Proportion. p. that of Gra vitation. of all the Celeftial Bodies. and their widle Diftances. which woucl not ty of others. when portion. From the Velocity of the Planets Motions. p. p. From the pitching npon that Proportion. 135 particular Refle&ions. uncertain and in* From $ 20. upon the Meliority of the Frame and Conftitution of the Celeftial conftant.

161 . p. The Vfe and Neceffity of the Moon. the other Night.gt. with the Annual Revolution of the Earth about the Sun.e f the enjoy. 133 Necejfity of the Sun. or of one half of the Tears being Day. the Vfelejjnefs of more Moons. or Night. The incredible Contents. the Necejfity and Vfe of her Revo lution about her own Axe. the Stability of the Sun. to the Animals and Vegetables of the Earth. Ibid. whence the Alterna Some farther Conjectures Deftgn of the Comets. immenfe Diftance. his tion about hw Axe. of and 22. the beautiful the fixt Stars. 152 25. ADewenftrationofthe Motion Mo p. the Vfe and Necejfi Seajons of the Tear. $ p. TheWifdomof the Earth. the dreadful Conferences of her not having been. the Nccejjity and p. the tniferable State of thofe who are deprivd of his Influence . about the Vfe and tion of Day and Night proceeds: the fatal In conveniences of a perpetttal Daj. 1 50 the Contrivance ofour Globe. 138 the Earth. or offewer than ty V&amp. p. to Ani Vegetables.The Celeftial Bodies. of the Magnitudes of $21. The Wtfdom of the Combination of the Di urnal dotation. 24. the Difadvnntages of any one perpetual Seafon. 136 Number. 140 Reafon thereof. p. the Caufe and Neeejfity thereof. p. The Vfe and mals and p. 144 23. Diverfity. Ibid.

the Adnice The wonderful Wtfdom. 173 reft of and The Nature. and give \m thefe beautiful Turnings and Windings. on the Sides of the Containing Vejjels. p. Diftance of juftment of Planets the from the Sun. of 27. it s Necejjity for Life and Vegetation. of the Law of their Preflure. Subtilty. the fewncfs of the Original ones. 189 The and Sim wonderful Beauty. Necejjity. and the their fpecifokGravities. 176 29. 169 places which want ft. the and the nolle fluid of Light. The Nature of Vegetation. plicity of Idea . in the wantoftheSeafons of the Tear . which r/idkgs \m fat* ten and enrich fo many Countries in one Courfc. with great Diver/ity of theuniverjal Condition of their Preflure. p. many Advantages $28. ihe Viift Ufe. p. the the and the Earth. p. and a Demonftration a priori of the Figure of their constituent Particles. The great Advantages. * tains^ that they are an indifpenfible Condition of our frejh Rivers. 31. for failing Vapours. of our Atmofphere.The Contents. 182 $30. 155. for the fupport of our Clouds. 186 The Caufe and Necejjity. for our Ships. 164 $25. the Inconveni ences of a Coincidence of the Equator and Eclip tick. and drying our Marines. p. and Beauty of our Fluids. and of a greater Degree of Heat and Warmth in thofe it mo p. Ibid. extent. The Dejign and Advantages of our Moun . 163. p. 156. to the Ecliptick. of the prefent Obliquity of the Equator. and the Caufes offertility. and Rain and frejh Water.

with a general Rule hoiv . prefent us with. the p. 221 The the Mechanical Motions $ 38. p. Of the Animal Oeconomy. general View of p. as 3. 191 Nature of the in ternal Parts of the Earth. The Structure of the Glands. 204 &: feq. 207 The Stru&ttre and TJfe of the Lungs. and of their feveral Coats. the Courfe of the Aliment till it is mixd with to account for the the Blood. the Opinions of others about the manner thereof confuted. Efficiency of 33. whereby mofl of the difpaird of Appearances of the Animal Oeconomy.5. qre naturally and moft eafily ex Secretions in plain d* p. the Mamter of their Operation. Caufe of of all the bhiids in the Httwan Eody^ the Strtilfttre of the Vejftls.The Contents. Laws^ and Mechanifm of Secretion in general . Some Conjectures about p. and 34. and of his and JupiterV Satellits. and an Account of the more particular humane Bodies^ p. p. 202 the Animal Oeconomy. and The manner Caufe of Digestion . The true and Mechanical Account ofMufcular Motion from demonstrative Principles . Idea Mr. Nzwtoris latter Difcoveries of itsNatttrCi $32. 214 J 37. 203 34. 197 of the inthe the Hypothefis of Philofophers. the Nature. eftheufe of Saturn s Annulus. and A $ Animal Appearances^ p. commonly receivd^ with an Account of a new and a more considerable ufe of them.

and Strength of the Bones. Ivfiances of great Wifdom and Meliority. with the manner and Organs of Feeling. p. the Difference of the Texture of this Organ in. and the true manner general of the Generation all and Vegetables Animals and Production of the Nature and Manner of dentonftrated. and the admirably wife Adjustment of ofthefe Coats to kpow. we are obliged to undergo. p. in the Strufture. of Nature in the Fabrick of the Eye. furprifing Infiances ofWifdow. proportionating to the labours. of the Backbone. 2 23 The and wanner Nature of Senfation in 39. in their Mothers Belly. 235 Some 42. Animals. . 228 the Some 40. The admirable Structure of the Brain. . the Nceffity the Nature and Manner of and Advantages becomes after they are born . The wonderful Contrivance of the Skin and Skarfskin . 233 41. and the wonderful Strength all this Senfe to the the Bones have in proportion to their Weight^ p. p. with Nutrition. the noble Fabrick of the Heart. and of the Nerves. $ Bodies about us. from what it $ the great and wife this and end necejfity of Diverfity. 249 $ 44. 254 noble the The Author Geometry of 45. p. in the Order and Dijpofition of the Mufcles. 240 43. Mufcular Fibres the Direttion of the $ $ how they operate. p. general Reflections upon Wtfdom and Contrivance of the Animal Strufture. and the the Expenfes of Animal Spirit s. Articulations. p. Vifion.The how from Contents. the noble and amazing Fabrick.

. with the Conclusion of this Chapter. things. pag. wonderful of Ears. i JL it is Ibid. Of ledge. Some Reflexions on the Fabrick. or Quantity in the Abftraft is that of which we have the juft eft Notion.. and the nice Ad- juftment \ofthis Senfe to the Motions of Bodies about us. 276 CHAP. p. 260 The Contrivance the 46. That Magnitude. Know 2 ledge 2. and wife Contrivance of the Organs of fome irrational Creatures. 5 . p. IV. p. impojflble for us to attain a perfett Of.The Vifion. with the wife Adjuftment thereof for the true Magnitudes diftinguiflring of ObjeQs. with fowe Reflexions on t/js Eyes of other Animals. Contents. and the Inconveniences of a different Stru&ure from the prefent. of this . the great *Ufe and Neceffity with the manner and Mechanifm 0/ Hearing. the Nature of Finkenefs and InfiniteHumane Know ne&j and the Limits of I/ I A H Introduftion. p. That there are fome which p.^ and about which we make the exalfcft Reafovivgs^ with the Reafon. 272 79.

grees of the Properties of things. mujl be&f0r ever. or that the univsrfal Space is Bonndlefs.The 3. p. J 4. 5 Infinites. with the manner of the Generation of fmall or great Numbers from one givn. p. p. That thereby two Kinds of lative. $ infinite. infinite. and with an Ad]un& imply nothing but the De* p. 15 That Finitenefs and Infinitenefs in themselves hardy without an Adjunft^ are incomplcat Ideas. Ibid. 6 are the d Numbers Pictures That mojt 5. That Quantity // infinitely divi/ib le. fuppofing fome created Beings endow d with fame Properties infiuite in their Degrees^ provided thefe Pro as mceffarily imply others that perties be not fnch^ dcftroj the Nature of a Creature. and mnjt be for ever. II have Duration That ibid. That Infinitenefs implies no Contradiction . in it s Import or Signification^ p. p. tftintf and Representations of Quantities. the other ablblute. abfiirdity. no is in there That Ibid. p. Contents. p.18 . and a the one from the dijiinguifl) A Dcfcription of finite and Mark other whereby to p. and from thence a the manner of the Genefain$ R. 8 6.eprefentation of nation of an infinite Number + which confifts in $ a perpetuated Addition or Subftradtion. 9 the Extenfion of the TJniverje is That 7. 1 3 . one re and that finite is a midle proportion al^ between iniinitely many fnch finites and an infinitely fmall fart of that finite.

o ^ The in Geometrical Pro* 14. 44 . Th$ fame illujirated in the Quadratures of Exterior Hyperboloids.tinft whofe f 1 p. 20 IQ. and thofe whofe infinitely fmall Parts are all equal.. go 13. fame illitftrated grejjions afcending. 16 infinitely new Aritfametick of Illtijiration $12. of owe Por tions of the Area / ofthefe figures. Ibid. Differences. Several Difficulties that might be brought thefe Inferences . oi p. p.lt. rvhofe Sums may be equal.The 9. That it is ivtpojfible ever for us to under-? jiand or comprehend. p. n. That Finites and Infinites Difparata and Natures and of quite different Properties.lt. p. portion continued. their Svms^ Ratio s SUMS may be equal. 38 Ibid. the po/iiive Nature and Properties of Infinites. p. Sum s.tre A fmall Parts are all unequal . Contents. and offinding different ones. with a Method of find ing an infinitely fmall equal part. and the Number of the $ p. 29 of this Arithmetick tnfiveral Problems ^/^/Arithmetical Proportionals^ Infinites. p. *$&amp. about Quantities going on in a Geometrical Pro Terms. 22 ii. wit ha Method offinding the mfrmtelyfaall equal part offilch. The Divi/ion of Infinites into thofe whofe &amp. avfwered and clear d. The Method of an infinite number finding of different Geometrical Progrejfions . The fame illuftrat&d in fever al Problems. gV ^15. An their p. and the number of their Terms.

tal of Paraboloids. Contents. Space. 17. 0/ Cen p* 50 above the Compreheto/ion of Creatures . in our Difficulties about feveral Subje8s y both in Philofophy Religion. That Infinites of all Kinds. equal any givn finite 4t This Arithmetick illuflrated in fever at Problems about infinitely fmall Quantities .The 1 6. p* and 53 t HE . which ought to quiet our Minds. an to A Method an inter Space. in their pojitive Nature. and affirmative Properties are equally . and particularly in thofe about the Angles 1 8. mmaHd to cut offfrom infinite Space p.

nothing a more Subject of Difics courfe than Nature and however life has made few that The Notions about them agree in their Reafon of which feems to be. ^TP^HERE is A Law. and thefe common yet.THE Philofophical Principles F o NATURAL RELIGION. that thefe Terms imply Notions fo compounded. and fo far removed from the Knowledge of familiar. CHAR Of the *PhyJical L A w s 9 I and the Vni- form Appearances 0/ NA Tu R E. there are : Words B : roof a .

if Nature. confiding letter Macbins. Simple I Compofition tend to fectle (hall not pre the Signification of thefe . for not only the great Bodies of this Univerfe. but the inferiour Macbins thereof. Words in their utmoft extent it will be enough to the Senfe I to prefent purpofe. and which they inviolably obferve in all the Changes that tural State of things.moft Men. happen in the na But here we are to between the Laws of Creation diftinguifh and thofe of Nature. were created by a different Law from what they are now governed. the II. I underftand this vaft. I mean. every one of which is adand Meafure. give to them in the fol fhall my apply lowing Diicourfe. By the jufted by Weight Perfect and Wife Production of Laws of Nature. that there are fcarce any that Ideas that diftindtly conceive all the encer their . as . By Almighty of of an Number infinite God. not infinite Macbin of the Un tyerfe. thofe Laws of Motion by which natural Bodies are goVern d in all their A&ions upon one ano ther.

as fliall afterwards be is more fully ex- plain d. keep up their Credit with the choughtlefs and credulous part of Man kind. nor any Plaftick according to Scaliger. nor any Omnifcient Radical Heat according to Hip Virtue pocrates. When the Pbilofopbers cou d not account for the appearances of Nature. Thele are Allegorical their to conceal pofe meer Terms coined on pur- Author s Ignorance. that they really meant nothing by thofe ama- B ^ zing . nor any Subfian* tial Forms according to Ariftotle. That there no fuch thing as an Univerfal Soul animating this vaft Syftem according to Plato. nor any Hylanbic Principle ac cording to Henry More. they were fo far from owning any want of Know that to ledge. will plainly fee. which neither had Foun dation nor Exigence in Nature But who-* : ever will give thernfelves the leaft trouble to confider the Matter. III. they attributed thefe unaccountable Effects to unintelligible Beings of their own Contrivance. is evident from the following Confiderations $ i.

as in fliown. unlefs we endow em culties above the Dignity of fuch fecondary Agents. Beings are derogatory from the Wifdom and Power of the Au thor of Nature. .zing Terms. the Changes in the material pan of this Syftem are brought about. by more di* iet and eafie Methods. 3. The Ap pearances themfelves. to falve which they were gible contrived. The Scheme of Nature which feems agreeable to the Wifdom of its Author. Natural Bodies are govern d in their A&ions upon one another. but to difguife their own Ig ^. fome meafure (hall be afterwards 4. Thefe very Beings will with Powers and Fa not (ewe the defign of their Creation. is (fuppofing the Syftem of the Umverje already created ) that he has fettled mod Laws. con formable to which. and laid down Rules. Laftly. Thefe norance. and according to which. IV. this who doubtlels can govern Macbin he cou d create. than employing thefe fubfervient Divinities. and lefs be by more intelli indirect Principles accounted may for.

nor do I in the leaft degree exclude the Government of God Al mighty in this World. according to which. may in fome degree be liken d to a finifli d Piece of ClockWork. This Great Ma- of the Univerfe. is On B 5 the contrary. form d upon Geometrick Principles. and are particularly determin d by the Configuration of the feI (hall veral Pieces of which it confifts.about which all Bodies inviolably obfer ve. my principal Defign to demonftrate his continued . them in their and Operations. that have a Power of Free-Willy nor even of thofe that have Self-Motion. fuch as are all Animal Agents . and as the Parts are kept together) will go on in the fame conftant tenour of Motion. and which of chemfelves naturally a&ing. ( long naturally. which of it felf as d by fome external Force . one Part communicates its Mo tion to another. they never tranfgrefs whilft God Almighty preferves Faculties chin in the leaft degree. the Movements of this Clock-Work de unlefs difturb pend upon thofe General Rules. noc here confider the A&ions of Beings.

he has referv d fall to Pieces. that he not only has the Springs of this Great Machin. V. and infer fuch Conclufions Laws from em ing feme courfes. It is not ray Defign here to ex plain of the Laws of Motion* and of Bodies upon one ano A&ions d it be well done in fo nar ther. and without his is the firft Mover . and of its feveral Parts in his own ples. Befides this. as 1 find mod neceflfary for clea- parts of the following Dif- LAW . but that continual Influence and Sup the whole Movement would (oon port. when he pleates. to himfelf the thefe Power of Difpenfing with Laws. I fliall here only fet down the Gene ral of Nature switch virtually include thefe others. nor cou row a Compafs as I have propofed to my all the particular felf.6 iMjflofoplncal continued Providence from evident Princi and to convince the World. Hand.

of Natural Religion. 7 LAW ward lence I ALL in Bodies perfevere in the fame State of reft. but that where ever fuch Changes happened. it felf of it felf altered ics Courfe. unlefs they are ftop d by fome or turn d out of their oppofite Force. by fome outward imprefs d Vio all e. differently dire&ed Vio VI. or of moving for a ftraic Line. unlefs fome external Caufe put em in Mo And all Bodies in motion will na tion move forwards for ever in the fame turally : Line. Bodies at reft and of themfelves for ever continue in reft. Law is (hew how inviolably this obferv d by natural Agents. ftrait Courfe by forne lence. unlefs forc d out of will naturally. bring from Reft to Motion. we To need only confider it never has been obferv d that any Body did of it felf. nor that ever any Body in Motion. brought it felf to Reft j Nor that ever any Body in Motion. there B 4 were . that State i.

whofe parts. or the Ruggednefs of the Plane. and if Bodies are once at reft. on which they move.8 If Bodies were always evident Caulcs. ftop or did not fome Body their Motion $ with a different Direction alter their Courfe. d never ceafe to turn round did not gradually impair its Motion. nor wou d there be any certain Laws to regu We Motions of the Univerfe. in the fame right Line. changed their places of themfelves. which by it felf can never alter its State. late the are certain Projtftils wou d for ever move on. they muft continue io. their own Gravity. by their Cohefion. s . did not the Air. hinder one anothers re&ilinear Motions. lame Energy will continue cm in Motion and drive cm forwards in the fame DireP dions. A Top wou the Air. all Things wou d run into Confufion. Natural Bodies confifl of a Mafs of Mat ter. unleis fome new Force if in Motion. the put em in Motion.

irs Motion. and confequently of it felf. this Refiequal Changes Body in ftance will operate as powerfully to keep a Body in Motion as to keep it at Reft. orDirefor to change its Direction. which Mr. or ftance is Direction. either of Reft.of Moreover. and docs no leis Refift a change from Reft . there is in Matter an unadive Principle. Newton VII. tQ . is the dion fame thing as to move of it felf another Matter then of it felf is fo far in way. different to Motion or Reft. proportional to and the in different Bodies quantity is of Matter as There required much they contain. very well exprefles by the vis inertia. Motion. any change or alteration of State. that it is no more inclined to the one than to the other. Force to ftop a Motion. whereby Bodies refift to the utmoft of their their Power. as is required to put it in Motion. it can never change its State of Reft. whatever it be. is And this Refi- always equal in the fame Body. and e contra 5 And therefore fince the fame Body equally refifts the contrary of its State.

at firft the Liquor feems to move with a Dire&ion contrary to that of the Veflel full of Veflel. the Liquor continues its Motion and dailies over the fides of the Coreflary . if the Veflel equal be fuddenly ftop d. but endeavouring to con of Reft. than from Motion to Reft. Motion to the Liquor in its State But the Liquor perfeveres of Reft whiift the Veflel makes forward and fo feems to move a contrary But when once the Liquor has way. This vis inerti* is no where more con (picuous than in the fudden Motion of a to Liquor upon a Horizontal Plane. the Veflel its really the any fuch tinue it in its State ean t immediately communicate . the it. not that there is Motion imprefs d upon that the vis inertia Liquor.IP Motion. Motion of the Veflel communicated to and begins to move with a velocity to that of the Veflel.

or of themfelves alter the Dire&ion of their Motion . nor any Combination e* no of Particles. and of Ail Motion it felf move in a Curve Line. Matter is not endowed with Self motion. and indeed. for to alter its Courfe of it felf is only to move of it felf after a particular manner. it is evident that of themfelves. . no Particle of Matter.of Natural Religion* Corollary i . nor with a Power to alter the Courfe in which is is it nieerly paffive and muft for put. Body. Hence i. K Corollary &quot. that Courfe that if it it is fettled in it . but . IX. ever of it felf continue in that State and it. that no Body put in Motion will naturally. can never can t move of felf. can either move V1H. it alter its Courfe of ic felf when in Motion. 2. Hence it is Evident. is naturally forward in the fame ftrait Line with the Direction of the moving Force .

cfferuial to Matter. i. which if once fufpended they wou d for ever run out in turning into themfelves. Corollary attractive Force. and confequendy the right Lines. Matter is indiffe rent . which are Curve. X. of thefe Great Bodies in their Orbits lutely Motions do abfo- depend upon this whencefoever itarifes. Hence the great Bodies Univerfe the TUneis. Corollary 3. their SatelKts Comets do not naturally and of themfelves ( of this and the their tho at firft put in Motion ) move in repetitive Orbits. ( I Hence neither Motion nor Reft mean not one of era particularly ) is XI.but what ever moves in a Curve Line muft in every Point alter and therefore naturally of it can its Direction. e. fel^ no body move in a Curve Line.Lints re but are kept in by fome attractive Force. . 4.

of
rent as to either of thefe

docs as

much

refift its

and being chang d from
particularly,

Reft to Motion,

as

it

does

the

being

And as chang d from Motion to Reft. any Force will imprint fome degree of Motion on a quiefcent Body, fo the fame de gree of Force impreiVd at the fame time with a contrary Dite&ion, will bring ic
to Reft again, but ic is not to the neceflfary emg of Matter; that it be in Reft or

Mo

tion,

for Matter

will

be

ftill
it

Matter in

which ever of

thefe States

be.

Corollary

5.

^ XIL
it
is

Since then

it is

not

eflential

to

Matter to be either in Reft or
evident
that the
in Reft or in
)

Motion, prefervation of a
(after the firft

in

Body

Motion

Inftant

docs abfolutely depend Almighty Cod as its Caufe, no part of
ter

upon

Mat

can
is

move it
this

felf,

nor when put
ic

in

Mo

Motion abfolutely tion, its being nor does depend upon
therefore the

effendal to
(elf,

prefervation of this

and Motion muft

$ttflofopl)icai

muft depend upon fome other Caufe , but there is no other Caule but affignable,
Omnipotent Caufe of the preiervation of the Being and Faculties of all natural Now this Corollary does in no Agents.
that

manner

interfere

with the preceding

Law,

as perhaps Law, the

from

its

think, for by that inability in Matter (arifing vis inerti* ) to change its State of

fome may

Motion, Reft, or Dire&ion is declared, whereas by this Corollary, the immediate Caufe of this vis iwrtiA is referr d to, vi%.
the
Influence of the
)w>

though by this State of Motion, Reft and Direction, yet this vis is not effential to Matter, but a pofitive

Divine Power, for Bodies perfevere in their

Faculty implanted therein by the Au thor of Nature, as (hall be afterwards
explained.
6.

more fully

Corollary

XIII.

Hence the

Neceffity of a

va

cuum, or fpace diftind from Matter, is for fince by their clearly demonftrablej
vis

of
vis inerti*)

Natural
all

aaeitsiott
refift

Bodies

to the turned

of of
is

Power, any Change or Alteration their State, whether of Motion or R eft.
their

And

fince the Refiftance in the larae

Body

always equal, or the fame, and in dif ferent Bodies is proportionable to the And Quantity of Matter they contain.
fince confequently,
if

two Bodies con
and
contrary

of Matter, taining equal Quantities

moving with equal

Celerities in

Dire&ions, impinge directly will one another, certainly both reft upon or flop at the Point of their Concourfc, as alfo fince it is demonftrable, that two Bodies moving contrary wife with equal
Celerities,

fo that they

and both refting

at their

meet

Bodies containing equal of are Quantities Matter, equally fkavy,

ing, are equally lows, that two

Heavy

;

it

neceflaiily fol

and therefore were there no Vacuities in Bodies, two Spheres of equal Diameters,
Chould contain equal Quantities of Mat ter, and confequently be equally Heavy,
i.

equal Diameters, one of Gold, another of Wood, fhou d have
e.

two Spheres

of

the

1

6

ffinlofopfnra I p^nciptcs

the fame fpecifick Gravities, which being contrary to Experience, there is a NeceP

of admitting Vacuities in the latter Sphere to anfwcr the Difference of their
fity

Gravities.

L A
>

W

;

II.

;

;

;^
the

$XlV.

Changes made TpHE Motions of Bodies

in

JL

arc al

ways proportional
Force, and

to the imprefs d moving are produced in the lame Di-

rc&ion with that of the moving Force. Effe&s are alway proportionable to their adequate Caufes, and if any Degree of Force produce any Degree of Motion,
a double Degree of the fame Force will produce a double Degree of Motion, and
a
triple,

a

triple,

and fo on

rnuft proceed in ftion with that of the moving Force, fince from this only the Motion arifcs ; and be-

Motion

and this the fame Dire;

caufc by the former
tion

Law,
their

Bodies in

Mo

cannot

change

Direction

of them-

of Natural ftettgion*
themfelves, fo that unlcfs

17

fome new Force alter its Courfc, it muft proceed in the fame Dire&ion with that of the moving Force. And if the Body was before in Motion, the Motion ariiing from this imprds d Force, if in the fame Diredion, docs fo much increafe the former Motion if ic
$

has a contrary Dire&ion, ic deftroys a to that part of the fofmer Motion, equal which is imprefs d j when ic has a Dire<5tion

oblique

to that of che former
;

Motion,

it

is

either

added to

or fubltradkd from

the former
tion

Motion, according as the from a Compofition of arifing
is

Mo
chefe

two,

decermin d,

Corollary.

evident, that in the prefent Conithution of things, there
ic is

XV.

Hence

can be no perpetual Motion,
tual

By

a

perpe

Motion,

I

mean an

uninterrupted

Communication of the fame degree of Motion from one part of Matter to another in a Circle, noc as Bodies put in Motion C do

8

ffrpofopptcai

do

for ever continue in the fame, but in fo far as they are refifted or other d

Bodies,

but

a

ftop by Circulation of the fame

quantity of Motion, fo that it perpetu ally return undiminifli d upon the firft Mo
ver.

For by this Law, the Motion produc d is but proportionable to the genera

ting Force,

and

all

Motions on

this

Globe

being performed in a refifting Fluid, vl^. the Air., a confiderable quantity of the

Mo

tion

Communication, it is and medium, confequently of Motion impofiible the fame Quantity fliou d return undiminifhed upon the firft which is neceflary toward a per Mover Moreover, the Nature petual Motion.
on
this
,

muft be fpenc

in the

of Material
is

no

fuch, that there avoiding a greater or lefler degree

Organs

is

of

Friiftion,

according

though the Machin be form d to the exacted Principles of

no Geometry and Mechanicks, there being nor exa6l fmoothne(s in perfect congruity Nature ; the manner of the Cohefion of
Bodies, and the fmall proportion the folid Matter bears to the vacuities in em ; and the

Nature

of

^amtai

Beiigtom

19

Nature of the conftituentParcicles of Bodies,
not admitting the fame. Befidcs, how very finiflied Mechanick Per imperfedl our moft

formances

are,

a,

very ordinary Micro/cope

will eafily difcover

Now

thefe

things

muft very confiderably diminifii the com municated Force, fo that it is impoffible there fhou d be a perpetual Motion, unlefs the communicated Force were fo much
than the Generating Force, as to recompence the dimunition made therein
greater

by ail thefe Caufes, fo that the imprefs d Motion may return undirninifh d to the But that being contrary to firft Mover. this Law, it is clear that the Motion muft continually deacafe, till it at laft flop, and consequently there can be no perpetual Motion in the prefent State of Things.
:

-

-

^
C
-$jfiM Lecn (d
?fii

LAW

$!j<lofopt)icai

LAW
XVI.
ls

III.
or

E PULSE TJ always J^L

Reason
to

equal

Im-

pulfe

or

A&ion, or the Action of two

Bodies upon one another is always equal, buc with a contrary Dirc&ion, *, e. The

fame Force with which one Body

ftrikes
firft

upon another, by that other
prefs

is
;

returned

upon

the

but thefe Forces are im-

d with contrary Directions.
pteffcs

or draws another, is as much prcls d or drawn by that other ; a Stone with his Finger, the if one prelfes

Whatever

If a Horfc Stone preflcs his Finger again. draw forward a Stone by a Rope, the Stone does equally draw back the Horfc

for

the

Rope being

both ways one ftrike an Anvil with a Hammer, Anvil ftrikes the Hammer with equa The Steel draws the Magnet a Force.

equally diftcnded a6b upon both equally, li
th<

much

as the

evident

Magnet does the Steel, as by making both iwim in water

i\

3freligtom

Jb

Barge to Land by a Rope, the Bank pulls the Barge as much as the Barge does the Bank j and in the defcent
in pulling a
attra<5ls

of heavy Bodies, the Stone
Earth as

the
;

much

as the Earth does the Stone

the Earth gravitates toward the Stone, i. e. as much as the Scone does toward the

Earth.

And

the

Motions produced by

both thefe Gravitations, are equal in both, only the Scone is altogether inconfiderable, and in refpeft of the Bulk of the Earth,
consequently

Motion
in

the Velocity of the Earth s toward the Stone is inconfiderable,

refped of the Stone s Motion toward the Earth ; and therefore the Motion of the
Earth toward the Stone
Itniverfally
if
is

infenfible.

And

in ail

the

Adions of Bodies,

Body aft on another, and change its Motion any manner of way, that other will make the fame Change in the Moa
tion of this

a contrary Direftion, fo that by thefe Actions there are made equal Changes, not of the Veloci ties but of the Motion, for the

Body with

Changes

made on

the Velocities in contrary Dire-

C

12

ff

P

B
a reciprocal proportion to
,

<SHons,

are in

the Bodies.

Corollary

I

.

XVII.

If

a

Body A, be impend by
one
in the Direction

two
fty

different Forces,

with the Velocity 3/j

another ia

the Direction \AC, with the Velocity ?vr? make to /fC, as A/ to compleac

A

N

the

Parolelograni

ABC

Dj

the Diagonal

of which is A 2). The Compoficion of both thefe Forces will make the Bodydefcribe the Diagonal At), and in the lame lime as it would have defcribed either of
y*n

the the Sides; for becaule the Force, whqfe vx
v

-J

..-

-

v-

.

>

j

.;

,

V elocity

the Force. it in the Direction A C. &r. whofc d or not. whofe Ve is or not. whether the Force. and therefore will not hinder the Velo city in the other Force in and the Body fame time. and their aeccffary Confecjuetices. but it cannot be found in S D and C both. From thefe Laws. be iraprefs therefore in the end of this time it muft be found fomewhere in ner. ads 2). and confequently. whether the Force.5t T&amp. 2). all the Rules of Bodies C 4 . and Velocity isN. a&amp.lt.of Velocity parallel is Natural &eltgt om N. A/.lt. locity in the end of the fame time. to will not ia the leaft hinder or deftroy the Velocity in the other Force.5ts fB D. k rnuft be fomewhere in CD. but at the Pome 2) therefore.gt. C proceeding to will reach C V in the Corollary ^. XVIII.gt. a&amp. by which it tends to the LineS D&amp. Wherefore the Body will reach !BD in the fame time. in like is man whofe Velocity as M y in the Direction Jlfc^ parallel to CD.

fuch as A*B and D.5t a per and from A let fall a per pendicular CD. to that of the fame Force coming with a perpendicular Direction to move the fame Body .lt. the Method of compounding and refolving Directions Morions any given may be drawn.Bodies afcending or defcending in verti cal Lines. at the Point C ere&amp. as A C be imprefs d upon the lique Body E in C.gt. fuch as A lique the ratio of an Force to move a oblique Body. the C . for Example. From the in preceding Corollary. as the Geometers have ftiewn. as alfo.. and another upon pendicular upon then by the former Corollary. the Competition of of any oblique ones. the Rules of the Congreffes and Reflections of two Bodies. Force A may be refoved into the two Forces . for Example. into any ob and S 2). C D. as alfo ones. may be deduced. the direct Force AT&amp. as alfo the Refolution of the dired Force. let an ob Force.

B to Direction. of which only A&amp. From the fame preceding Corollary.B. fo that Body yields to none of em.of ^attmrt ffcty&fim* Forces AT&amp. but con tinues . 11 cularly. to B the lar s fame Force coming with a perpendicu &amp.* or as the fine of the Angle of Incidence Al$ to the ^ Radius AC. if it follows that drawn by the impelled or three different Forces in three a Body A be different Directions ^B. AE.lt. AC. and A&amp.gt.lt. The fame is true of the Energy of an oblique Stroke upon the Body to that of the fame ftriking perpendi. as A C.lt.B has any Energy to move the wherefore the oblique Force as Body A C is fi.

then will the fame AT) reprefent it is the contrary equal Force. whereby impell d from A to But by the former Corollary a Force. refpeftivcly. and AE or CD. ailing in the Dire- A two Forces acting in the Dire(5lions . AT) reprefent the Force by which the Body ^is impell d from A to !B. and If mutual Concourfes. to which the other impelling from A to D. $).equiKbrio y thefc three Powers Lines ter are to one another as three right parallel to minated by their drawn their Directions.finttes in &amp. as AT) impelling from to A to T) is equi E. is as AT) to AC. So likewife pollent d:ions A C. two others.lt.

fo vir that ic is plain.lt. Body be ailing in the Direction or to AD.5ting Dirc&ion. e. that AT&amp. from A to to the will be didrts fi ? ^ C. three Laws do if comprehend chanifm. and in the adting in the Diequipollent to the a&amp. AE. d. 2nd from A to D. as ^C. and tually the Rules of Me- confequcatly.gt. it is not to be Me So then in outchanically accounted for. AC. q. AE. AC. and the Foundation fingle Propolition is of all the Mechanicks. any appea rance concradidt thele Laws. if a CD refpective- ly. ^ D Force afting according to the Direction AD.gt. have nothing to do to (how any thing is Immtchanical. or not future Inquiries.. as CD is. or their neceflfary Confequences. we . AD are to y Force urg d by three different equi pollent Powers in the Directions JB. as this feveral Geometers have exprefly fliown thefe all -. AE to ^X&amp. therefore the Forces ic&ions Force this AC and AE.and being equipollent to the Force A&iflg in the Dire6tions A 2). thefe three Forces fhall be to one another as AD. AC.

not according to the eftablifh d Laws of Nature . Hence it follows that a in Body an Orbit. with can t move conftancly the fame Degree of Motion from one finIf it move in an gle imprefs d Force. let a Polygon be inicrib d in it. Corollary 3. muft continually decreafe by a Body s moving in an Orbit. but clearly to evince. and the Body will be Corollary at reft. that it of thefe Laws or their contradi&amp.lt. Body moving in this (Polygon. and fo muft at laft be quite fpent. Orbit. and confequently the Degree of Mo tion and Velocity arifing from one fingle Impulfc. ^ XIX. muft decreafc at every Angle in proportion to the Sine of the Angle of Incidence. . (fuppofing the for thefl^ftfais always the fame) by mer but every Orbit is equivalent to a Polygon of an infinite Number of An Corollary j gles.5ts fome Corollaries. then fincc the Angles of this ^Polygon are Ob the Degree of the Motion of the lique.

lt. evident. but are kept kept in by iome other Powers. it muft conti nually decreafe. and do conftantly move .of ffiatwai aaeitgtotu Corollary 4. that it may return upon gated in an Orbit. that thefe Bodies do perfeyere in their Motions. and at laft flop. which they cou d never do if they mov d only by the Force of one fingle Impulfe. and if fo. Hence there can be no perpe tual Motion arifing from one fingle Imfor this Motion muft be propa pulfe. that the mis and their Satellits. the Comets and the it is &amp. the firft Mover ..Pla~ XXL Hence other Celeftial Bodies their *0rbits do not move in (tho we fliou d fiippofe em folid ) by the Force of one fingle impulie. Let us then Enquire how it comes about. Corollary y. their We fee thefe Bodies do continue Motions without any fenfiblc Alte rations. XX.

of Motion.4a equal Degree its own proper Center. (c\d z Vortex) which carries em about. Des Cartes fuppofes fylatter of this Univerfe to have beea ividcd ie by Almighty God. fo as to compofe dif ferent Cortices. vi%.move round in the fame Trails. Globule*. both ^iv. or by fome Retentive Central Force em from tuning out in yvhich hinders when they are 0rgit Lines. XXIL Celeftial In order tp- account for the Appearances. were endow d with a Motion About as common different Points (at equal Diftances) Centers. into ip r each endowed little jecjual Parts. Either by the Force of forne Celeftial fluid. Fluid i fo as to constitute as alfo that feveral Golleitions of thele Parts. and feperat- ng themfelves. that can happen but one of thele two ways. of Different . and that theie Parts being made round by produce ITJ * fuch inteftine Mptions. with out making the leaft Deviation j now. the Fingers of him Motion by this once put in who frani d marvellous Machin of a World.

Element violently many different did make up the Matter of his firjt . and ntoviqg abo its own Axe with the Motion of i.gt.thefp foles z% loics about the Ecdif&amp. and being there amafe d in the Center of very.tl^ its throw .out fome Parts of through the Vacuities of the which conftitute fecond Element. Places which are efpecially at thcfe the^r^ diftan^ from its Poles. farily wou d lylatiq Globules 6f . r^ 5 Gl&amp.tick y Vnd this wQu d be able tq carry rouiid witli 1C . Sun being thus fram d.d 1 remaining part wou d Center t% 1^ by the Circular Motion^ of the(e which did for that rqa%i bules.he. that fujppofesdrivep -fowir. from it .lt. it much by as receiving by . and feeing there Element than wou d was be uiqnp tp of fill this firft fiifficieat the Vacuities between the he be Globules of the fccond Element. Sphere wou d in tex produce a Body Jike the Sun .h of the Matter of the fartex. Fileings Globules driven and ficond fmall the that as alfo Rafpings of thele Points of the Angular calls the M^ter of his ways.of which he Element .

be for without either approaching from the Sw. with Velocity. leaft. towards the it wou d extremity of the Solar Fortex. of which was : . our Syftem to have been at firft divided into feveral Vortices in the Center. to. and capable of the fame Degree of Motion with it. as to be carried about in the Cortex of the true Sun 9 if it were of lefs Solidity. we may imagine Suppofing this true then. till it met with Globules of the fame Solidity. or lefs capable of Motion than the Globules. it happen that any of thefe Sun-like Bodies in the Centers of the feveral Cortices fliou d be fo incruftated and weakened.it chefe Globules the greateft a leis and that fo of neceffity thefe Globules t that are nearcft the Center of the Sun would which are nearcft. and there Now (hou d fore recede from the Center. they wou d by reafon of their Velocity. have a greater centifrugal Force. and it wou d for ever be car being fixt there. or receding and fo become a Planet. then defcend toward the Snn. ried about by the Motion of the fortex. and the remoter with were they greater or equal.

lt. thrown of to another. that are neareft it. in right Lines and became Hence. and the Rodies fwirhing o therein. ftroyed and till at lafi they were all de- carried Solar Fortex. and yolving . moves with greater Velocity the Farts of theFo/tex. the Sun. tivm thole. which is 3)es Cartes s Reaforij why the Moon fliows always the fame Face to us. becaufe that Hemt/pkere oppofice to the Sun and Earth. fpherical of thefe jj? lome and bigger. Element. and that were being gradually incrufhted. lucid. ic- they Were Sun like. more powerful . As that is alfo that the Matter of the firfl which makes up the Body * of. fwaliow d up by others. is fomewhat more folid than the other. which is the reafhn why the nets next the Sun.was a lucid. except away by the biggefl fome few that were from one Fortex Comets.Bodies before.- of ffiafttral JMtgfon* Body. that are &amp. finiOi their Periods fooriei* than thofe that are thefe ^lamts ^ecaii fe more remote.and ihac their move about own ^xes.. D XXUL . are lead folid.Pla- remoter. ic appears that the Tlanets that are neareft the Sun.

It is produced by the Re volution of a Sphere^ about a giv n dxis. of the Motions of all the Central Spheres. Parts of the Vortices fwifter than that 2. i. in infirittum.gt. Gregory has) of the known . and every Particle wou d be adted by a Motion compounded. and fome fore there . they Parts. And. many fuch Vortices as there are one Vortex wou d neceflarily run into ano* ther. Celeftial contra- dils and the Abfurdities wou d follow. which is abfurd and contrary to that Conftancy and Limitation obfervable in the Celeftial pearances.34 XXIII. if nothing did hinder and feeing there muft be fixt Stars. Ap the is Since the Motion of the neareft the Center of more remote. Now not to mention the many Defeats in the Mechanical Produ 1 ction of this immaginary Syfttm^ Appearances it fhall only take Notice (as Dr.. will prefs upon the exterior thereby perpetually part of their communicate and Motion to chem&amp. tho we fliou d allow the Author all that he wou d have granted. certain that a Vortex Wou d be as propagated it .

between thefe folid Bounds. folid did hinder fomething the and it. therefore. greater Diftance there were. in refpeft of th Orbit ^ of unlefs D . each Tlanet f$ is of the lame Denfity with the parts of the fartex in which it (wims.gt. dcfcribe a perfect Circle. Ac quite deftroy d. 4. and is as it New were. if a Portex run out in infinitum. till at &amp. laft the Motion cording 5. of Bodies. \jvill be continually loiing Tome part of their Motion which never being reftored.of fore thefe interior parts of the Vortex. carry d about by a Cortex are in duplicat proportion of the Diftances from the Center . then a Body carry d round by it. thefc pares muft gradually move flower. or the larger the Bafon be which contains the Fbrtex. whereas the Squares of Times of the periodical Motions of the Planets. only concreted parts of the Vortex : the times of the periodical Motion. and is governed by the fame Laws of Motion. are as the Cubes of the Diftances and confcquently the Pla nets cannot be carry d about by a Fortex. to this fJypothefa. wou d certainly from the Center.

fity in a Vortex A Body of the fame den- wou d neceflarily defcribe a Circle to tral whole Plane. be directed towards the Stars . the Sww. fince the Pla nets in this neceflarily move in Orbits nearly fimilar to that of the fides Vortex wou d of the containing Bafon. Bounds. would be lefs than that of thole more remote. wou d be perpendicular j but there . . nearefl: wou d this Orbit approach to a e.3 6 of the Body carry d about in it. 5. muft neceflarily when enlarg d in a wider the Planets muft move fa* than in their ^pbelia. which contradids Experience. the contrary of which is true. Moreover. e. the Axis of the cen Body which produces the Circulation of the Fluid. as of Vortex ( every Fluid ) when bound fixt wou d up within ftrak move fafter . the nearer Circle. but this too is fame contrary to Likewife the Matter of the Obfervation. for that of Mercury is greater than that of Saturn. than Channel i. it wou d follow that the Ophelia of all die Planets (een from the Sun. The Excentricity of the Planets j. carry d about with it. fter in their Perihelia.

Ltibnit^ he accomodates it better to the Celeftial Appearances. This Hjpotheps is fonoewhat altered and mended by the famous Mr. He firft of ail (hows. iometimes the Courfe of thefe Comets metrically oppofite to that of the Sun in is Dia they . for of themielves cl wou they XXlV. if the Solar fortex rnov d round with Force fufficient to carry thefe vaft Bodies of the Planets along with their ir. and makes it agree more exadly to the Rules of Gemetry. The Comets have not only oblique. Suns Axis is perpendicu their Orbits. they enter into the Cortex of the Sun. are mov d by the Fluid. they defcribe equal Areas by a Radius from the Sun in equal times. that all Bodies which in a Fluid d. and nothing but the Fluid concurs to turn them out of their D 3 way: . Laftly. defcnbe right Lines.of Natural Beligtotu there is not one Planet to the Plane of the whole Orbic lar. but (bmecimes at righc Angles with the Plane of the Ecliptick. all which is impoflible.efcribe a Curve-Line. Motions without any perfevere change.

The (planets ddcribe Areas by a G(adiw from times. every one of which has its own proper way of Cir culation. viz^ thofe Orbs that are neareft the Sun circulate and the Veloci ties of the Circulations are every where re to the Diftances of ciprocally proportional the refpe6tive Orbs from the Sun. or recefs from their the Sun. proportional to the Fluid that carries necelfity effect. than by fuppofing numerable conccncrical Oibs ot exceeding thinnefs to make up the Cortex.lt. that every Tlanet is about by a Motion compounded of carry d two other Motions. ever part of Vortex in equal it is. the muft of circulate fo as to produce which cannot in- be done otherwife. &amp. He v/&amp.Planets Now this the Sun. defcribe equal Areas Times .. (paracentrical Motion of accefs to.3 8 f^Dttofbpitfcal l^nciples next fhows.lt. and a reciprocal of the Arches or Lengths of proportion the . the Hannonical Circulation of the carrying Fluid. and the way. for thele Areas are in a their ^adii compounded proportion of or Diftances from the Sun. which will neceffarily make the (Planet in what fafteft.

The Excujfory Impreffion of the Circulating Fluid. and the Vortex this Law of Circulation of he calls is Harmomcal. in one cated by Now of whofe dius foci the Sun is. The Paracentrical others.of Natural aaeltgtom 39 the Circulations. wou d throw off the Planet from the Center by the Wherefore the Tangent. or the Gravitation D 4 of . Attraction of the Sun. but the Harmonical Cir culation can Account for. may make the Orbits Elliptick. whereby all Bodies moving in a Curve y endeavour to recede Center from the by the Tangent^ and the Attraction of the Sun or the Gravitation of the Tlanet toward it and this Lelbnlt^ is of Opi nion. the Circulating Fluid. V/^&amp. we muft find out a that Law for the Paracentrical Motion. Motion compounded of two the Excujfory Impreffion of the Harmonica! Circulation. fince the (planets move in Elliptick Orbits.gt. arifes from an Impulfe communi . and by a Ra from the Sun defcribe equal drea s in equal Times. which no other Law of a Circulating Fluid. which in this cafe will make a proportion of equality.

But even is CeldVui Motions as Account of the undoubtedly faHeand this i .PlamtSj and thus we fiiou d have Cortices contrary 2..this Head. XXV. it.. metS) The Co- was formerly fa id. well as the . nay. unlefs Attration or Gravitation be recipro cally as the Squares of the Diflances from the F@cus r which is the Sum of Leibnitz^s Dq&rine upon . d about by a Harmonically as circulating Fluid. about.&amp. feme of them very oblique. is not only unreafonable^ but Suppoiicion cable to the uniform Simplicity of dilagit Nature . have their Orbits.40 of the to fflantt* towards cienc to deftroy this muft be fuffiEffect and befides. . iometimes at right Angles with the Zodiakj and fometimes the Courfcs of thefe Comets are quite contrary to that of the fplanttsi Now the Comets deicribing about j^j the Sun Anas^ rnoft be carry proportional to the times. This to Cortices) which is very abiurd. nor is there any thing in the Mo tions . make them move in Elliptick which cannot be brought this Orbits.. inefficient for tlicle Reafons.lt.

al ways and the Ve locities Motion. Befides. the Spaces in one Revolution are as the ^adii.explain. as this very Hypotbefis. but is interrupted. the Velocities are as the Q^adi i recipro cally. and be at Venus s ^Perihelium. . and therefore the periodical Times of a Fluid circulating Harmonic ally ^ are in the Now Duplicate Proportion of the tytdii. which is introduced to account for them. but in a Circular reciprocally . be anfwer d. that this To this ic may Harmmcal not continued from Mer Circulation cury to Saturn. and confequently the (planets cannot be carried about by an Harmonically circulating Fluid. and there breaks off. and not a Duplicate Proportion of the Diftances from the Center or the Qfydii. and in an Harmonical Circula tion. the periodical Times of the Planets are in Sefquiplicate Proportion. 3. In the Times are equable Motion. and reaches gins again to her dpbtliuM) and is there again inter rupted. as the Spaces directly. and is reaches only from Mercury s (Perihelium to his dpfaliuin.of ^atwai fteugfon* fb 4* difficult tions of the Heavenly Bodies to .

ing Power of the great Bodies of the Univerfe towards one another. fophers endeavour Mechanically to account for. which is the fame thing. chat the Celeftial Bodies do not revolve by the Ic XXVI. this is not like the unform and fimpleMeafures of Nature. as if they were carried by a Fluid. they tnuft by fome dttra&ive Power in the Sun. move in the fame manner. means of any be kept circulating Fluid. the Comet t moving forward in the Zodiack. pals through all thefe Chafins and Interftices. being thus prov d. or by fome gravitating Power in them towards him. Be fides. and notwithstanding. neither do their fome Appearan ces fliew the kaft Sufpicion of thefe Inter ruptions. circulating Harmonically according to uniform Law. fincc it rauft be mutual by the This Gravitating or Attract third Law. and fo on through the whole Syftem of the (Planets : But what a ghaftly and unfightly kind of Deformity there wou may d happen on thisSuppofition^every one eafily fee.4* rupted. . fome Tbilofoin their Orbits.

there be three Objections againft all two or the poffible Ac counts of Gravity in particular. and acquiring there by a Power of receding from the Center. not only Bodies within the Sphere of the Earth s Activity are impell d towards it. or being driven with an immenfe Velocity Lines according to all poffible Dire&ions. for the . And thus. which violently whirling round the Sun the Earth and the reft of the in general. but allo the Planets gravitate towards the Sun. or Gravi tation in from che Circulation of a general Subtile Matter. It is Bodies gravitating towards a Poinc .ofjl^atutal fteiftfon* for. impels Bodies towards that Center abouc which the ftrongeft Circulation is made . but without entering into the particular manner of the Explication of Gravitation do according to this Scheme. Planets in particular. impels the Body according to the Direction of that part of this Subalc in right Fluid. which is leaft refilled by the inter- pofition of other Bodies. to account for 1 . 4? from the Adion of a Subtile Matter. firft impoffible from the Part of this Hypotbefis.

Caufe of Gravity.Quantity pulfe is . Bodies from the ImGravity which Abfurd of a Fluid can only gravitate in pro and not accor portion to their Surfaces. which is the Caufe of Gra and fo on in inflnitum. Difficulty. of Matter. which ding to their.. Ii is ihipoflible to explain Motion of this fubtile fluid comes. muft admit its Motion without any Caufe. there muft be conceived ano ther fubtiie fluid Moving after fome cer tain manner to produce the Motion of of that Flaid. 2. which is harder to conceive than Gravity That Matter which is the it fclf. 4. and its Gravity to be always proportional to the Quantity of its (olid Mais. which is alledged to (alve is a Contraction to this Nature. no luch thing being either concdveable or poifiblc. or by whole Motion whence the Circular it is produced in all the poffible Mechani cal muft be without Explications thereof. is Matter being to be fuppos d of every where in realon the fame uniform Nature.44 the Motion quaqua verjutnm a great Circle of the Sphere. 3. or elie we vity.

And tho this Quantity of Matter. Solidities. e.. the Gravities of Bodies. their by fuppofing Bodies of Cylinders of to confift originally fmall fta/es^ for infinitely thele Cylinders on fuch aSnppofition.to hard ^Po/lulate^ to require Bodies be diveriified. being nothing. Difficulty may be rernov d. primitive confticuent Cy that can account for ail can poffibly the varieties of Colours^ t fee how Taftes and Smells^ and other fenfiblc (Dua lities of Bodies. But that which in my all overthrows inch Mechanical Opinion.. finee the Surfaces of the original Particles of Bodies are this is as their folid Contents. Accounts. and confcquemly. which by the Addon of this wou d are as their Surfaces.e. their I only ic by Lengths of linders. a Yet the fo very . . which arife from the Diveifities of the Texture and of their Figure conftituent Parts. be to one another (Safes wouM thrir as their Surfaces._ is of Natural Bcligion* 5 4* all for we find contraray to Experience Bodies gravitate in proportion to their i. the (ubtile Fluid Quantities of Matter they contain. be alfo as their Solidities/ /.

that fecm to Conditions different from that require the the Motions of the Cewhich governs Bodies. as fhail leftial account Mechanically for thefe different Conditions of the General Law of Now. nor fcem like will nei the Limitations and Simplicity of Nature. to Gravitation. without fuppofing different Syftems of this Fluid. and Caufes the inflexions of be afterwards fhown. There feems to be neceffary to ward ces of a full Explication of the Appearan Nature. which ther accord eafily together. to move after different Manners. Light. fcveral different Conditions of thisUniverfai Law of Gravitation. feems evident from the Na has explained ture of Light. is that. and ac cording to different Laws. there niuft of neceffity be fupof this pos d various and different Syftetns fubtile . which cannot be Mechanically explained. That there are different Conditions of the Univerfal Law of Gravitation.Accounts. however artfully contriv d. as Mr. Newton it from certain Experiment $ and there are other Appearances in Nature. neccffarily to be fuppos d. 5.

that the Attraction or Gravi tation of Bodies toward one another. evident. and fince it has been likewife fliown. Motions in without the Suppofition of it is fuch an Attraction or Gravitation. this whole more Naturally and Simply to be accounted for from Principles now to be laid down. Affair is Corollary XXVII. it is a Principle no ways effencial to . is not to be Mechanically accounted for. 6. that this mud nex d to Matter by the Creator be a Principle an* of the World . that the Planets cannot continue their their Orbits. that odd.of Natural 3&eiig?atu fubcile Fluid. that may hereafter bedifcovered neceflary to explain the various Appearan ces of Nature. it From what has been faid appears. 47 which looks a is little efpecially if weconfider. not as yec known how many and how different thde Syftems muft be fuppos d to account for all the various Conditions of this General Law. Laftly.

or . Gregory has demonstrated. and it can for we fee at a diftance by no means an Obje&. things raeer Impulfe of one this Body on any Meand paf- whereas Power of Gravita tion adts at all Uiftances without dmm or Inftrument to convey it. fince it is the Source and the 6rigin of the Celeftial Motions. we fmell. fes as far as the Limits ( if any luch there are) of the Univerie. becaufe the Light reflected from thence ftrikes immediately upon our Orcated a&amp. Matter is entirely paffive in its Nature. and after And Dr.lt. and therefore Attraction or Gra vitation cannot be effential to it .Newton. no kind of Motion is eiTential to Matter. as Mr.48 to Matter. Befidcs. and can no more tend to. by the firft Law of Nature and it5 Co him rollaries.5t . it is not a Refult from the Nature of Matter. be caufe the Matter is communi efficacy of by immediate. by the firft Law of Nature. Contact. becaufe parts of the odorous Body touch the Nerves of our Noftrils. gans of Vifion. and univerfally all the other are tural Effe&s of Material Na per- form d by the another.

it could not be (aid ro have this Property.of Natural Religion. if there were but one indivifible Part of Matter in being. or draw other Bodies then it it 4? can move of fuppofing this Gravitation of the parts of Matter toward one ano ther deftroy d. and the other effential On Attibutcs of Matter are always the fame* all which Accounts. thn d on Matter. ev n when indivifible* bility ties it becomes Laftly $ That can is not be eflential to Matter which inten ded or remitted. it s plain that this is Univerfal Force of Gravitation the ef- kt by which the Operations of Material Agents are And this Power ofGrwitapreferv d. it being a Relative one. but this Property increafcs and diminiflhes reciprocally as the Squares of the Diftances diminifh or increafe. E reafon . where as impenetrability. is one being thus imprefs of the Divine Tower and Virtue . and having refpeft only to other Parts which icattrads . yet ftill Matter wou d be felfj like wile the fame extended folid Subftance. whereas impenetra or any other of the effential Proper of Matter continues with it. More over.

The Chief Difficulties that 1 can find have ftrakned Learned Men. this in admitting of the Univerfal Law of the Principle Gravitation of Bodies upon one another are. fuch as mod of the Laws of Nature or Motion are. that chanically cannot be Me Priciple accounted for. That they cannot accounted for. is the reafon why it ought not to be reckoned among thofe Laws which arife from the particular Texture.?o rcafon of the Diftinftion between the Laws of Creation and Nature^ For tho the Ener gy of the Impreffion does ftill laft. nor arifing from its Nature. and were there upon no . for there is no othis ther Mechanical Caufe conceivable. Principle can be Mechanically and they think it Unphilofophical to admit any Principle in the Explication of the Ap of Nature which can t be thus acpearances acounred for. It is indeed in my Opinion certain. can arife from. this Principle of the Gravitation of Bodies one another. Figure and Difpofition of Bodies. conceive how this i. yet its not being effential to Matter. but the Mo tion of fome fubtile Fluid.

which is the Caufe of Gravity.of no other ^attttal BeWgion. are upon this Suppofition. and fines we rnuft of Neceffity admit the Motion of this fubtile Fluid. or produce Gravi tation. why may we not rather ad- E ^ mit . j has any Body ever pretended to other Caule affign any of the Motion of this fubtile Fluid. Nor Omnipotent Caufe of the Unherje . deititute of Gravity I fiiou d think it fufficient to prejudice any inquifinve Man againft fucli Explications . vi%* that thereby thefe Parts of Matter which are the Caufe of. but the is it felf Immecbanical. for it s certain that Nature is uniform and confident with it felf. which is the Caufe of Gravitation to be unaccountable without a FirflCaufe. but this one. 5 1 Argument of Motion of a plications againft all poffible Ex Gravitation arifing from the fubtilc Fluid. But ev n the admiffion of fuch an Hypotbefis removes us but one Seep further from Immechanical Prin for the Caufe of the Motion of this ciples. and wou d not deprive one part of Matter of (o Cardinal a Property. fubtile Fluid. with which (lie had endow d all the reft.

mic is this Property the to have Firft Cau/e imprefs d this in Matter. . that Matter is in poffeflion of this Quality . that does require that are not to be accounted for Mechanically j the feweft any one pre tends to. . the Impreffion of Rectilinear Motions.Poftulate upon Matter. and the prefervation of the Faculties of Natural Agents. fame Syftem of Natural Pbilofopby the offered to World as fome Populates not yet. which no Man has pretended to account for from Principles of Mecbanifm 5 and the Impreffion of an attractive Faculty &amp. A&ivity. for we daily fee. is no harder than any of thefe but fince it is Matter of Fad: and Demonftration. the firft Suppofition is burthen d with feverai Additional ones. to which the fccond is There has never been any not liable. are the Exiftence of Matter. both . fince that this Difficulty in and that befides. that the Earth draws to its Center all Bo dies within of it. we muft allow whether it be to be Mechanically ac its - counted for or not y anc fince it is not to be accounted for from Mechanical Princi ples.lt.

Another Difficulty ingenious Men have in the ter. and yet there is no denying that fuch things really are. we may come ble to conceive how Matter a6h to be aat a Di- E 3 ftance .of Natural Religion. 2.5tion. tffyflettion. it but we know the Nature in might ftumble man The Communication of a Body in of Motion from one after it is part of Matter to another. we muft of neceflhy refer it to the Power and Influence of the Firft Caufe of all things. is Conception of this how it can a& Quality in Mat at a Diftance with out any Medium to convey this A&amp. are things not eafily to be explained. judicious Perfons . as ef neceflity it muft. and yet we muft admit them. and ev n the firft Production of Matter and Motion. the Continuation removed from the impellent Body. pies. ner of Thinking and one. Motion when we arc Souls and capable to explain how our our Bodies aft mutually up on one another . 55 as I think. Now. were there no other Difficulty this of the like Philofophy but of fymembring and Senfation. are not to be accounted for. I have demon ft rated.lt.

how this Syftem of Faculties things was produced. of Material Organs are preferv d.54 ftance wichout it is is any Medium .lt. and from thefe to account for future Obfervations and Ap if we admit: an Infinitely Wife pearances . that fuch a Qua lity it is d in Matter. and honeft Man. who throughly underftands the Matter.(hown. it and Influences to one will fuffice fuch. World. there are much greater and harder Difficulties in the Mechanical Explication of the Nature of to belurmounted^ as (hall be afterthings XXVlll vvifds &quot.5tions another fent . will offer to explain by Rules of Mecbanifm. whence nor how the they aroie. fufficient to know. but till then. there will be lictle Difficulty in al lowing him to have imprcfs d on Matter what property he pleas d. and nicate their what way they commu A&amp. from the Pre- Appearances to inveftigate the Powers and Forces of Nature. and if we will not admit of fuch a Being. . and ^Powerful Beivg to have made this. and that actually lodg the Caufe of all the Great and Uni No wife form Appearances of Nature.

proportion of their middle Di By Virtue of the fame Law. linear th&amp.of Natural &eligtom The 55 XXVIII. the Force of the Attraction or Gra vitation of one part toward divers others. and E 4 of . (their Diftances from the Sun y and their Recti in the Motions being once adjufted by Author of Nature. that the Force by which one part attradts another in different Diftances from it. is as the Quantity of Matter they contain By the Virtue and Efficacy of this Law. gravitates : the Planets mud perpetually move they meet with tick Orbits. that every part Law great and primary by the Author of Na is of every Body attrads or toward every part of every other Body. ) and in fuch a manner. and the moft general Conditions of this Law are. and that at the fame Diftance. if no in Ellip* refiftancc Spaces in which they move. is reciprocally as the Squares of thofe Diftances. imprinted ture upon all the Bodies of this Univerfe. and their periodical Revolutions will be in a defcribes fefquiplicate ftances. that a Line drawn from the Sun to them. then.* equal Areas in equal Times .lt.

not only attra&s the ]But becaufe Planets and Comets. becaufe She is fo near to us 5 and this one attract Confideration. but Jikewife the Planets one another. Gregory has fhown Like. As alfo the Comets will in very oblong Elliptick Orbits defcribe about the Sun equal Area s in equal times.- wlfe fince a great part of this our Globe is covered over with Water. the Water that lyes dirc&ly under them will be rais d above its ordi nary Level.5 6 ^Dilofopt)fcai of thcfe Conditions. becaufe the remoter parts of the Wa* tcr . as alfo thefe the Sun. which will like wife happen if they are directly in the oppofite part of out Globe. as the Earth doth round the Sun. Newton and after him Dr. and their Orbics will be (bmewhat irregular. the Moon will for ever turn round the Earth. the Sun. as Mr. it is plain that by the Force of this Attraction of the Sun and Moon. differ from exad Ettipjes which will be more fenfible in the Motions of the Moon. well apply d. will account for all the Irregularities hitherto obferv d in the Celeftial Appearances. and the Sattellits of Saturn and Jupiter round them .

Py- more complicated than the Celeftial by reafon of the multiplicity of different Attractions proceeding from the many dif ferent Bodies that furround any particular one) . and leaft at thefe eflfe&s are vari- oufly limited by the different Diftances of theft Luminaries from the Earth. By this Gravitation. this Globe will by reafon of the oblate fpherodical Figure of the Earth arifing from its diurnal Rotation about its Axis. but their Forces at make up new and a compound Motion. its Bodies on prefs towards Center. which is a demonftration of its Truth. much iefs them all. and full greateft.of Natural &eW0t om will be lefs 57 attracted than the nearer. and the Motions produc d in the Waters by the attraction of theietwo Luminaries cm t be obferv d feperately. which Moon is the Quadratures. and none but this will exa&ly anfwer any one. tho not exactly thither neither. And were not our Terreftrial fee this fiology ( Thus we &amp. one Prin will account for all the great and conciple ftant Appearances of Nature. and the various Latitudes of Places. their De clinations from the JEquator.lt.

Planets is mutual. and by which the Moon turns round the Earth. and that the Force ( as all other Virtues proround in a Sphere ) is recipro* pogated of the pittances from cally as the Squares In Qiort. and that the Gravitation &amp. and fince we know by the fecond Law of Nature.lt. in accounting for the more minute. Bodies are attracted fince we feel that Terreftrul by the Earth. that we are certain by the Effe&amp. and fince gravitate towards the Sun. fince the Center of the A&ion. as alfo the Secondary Planets tend to* ward the Primary ones as the Center of their .lt. it is plain that every part of Matter attracts every other part. of this Attraction Action and the Primary Read ion &amp.lt. and lefs conftant appearan ces on this our Globe.Plawts jconfequently. by which the are kept in their Orbits. is of the fame Nature with that by which heavy Bodies tend toward the Center of the Earth. that A6tion and Reaction arc mutual and equal.5is. as in a great many we actually are.$8 one ) we fhould doubtlefs fee the Extent of this Principle. Add to thele Confiderations.

plain it is they all. Having thus in the ral. let us enquire into the Nature andCaufe of Fluidity^which ieems to confift in theMo&Vtfjr of fome principally parts. and firft of all. and mutually gravitate upon one Sun. their Satellits. fince likewife the Sun di fturbs the Motion of that Moon. and the reftial Sun and Moan thofe of our Earth. with out carrying along with em the reft. Gene d the Laws Laws of Nature. eftabliJh of the following Difconrfes j having like wife fhown the Neceflity of admitting the Univerfal Celeftial Law of Gravitation to A pperances. and deduced fuch Conferences from em as we found neceffary to pkar fome Parts XXIX. and fince the Decreafe and Increafc of this Gravitation is of the fame Nature with that of our TerGravity.Phy- Ufe of fivlogy. Planets another. this Principle in the Celeftial let us fome of the mtiR Univerfal of our Terreftial Phenomena . Moon.lt. or the cafie flipping of iome Parts upon others unmov d . and hinted next proceed to folve the the great &amp.of Natural Betfgfon* their 59 Motions.

however a/lifted. go after the manner folid All the Bodies in the Uni- verfe are Originally compounded of muft tho not indivifible. that no Eye. i. e. Parts. be able to Magnitude. tudes fo that they may touch only in a Point. 2. and Fluids in thefe four Conditions. but their Gravity muft be fuch. They lifli d. that the Force thereof may eafily Fluids exceed . one Particle may eaand for this End.0pofop!ncai mov d. whereby each Particle of the Fluid attracts another. perceive able to difcover the Figures of Bodies their we have been fwim- but no one as yet has been ing in Fluids. fily flip upon another. fo very fmall&amp. That their Figures be fpberical r ot at leaft fperiodical or approaching to one of thefe. Parts be extremely little. whence that cohcfion in the Parts of the fineft natural proceeds .gt. yet very fmall neceflarily take i. and fubjeded to the Univerfal Law of Gravitation. That their and firm. not mov d of (olid Bodies. and by contequence. able to diftinguifli the Figures or Magni of the conftituent Parts of Liquors. muft be exaftly fmooth and po3. at leaft.

lar Figure which own their Fluidity to the Force of the. and keep em in a and thereby make *em perpetual Agitation. which have between fome . fpherical Parof picks equal Diameters. fmall.of here Natural &eligton . porous. ceflarily require the Conditions in their Parts juft now affign d. thefe general Sup- pofitions. of attributing any particu ing no neceffity to the Parts of the firft Kind. 4. which tear afunder the Parts of (olid Bodies. generated and thofe that are naturally fuch. Water feems to confift hard. of a Fluid. of equal quently of Solidity. exceed the Force of their Cohefion and we Fluids. there be are to diftinguifli between thefe by the Force of the Fire. whereas appear in the Form the Appearances of natural Fluids do neParticles of Fire. and confe- they may equal fpecifick Gravities. (mooth. The Particles of natural Fluids muft be firnilar. all the general Appearances may of be eafily accounted XXX. uniform Nature from for. that be Homogeneous. and equal fpeci em Gravities. and of the fame . of equal Diameter*.

61 ^pflofoppfcai f&tftt tuples fome Spaces fo large. and by confequence. incompreffible. their Fridions in Hiding upon one another is rendered the their Hardnefs is the reafon leatl poffible $ why Water Air lodg d in is it. their Sphericity keeps em from touching one another in more Points than one. is exhaufted. and ranged in fuch a manner. let Water pafs through it. for Wa nineteen times lighter than Gold. makes em flip cafily upon one another. Water has above forty times more Pores than folid accounts not only for the different between Water and other Specifick Gravity Parts ) Fluids. and Gold will by much preffure. but alfo is why it more eafily concreted into a folid Form than . and fo may be more Pores than (olid fuppofed to have Parts. cles The ( Porofiy of the Parti- of Water Cubical which is fo great. Their Smoothncfs. when the XXXI. by both which. fuch as Mercury. that a meafure of Water contains at leaft forty times ter is more Pores than Parts. and nineteen times rarer than confequently Gold . as to be pervious on all Sides.

Obfen&amp. . menlions both Microfcopial Boyle s Hiftory Freezing increafes the Dtof Solid and Fluid Bodies. ftance floating in the Air Salts. we fee all Salin Bo dies produce a Rigidity and Stiffnefs in the Parts of Bodies to which apply d. prodigioufly encreafe the Effe&s and Force of Cold. to proceed and Fr Salin fee that all from fome . tho they be fpecifically heavier. mix d with Ice. viz^ the fmall Points of the Salts getting into the Pores of the Particles of Water. zing.like g Particles. from Mr. that they arc like the Effects of Free of Cold. we but more eminently fbme. whereby thefe Salts are fufpendsd in the Water. that the of fome Salts. much we know. before they fhoot Figures into Mattes.of feem Natural aaeltgiotu Cold 6$ Sub- than other Fluids are.gt.ations inform us. which is the reafbn why they fwim in Water when they are rais d once. are thin double wed d. which have abundance of Sur faces in refpeft of their Solidity. But this Effed may be more juftly attributed to the fame Caufe that is prefent- be fhown to be the Catife of ly to Freezing.

and confequently produce the Appearances of Cold upon Bo dies 5 but in Winter they are lefs difturb dj and more at liberty to approach one ano ther. and fix em in a (olid Form. Liquor is exposed the Air) which by both their Extremities when the to the Pores of infinuating themfelves into the Particles of Water. fo that they cannot flioot into a (olid are not able to Wedge. whofe Extremities . keeps &quot. infinuate themlelves in their Pores 5 for as I have before faid.pljiiofoptjical pzinciplcs Water. and by its A&ion. ( and by (Looting into thofc Chryftah as we fee the Particles of artificial Salts do. which in Freezing. and the Particles of congeal d Water are kept at fome diftance from one ano ther. breaks off their (lender Points. diflblves In Summer the Heat of the Sun the faim Particles into a Fluid. by the Figure of thefe Cbryftals. thefe Cbryftals are obferv d to have the Form of are a double Wedge. make em cohere.em in a perpetual Motion. The Dimenfions of freez d Bodies are encreas d by the Infinuations of the(e Cbryftal Wedges in their Pores..

and in the Inter ft ices form d gures. which is one Reafon why Ice becomes But befides than Water. Now Form by fpherical Fi the Insinuation of thefe by their the Volumes of Air are driv n out Chryftals.of Natural Betigfom but pointed and flender. there are many little folumes of Air included at feveral Diftances. its 6} Middle broader and larger. fo that when the Extremities have infinuated themlelves into the Pores of two watery Particles. Specifically lighter cles this. by rcafon of the Largenefs of the Middle of thcfe Chryftals. than greater they were when in a fluid Form. both in the Pores of the watery Particles. of the watery Particles. and many of em uniting Volumes. thefe Globules can to touch. and fo larger both enlarge the Dimenfions. and not come fo thefc Particles in Freezing. which thereby have a greater Force to expand themfelves than when difperfed. are kept ac Diftances from one another. and thus the Spaces between thcfe fpherical Parti become larger and wider than before. and leffen the fpecifick Gravity of Water thus con- F geal d .

that the Quantity this our Globe does daily decieafe. which are not eafily diflblv d into t^eir component Parts again . how Hence we may guels at Water impregnated with Salts. Gems. Minerals. for (eparate a few Particles of. Vegetable. and other Fojfils. and they are no mote fiderable fluid. may form itfelf into Me tals. ic is of fbrne part thereof being every Day turn d into Animal. Corollary Hence Water on plain. or keep em afunder from one another. which are not eafily diffolvible.66 geal d into Ice. any Fluid. a connumber of thefe Particles are necetfarily required. Earths or Sulphurs. and fatten them to a folid Body. the manner. or getting into their Pores. em into thcfe change different Subftances. to produce which. or Metallick Subftances. . Mineral. the Parts of thefe Mixtures becoming a Ce ment to the Particles of Water.

muft either make or find a Pa pake. that their Diame ters are not much greater than thofc of tlie Particles of Light. it s their Or plain. of Reflexion and Refradion. and lets fagc through every refracting Medium. cannot pafs through thefe Interftices. folid. and fince. for the(e Interftices are as the bules. ic is plain.fmooth. Cubes ot the Diameters of the Glo are by vvhofe meeting they form d. that Light does through the Subftance of the conftituent Particles of Fluids. ever fo (mall Quantities is abfolutely o- XXXH.of jBaftirai ffielfct otu 67 Mercury feems to confift of exceeding fmall. but rather not pafs through the Vacuicies formed by bicular Figures. fince likewiie it is probable. fphcrical or for fince Mercury in fpberoidicat Particles. Light being Material. if the Particles of Mercury be fphedcal. that the Diameters of the Corpufcles of Mercury muft not be feeing Light and than thofc of Light $ and if theie Corpufcles be Spheriodical or Oval. their fliorteft Diameters muft not be much greater much a greater . none of the Rays of Light whatever be the Caufe pafs .

above other fifts. through Spires contorted the Interftices of which. and this is the Rea. Spheres. form them (elves into Sfberiodf. why it is fo light. This Account . to form Paflages for it. the (olid Subftance Spires of the being very fmall in propor tion to the Spaces they take up. accounts for that won derful Gravity of Mercury. when comprefs d. The So of the Particles whereof Mercury conlidity and the fmalnefs of the Interftices they leave between them. the Particles of Light fon may freely pa(s. or Figures moft refembling them. Mercury by confift XXX1IL Air fecms to of into fmall Spheres. it hew when becaufc comprcfs d fpiral retains its fluidity. Fluids.68 greater than the Diameters of the Parades of Light. their Accounts as alfo for Airs being compreffible. through which another Matter freely pafles. their be ing (piral Accounts for the elafticity of Air $ being fpherical Particles which gives free Paffage to any Heterogeneous Matter. and the extreme minutenefs of its Particles for the eafy afcent of Fire. beyond all other Fluids.

Newton has demonftrated . may haps. cles Tag. is for upon its this Hypot hefo they will compofe an Elaftick Fluid. and of Par- F tides .for.. which I (hall examin hereafter ) feem to be com (hall be afterwards pounded. all the Appearances of Air may thence be accounted for.gt. 3)enjity ( |V0/&amp. Other Fluids ( befides that of the Light. fome. then thofe of Mercury .of Natural aaeltgton* Account of the properties 6? per- of Air. under which Name I com prehend all that which paffes under the Name of jEtherial or Subtile Matttr. greater that of the Light. of .. z j. 3 The Diameters of the Parti- Mr feem and Water greater than thofe the Diameter* of the Particles to be Vater. as of of and fhown$ XXXIV. be fuppos d to confift of fmali Par which endeavour to recede from one another. whofe Compreffion. But there is another more genuine. with a Force reciprocally proportio nal to the Diftances betwixt their Centers. pleafe which to me feems the if Air ticles. by far the leaft of all. as proportional to Mr. Mercury and Light . 01. of thcfe Primitive Fluids viz. W*~ ter3 Air.

would ver or Brafs. the Fluid will differ proportionably to the Difference of the fpecifick . Cdteris Taribus. thus Water or Lymph mix d with Globules of Flefh or Blood of a greater Diameter. mix d with Globules of Flefli or Blood of a lefs Diameter. efpecially the ^Primitive Fluid. mated. which mixes with the Fluid . and the Dia meters of the mixing Ingredient being the fame. of the Parts of the mixing Ingre thus Mercury mix d with Globules of Diamond. make a different Fluid Globules from Mercury mix d with All of Sil other things being fuppos d the fame. the Figure. ^. ) the Liquor will differ proportionably to the Difference of the Firmnefs or Softnefs dient . 5. the mixt Fluids will differ proportionally to the Magnitude of the parts of the folid Body. (efpeci ally the Fluid.7/o tides of Salts. and the Varieties of fuch mixt Fluids general be thus eftii. Earths. Suppofing all other things alike. and fuch like Ingredients. will make a different Liquor from the fame Lymph. Sulphurs. and the may in the Figure of the parts of the Ingredient.

not only all thefe may ther. be differently combined with one ano and with the four Primitive Fluids. but alfo the Figures of the folid Parts in the mixture may be infinitely diversified. (whereas the we have hitherto only fuppos d Solids fyberical) all mixing make an Liquors. the Diffe rence of the fpecifick Gravities being here 4. . feem to be the Trimogenial Differences of mixt Fluids . Now. the Liquor will differ according to the different Degrees of the folid Parts the Cohefion of among themfelves $ thus. infinitely infinite which will Variety of mixt F 4 XXXV. will mixture from that of Mercury. All other things only confidered.of ffiatutai aaeiigiom cifick r\ Gravities of the Particles mixing Ingredients $ and Mercury will make a different Liquor from that of Mercury and Lead. little mix d with little make a different mixt with And thefe Spheres of Lead or Iron. Mercury fpherical Magnets. of the thus a mixture of Gold being fuppos d the fame.

. It refiadting Burning-Glafles. reflefted. by the Interpofition of an opake Efody. as other Fluids are ftopt in their Courfes of folid by the wn Oppofition Body. may be and tlie Determination of its Mo tion ierves the changed like other Bodies. It is From thefe Confiderations. vi%. or re2.XXXV. and is not propagated in an Inftant. It may be ftopt fifted in its Paffage from one place to ano ther. ( which are confirm d by the Qbfervations of other jftronorners ) whereby he demonftrates that Light requires about Minutes to come from the Sun to us. may congregated or fcattered rower. $tpme/s Reafonings upon the Eclipfes of the Satellits of Jupiter. That material Subftance. go from one place to another. any be within a nar . fccms to be evident i. as is plain from Mr. evident from reflecting Specula. the Angle of Refle xion is always equal to the Angle of Inci dence . and it obfame Law in its Reflexions that other Bodies do. through a larger It is as Space. and 4. proand a determined to time requires gteffive.

by leparating lee. 8. others Blue. as we fee by the Spirits.of dence. Parts. the parts of Light with various Original Colours. It more or a&amp. It may be confined and (hut up in de- termin d Spaces like other Fluids.Prifm fome are ^ed % and fome Green. Bodies . which effects. The of the Sun will warm and heac The Light other (olid arid fluid Bodies. 5. and putting them Motiori all thefe Effe&s we daily 7. parts Plants. by ftriking upon them with a detertriin d Force.lt. Natural &cltgtotu It 7? may be put out of it^Courfc 6. and other Vegetables. by communicating a certain Degree of Motion to them. and may be fcen by a applied to the Hole of a darkened Room through which the Sun Now all thefe arc the Properties of fhiaes. through which it pafles. others fellow. and warm Juices they afford. the Organs of Animals. according to the Nature of the Medium.lt. continue when their paufe is removed j the of Light are yearly irpprifon d in Fruits. Newton has demonftrated. as Mr. as other fluid Snbftance? do. their in component . and all upon upoti other Bodies. &amp. areeqdow d Laftly.5ts lefs.

74
terial

iMjiiofopljtcai

Bodies and can belong to nothing but MacSubftances.

XXXVI.
are extremely

That the
little

Particles of

Light

or frnall,

we may con

clude from thence, that they pafs through almoil: all Bodies that are pervious, fuch as
Chr)flats j Claffes, feveral Gems, and almoft all Fluids but Mercury, and that it freely
pafles

ver,

where no other Fluid, how thin foecan enter, and yet, no eye, however
has been able todifcover or diftinr

affifted,

But guifh the parts of the groffeft Fluid. what moft of all demonftrates their fmalthat Light may be propagated from innumerable different Luminous Bodies, with
nefs,
is

out any confiderable oppofition to one ano ther ; Suppofe a Plate of Mettal (having
at the top the fmalleft Hole can be made ) were erected perpendicularly upon a Horizon
tal (plane,

were fet innumera ble luminous Objects of about the fame at an ordinary Diheight with the Plate,
it

and about

irance

from it, the Light proceeding from every one of thofe Objects, will be pi opaga
through
this

ted

fmall Hole, without interfe

ring

ring.

This will appear by applying a dark

the Object, in a ftraight Lineagainft

Lu

Light of this Body will through the Hole be receiv d upon the it is dark Body ; impoffible that fo many different Streams of Light cou d be

minous Body,

for the

Now

transmitted through fo fmall a Hole, were not the Particles of Light extremely fmalL

Add
fwift,

to this, that

were not the
little,

Particles

of

Light extremely
(i.e.

being

extremely

more than a Million of times

fwifter than a Cannon Bullet, continuing in its as fliall be greateft Velocity, prefently d peirce all kinds of fofliown ) they

wou

lid

Bodies with almoft as great Facility as

they

do

Vacuities,
reflefted

whereas

we
fbme

lee

Light

regularly

from

Bodies,

innumerable dif ferent Spheres of Light within our Hori%on, may he propagated from their feveral

Moreover,

we

find that

luminous Centers 5 without interfering. How many Millions of Candles and Flambeaux

may we

fending out their Tides of Light, without clafhing upon one ano ther, which argues both the Smallnefs of
fee

the

?6

^fniofoptncai 0?i nctpies

the Parts of Light, and the Largenefs of the void Interfaces between the Particles of

Air and other Bodies.

XXXVtt,

How

extremely fwift the
gather from

Particles of Light are,

we may

the foremcntioned Experiment of
tners,

Mr. fy-

whereby he demonftrates, that the Streams oiLigkt pafs from thtSun to out Earth iq about ten Minutes ; and Hugens in his Cof*
ntotheoros,

nuing

has prov d, that a Bullet conti in the Velocity with which it leaves

the F/J Percur/a being the fame in both, the Velocities will be reciprocally as the times, i. e. the Velocity of Light will
t>C

Now

the Mufle of the Cannon, wou d require twenty five Years to pafs from us to the Sun

to that of a Cannon-Bullet, perfiftin^in
greatcft fwiftnefs, as

its

twenty

five

Years

is

to ten Minutes, or as 131 4700 to one fVoxime, fo that the Velocity, with which the

Light pafs, will be more than ^ Milliqn of times fwifter than a CannonBullet. Moreover, the Diftance betwixt
Particles of

the

Sun and

us

is

at Leaft

i

zooo Diameters
of

of natural

3&eitsfon>

77

of the Earth, but allowing it to be only runs a thoufand i coco Diameters, the

Light

Diameters in a Minute, or fixteen and half

Diameters of the Earth in a Second, or that is more than beating of an Artery,
1 1

oopoo

Taf/t;, fince the

Diameter of the

Earth contains 2865 French Leagues , and
Toifes, accor every League contains Buc ding to the Numbers of Mr, <Pkard.

n8z
1

Sound goes but about

80

Toi/es in a Se

cond, wherefore Light is abouc fix hundred thoufand times more Swift than Sound. Likewife fince the Earth s middle Diameter
is

7846 Miles, 5000 Feet and
;

each of which contains
fince

Light goes in a Se

cond or in a pulfc of an Artery, fixteen and a half; Diameten of the Earth, it is plain, that in every Second ic runs at leaft a hun dred and thirty thoufand Miles, which is a prodigious and almoft an incredible Space But the extraordinary in fo (hort a time. Effe&s of Light and Heat feem to require all this 5 we fee how powerfully it ads ( being congregated ) upon the moft com{olid Bodies, and w.c never perceive

any

78
any diminution of
an abatement of
its
its

Force arifing from
fixt

Velocity.
Stars

XXXV1H.

The Sun and

feem to be huge, denfe Bodies ( like the Earth or Planets ) heated to an extraordi nary Degree, and their Heat probably may be preferv d by the greatnefs of their Bo dies, and the mutual Adlion and Re aftion between their Parts and the Light, which they emit, and their Parts are kept from fuming away by their fixity, and alfo by vaft Weight and Denfity of the Atmoffberes incumbent upon them, and power fully compfeffing them, and condenfing the Vapours and Exhalations which arife from them : The Light feems to be emit ted from them by the vibrating Motion of
their Parts,
after the

manner we

fee Iron,

heated to fuch a Degree, as to be into Fufion, by the juft going vibrating Motion of its Parts, fend forth with Force

when

and Violence, copious Streams of liquid Fire all around $ Great Bodies prefcrve their Heat longeft, and that perhaps in propor
tion to their Diameters.

Mr.

Neww

has

made

of ffiatural

&tt<gfon

79

made
pear

it

probable, that the Comet which ap-

1680. by approaching to the Sun in its&erikelium, accjuir d fuch a Degree of Heat, as to be 50000 Years a cooling,

d

in

whence we may fing the Sun and

guefs, fixt Scars
folid

that

fuppo-

Colk&ions of denfe and

be only Matter like
to

the Planets, heated to a very intenfe
gree, they

De

may

be

many

Millions of Years

without lofing any confiderable part of their Heat, dftronowers have obferv d a clofe, compa<5t and large dtmofpbcre abouc
the Sun, and there is np doubt to be made, that its Body is of the fame Nature with

the other material Parts of this Univerfe, excepting what Alterations its vehement

Heat
ly,
fixt
its

may
Stars are

produce,

and

confequent-

highly probable,

that the

Sun and

only Planets,

vehemently
aft

heated.

XXXIX.
tually

Boferand

Ugh
i. e.

mu
a<5fc

upon one another,
its

Bodies

upon-ZJg&r, in emitting refledting, refraft-

ing and bending
(

Bodie$
>

Rays, and Light upon in heating them, and putting their
Parts

Parts in a vibrating Motion, wherein Heat confifts, according to Mr. Newton s Difcovcrics.
If

we fuppofe

that Bodies aft
it
i.

upon

Light, by attracting cular to their Surfaces,
fictiilar

in
e.

Lines perpendi

fuppofing

two

Mediumi diftinguiflied by Parallel

Lines, and that a Ray in its Paffage out of the one through the other, is urged per pendicularly towards either Plane, by any Force, which at given Diftances from the Plane, is of given Quantities , then what

ever Inclinations the

Rays have to

the Plane

the Sign of the Angle of Inci dence of every Ray confidered apart, fhall

of

Incidence,

have tb the Sign of the Angle of (fyfraftion a conftant ratio j this Mr. Newton has deitionftrated, both in his (principia, pag. 117.

&

feq.
if

and
its

in his Opticks y pag. 57.

&
it

fet}.

and

the Velocity
Incidence

of

the

Ray

be greater
fhall

before

than afterwards

be refle&ed, and the Angle of Incidence (hall always be equal to the Angle of ^flexion ^ and fince it is Matter of Experiment and Obfervation, that the Signs of the Angle*

of

Incidence

and tyfrattion in

all

Rays of
what-

of $atetai meifsfotu
whatever Nature, obferve a conftant and that the Angles of Deflexion and
<fewre

s
ratio,
7/7a-

are

equal

it is

therefore

on the o-

hand true, that the Rays of Light are thus urg d by the ^ffrafting Media, and their Velocity thus abated by reflecting ic fo that is ones, evident, fyfraftion and from one and the fame <%efleiion proceed
ther

Princiciple, ailing differently

in different

Circumftances.

Mr. Newton has demon: and convincing Experi ftrated from plain ments, that the Light of the Sun confifts of Rays differently refrangible and reflexible^nd
that thofe

XXXIX,

Rays

are

differently reflexible, that

are differently Thefe Rays refrangible. that are all alike refrangible, he calls the Light

of them Simple and Homogeneal, and thofe that are fome more refrangible than others, he calls their JL/g/^Compound Mdf&terogeneal\

the greater or
is their

iefs

(

l$efrangibility

Rays,
or
Iefs

Difpofition to
their

of be tutn d more

out of

on

the

way, in like Incidences fame Medium ; and their greater or is their xibility Difpofition to bc reG turn d

pDilofoplnral
turn d back
Surface they

more or
fall.

lefs

eafily into

the

fame Medium from any

other,

upon whofe
out of the

G(efraflion

Rarer Medium into the Denfer is made (b, that the Angle of tifyfraftion is lefs than the Angle of Incidence, and on the contrary. The Colours of Uomogeneal Light are thefe, Vwlet, Indico, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and
SfcA

Thefe Colours

in

the

Objeds

are

their Difpofition to reflect this or that fort

of Rays more copioufly than the reft ^ and in the Rays of Light they are their Difpo
fition to

propagate

this or that

Motion

into

the Organs of Vifion, and in them, they are Senfations of thofe Motions under the Forms

of Colours

;

the
ieaft

Rays

that

produce

Red
thofe
reft

Colours, are
are

and that make Violet, the moft, and the
refrangible,

as they ap refrangible, of thefe Extremes in the Or proach either der fet down, that is, Orange is Ieaft renext to Red, and Yellow next frangible,
leis

more

or

to Orange, and (o on.

All the Colours

of the Univerfe which are made by Light, are either the Colours of Homogeneal Lights,
or

of ^attttai
or

compounded of
is

a Mixture of thofc

;

Whirenefs

produced by a due Mixture

of

all the ^Primary
;

Colours of Homogeneal

and Blackne(s by a Suffocation, of Light ; and all Grey or Non-refexibilfiy Colours, betwixt Black and White, may be compounded of all the ^Primary Co the Pri lours mixt in a due Proportion mary Colours of Homogeneal Light are un changeable in their Nature, and no De nor Refractions will change any of flexions thefe into another ; whereas by the due Mixture of coloured Bodies, Colours may be produc d by Compoficion, which Qiall be like to the Colours of Homogeneal Light, but not as to the immutability of Colour ; for that may be chang d according to the Colour of the Light by which they are
Light
;

Teen

Suns Light confided but of one fort of Rays, there wou d be but one Colour in the whole World, ancl
;

io that

if

the

it

be impoffible to produce any new Colour by Reflexions or Refraltions,- for all
the

wou d

Variety of Colours depends Compofition of Light.

upon
/

the

G

z

XL,

. which being contrary to Ex* perience. fo that the Scratches and of its Surface become too fmall Frettings other Arguments to be vifible. whofe Parts are fmall and fubtile. that the Caufe of im Deflexion is not the Diftancej pinging of Light on the folid and impervi ous Parts of Bodies.gt. as by the rougheft.berkal y and all toge ther to compofe one Surface*. yet not fo fmall as to be come truly plain mff&amp. that they are incurvated by the Aftion thefe of Bodies as they pafs by them. begin to bend before they arrive at the Bo Mr. The Rays of Light which fall upon Bodies and are reflected or refracted. Newton has fhown by feveral dies. Experiments of Rays paffing by the Edges of Bodies. and that this Action is ftrongeft at the ieaft he has demonftrated likewife.84 ^ XL. For (not to repeat thofe which he has brought in great plenty ) fince Glais can be no other ways polifh d than by grating and (cratching it by Subftances. if Light were reflected by impinging upon the folid Parts of Glafs j it wou d be fcatter d as much by the moft polifh d Glafs.

and refraft Light by one and the fame varioufly exercifed in cumftances . that tranfparent Mediums. Power. becomes too let any of the Rays go through. for in the confine Superficies interceding two of Air and Sal. it 83 is evident that the Reflexion of a Ray is not effe&ed by one fingle Point of the reflecting Body. or the Force of its Attraction ftrong to Befides that. the ^flexion is ftronger or as the a hath weaker. by which it ads upon the Ray without immediate ContaCt.of ffiatutai aaettgt on* perience. it becomes totally re/Jetted. for then its refraCtive Power. Light in the j reflect the greateft Quantity it is of for by Experiment found. oblique .Gem tis G in the ftronger than 3 con- . which is evenly diffused over all its Surface. but by fome Power of the Body. for when Power various Cir- Light goes out of Glafs into Air as as it can obliquely poffibly if its ftill be Incidence then more made do. thofe Surfaces of tranfparenc Bodies which have the greateft re/rafting upon the Ray. Superfice greater or leffer refracting Power. after the manner hinted Bodies reflect 37.

thereby . ftill and common ftronger Glafs or and ftronger in the confine of Air and Diamond. but at their external Superficies. Mediums different from botK thefe between the Parts of hard Bodies. oily Particles.86 confine of Air and Water ^ and in the confine of Air Cryftal. Air between the aque ous Globules. as Water between the tinging Particles wherewith any Li quor is impregnated. Now Deflexions are perficies produced in the Su which intercede thefe Mediums of different Denfities. excepting fo far as they partake more and or lefs of iulphurous. and the Reafon why uniform. pellucid Mediums have no fenfible Reflexion. is becaufe all their Parts are of an equal Denfity . Between the Parts of opake and coloured Bodies. and perhaps. there are many Spa ces either empty or Me repienifh d with diums of other Dcnfides. All Bodies feem to have their Powers proportional to their Denrefraflive ficies. and Opacity arifes from the mul titude of ^efleBions produced in the internal Parts of Bodies: XLI. that conftitute Clouds or Mifts.

phurs. by refttttd the Action of the refrafted and G 4 Light. fince it s from the Aftion of Bodies on Light. that Light is fwifter in Bodies than in vacuo. in the Proportion of theSVgTK which meafure the t^efrattion of upon Bodies. . as by Chymical dnalyfes we And as Glafs. this Mr. that this refraBive in Bodies does moftly partake more or lefs Power of Sul find.of Natural aaeUgtom 87 thereby have their refra&ive Power made more or lefs . which is certainly true.5ls Light congregated by a Burningmolt upon fulphurous Bodies. into Fire them is : and Flame . together with a Calculation founded the Suppofition. that the denfeft Bodies which ly.lt. refratt and reflett grow hotteft in the Light moft ftrongSummer Heat. thac this refraffive Power does ari(e . fo fince mutual. to turn all a&amp. Newton has found by Obfervation on almoft all tranfparent Bodies. Sulphurs al moft that the Aftion between upon Light Light and Bodies is mutual. and it s depend upon the (ulphurous Parts with which they abound. is evident from Adion and this Confideration. fince all Bodies very probable.

and if this Plate were flit into Threads^ or broken che into Fragments of the fame thicknefs with . as Salts or wet Paper dried.a8 ^pofoppical The Bodies that reflect Light. XLIL The haft Tans of almoft all Natural Bodies are tranfparent. according to their feveral Sizes. and Bodies become more fides tranfparent. or feparating their Parts. they muft T4icrofape&amp. or Horn by being (crap d. thofe whofc Pores are fill d with Mediums of an unequal Denfity with that of the refrafting Medium itfclf. reflect Rays of one Colour. as Paper dip d in Water or Oyl $ and on the contrary. the moft tranfparent Subftances may by eva cuating their Pores. and tranfmit thofe of aqother. Glafs by being pulveris d. are Light. by filling their with Fluids of equal. as may be feen by viewing fmali Bodies with a and confequently. or almoft equal Pores Den- with their Parts. upon the fame Ground that thin Plates reflect or tranfmit thofe Rays j for a thin Plate of an even thicknefs appears all over of the fame Colour. be rendered diffidently opake.gt.

which pervades their Interfticesj and as there is a conftant Relation between fyfrangibility. fame Grounds ex Now Mr. their muft on Colours. Newton found by Obfervation. and confequently. But of Bodies on which their Colours the parts depend. according to their (everal thicknefs or thinnefs. that thin Plates or Bubbles refletted Rays of one Colour and tra/mitted thofe of another. and the fmall the Parts of all Na tural Bodies being like fo many Fragments Plate. 89 the Plate.of Natural Beltgton. there is no Reafcn why every Thread or Fragment fhould not keep its Co lour. muft be denfer than the Medium. of Natural Bodies be muft upon the fame Grounds reflect or tranfmit the feveral (ores of Rays. and there fore the fmall Parts ing tranfparent. why a heap of thofe Threads or Fragments flhould not conftitute a Ma(s or Powder of the fame Co it lour which the Plate exhibited before was broken of a hibit . and this is the Foundation of the various Colours of all Natural Bodies. ftolet . Co lours gible and the moft (Refran Rays being the leaft refrangible Pw .

the Circumftances reflected.gt. in like the intergreateft thicknefles 5 and rnediateColoursat intermediate thicknefles j the Red at and lours there are ieveral Orders of thofe Co more or le(s intenfe and vivid.%eflelion y and others in Fits of Thofe whofe who deeafie Tranfmtffion.ffitinnples and thofe of intermediate Colours ha ving proportionally intermediate Degrees fo there is a conftant Re of fyfrangibility . without lofing fomething . ac cording to the feveral thickneffes of thefe Plates or Bubbles : and the Reafon why the Surfaces of ail thick and tranfparent Bo Light incident on dies refled part of the them. muft go to that late pearance written by admirable Treatifc of Oftic fo&amp. is. Newton $ for it is impoffible to feparate the Parts of this Work from one another without Difadvantage to them. lation between Violet Colour and (%eflexibility. Mr. foe full Satisfadion in this wonderful Ap of Nature. or to fum them up in a lefs room . and refrad or tranfmit the reft. that fome Rays at their Incidence are in Fits of eafie &amp.lt. being at lead thicknefles of any Plate or Bubble.

4. and moves after the fame man ner other Fluids only with a much them do&amp. even vulgar Experi ed in managed and carefully examin In the fuch Hands may advance it. has now manifefted to the World to what furprizing ments duly Heights. Newton s and Difcoveries. That the Mo Motion of Light is fwiftcr in Bodies than in . That this Fluid of Light e3. That far great Perfon having before flhown how Numbers and Geometry would go in Natural tpbilofopby.of thing Nw and Ufeful. is That Light thefe mitted from thefe vibrating luminous Bo dies a certain time in from requires paffing to us. I general. That Bodies draw greater Velocity. this Light to cm in Lines perpendicular to their Surfaces. the Sun think we may fafely conclude i. 5. from Mr. That fixt Stars are but Planets or Earths vehemently heated. or having their in a fmalleft Parts ftrong vibrating put Mo emitted from them. 2. by powerful ribratwni of their fmall eft Parts. tion.gt. and that this Light puts the parts of the(e Bodies in a vibrating tion wherein Heats confift.

in its That the Ray cidence whole Courfe of ^flexion and In defcribes a Curve. when brought a certain Degree of Strength. but when it is in the conit . in 8. reflefted. i. ed than broken. That thefe Vibrations produced Bodies by the Action of their Motion confpires with Light. e. when that of the Rays of Light. by reafon of after its this Attraction. by reafon of the 6. rent Direction thereof. when any Ray the is in that part of thefe Vibrations that has the fame Dire&ion with eafily that of Ray. breaks through a reSubftance. is the Caufe of their Light. muft be of fuch a determin d Force to produce a diftinft Sound.lt.5iion Mo diffe tion in its (fyflexion. becaufe that Force of Attrain its which accelerates its Motion Incidence . muft of Neceffity retard its &amp.in vacuo. juft as we fee the Vibrations produc d in the Air by tremu lous and fonorous Bodies. or is rather bend 7. That the Vibration of the fmaller Parts of Bodies produced by to the A&ion of Light. and and (lower its being than in Incidence.

gt. tarn . are 9. afting differently in dif the Rays of Light ferent Circumftances. and fo every Ray is difpos d alternately to be eafily reflected or eafily tranfmitted.9$ which im contrary part of the Vibration. pedes its Motion. That tffyfle\ion caused dies. by and happens only Mediums of is the different Denficies of in Superficies Bo that intercede different Dcnfities.gt. That Light through Mediums only uniform Denfity. Light congregated by a Burning. aft moft upon Light. and that the refractive Power of Bodies is principally owing to the cranfmicted totally that are of the fame Sulphurs with for fince all which they abound A&ion is mutual. ces Sulphurs ought to 1 2. and fince k&amp. it is eafily refle&ed. the Action of Bodies upon Light.Glafs ads moft upon Sulphurs. That of their own Na ture diverfly Refrangible and ^flexible. is 10. 11. That the For or refratt Light are very nearly proportional to the Denfities of the fame Bodies. 1 That cerreflefi of Bodies to 5. and that this diverficy in both arifes from the fame Principle. vi%. &amp.

tain

Colours are

tfefrangibility

the primitive upon thefe Degrees.
lifts

d to luch Degrees of or ^flexibility, and that all and original Colours depend
ty
1

4.

That White con-

an equal Mixture of all the primi tive Colours, and Black in a Suffocation of all the Rays of Light, which is the Reafon why ftlacfo burn more eafily than other Colours and other not primi
in
;

tive

Colours
1

arife

of

thefe.

5.

Mixture That the Colours of Na
certain

from a

tural

Bodies depend upon the different Denficy of their fmall Parts, and thereby
fitnefs

Light of one Colour and tranfmit that of others. 1 6. That
their

to

reflect

of Rays make Vibrations of feveral which according to their bigbignefles, nefles excite Senfations of feveral Colours much after the fame manner, that the Vibra
leveral forts

of the Air according to their feveral bignefles excite Senfations of feveral Sounds.
tions
1

7.

That

the

lours arife
Iration

Harmony and Difcord of Co from the Proportions of the Vi*
as the

propagated through the Fibres of the

Optick Nerves into the Brain,

Har
mony

of

Natural fteHgton*

9?

and Difcordof Sounds arifes from the Air. Proportions of the Vibratms of the
Corollary.

From what

has been faid of the Nature
its

of the Sun, and

Light,

ic is

evident that

the Quantity of Heat and Light in the Sun does daily decreafe 5 like other vehemently

hot Bodies

it

muft gradually cool
of
fo

;

as alfo,

by

Rays Body upon all the Planets within its Syltem, which do not return, both its Bulk and Heat muft be diEwiffion

its

many

Millions of

perpetually, quite round

its

minifhed.
virtual

It is

Heat in Metals and Minerals, may be owing to the imprifoned Rays in em $ the Production of Animals in the ordinary way, require sa cer tain Degree of Warmth, which proceeds from his Influence. SomeBodies do ftifle and
fuffocate the

not improbable that all the the juices of Vegetables,

Light, fo as that they are never, or not duly reflected Sul again. phurous Bodies form little Cells by the

Rays of

Action of the Rays of Heat and Light to *& retain

$>6

retain

cm, and from

the Ingenious
learn

Expe

riment of the accurate and
{Bernoulli,

we

fpbere and all

d Mr. John are informed, that our Atmothe Bodies on our Globe are

faturated at all times with Rays of Light which never return again to their Fountain,

becaufe as has been
dtions,

Chown in the former
I

Se*

Bodies do attract, and confequently
thcfe Rays.
fhall here
(et

retain

down

(for he try d the fame Ex periment after different manners) the Inge

one of the Ways

nious Author prefcribes, which by my Or der was repeated here at London. They are
related in the id,

Volume of Mr.Fontanelles
Qtyyalle for the Year

Memoirs of
1

the

Academie

7 co.

We fuck d thro*

a very clean

Tube

of about 50 Inches in Length, open ac both ends, very well cleanled Mercury, till it came to the top, then nimbly ftriking off the upper Surface of the Mercury, which had been ioii d by che Air, and hindred the Effect in former Tryals, we nicely and the upper end with a proper quickly clo& d Cement fo th^t no Air cou d get in, then fu~
fpending the

Tube

that the Mercury

mighc

fubfide,

of Natural &ettgfon*
(iibfide,

97
chat

and darkening
in,

the

Room

no

Light could get

we

perceived that at

every Vibration, Flafhes of Light appear d in the Vacuity at the upper End, which enlightened
all the

Room, which as Mr.
$

@^r-

happened thus that Film of Dirt, wherewith the Air foils the upper Surface of the Mercury, and which hinders the Paflage of the Particles of Light in or
noulli reafons,

being removed 5 in the Vibrations of the Tube, the Mercury afcenddinary
ftafotneterf,

ing in

oblique Situation, lubfides again in its Perpendicular one, and thereby leaves behind it a Vacuity, to fill which, the Par
its

ticles

of Light, being the only Body that
in,

can get

rufhes in, from the Mercury and through the Glafs, in great Quantities, and fo produces thefe Flafhes ; which (hows
that the Subftance of
Light,
it

is

(battered
vifible.

every
the

where,
it s

Now fincc

though

be not

certain, that Bodies

do

attradt

Rays of .Light, and do retain em fo, that they can never return to the Fountain
of Light again of Ligb{ both
;

it s

plain,
this

the

Quantity

in

H

Bright Luminary,

and

and

in

the

Sun

like

fixt Stars

muft be

continually decreafing : However, it s alfo certain, that this Decreafe is very inconfi-

derable in any ftiort time, though
fure there
is

we

are

(ome, and our not being fenfible of this Decreafe, is only an Argu ment of the exceeding Smalnefs of the We find fome odorife Particles of Light,
rous Bodies,

fend out Steams

for

many

Years, without fenfibly diminishing either their Bulk or Weight, which argues the

Smalnefs of the Parts of thefe Steams. But the Particles of Light muft be extremely
fmall, fince the

Sun

for fo

many Ages

has

been conftantly emitting Oceans of Rays, without any fenfible Diminution : But this
can furprife no Body, who confiders that Matter is infinitely divifible 5 for it is poffible

to affign in Numbers, a Quantity, whereof a Body as big as the Sun may

conftantly, for any finite Number of Years emit Oceans, and yet the Sum of em all,

may

not be greater than a cubical Inch, or even a Grain of Sand.

XLIIL

of
XLJII.
that the

We

mod

have already obferv d, general Condition, of the

Univerfal Law of Gravitation in Bodies,was, that at the fame Diftance from the Center

of the attracting Force, Bodies did gravi tate in proportion to their Solidity, and at
different Diftances, reciprocally as the Squares

of thofe Diftances but this Condition is not fo general, as altogether to exclude
5

others
Tterfal

j

the
is

way

to

know how

this

Uni-

Law
is

diverfify d, in

the different

what Lines, Bodies in their Motions or A&ions upon one ano ther defcribe, or what the Effeds of thefe Motions and Actions are and then to in* veftigate what Conditions of the Univer al Law of Gravitation, will make Bodies
Bodies,
to obferve
;

defcribe thele Lines, or produce thefe Effedts. Thus if any of the (primary or Se
condary Planets, did delcribe perfect Circles. or about the Sun, or a
Ellipfe*

Primary

Planet plac d in the Center, the Condi tion of the Hnhtrfal Law in thefe, would be, that the attractive Force at different Di
ftances

from the Center, would be

as thefe

H

i

Diftances

$pofopl)tcal
Diftances
Parabola,
at

dire&ly.

If

they defcribed a

by fuppofing

the attractive Force

an

infinite Diftance,

changing
Force
,

or an Hyperbola, by the Centripetal into a Centrifugal

Law
ways
as

then the Condition of the Univerfal wou d be, that the Force were al
equable

and the fame at all Diftances, 1 1. Mr, Newton has demonftrated,
<Prop.

Lib.l.

We

find, as has

been infinuated in

the preceding Sections,

That the Rays of

Light in paffing through different Media, do tend perpendicularly, to either the Plane of Incidence or ti^eflexion, fo that the Force

of Attraction

always the fame 5 at equal Diftances from the fame Plane. We lee that the Parts of Air, fhun or fly from one another, inftead of tending to one another ;
is

fo that in accounting for the Appearances of Nature from the Unherfal Law of Gravitation,

we

are not

ty

d to one fingle ConK>

dition, but

may

have recourfe

others as

(he Nature and Ncccilicy, of the Appearan ces (eem to require ; for the whole Diffi culty of (philo/opby, teems to lie in invefti-

gating the Powers and Forces of Nature,

from

of

101

from the Appearances of the Motions given, and then from thele Powers to account for
all

the

reft.

XLIV.
cohering

The obvious Appearances of
two
very fmooth

Bodies are thus,

well poliflh d, plain Bodies, put together, will firmly cohere even in an exhaufted
Receiver, which fliows evidently that their Coke fan is owing, neither to the Gravity, nor

any other Property of the Air; all faline, cryftalline, and moft mineral Bodies, break in very fmooth and plain, or at lead congruent Surfaces , and univcrfally almoft all hard and very compact Bodies, break wkh Surfaces, which immediately upon the which is Separation, appear whitiflj,
to

an Evidence, that though the Surfaces be very fmall, yet they are very fmooth and polifh d, for only innumerable little polifh
all

d Surfaces, are fit to reflect plentifully kinds of Rays, whereby white Co

lours are produced. ces of cohering Bodies,
to

Now thele Appearan
do

naturally lead us

imagine,

that

one necelTary Condition
the plainnds,or at leaft

toward

Co^/^is

H

3

Congruitj

f^tnrtptes
Congruity

of

cohering

Surfaces,

and

this

fecms neceffary to exclude any Fluid from lying between cohering Bodies, for theie Bodies cannot be laid to cohere^ or be con
tinued, betwixt whofe cohering Surfaces, in all its Points a Fluid may infinuate itfelf,

The

of the cohe plairmefs and fmcothnels more Points come ring Surfaces, will make into Cotttaftj than when they are rough

and
/ton

irregular.
arifes

For whatever Caufe Coheif

from,

we

fuppofe that

Cade

to a 61

more
be
;

ftrongly at the Contatt, the Points of the cohering Bodies come
Colxfion in Curve

mod

into Contatt, the firmer the

will

and though cxal Congruity

Surfaces, will bring as many Points into Contact, as plain Surfaces will, yet Curvlty not being the fimpleft, nor mo(t expedi
tious

of producing this Effect, nei ther agreeable to Nature, (who always her Effects the fliorteft brings about all and eaiieft way ) in feems evident, that
the plairmek and imoothnefs of Surfaces, is one Condition of Cohe/ion, and that thofc

Method

Atoms that are terminated with plain Sur
faces

of ^atutai &eU0f on*
faces, will ( ctteris faribus
)

i

o$

produce Bodies

This will appear firmeft Cobefion. more evident from the contrary Quality in the conftituent Particles of Fluids. For we
have fhown before, Condition of Fluidity,
Surfaces, of the
that
is

of the

one neccffary
Particles

the Curvity of the

conftituent

of

Fluids, in
that
their

refpe<ft

whereby their Cobefion is very fraall, of the Cobe/ion of thofe Particles and are terminated with plain Surfaces,

Gravity always exceeds the Force of their Cobefion, fo that from both thefe
Gaufes, they eafily flip and move one upon /* another. that fome then may fuppofe

We

of the Primary Atoms, of which Bodies are conftituted, are terminated with plain Sur
faces
dies

on

all fides,

which will produce Bo

of the firmeft Cobefion, others are part ly terminated with plain, and partly with curve Surfaces, which will produce Bodies
of a
others again are intirely terminated with curve Surfaces, which will produce Fluids, and between thefe inCobefion
;

mean

tirely plain,

and

entirely

curve, there are

infinite Combinations,

of plain and curVeSut-

H

4

faces

Now in can be deriv d from nothing Nature. as this it were. and &amp. that cohering Bo a determin d Force. them from being e^fily feparated when join d. whereby all the Pares of Matter. and at ihe Difhnce AD.faces which will account for all the vari ous Degrees of Cobefion in Bodies. attracted by . On the Center A. will not hinder them from being feparated.lt. let !P A be perpendicular. to feparate ftill them. in refpeft of their Figures. there wants to hinder a Cement. But though this fmoothplainncls. to that by which they one another.P be a (Particle of Matter. to whofe Plane at^. will Bodies. by any Force how fmall foever j and dies fiiice we require are certain. XLV. endeavour to embrace one another. and cannot be feparated buc by a Force fupericur. bring nefs and in the Surfaces of cohering yet this moft Points into Contact. but that Univer* fal Law of Attraction. let us then enquire what Condition of the Unfterfal Law. let a Circle be defcribed. will moft fitly anfwer the Appearances of Coatcradt he fan.

P by all the Particles of this Circle.lt. Li^.. of fuch a length as may reprefent the Force whereby. 5)0. Newton has demonftrated. the Particle attracts the E Body &amp. right Line &amp. 218. from ? to any any Point in the Radius of the Cir in the cle draw !P Ay take . (P^.?.of Natural 3Reltgtotu Condition of the Univerfal Law. L .Prop.lt.lt.PF = VE. &amp. and at F draw F/ pa rallel to AT). and let Lt^I be the Curve which the Point 2^ thus constantly circumftantiated Generats 5 Mr. in any &amp.lt.

lt. that the Force whereby Af&amp.?.lt. and F^.lt.P.gt.P/j&quot. t n . upon the Q^adim is &amp. y= x&quot.and therefore i.lt.lt.Phil.IPrincip.lt.~ x you fubfticute you have putting m. &amp. = i x a- whofe And if for x you fubfticute !P ^.P JLM =^=~^^ PH. F be call d x. and let F^ ? or the Force whereby the Point E attracts the be reciprocally as any Power ( fuppofe n) of F then the Equa- Body &amp.P r tion of the Curve will be. . you have Iffot tte Area 0&amp. j .P attrads the Corpufcte multiplied as the upon the Kftarace A &amp. &amp.lt.lt. (hall OTHILM . =H .OTJ1 r ^ 1 Wl v /r| .P. the whole Circle. r AHIL let &amp. Matkemat. we then &amp.

H ( whole Center .lt.gt.lt. Attraftim e. with its AD the Cow- Afympiote is . then the of the attracting Circle being produced. (the Curve being the vulgar Hyperbola. then the Arch X&amp. i.~ consequently the the Cor- iM of the Circle upon pufcle = m t x If M = i.P A = o. ti\s Area. and &amp.P AH1L will be in and Jf being nothing. in which Cafe.lt. when the is y attratting Plane plac d at ot the Hyperbola. &amp.) finite.lt.P4 tratting K If 4HIL=o x ^ = n and VA = oo i vanifhing. will coincide wich the dfymptote $0. or the Di~ ftance between the Corpufcle and the atTlane &amp.of Natural Bcligion. 107 m x &amp. the i.

then the Infinite. and conx ftcjuently the Attraction &A it AfilL iu r. -f- &amp.lt.lt.PJ = o. where ?i in = If n = o 2 and (P /4 ~ oo .cc x = i.y - + 2L If 7i Cff.lt. when -V A o. than that in the former Cafe. and i. And hence appears that . and whofe Radius t= oo ) will coincide with is .lt.gt.gt... a. AHIL will be oi more f/.P^ /&amp.^tttlofopitfcal T. there the 4*4 AHIL will be -nothing. ami &amp.^ and confe- x /4HIL =00 x o = therefore and V A = If n ^H be = 4 x And then f H called &amp.4 (the which Exprcffion fliall be after meaning wards explained ) and therefore the Attra ction will be $A x AHIL = o . the Attraction of the Circle &quot.gt. is &amp. multi ply *d into it more than Infinite from whence that the Force of the Atraflion appears this Cafe.gt. let &amp.PD = &amp. is greater i./cfe upon the Gw2!_ x AHIL . = i.PA quently AL i and HI will coincide.P A AT&amp.

when (P traCtion. for the Attraction &amp. as a greater than infinite is to infi nite. ly AH If A = a. the Attraction will oo for of be greater than when !P A two Produds. for the reafon o is mentioned. will be greater than in the in this Cafe now fecond Cafe. vi^ i. = greater Multiplicand.lt. that ^is to a.lt. fo that if A denote A=o . vi^ becaufc (P A = a . contrary to what happened in the firft Cafe.- when (P A oo I and a the Atfay. where n = i. the Attraction. then as former =&amp.PA=--o y thmAHIL but will be more than infinite.of Natural Religion* in this Cafe. AHlLici this third in Cafe will be greater than the fecond and Cafe.lt. that is the greater. if (P i op A o. AH1L o in Force of the Attraction confequently the when PJ both Cafes. which has the . If ?i J = 2 and &amp. the Attraction A m = ? and &amp.P being cail djf. having the fame Multiplicator.P in that Cafe was the fame both when was equal to o and to oo .lt.

greater than AHIL in the fecond. the Force of the circular &amp. then as be 3 fore. If the Attraction will be m = 3 and PA =a i } then the At.* (fi traBion will be equal to ~H 2* (Id J? 4- i 1 45 + 3Z 5 rt Hi%0r. is Multiplicator in both.lt. may from the Plane. If m = and PA =00. AHIL will be equal to nothing. and the increafes when thus the Powers of the Diftance n increafe^ . pufcle when come into or the Plane Contaft. that the Force of the AttraEtkn of the Plane up thefe Calculations it is From on the Corpu/ck) when the Diftancc is no Cor thing. and and confequently 00 X0 = 1. tf 6 After this manner. and at any affignable Diftance of the Corpufcle eafily in be upon computed the Corpufcle P. evident.Plane Attraction of the any affignable cafe of the Powers of the Diftance P F.no a common AHIL in this Cafe.

much lefs propor than when n=. thus at the Diftances. or x. than when they are lower. is this to Now : apply theCobefion of Bo dies It s certain that the firft Condition (vi^. that the Force of the Attraction of the Plane the Corpufcle. when the Bodies are in Contaft. and is P A o. H = i thefe Calculations. at the fame finite Diftan- ces decreafes fafter ? or at a greater rate. or when n is a greater Number.of ffiatmal &eltgtotu thus when n == 2. than when and fo in others higher. and fo in others between n yet greater.) cannot obtain in the Cohefon of Bodies 5 for the Difference between the Force. fo fmall. is when the AttraBion reciprocally as the Diftance between the attracting Bodies. it s clear from upon greater. the Force of the Attraction tionally. to where the Difference one Cafe and in the other. As alfo. fame n than finite is when is lefs. the Force of the Attraction and PA =o. I. when the Towers of the Diftances are high. when in = 3. as does not anlwer the Appear ances . . and when they are at fome Diftance from one another^in is this cafe.

get in between the Surfaces of Bo they are at any Diftance. Diftances give from one another.) the Difference of the Force ofCohefion. they are at ever fo fmall a finite Diftance from one another. that the Force is whereby Bodies when they come to immediate Contatt. greater than the Diameters of the confticuent Parti dies cles will be very difficult to make fuch Experiments. between Bodiesat immediate Contaft^nd of the fame. very much greater. In the fecond Condition of the Univerfal Law of Gravitationfoiz^whcn the Force is re of the Diftance. fame. than when cohere.ances . ciprocally as the Squares at fome Diftance from one another^is greater than in the former Cafe . upon the Surface of our Globe. for we find. at fome deterthat min d would Law. in it to the cohering Bodies. the proportion of the decreafe of this Force. becaufe the Fluids But when . But were poffible to gather by Experiment. J3ut not fufficient to account for this Difference obfervable in the if manner of the Cohefion of Bodies. the Condition of the Univerfal it any which furround Bodies.

they render the efficacy of the Force of Attraction where of the Force thus the Particles of by Bodies cohere.of cles Natural their lateral of chcfc Fluids. and a Diftance equal to the Diameters of fuch jfubtil Fluids. Ho w- very evident. that all the Appearances of the manner of the Cohefion of Bodies.Prin* cipleof Gravitation. deftroy whereby Bodies cohere . may be explained from this &amp. together with that other of the already mentioned. of the plainnefs Surfaces of cohering Bodies .lt. in between the Sur Light. get faces of Bodies. and that the Particles of 4ir y endea vour to recede from one another. is too fmali to be diftinguifh d by our Senfes. howfoever everthisbe. removed at almoft an infenfible Diftance from one another. and feeing one atight and Bodies aft mutually upon nother. altogether infenfible at any Diftances from one another. then of Gra* one Condition of this Uniyerfal Lw I vition . greater than are the Diameters of the Particles of thefe Fluids . it is affifted. for if all Bodies cohere after one and the fame manner. and of^ir. and fo by the efficacy preffures.

gt.- firft Bendings. we fc the . others aftw another (and thefe Diverfitics to fome may feetn not improbable. Cohefan in all pofGble Cafes may be explained. being thus it is no hard matter to undcrftand (cxplain d. or in the become vifible which no doubt were K/&quot. is fufficient variety in this Univerfal Law all thefe Diverfities for account fo that it s to evident that from thefe Principles. Cahejton in general XLVL fame of fmooth and plain Sur faces. tho* opt fo large. that by frequent and long con tinued Bendings. there In we in the out. to account for the different Degrees of Firmnels. in fo much. there before. find the Convex fide exceedingly ftretch d. traftm. Solidity and there Cohejton obfervable in Bodies ) then.fide. bending elaflick Bodies. fures.vitation will fervc$ if fomc Bodies attraA one another after one manner. which feems to arife from the Elafticity. as to be vifible as afro &amp. and of fome one or more of the mention d Conditions of the General Law of AtPrinciples.

feparated if thelc Planes were if the by zfarallel Motion.of jftatutal ffieiigtom the Concave fide. only the Convex fides. fuppofe. ftrike againft one ano ther.fide : the fame thing happens. attracts by fbme one or other of the Con ditions of the General Law of duration.lt. on the in. when two elaflick Globes. as to move upon a common of the Congruent fquares as an /frcw . or its Parts forcibly d together. if thcfe Planes. fo that each Particle in thefc Planes. are turn d in towards let us their Centers . were fo another. the matter being thus. by any external Force. are join d together. to hinder their A&amp. the^irtraftive Force wou d immediately bring thefe Planes and together again. fo as to run prefs into Folds or lefler Convexities. fide feparated. ceafingtoaft. mightily contracted. or Balls.and that no forein Fluid endowed with a disjoining fuch as Air and Light arc ) cou d init is cer : terpofe. Diftance were fo fmall. that no forein Fluid I a . that two very fmooth and plain (quare Surfaces.5tion tain. chat the external Force which thus fe- Force ( paraced theft Planes.

which may cacy of the Force. fome manner compounded of ( for it is no matter after what are disjoined. as to manner they provided they be not feparated. another after fome one gr other Condicion of the Universal Law 5 being feparated by a forein Force ? they muft (when that Force ceales) . the attracting Force would a6t and bring em together a- gain . fo far.Fluid could get in to hinder their Adtion. ) fuppofe. the Surfaces of the Parts of Elafiick Bodies. whereby thefe Particles If we then attraff one another. with a Force which may be. neceffity have fome of their Parts in theie Adtions. Now all Elaftick Bodies in their Actions upon one muft of another. and that they attratt one plain and fmooch. and in both Cafes. if the feparating Force ceas d. feparated by a parallel or a circular Motion about an Axis y or by a - Motion both after thefe. admit any forein deftroy the effi Fluid to enter. changing their Figures.eafily gathered from the Condition of the Law of Attralkn y and the Diftance of thefe Planes being given.

but it is not my ob- Bufinefs here. ) and fo will produce all being the Appearances of Elaftick Bodies. in this place with the particular Gonfcquences. If Elaftick Bodies ferv d one conftant (Proportion. ic were eafie from thence. toward bending Forces. may be accounted I .Principles.of natural Beltgton* fes) join i i \? together again with a certain degree of Force. I fhall not may therefore trouble the Reader. there arc as great Varieties in this as in Cobefon. but per haps fome think. the only (principles thefe intricate. be explained. and Condition of the Unherfal Law given.lt. but fhall content laid my fclf to have upon which dejpair d o for. Upon the fame &amp. to defcend into all the par ticular Circumftances.may the Elafticity of Ten dinous Bodies. and hitherto down pearances. in their un bending. (which is to be eftimated from the Diftance. to determin the Condition of the Univerfal Law by which their Particles attradt their one another . from particular Conditions of the General Law of Attrattion.

. come into the Subje& CHAP. but that thefe already explain d are moft of rances what I (hall makt ufe of in the following Treacife.ii 8 I ffpofopfflcal 0?mcipltg would proceed to the reft of the Appea of Nature which lam fatisfy d can be accounted for. for which this Chapter was defign d only as a Lemma : Befides that. fome of the reft will naturally of thefe Diicourfes. from the fame Principles.

.

.

this Origination of World 3 and of Mankind in particular.. whether he fprang from fome times the Earth dropt from the Clouds y when he began^ or if ever there was a B time or . and yet fcarce any Bo dy give Himfelf the trouble once ferioufly to confider or enquire how Man at firft became to be. to fee T is a little furprifing Men contending and wran^_ gling about the Origin of their ieveral Families.THE Pbilofophical O F Principles Natural Religion. Of the II. CHAP.

Whate ver others may do. extreamly Matter have for infrangible Particles of ever been . nor their Pedi gree dcfpifcd. or whether it was~#We or eafily fatisfy not. We are pains d we and our own immedi ate Parents have not been for ever . I fhall not think my Pains ill beftow d once in my Life to have cxamin d how this prefent ftate of things became at firft to be. the firft is of thofe of the Epicurean Se&. There are three general Opini ons about this matter.S ving . tho thefe Enqui s be far more worthy a wife Man than thofe infignificant Contefts. and yet very many now a days don t fcruple to own themfelves the Children of the Earth. but few of us go farther^ we take this World as we find it. that holds that an iwmenfe Void^ and an Infinity of different hard and ly figur d.. II. without troubling our Heads who made it. or the Off- ipring of blind Fate and Chance. very fmall.lt. and that thefe Particles mo &amp. No Body can well bear to have their Anceftors affronted..^I)i!ofopi)icai time ries when he was not .

. Time and Space it s true may have for ever been but that is becaufe they to a may have fome relation Being endow d with all other fuitable j Dualities but Matter feems to be too igno ble a Being to arrogate fuch high Endow we ments. after innumerable ren counters^ did at laft fettle in this beautiful Order of things we now behold. 3 in a dire&ion oblique ving of emfelves to one another... This is the Scheme upon which fome build their and upon the account of which fome of our Moderns think emfelves fuh* Hopes j til Philosophers 5 III. with out any Caufe. to which to a very high pitch we find none of its other qualities anfwerable. as B 2 not . Scheme fuppofes Mat ter to have for ever been of it felf. how juftly we (hall now examine. over But pafs this Head.of natural JReiigion.which is a very liberal Firft this Compliment to fuch an unadive inaiii- mate Mafs^ to make it independent for its Being and uncapable of being deftroy* ed (both which Self-exiftence neceffarily implies) tis to raife it of Dignity.

if in Motion. But I d gladly know whence .. it wou d for ever move on. hard. We never bring it fclf into Motion. Let us confider how out of thefc few Principles of an ttdwenfe Void^ an infinity of very fnjall.. and with the fame eafe. No . thereof to the Places they are to have produc d this frejent now in ^ ftate of things. be fuppofed to have dire&ed the feveral parts / . that wou d for ever continue in the ftate it it is put in. Whatever can be fuppos d to fince it is put Matter in Motion. and in and their oblique Direfrangible Particles^ Si/on to one another. that of it felf it can IV. it is poilible to form have this prefent ftate of things... this motion did proceed fuppos d there is nothing bcfide unadive Matter it felf to produce it.not eiTential to the Bufinefs in Hand. may at the {ame time. e. if it was from all Eternity at reft.. it would continue fo for ever. and. have prov d XL of the preceding Chap ter ^ that Motion is no more effential to Matter than Reft.

To ry this I true.. and may be divided in mfiiritnm as well as other tities^ Quan and a Body may be moving any fi nite time. Philosophers^ have afferted that no part of Matter ever was nor can be at abfoltite reft... anfwcr. Motion is a Quantity. but that every thing is in fome degree of Motion ^ yet that abfolute Reft in Bodies clear is not it iiripoflible.of j^aturai 3Seii0iott.. or the at reft. that the* it may be ve that nothing in this Univerfe is a&ually at abfolutc reft. tradiftion implies no cona Sphere in a vacuity fhou d B be . and yet never (enfibly change its relative Place . is from hence. feem to be Obflacle. who fees any part thereof at reftfor what is effential to any thing. 5 can think Motion effential to Matter.. fay they. that .. that No Body But fome thing can never be without it. for the fpace if is as the Velocity fmall y and the Velocity be very the fpace it moves through is fo Kkewife And that thofe Bodies which-&quot. and thofe of great Name too. For. : are only alternately to and the ter from moving very (lowly mination of the Motion.

. fiippoa Body moving in ^acuo^ it muft move fing Now what is it in one certain Dire&ion. And it cannot poffibly move in more than one of em at once^ and therefore it will of itfelf move in none of em. fhou d rnoYe rather in this than in any other of the klfinite number of Dire&ions. that determines it to this Dire&ion rather than to any other of the infinite Variety. no Reafon can poflibly be aflign d why it prefs .which are felt move at all. i. pot .fM)ilofapl}fcai be d by two other equal Spheres with equal Forces and contrary Dire&ions. There is another Argu efiential ment which to me feems very conclufive againft Motions being effential to Matter. in the faculties of natural tbicgs. and that is -from the infinite poffible Vane-? ties of its Dire&ions laying afide the confederation of all other Bodies j or. from which preffure the intermediate Sphere wou d be at abjolnte Reft wherefore if it is not abfurd a Body {hou d be at abfolute d be it is Motion fliou impoffible Reft ^ to Matter.. it will not of it and confequentFor ly Motion is not effential to Matter. e..

not endow d with Free-will. But allowing Matter to be . it not being effect ial to Matter. yet nothing cou d be produc d Abettors of this Philofophy their Void for want of Motion.of Natural Religion. poffible and their Atoms. and therefore they added. that thefe Parti cles moved with different oblique Dire&ions to one anotherby which means they wou d meet and juftle and B 4 refleft. felf* I wou d know exiftent and felf-Moving whence came this obliquity of Direction y this is to afcribe Will and Choice to thefe Particles. yet nothing wou d follow but r an eternal wandering in Lines parallel to one another^ without any other cifeft. From all which it is that allowing the plain. and there being nothing elfe to produce it.. and to alledgc that they are ca pable of refolving what way they w ill go..... in innumc- . there can be no Choice made at all. as has been prov d. V. where there is an infinite variety of Choice. The Contrivers of this Scheme faw wifely enough^ that granting thefe Atoms to be felf-moving. and no Reafon to determine any one way.

to iiippofe this World already as to fuppofe thefe Particles this endow cl with tion. obliquely dire&ed Mo* the Caufe of the one being no lefs accountable from their Principles than the other. and all Motions produc d by the fame adequat fame DiCaufe have the re&ions and confequently.8 innumerable different ways.. they have mov they lifted. Why do they not fo ftill? Since (according to their own fuppofition) their Na nothing has happen d to alter or the manner of their Motions ever ture^ fince. if the Mo tion of thefe Atoms arifes from emfelves^ they muft all follow the fame Dire&ions^ i.. and yet according to the Opinion of thefe for infinite as Men d Ages by -pa ft. do not find that Matter or Bodies can alter their Directions. e. We fee all Motions nowperform d in the fame dire&ion with that of the mo ving Force. But does not every Body fee that it is as eafie and as intelligible in Being. . they muft all move in -parallel Lines ^ and confequently they cou d never meet in order to We now produce any regular Effe&..

) felf-mo&amp. and fo nothing but one great fo^ lid Sphere cou d be produc d if they happen d to unite after their Meeting.. others to another. and all that s alleged on this Head by the Favourers of ther precariotts. for that wou d be making em all converge to a point. this Scheme is altoge VI.ving. yet tis ftill inconceivable how they r fhou d produce a World.. they w ou d produce a fluid Sphere^ their rectilinear Motions turning into circular ones . unaccountable in why Matter iliou d move one Direction rather than another.. and if they again reffe&cd from one another. or otherwife wander on in right Lines as before And to make fome con verge to one point. upon any other ac count but the Direction of the imprefs d Force. For thefe Atoms cou d not move all with the fame degree of Obliquity to one another. and obliquely di- re&ed. thefe Atoms to be ^ji Jelf-exijlent. which cou d chufe the courfe they wou d . is r : to fay thefe Atoms were intelligent free Beings.lt.of /Ince it is atural 3&eitgton* altogether .. But allowing.

. e.and yet thefe pro duce no regular Syftems of Bodies. only Spheres of different Mag nitudes cou d be form d.. by the interpofition of the furfaces of refle&ing Bodies thing. is. tho endow d with their obliquity of Dire- Rays which as was before prov d are very fmall parts of Matter. they . /. differently fituated^ obtaining all poffible varieties of Obliquity. I leave the der to confider. and if flop when and where they pleas d.. now So that out of all their Motions.o $t)tiDCopi)ical in. which how fmall a part this is of the infinite variety of a fpherical one. wou d go We have a very powerful Proof of the infufficiency of thefe Atoms. The truth of the Rea mat Bodies were fclf-moving^ they cou d move what way they pleas d. Stion to produce any in the of the Sun. Bodies in ter this Univerfe. tho* they move and probably juftle and inter As I have juft fere all imaginable ways. cou d meet to pro duce any real Body^ and ev n the Body which wou d be produc d woti d only be faid. only thofe whole Directions converge to a point...

of natural Religion. I (hall not ask of thofe who defend this Scheme^ a particu lar this&quot. we are never certain it can be fo. Again . To (hew a thing po fible to be done. unlefs particular Motions. 5 the principal Bodies of this tlni- were fram d.. VII. yet I wou d gladly know how from thence this Univerfe cou d be fram d It is not enough to fay barely thefe Atoms thus difpos flate d wou d at laft fettle into this of things. . d they wou d be free-will Elective Agents. we muft tell how. Generals are always to be fufpe&ed 5 a Contradi&ion may be difcovcred in the particular Explications of an Appearance that was not taken notice of in the the general Scheme^ as indeed it happens in every individual Inftarice of prefent Subjeft hitherto attempted. be {hewn by what Directions and Refleit &ions verfe . For unlefs we defcend to Particulars. what way^ and by what Laws it may be done.and tis as 5 probable (till contrary be evinc d^ in fome Particulars at leaft) it may not be fo. allowing thefe Atoms to bzfelf-exiftentjfelf-moving and obliquely dire&ed.

from thefe tell by what MecbaPrinciples alone... how any reafonable Man prifing to think cpu d believe this Vtriverfe to have been produc d by Matter and Motion j when as yet no Man that ever liv d.lar account of the Mecbamfm of every in dividual Appearance in our Syft erne D for But it any one that indeed were endlefs. I {hall for the fake of thefe allow their whole Scheme to be true. V1I. and of every individual Syftem Appearance.. . can the moft contemptible of the Celeftial #//. can by what Laws of Mechanifrn./ or Terrejtrial Bodies cou d be produc d .. any one Animal or Vegetable was produced. We all know how wretchedly Des Cartes (the ableft Patron that ever this Opinion had) has blunder d on thefe Heads. and his Followers have It is furnot mended the matter much. or from what mechanick Principles the tell Planets defcribe Elliptic^ Orbits.. and yet to be fully fatisfy d of the truth qf this Hypotbefis^ a Man muft underftand t}ie particular Mechanifm of the whole of things.

The only tolerable account Particles is of from Cohefzon their branched in fuch like hard folid Particles refle&ing from one another. but like chain d they wou d . can never poflibly lay hold of one another.this mutual embracing might keep em from being eafily torn be ftill movable Work y and cou d never produce the appearance of Firmnefs affunder.of Natural ffieiigion* VII. in or der to produce folid Bodies. It is impoffible to conceive how innumera ble hard and compared Atoms in Now Figure. without any other cement but their catching hold of one another. at leaft not fo but that the leaft Motion will disjoin em again.. cxtreamly compared and hard of Matter muft (as indeed the leaft parts neceflarily be) which compa&idnefs and hardnefi is a demonftration that nothing cou d be produc d by em^ fince being fb they cou d never come to cohere.. Thefe Atoms are fuppofed in frangible. fwimming an immenfe Abyfs cou d ever come to co here fo as to produce fuch hard Bodies as Diamonds and fome other Mineral Subfiances are..

iaid And what is here of Cohefion and Solidity .14 Firmnefs and Solidity. and to meet according to any Laws of Mechanifm. fome few of the moft confiderable tors of this . It were endlefs to allege all the Inftances that might be brought on this Head. will .. or fuch movable ones that are al together unlike the folid Bodies we now So that to account for the probehold.. maybe likewife fhewn of Elafticity. befides their Matter and Motion. obliquely dire&ed. VIII. There are feveral Appearances absolutely unaccountable from the Laws of Mechanifm. yet they cou d only produce loofe heaps of Atoms . as is (hewn in the two laft Se&ions of the preceding Chapter.. And thus allow to be ing thefe Atoms Self-exiftent. Self- moving. du&ion of this prefent ftate of things. and confequently thefe cou d never be produc d by Matter and Motion alone 5 or any Combinations of them. the Abet Opinion want a Principle for Both Solidity or Cohefion and Elafticity which are owing to no eflential Property of Matter.

. but is im^lan-* ted therein by fome Power fuperiour to that of Matter j whence it is evident that one of the primary Attributes of Matter is independent of the Laws of Mecbanifw. and which is the Caufe of all the beautiful Appearan ces of Nature owes its Origin to fomething different from Matter and Motion. That aftive Principle which animates as it were the dead Mafs of Bodies.of Natural one be inconfiftent will fuffice. for if any with the Laws of Mechamfa^ then it is cou d have been impofllble this Syfteme produc d by the concourfe of Atoms. is above the Powers of . IX. is that great Law In to which fubjeft. That of Gravitation.. nor can arife from the Figure^Tex* Motions of its Parts. The firft I (hall inftance in.. Not only Gravitation or that implanted Principle whereby Bodies tend towards one another. and therefore this Syftem of things cou d ture or 5 not arife from thence. all the Bodies of this Univerfe are VZK. the former Chapter I have endeavour d to fhew that this Property is not cffential to Matter.

all the and ferrejinal Appea Celeftial rances are likewife above the Powers and Laws of Matter and Motion. to explain the regular and confront Appearan c ces of Nature^ were moft of em Ungeometrical^ and all of em fo inconfiftent or it was as hard to allow unintelligible.6 $i)itofopi)tcai all of Matter.but. All the Fb/fofophers that ever were.. that they (hould conftantly revolve in Orbits. All the At- tempts of others before Mr. that they fliould approach to and remove from a determin d point at different Sea- and that uniformly and conftant is ly. they might Matter had been felf-moving) have for (if ever ftray d in right Lines. but the Effe&s and Appea rances that neceflarily depend thereupon.. e.. cou d never from the meer Laws ofMechaniJM explain how the Planets came to move in Elliptic!^ Orbits. altogether unaccountable from the Laws of Mechanifm. planted . that as to conceive the their Poftulata thing which they pretended to account for from them. i. as has been (hewn in the former Chapter. But from this im fons. Newton.

the Motion of the Heart by the Texture of their C containing Vc fck . and forc d into the Mufcnlar part of the Heart. but fingle Appearance fcarce a that can thence ade is quately be accounted for. verfe cou d not have been produc d by the there is Laws of Mechanifa. r. Phenomena are accounted for^ and that to the greateft nicety we are capable of So that not only this Unidiftinguifhing. and is thence re turn d by the Veins into the right Ventri cle thence by the Arteria Yulmonalvs unto the Lungs ^ from the Lungs by the Vena j fulmonalvs to the right Ventricle again. Laws of fqueez d by the force of the Heart from the left Yen* is The Blood tricle^ through the Arteries unto the Ex^ tremities of the Body. X... The Motion of the Heart is caus d by the nervous Juices mixing with the Blood in the Mujcular And thcfe part thereof. The Produftion of Animals altogether inconfiftent with the Mecbaniftrt. nervous Juices are both deriv d from the Blood.of Natural 3Ed!0tom ail 17 the planted Principle of Gravitation.

fo that the fame Water fhou d .8 ^iiofopijicat fcls. and the Motion of the Blood in the Arteries the Nerves. By an Organ mean a diftinft independent part of a Machin :Thus a Wheel and all its parts is an Organ of a Watchj if I may fpeak fo. the latter muft 2. fince the firft dernonftrably impoffible. which is a plain Circulation of Mechanical Powers i. and a Gland with .. is urging their Juices through the Caufe of the Motion of the Heart.. and perhaps by the pulfation of the Arteries upon the Nerves in the Brain. a Circle to move the constantly return in I iliou d then think their Scheme Machin : Ibmewhat is fcafible. are Organs in if number a&ually indefinite I not infinite.. If an Epicurean Philofopber cou d contrive a Water Machin that the Water fliou d move the Machia^ and the Machin the Water . a Perpetuum Mobile^ which by what was faid in the preceding Chap ter is contrary to the Laws of Mecbamfm. e. But. In all Animals there be fo hkewife. Here now the Heart is the Caufe of the Motion of the Blood in the Arteries.

. But may all obvious. 2 and . then the Organs which convey the Senfation are C infinitely fmall. Senjation is per- form d by the mediation of an Organ arithe Brain and continued through fing from the part affe&ed. are infinite in Number. Jfceitgiotu its 19 Origin an in an Animal Organ Extremity thefe Organs or independent Now Body. which is evident both from the Nature of Senfation and Nutrition. many.of with all to its natural parts. that one this perhaps it may Organ may convey Sensation through feveral places. it will not follow that the Organs which convey ttiisSenfation are infinitely many^fince they be only the continuation of fome few Organs through different parts. if every point of the Veflels and Mufcles of the Animal Bo the is Anfwer dy be fenfible.. and confcquently tho ev ry minute part of the Body be fenfible. is its or a Canal from are infinitely parts in the Animal. To be obje&ed. leaft Now there is not the folid part of the Veffels imaginable or Mufcles but is fenfible r and therefore the Organs in Animals that convey this Senfation.

nitely many. Again. ev ry aflignable part of thefe Canals muft be the termination of forne Decretory Duft feparating a fluid fit to encreafe their Dimenfions or repair their Loflcs and thefe fecretory Chanels again muft have others to encreafe their bulk or repair their Lofles. and fince there is no part of the Body that may not be encreas d or diminifli d (as is evident from the Cure of Wounds in all Places through which the neceffary part of the Fluids of the Body can pafs) it is plain that cv ry individual point of the Ani mal Body is the termination of an Organ through which the Nutrition may be con vey d. Moreover feeing even the Canals themfelves do encreafe in bulk. Nutrition by an Organ.. and f on in infinitum.. through which the Supply is convey d to the Place to be nourifh d. feeing their Extremities in or the Brain conftitute a finite Snferfcies^ fill a finite Space : For a finite number of in fmall parts can never make a finite finitely is perform d Quantity.and if infinitely fmall they muft be infi-. . may de cay and be impaired.

that the fiinfinitum.ffieligion* Add to all thefc. The Mufcles themfelves confift of a Number of Fibres. the greater Number of fine (lender ... little Cells or the Glands are no Veficles^ thing but a clew of little {lender Pipes diverfly rolled or folded together . and each Fi bre of an incredible Number of little F/bound together and divided into brils. thofe capillary Pipes are difcovered j and thefe parts which were formerly reckon d Parenchywatous are dles or heaps now found to be of exceedingly fmall bun Tubes or Threads. In one Word.. and the Litngs and Liver are but Heaps of little Bladders upon which the Blood Veflels are fpr cad in Net-work or of little Glands among which thcfe Veflels are difpcrfcd. the Brain is a numberlefs Congeries of infinitely fmall Tubes woven into feveral Figures ^ the Nerves are bundles of fmall cylindrical Pipes . all the for7 lid parts of the Body are nothing but C 3 cither . neft Glaffes difcover nothing in the feveral parts of the Veilels and Mufcles but and the better the Canals Microf copes are.

nothing but thefe Threads wrought toge ther into thin Skins.. in Fibre to another^ or fpread out into thin Membranes: For the Bones are nothing but fuch Bundles. and confequent^ the ly when the complications are infinite Machin .. ridiculous is it to imagine a thing fo wonderfully made cou d be the or of the blind Eflfeft of meer Chance... made of Organs in Number really infinite.. For thefe Organs become at laft infinitely imall j and fo their Sum muft be infinitely which that every Animal all From it Now how many. feingitconftkutesafinite Quantity. and or all the Membranes are Membranons Coats of the Veflels. is is beyond difpute.. Machines ^ Laws of Motion. or (lender Bundles ty d together by others fiirrounding em^ or going from one Threads .0?tnciples either very fine exceeding (mall Tubes for the conveyance of fome fluid. In Artificial the more complicated and compounded the Contrivance of the Parts is^ the grea ter the difficulty is in adjufting them 5 and the difficulty encreafes in the fameproporti- on the complications do.

and quite impracticable by the Laws of Matter and Motion: But exa&ly the prefent Cafe.. r nay^ if they wou d but tell us (without runing upon Contradiftions ) a Machin might be produc d . and why do we not fee the fame Effe&s in our Days (fince the Caufes continue the fame) that w ere beheld in former Times ? If any of the Philofophers fliou d fhew us fuch an Appearance . 23 Machin is the altogether above Power of this is Mechanic!^. begin to hearken to their Pretences. fince fuch a thing how fuch we might But was never feen nor pre tended.. Allowing have been produc d by the cafual concourfe of Atoms ^ why do not thefe very fame Caufes continually operate. it s very arrogant in them to think People fhou d believe the Matter without any Reafon upon their meer Word. No Body now-a-days thing of as that underftands any Nature or Philofophy can fo much imagine that any Animal how abject foever can be produc d by an equivocal Ge- C neratiofi .of Natural lleltgioit. and therefore the Produ&ion of an Animal is altogether imAnimals might mechanical. 3.

in the Generation an Animal. in the fame or 5 different Individuals. fill the Liquors of different Natures. the Heart cannot be fent from move....24 |M)ttoCopt)ical neration Male in two or without the conjun6Hon of and Female Parents. tinlefs Animal Spirits. Befidcs. than a thing is of ma of king itfelf.. capable of receiving the Benefit of the We in the nothing Animal Machin^ but an infinity ot d with branching and winding Canals. who have confidered And very few the Matter but own that ev ry Animal proceeds from a preexiftent Ammakid. and that the Parents conduce nothing but a convenient Habita tion and fuitable Nourifhments to it. going fame perpetual round which are no more capable of producing thewonderful Fabrick of another Animal.. till and it be fit to be trufted with the Light. know very well that there is the . which can never be done by the Motion of any for as hath fluid what way foever mov d been juft now faid. Veins and Arterie? fhqu d be form d at the fame time. there is a neceffity that the Heady Heart^ Nerves. Air.

the Arteries Veins and Nerves muft be all form d at the fame time^ if the Ani mal is Mechanically produc d.. It is Penance to their fluids. doing read the wretched Accounts of the wifeft and moft learned on this Head. it 25 Animal the j be cannot deriv d into the Spirits Heart unlefs the Blood be fqueez d by the Heart through the Arteries into the Brain. But this is altogether impoflible. And we know all of the internal Mechanical Ali ens of Animals are perform d by the force Let any one confider the of Canals and other Infinity Organical in an and parts Animal. for no Motion of any fluid or fluids howfoever difpofed can form all thefe at the fame inftant. again confider that all that one Animal can conduce to ward the Generation of another is by the force of fome Liquors through fome Ca and if from this Power he be nals.. So that it is evident that the Head and Head through the Nerves into Heart.of the ^amrai aaeitgton. Philosophers To obferve how in every ftep they contrad id . try able to form the Idea of the Generation of an Animal.

the thought ful parts of Mankind wou d be eafily temp */ JL ted to believe. for they are indeed only Animals of a lower Rank. And cou d it be once prov d either by Demonftratton or by Matter of Fa& that a Plant or an Ani mal cou d be produc d by Meckanifat^ i. that fince the better part was produc d by Mechanifm.tradi& the known Laws of Motion j and indeed the manner after which they wou d have generated is as much above the Power and beyond the Laws of Mechanism as the true em and genuin Manner and Me thod of their Produ&ion is. it is evident that an Animal cannot be produc d mechanically.. all the reft of this vifible World might have . it is too hard a Probleme to be folv d from For (b few data as Matter and Motion.. Nature.. tho Plants and fily fatisfy all the vegetable Kingdom be liable to the fame Difficulties. the meaner i. be once folv d by indeed cou d this one of the Philosophers we fhou d be eaany J d of the reft. e. From all thefe Considerations.or the Laws of Motion.. and furnifh us with the fame Obje&ions .. e..

We (hewn that neither Spon taneous (nor indeed any) Motion is eilen* tial to Matter. that neither Animals nor Vegetables can be produced Mechanically.The Spontaneous Mo*ionsof the fenpart of this Syfteme is an eternal contradiftion to the Laws of Mechanijw. and the Hand of the Dialplate in that given it by the Wheels. it is a Matter of the greateft Confequence that have demonftratcd. This have fufficiently our Senfes Ball goes may on daily inform us of. . ^XI. 27 So that have been form d the fame way.of ^atutai Religion. the Arrow in that given it by the Bowftring. the in the direHon of the Club or of the it is Body of the Piece out of which (hot.. and that neceflarily and conftantly if notforc d out of the fame by fome foreign Violence. we There are many other Ar guments which I can produce to prove the fame Propofition which the Language I write in will not permit fitive me to fet forth.. it is determin d to one direftion (while in Motion) which it can no more alter than move of itfelf. But all Senfitivc Animals have a Self-moti0/r..

forward our Philosophers have afierted.. Modern are as neceflarily determin Dial-plate.. that the Brute-Creation are only pieces of Clock-work and that all their Motions . Befides. if they were d to be endow d with it ? No really fuppos thing but a fenfation in our felves of the Principle of their A&ions cou d create clearer Evidences of & Spontaneous Motion. move through all the points of the Compafs. go back and 0#. as their Occafions require. What more evident Proofs thefe of a Spontaneous Motion cou d poor Creatures give than they do. and fome BruteAnimals fhew more Indications of it than fome of the Race of Mankind on whom But this is and may be deny d as eafily as it is they beftow it. or In It s true. .can turn and wind.. con Befides the Demonftrafidently alleg d. ibme of clinations prompt em. d as that of the meerly precarious. The Docility and Segacity of fome Animals demonftrate the contrary. the Obfervation and Experience of all Mankind contradi&s it.. tions a priori I have juft now brought to evince the contrary..

And we fliou d be ftrangely furpriz d if by any combination of ma terial left Organs. every one of thefe Fibres confifts of a prodigious Num ber of lefler Fibres or Fibrils which are fo many very (lender elaftick Canals bound about . XII. Wherefore finCe the fenfitive World is endow d with fpontancons Motions.of Natural ffieligton* 19 Befides^ it is altogether impoffible to ac count for the far greater part of their A$ions and Motions from Mechanifm^ as we have in the preceding Propofitions {hewn at large. The Voluntary Motions of Ra tional Creatures are altogether unaccoun table from the Laws of Mechanism. which being clofely compared at both ends make their two Tendons^ each of which is inferted into fome one fixt part of the Body or other..the Mufcles are Bundles of Fibres.. and fince this is far beyond and above the Powers of Matter. we fliou d produce the fmaL part of their A6tions and Paffions. MuC cular Motion is perform d much after fuch a manner as this. it is evident this Univerfe cou d not have been produc d Mechanically.

the lat ter to carry thither likewife id .* with the Veficul&amp..30 ^Dtloiopi)icai about by fmall tranfwerfe parallell Threads which divide thefe hollow Fibrils into fo many elaftick Cyftes or VeficnU^ as Gut were ty d at equal diftances. and Nerve enter..z its Blood^ produces a rarefaction (the manner how. this Juice of the whole The Nerves are the/Jr- . and fince the Nerves are very fmall Arterial Tubes. if a Into every one of thefe Veftcul^ ^ an Artery. Vein. and confequently are much of the fame Nature.. for avoiding Difpiites. Knot) and fo the length Mufcle fhortned... and their Longi Veficul* tudinal Diameters (from Knot to ftraitned..... Wherefore fince the nervous Juice is form d out of the Blood. of the Glanditlous Subftance cretory Dufts of the Brain. with the other Excretories of the Body. I (hall forbear at prefent to determine) whereby thefe are diftended. which are nothing but fmall (lender flips of the Arteries for deriving an appropriated Juice from the Blood.. the two firft to bring and carry back the Blood. which mixing in the proper flu.lt.

or by the rewith in the {lender fiftence the Juice meets Pipe of the Nerve it felf... this nervous Juice is conftantly deriv d by a Mechanical In the Heart.. and the mufcular Coats of the Veffels. that it moves Velocity be abundantly more flow.. Now in the MuC.) If the circula tion of the Blood be admitted . the Lungs. and all the Juices of the Body be allow d to be deriv d from it. Necefllty. tis impoflible that any of thefe fels Juices fhou d ffognat in their longer than till they be filPd.. they and the influence of the nervous full .. while the Auricles are are diftended. fuch as the Heart. of Blood.. its Ve And therefore the nervous Juice in Channels is propell d after the fame manner and by the fame Mechanifm the Blood is urg d forward in the Arteries. which is the Origin of the Nerve.of Juice muft ries 3 Natural move in thefe Nerves after the in the fame manner the Blood does only with its Arte this difference. cles of involuntary Motion. ( ing abated either by the many circumvo lutions of the Artery in the Gland. the Stomach and Guts.

And thus. and the influx of the nervous Juice into their Mufcles is thereby ftop d. till the Blood be deriv d into the Aorta^ and the Impediment from this diftenfion to the influx of the nervous Juice be taken off. by a Mechanical a& alternately.32 $l)ilofoptical nervous Juices into their Mufcles thereby ftop d j but when once this Blood begins to flow into the Ventricles the refiftence . and fo the Ventricles come into Con- tra&ion ^ which hinders the Blood from runing any more into the Ventricles from the/^#~ ricks ^ and then the Auricles are again filPd : andVentricles being as it were Antagonifts to one another .. the Auricles Neceffity they the diftenfion of the firft permitting the influence of the nervous and fo on the other Juice into the lattery hand. from the diftenfion of the Auricles to the influx of the nervous Juice is taken oftj and fo it flows into the mufcular Subftance of the Auricles and thereby they arifing are contra&ed^ while the Ventricles are di* ftended. fo as that while thefe are diftended thofe are contra&ed. After the fame manner are the mu^ cular .

thorax.. which diftends them.. and fb the influence of the nervous Juice cular Coats into their Mulcular Coat is hundred but when the Blood conceiv d deriv d the impetus it has into the Veins.. the preffure of the fides of the Brcaft for -thefe j become too ftrong bir/d oppofite comtheir dilating Caufes D and then by own . and dilates the concurring ones are at freedom to and to diftend the Cavity of the till ad . this im is by pediment is taken off. and the Mulcular Coats of the Arteries then a& 5 the Mem branous by their Elaflicity concurring. and of the Coats of the other Veffels containing Liquors deriv d from the Blood^ alternate for by the conly contra&ed and dilated traHon of the Heart the Blood is thrown into the Arteries. 33 of the Blood Veiiels.of Natural ^elsgion. and the Nerves that aft in this funftion is taken off. and fo the Mufcles of the diafragm and the other ficles thereof. In the Lungs theGravity of the dtmofphere forces the Air into the fmall orbicular Vethe Breaft- Cavity of whereby the preffure of its Sides upon them.

when Spiral ones are relax d by the preffure the a&ing Fibres upon the Emiflaries the Nerves of the relax d ones. when thofe are relax d thefe are in aftion^ and univerfally in al$ the involuntary Motions there is a Mecha nical Neceftlty for the derivation of the nervous Juices into the Mufcles employed But in voluntary Mo^in thefe Motions. the Tranfverfe and Guts. and fo of of on the other Hand. own So likewife in the Stomach and the Longitudinal Mufcular Fibres are in ASkion. tions there neither is nor can be any fuch Mechanical Neceffity ^ it being a plain . Contradiction to their Nature and there- fore voluntary Motion is quite contrary to the Laws of Mecbaniftn : we can move our Hands and Feet how and when we pleafe in an Inftant.34 Gravity and the elaftick force of the Ribs they fall down and comprefs the Lungs and (hut np the Emifiaries of the Nerves. . There is no Mecha nical Caufe imaginable to force this ner vous Juice into the Mufcles of voluntary Motion. we can bend and un bend em as we will.

. and adds a greater force than the natural to the nervous Juice.. it is plain that volun tary Motion is altogether iwmecbdnic#I. But this A&ion of the Mind or Will upoi) thefe Animal Spirits being altogether unaccountable from the Laws of Motion. .5b . And the only Conception we can form of vo luntary Motions. and no Motion can follow unlefs deriv d. skilful is that the Mind like a upon that Nerve Mufician which conveys animal Spirits to the Mufele to be contra&ed.. ftrikes whereby it opens its Paffage into the Veficles of which the Mufcular Fibres cond pot have done by its fifi.of Natural J&eiigiott Motion. tho all other things continue the fame... yet no Motion will follow. s indeed were it Mechanical^ it cou d not be Voluntary j for what ever a&s conftantly and neceiMechanically farily^ and fo can never aft volunta a&amp. which it cou natural Power.lt. Juice be that curing the Nerves that ferve any Mtif^ cle. as is plain from this hence. And rily.

Their Power being limited. I wou d glad ly know what greater Indications of free dom they cou d wiflv to have. of our natural AHons are neceffary. but they have. The Paflions of Mankind all thefe Aftioiis that are call s true fotne . it in in moft. (which determine their Actions) are indeed violent. That Freedom and Liberty of refiifinpr o choof Ins..3 6 ^l)i!cfopl}icai XIII. but thefe which are commonly call d voluntary Aftions^ are as much free as the nature of things will permit them. Some Men indeed deny have any Free-will at all j but thefe need only examine their own Conferences to be convinc d of their miftake^ they will find that even when their Reafon wou d determine em to do fuch a thing. or fclves is which we find in our altogether inconfiftent with Methat chauijm. their . they have in their Power to forbear it or to do the contrary ^ they can rife or fit flill^ or backward forward to fliew their go ^ Freedow. they can choofe the time and Place the Degrees and Circumftances we own of It d free. than they now have.

is free and has a Pow er of election the only Indications he couVl give of this Freedom. they Now it s certain that we are capable of cle. giving all : thefe Indications ^ to fliew our Freedom we have it in our Power to hurt or even deftroy our felvcs tho there be the beft Reafons in the World to hinder from fo doing. or by making an Ele&ion among many things^ when there is no imaginable Rea&n to determine him more to one than another. where there are weighty and folid Reafons for doing fuch a thing . for the Aftion of neceffary Agents can only be fufpended by a Mira the fome time which fhe ws they Let us fuppofe that Man in a pcrfeft ftate of Health. in two or more of the fame all Circumftances alike. things in us D Tho ..one and not the other. are by doing the contrary. or to be able to fufpend the effeft of na tural A6Hons. when without this interpofition d wou Mechanically operate.their Power to fufpend for of them j iatisfy ing are not neceffarily determin d toward their Satisfa&ion . we can take out the .

be one of the moft evident Indications of Freedom that can pofllbly be defired. and that by Mechanical Laws. it is abfolately ..38 ^t)tlofopi)tcat Refpiration be Tho reckoned an involuntary certainly perform A&ion. it is by the Necef- of Nature we are determin d. and this feems tp. yet in thi Infbnce that Ob.. On if the other Hand. if we are ne- cefTarily and determin d in all our A&ions. we have no Freedom.eHon can have no Place .. For tho in other Cafes it may be alledg d that it is the fubtil and imperceptible man ner after which we are determin d that makes any of our Adions feem free. yet we have to keep in our Breaths and to fufpend the efficacy of this natural Fun$wn for fome time. and at the fame time determine this Fnn&ion to be irregularly and uncertainly fufpen- ded. Now abfurd to think that Nature fhou d determine any natural FunSlion to be per form d regularly and conftantly the fame way.. for if we are determin d ever fo imperceptibly fity it is . and tho mechanically and it it is d in our Power uniformly.

9.. 8. And therefore were we not free. Thus bers. fuch as are alike as to all the Cir cumftances neceflary to conftitute them the things requir d. mean By things altogether alike. that do not concern the Effence of that Species of Coin. for if we are determined. can only be from the things themlelves with out us. 7.. 5. equally odd 4.of /Batutai lutely impoffible we fhou d in all make any ECircumftances it Je&ion among things alike .. Now where all Circutn- we can never be determin d to any one of them by themfelves. are and 2. Thus. for all things within us are upon this to be fuppos d to move Hypothefis uniformly and Mechanically. The fame thing happens ija the Anfwers to all thefe Problem* 4 D . bers.. i. there are infinitely many which are equally fuch. two Farthings are altogether alike. the things without us are in ftances alike. tho they may differ in fbme fmall Circumftances 3. we cou d ne ver I make an Ele&ion among things alto gether al&e. 6.. and if it equally even were propos d to afiign aa Num Num even or odd Number.

Having I think fufficiently Jflipoflibility (hewn the Inconfiftency and of ..will. as this Freedom a plain downright Contradi&ion to Mechantfnt. for Mechanifrn produces all its Eftefts ne- ceffarily. but there K one Argument which will always have weight with the wifer and better ^ a thing a reflex } part of Mankind. Tuftice and Jlnjaftice are only bare Words. if he be obftinately refolv d not to confefs felt.. And therefore fuch things as thefe are only pitch d upon by But the energy of our Wills or Freedom.. there is nothing in their any Nature that can pofllbly determine us 5 and in d indetermind^ one of the Anfwers to call the Conditions of the Problem only being had refpeft to.out Free. XIV. And that is that with. free. Now if moft cer is Rational Creatures be tainly they are. it. no Arguments will make a Man confefs he feels. Now Liberty is and is only to be found by ion on our felves and our A&ions .40 Problems which are affigning fuch Problems . Virtue and Vice.

I come to the of the Epicurean Scheme. That it has been fo for ever of itfeli. has been for ever in the ftate a. independent of any other Caufe. and be! it ieving to have been for ever of itfelf without any . viz..of ^amrai Religion.. but falfly afcrib d to Ariftothj not as its firft Broacker but as its But tho Ariftotle held the ableft Patron. we now behold it. that this prefer) t fbte of things has been from all Eternity of itand that felf. That the World was from all Eternity as we now behold it. firft part of it.. That this World Parts. which in few Words tells us very pofitively. yet he did not think it was fo of it jelf\ and there is a very great Difference betwixt f allowing this prefent Syftem of the Univerfe to have been created from all Eter nity by an Omnipotent Caufe. fo as we now behold it j any Changes that have happen d therein^ have proceeded from the Laws of Mechanifm that now obtain in the World. This Scheme confifts principally of thefe two i. This Opinion is commonly. fecond Opinion about the Origination of the Univerfe..

Produftion it about the manner of its but if he fhou d fee or learn requir d fome Foreign Ajjrfiance to keep . itfelf. That this Univerfe cou d never .&amp.. Clock$&ork&amp.gt. it is not to be doubted but that that Almighty Power which cou d create can prethis beautiful Syflem of things ferve it in being as long as He pleafes. that this prefent ftate of things cou d not have been from all Eternity^ neither of it felf.. nor without the frequent and particular interposition of a Divine fower^ and to make it plain that naturally and of itfelf it tends to Diffolution^ Tho in the mean time.any Difcourfe following not to difpute againft any Schewe of thofe who admit the Exiftence is Caufe. have been ftom the prefent from hence 3 that Principle for its Eternity condition it now it all of is. If one d fee a Piece of pointing out the Divifions of time exa&ly and regularly^ he might have fome that Difficulties .lt. My Defign in the of a Deity^ I intend only to fhew.. ^ XV. is in evident requires an extrmficl( fubfifting in its prefent fliou Condition.

of the Spring or it required winding up d be foon fatisfy d it Weights. and diftinft from Matter and all its Faculties. and of all the Celeftial and Terreftrial Appearances. as has been fliown in the former Chapter. which pro ceeds from a Principle both independent of. . Now this is the very Condition of the Earth the ^ Moon and Planets. he wou cou d not have been from all Eternity of itfelf in the ftate he then beheld it.of Natural Beitsion...which quite extrinfickjto none of its Powers or Properties.. And this Power is no thing elfe but that univerfal Law of Gra felves. its 45 keep it a going^ that Motion depended that upon fome Principle without itfelf. they wou d immediately ftop and their Motions wou d be deftroy d and they wou d become a lifelefs una&ive heap of Matter. and if this vitation. fprings from fomething without thcm- Power were fufpendcd or withdrawn. The Power which produces and preferves their Moti ons. which a&nates the whole frame of all the Syftems of Bodies.. Their Mo tions and A&ions depend upon a Principle Matter arifes from .

. thing. for Self-exiftence neceflarily implies other independency as to Exiftence on any either as Caufe or as Efteft .. // &. trinfeck^ XVI.And when a thing depends upon another thing . fible Wherefore it is altogether impof- this prefent ftate of things fhou d have been from all Eternity of itfelf^ fince at prefent it cannot fubfift in a regular and beautiful Syftem without the perpe tual influence of fome fuperiour and exPower. which have but Qualities both finite in Number and Degree j and confequently have affignable relations to and dependen for it is otherwife ces upon one another in the Immense Being in refpeft of his Creatures^ which can have no Proportion to him. The vifible things of this World.. and he no dependence on them.44 culties. thefe cou d ther thing as its not have been from all Eternity of them- jelvef.) . Whatever depends upon ano Canje^ as alfo. (I mean only of thofe things which are about us. whatever is neceffarily requir d for the Exiftence or Prefervation of another thing.

. we fliou d fwell like poyfoned Rats.. it plain ifti ly implies that the thing exifts that the fecond may exift. this 45 implies that the thing exifts that the fecond may exits which fuppofcs Defign and Contri vance. ces . than that moft of the things in this our Syftem are neceffary or ufeful in thefe things. is Now towards the Being or Prelervation of ManRemove the Sun from us. when a thing is neceffarily requir d for the Exiftenceor Prefervation of another.of thing as firft Natural Caufe. and coni^firft quently can be no fign of Self-exijlencz there any thing more plain. or us tyttd. . which likewife foppofes Defign and Contrivance.the Earth cou d bring forth no Fruits for our Support- take ftagnat away the Moon^ the Seas wou d . Do not thefe and a thoufand other Inftan-... from the Sun .or the Airs Elafticity. ifteitston. and not of the Selfexiftence of thefe things. and the Fi(h be deftroy d level our Mountains we fliou d have no &e(Ti Waters ^ deftroy pur Atmofyhere. and confequently is a fign of Produ&ion or Creation. Like wife.

or for the Exiftence orPre- and confequent]y imply Contrivance and Defign-. and flioiul plain ly difcover.. demonftrate that all of this Univerfe exift as the ne- ceflfary Effeft..ccs I cou d the Beings allege. that the Accommodations and Conveniencies of this Building were exfuited in every Circumftance to the Wants and Necefllties of thefe Creatures^ aHy I think he wou d have no cluding that this Houfe wife Architect for the Convenience of thefe Creatures. fliou d iftent. Now this is the ve ry Cafe betwixt us and the Syftem of the things about us j not that I think as whole . which is a moft evident fign that all thefe things have been produc d and are not Self-exfervation of other Beings. meet with a Noble Palace neatly finifh d and finely ftirnifli d^ and about it fhou d find Creatures that cou d not fubfift with out fuch a Convenience.. he wou d certainly never dream that it had for ever been there of itfelf fo difficulty in con was built by fome he then beheld it. If a wild Scythian or Indian who never faw a Houfe in his Life.

for both the Reafons alleged in the two former i. we ruin this Hypothecs ^ for we do not then know ho iv . and that confequently we were fome part in the fo they cou d not have defign of them. I mean of their Material fart. and Exiftence depend upon Principles quite extrinfick from and independent of themfelves. that they can nei ther fubfift nor be produc d by the Pow ers of Mechanifm . and been for ever of emfelves. Gra vitation.. this Now all that is obfervable in World. but for both require the conftant influence of a Principle even different from that which governs the inanimated part of the Univerfe. I have formerly fhown... That Animals coti d not have been from all Eternity is plain. XVII. // *. Their Produ6Hon For 3eHons. (according to this Scheme) is Matter and Motion if we once al (for low a Power diftinft from thefe.of Natural 3KeitQtotn 47 whole for us the Univerfe Syfteme of was made of the Race of Manfynd^ but that we cannot be without a great many of thefe things that are round us.

All the fevefor ever of themfelves. that it is impo Deffgn fible to confider this..... they cou 2.. ral Parts and Organs of the Animal Body are fo prudently adapted to the benefit of the whole Compojitnm as plainly implies and Contrivance. and imagine they have been Self-exiftent. the Bones articulated? How wifely are How prudently the With Veins. Mufcles contriv d ? and how conveniently faftned to the feveral Places of the Body to produce the neceflary Motions ? what Judgment are the Arteries 5 and Nerves rang d are ? With what Wifdom d in their their fluids difpos proper Veffels? . and therefore fince mals is they depend upon a Principle diftinft from and independent of the Laws of Mechaand need a continual influence of niftft.4$ $l)rtofop!)tcai far ^nncipies how the influence of this Power may reachj as to the Produ&ion and Prefervation of the prefent ftate of things. fome Principle..) But the Produ&ion and Prefervation of Ani above the Powers of Matter as has been formerly fliown. diftinft from Matter and d not have been its Properties.

. ilourifliment of Animals and Vegetables ... eve adapted for the Benefit of ? I fliall have occa- purfue thefe Inftances farther here but any Body who is ever fo lit tle acquainted with the ftnttfnre of an Animal.of Vcffels? natural Msrpom is 49 How carefully the propagati on of the Species provided for according to feveral Circumftances ariffng from the particular Climate mal is confin d to^ ry Particular the whole Compound fion to after. been formerly fhewri in g XXX.. and Element each Ani and how juftly is. impregnated with fome other Body. whereby the quantity E of . cannot but difcover evident Footfteps of Defign and Contrivance in it. which by thefe Operations upon Matter is chang d into a folid Form 5 of which but a very fmall part is ever refoVd into W^ter a^ain. and its Corollary of the pre ceding Chapter ? that fome part of the XVIII. and the greateft part requir d to the produdion of Minerals and Metals is a wa tery Fluid. and therefore Animals It has cannot be Sclf-exi* ftent.

we had long fince wan ted both fait and frefh Water.. wherefore if the World had lafted from all Eternity in the State it now is... dom of Nature generally fupplies re uniform gular Deficiencies by regular and . fend us fuch a Quantity of Vapours from their prodigious Tails. as is fufficient ta fapply the Expenfes of Water till the Re But we fb felturn of another Comet. Jom receive Vifits from thefe Cekftial Bo dies. and we are fo little fenfible of the difference of the Quantity of Water fal then and at other times. And in deed this dccreafe of the Quantity of Wa ter on our Globe is fo confiderable^ that a very great Man is of Opinion that the Comets were defign d to fupply the fame.of Water on this our Globe is daily ins~ pair d and diminifli d . the Wit expei:ed from em. I fear. and thefe ling D Comets are when they come within our Regions at fo great a diftance from us y that no fuch considerable EfFe&s as may anfwer our Demands are. which when they come nigh our welling.. to be Befides.

of natural 3&eltgtott.. fince it s certain that the fore.. the whole Face of this Earth had been more parch d than the Defarts of Arabia-^ which not being this prefent State of fo. Where Quantity of Water on our Globe does daily de creafe (tho perhaps not fenfibly) had the World Eternally been. it is plain things has not been from all Eternity. we ftiou d have been reduc d long before this time to a State of utter Darknefs. are very cer tain that the Rays of the Sun are impri* of the fixt had the Sun and jixt Stars faid may be We a E foiled .. XIX. Caufes. It has been prov d likewife in the preceding Chapter y that the Ligln of the Sun does daily decreafe^ and that the Body of the Sun does continually grow the fame cooler. Stars : Now been from all Eternity. yet it ieeins to be more conftant and regular than the returns of thefe Comets j but of this we fliall have Occafion to difcourfe at more length in the following Chapter. and tho the decreafe of fluidity on this our Globe may not be ev ry Year of the fame Quantity exa&ly.

. and tho thefe Effe&s be not fo coniiderable as to become fenfible in three tain of our or four thoufand Years (tho if ancient Hiflories abatement and diminu tion of the Light and Heat has not been infenfible) yet in an infinity of Ages (this di minution being ftill fomewhat) the Sun had been redu d to the Heat and Light of a Candle long ere this time. and we had true. g XX. plain the World has not lafted from all Eternity.. and their being imprifon d in thefe Subftances^ and the A6Hon of Bodies upon Light. We are certain likewife that the Foun Heat daily impairs. and are retain *! by the A&ion of Bodies upon Light and iome part of them by their feparation from others. this be been involved in a darknefs. are for ever hinder d from returning to the Body of the Sun. that the vaft Body of the Sun is perpetually a-cooling.foned in our Plants and Vegetables^ in our Metals and Minerals. more than Cimmerian But fince we obferve no fuch it is Effeft as this.

. I have fliewn in the preceding Chapter. or at the beginning of their Motion (to fpeak a Force whofe dire&ion made an by fo) Angle with the attractive Force or that at the very fame time the attractive Force of the Sun exerted itfelf on thefe Planets^ - 5 E 3 they . the Sun and Stars do not move in Spaces altoge fixt But ki fuch that do make at ther void. But that which does infallibly demonftrate that this prefent ftate of had a beginning and that of things. . 53 XX. both themfelves they muft have an end is. for example.of Datura! 3&eii0iQu. But that befides. the Planets . that our Earth. the Planets move about the Sun is that the Body of the Sun attra&s thefe Planets . and likewife thefe Planets attraft the Sun. that the Reafon why. leaft fome refinance to their Motions. and that (fince the Planets defcribe Elliptic\ Orbits about the Sun) the attra&ive Force of the San upon the Planets is reci procally ^ as the Squares of the different diftancesof the Elliptic^ Orbit from the Suns Center in its focus.. thefe Planets were driven at firfi.

pafs. tion of the Planets about the Sun^ is com pounded of two different Motions in two different Dire&ions. Now tho Mr.. Newton has confidered the refiftence arifing from the Expanof the Elafticl^Atmofyheres of the F la(fo I call the other) abfolutely no he only finds that it s not fufthing.54 ^pofopt)icai they were puili d along in right Lines by a Force whofe dire&ion was in fome man ner or other inclin d to that of the direH~ on of of the Sun^ 6therwife they cou d never have revolv d So that it s evident the Mo in Orbits.. on... either of which be ing deftroy d the Planets muft have fall n into the Sun. Medium through the proje&il Moti fion muft decreafe and (in an infinity of Ages) be deftroyed. (fo I call that whereby the Planet yet if tends towards the Sun) any refiftence in the there be which the Planets on.. (for in fjcient to deftroy the froje&il Motion nets^ and cannot fay it is a very . or ftray d for ever in Lines and tho* the refiftence of the right Medium cannot alter the Centripetal Moti the attra&ive Force .

the Light of the Sun be a Body ( as If we have prov d Bodies that it to be) in it move it.) yet he has not men tioned that arifing from the fluid of Light which reaches beyond the Orbit of Saturn^ and tho we have {hewn in the preceding extreamly thin and its parts eafily moveable. which fufficicnt to have finity of Ages have been quite deftroycd this proje&il Motion. as if the parts of Light mov d themfelves . in a ftrait Line. muft in an init. fo that in both Cafes there muft be fome refiftence dies pafling through this E made to Bo Ocean of Light - 4 which . that fome refiftence to Bodies pafling through tho very fmall. yet frill they make a fluid. muft rcfift other and if it be but the A&ion of lucid Bodies communicated by the impulfe of one Body upon another. which will as much refift the paflage of Bodies. and this fluid muft give this fluid is Chapter.of Natural Beltgiom a very fliort time. without the a&nal Motioijt of any one of em ^ yet neceflary that there be a Series of Bodies intcrpos d betwixt the lucid Body and the illumina ftill it is ted Objeft.

but more elpecially firice no Body put in or ev n endow d with Motion.. had the World lafted from all Eternity which not having happened. thac Since it has been fufficiently demonftrated in the preceding Chapter. of the firft Law of Nature j and fince w^ fte the . fer CorolL 3. can of itfelf revolve in an Orbit or any curve Line. g XXI.. it s evident that the Matter or Bodies of this Univerfe has been fome time or other before thisprefent time put in Motion.which tho not fenfible in any finite time. muft have been fufficient in an infinity of Ages to have deftroy d the proje&il Moti on. and confequently long e re now all the Planets had been broiling in the Sun.. it s plain this prefent ftate of things has not lafted from all Eternity in the Order we now behold - it.. that Motion is not effential to Matter^ nor any Combing lions of particles can bring themfelves to particle thereof no Motion^ and fince there are various and different Motions obfervable in this pre~ fent ftate of things.

been imprefs d. Therefore before d. becaufe at every different point it muft change its diredion j and to fuppofe a Body capable of changing its of its Courfe^ is to fuppofe it to have Reafon and Difcretion. the thefe Motions was imprefs different ftate one of was in a that other from what it was in. So that fince the Planets do revolve in Orbits or curve Lines.of ^aturai Beitgtotn 57 the Celeftial Bodies it s do move in curve Lines plain they have not for ever mov d of themfelve^ and confequently they have not for ever exifted in the ftate we behold /em. it is plain they have not for ever been in the ftate we now behold em of themfelves.. It is altogether impoflible for any Body to move in an Orbit or any curve Line of itfelf. And fince to move in an Orbit or any curve Line is to move with a Motion compounded of two other Mo one of which at leaft muft have tions. XXIt . after Motion was imprefs d. by the Corollary now men it tioned.. fince it cannot move of direction at every different point itfelf by both..

the terminating Bodies of the material part of the World inuft be all free from Attractions towards the void muft be all approaching to part..XXII. Now if they be finite in Number.. . Space indeed may be infinite in its extent but there is no imaginable Reafon to believe the Number of the fixt Stars is infinite. nor the material we part of the Univerfe boujndlefs.. fince have . If the fat Stars be not ally infinite in their prefent ftate of Number. they had long e re now all of em met there. It s certain thefe luminous Bo dies each other^ fitide it s abfurd to imagine Matter not to be of the fame uniform Nature every where ^ attract do mutually and it s as certain they do not revolve about any common Center or Centers. and fo ward the common Center of Gravity of the whole j and had the Frame of the World been eternal.. theti this things muft of iteteffity both have had a beginning and muft haVfe an end. fince they have been bbferv d never to have varied their fituations or diftances from each other.

. and fo on ev n to the Center. for nothing but an equal attraftion on all Hands can keep in their Places.. as has former Chapter. muft yield to the attra&ing Force of the Bodies toward the common Center of Gravity of the mate rial part. the Bodies at the limits of the material part being quite free from attractions upon the fide toward the infinite Space. Matter cannot be infinite in its extent j fince thereby it is not equal to Now if the fixt Stars be finite in Space. their Number. and nothing . or the material part of this Univerfe limited in its extent. the Bodies next them muft do fo likewHe.of jjMurai have very good Reafon to believe that the folid Subftance has a very fmall Propor tion to the Vacuities interfperfed even in our and the Matter of this Univerfe is Syftemy almoft nothing in refpeft of the contain* ing Space. been infinuated For fince Space in the is infi- nite (as I fliall hereafter demonftrate) and fince there s a necefllty of admitting of a&ual Vacuities as I have formerly (hewn. and the Boundaries yielding. it s plain.

If the World had lafted from all Eterni ty the whole Matter of this Univerfe had been long before this time amafs d in the common C&nter of Gravity. And it s not un likely that the vaft if not immenfe diftances of the fixt Stars from us and one ano ther^ has been defign d to retard this Effe$ as long as the defigns of Providence may require. ^ XXIIL Chapter bility I In the former part of this have demonftrated the impodi- of the Mechanical produftion o Ani mals and Vegetables. lifelefs it s all made a and had there Heap^ which not having happened fted from plain this World has not la Eternity .nothing but an . infinite Number rang d up and down the infinite Space can be fuflident for this wherefore fince it has been evidently demonftrated that the material part of this Univerfe is finite in its extent. and I fliall have Oo it is cafion in the following Chapter to make evident. nor can of itfelf continue to all Eternity. that ev ry generated Animal produced from a preexiftent Animalcul of the .

of Natural Religion/ the fame Species . and that ev ry Vegetable arifes from a final! Plant of the tame kind.. that pitching upon any one individual of ei from thefe.for if Animals and Vegetables cannot be product upon our Ad verfary (and I have clearly prov d they cannot) they muft of neceffity have been from all Eternity. And confequently that all the Animals and Vegetables that have exifted or fhall exift. that all the Ani mals or Vegetables that proceed from it were included in it. And that at any in that finitely or infinitely diftant 1 time (if they have . with all thefe was included 5 one from which it proceeded and fo on infinitely backwards j and confequently fmce there 13 no new all that are or ever have been prodti&ion. of that Species were once aftuaily together included in one infinitely remote from this now pitch d upon. ther kind now exiftent. and it.. And it is impoflihle s it can be othcrwife Scheme of admitting nothing but Matter and Motion-. have a&ually been all included in the firft of ev ry ties or which is the lame thing.

have fo long cxifted) from their Genera tion or Produ&ion , all the Animals in cluded in the firft of ev ry Species were there moving and living Ammalcnls, and all Vegetables included in the firft of ev ry Kind, were there a&ually growing and
encreafing fmall Plants.

Now fince every

Animal and Vegetable has been prov d to confift of Organs in Number infinite (tho* if the Organs of Animals be only finite in Number, it will as efie&ually ferve our
prefent purpofe.) It is abfolutely impolfible any of the Species of Animals or Vege tables fhou d have exifted from all Eterni

ty

j

for then their

Number muft have

been infinitely many., and the Anwtalcuh and fmall Plants., being Organical Bodies and confifting of parts, and thofe infinite* ly many too, and being all included in the firft of every Species, or thofe infi nitely diftant from the prefent Individnals , thefe firft ones of evVy Species muft of necefllty have been infinitely big, for
infinitely

many

Organical

Bodies
in

how

fmall foever, amafs

d together

one Bo-

3Rett0tou+

dy, muft make that Body infinitely big; fo that unlefs we cou d admit the firft of
ev ry Species of Animals and Vegetables to be infinitely big (and how abfurd fuch an I leave the Reader to Hypothefis is,
It
is

judge)
all

abfolutely impoflible,,
ftiou

that Animals

and Vegetables

d have been from

I fee how this Ar Eternity ; gument can be evaded., if we admit all Animals and Vegetables to proceed from

neither can

preexiftent fmall Individuals of the fame Species,, included in the firft of each kind.

And
Upon

it is

impoflible this can be otherwife our Adverfaries Scheme, if the Me*

chanical

Produ&ion of thefe be impoflible^
think
I

which
ftrated.

I

have

clearly

demon-

all

XXIX. Had the World lafted from Eternity as it now is, it is altogether

but that Arts and Sciences muft have been brought to a far greater Perfe&ion than they have as yet attain d. Let us take for Inftance the Matbematick^^
impoflible
it is

certain this Science has been

more im~
in

prov d within tbefe two hundred Years, than

64

$i)rtofopDicai

in all the time paft before that,fince

we have

any Records Years more ,
thofe

;

and two or three hundred going on at the rate of

laft paft.,

may

carry

em

to a height

which we
is

now

cannot imagine.

Now

it

the Improvements altogether impofllble

already made fhou d be loft, feeing they contain things fo abfolutely neceflary to

^^Accommodation of Mankind they will as foon forget the ufe of Houfes and Cloaths^ as the Advantages to be reap d from this Science ; wherefore had the World Eter had been brought nally been., this Science to its utmoft Perfection long e er now* It may be alleged that Inundations^ Delu ges , Wars and feftilencies might have de* former Emprovements., and ftroyed all the then we fhou d have been left to begin anew. As for Deluges y it is impofllble they fliou d have been Univerfal, i. e. Natu for rally and Mechanically impodible the only Philofophical Account of an
^/z/"-

werfal Deluge hitherto afilgn d,

*>/

&. that

of Mr. WhiftonSy depends entirely upon the Principles of Gravitation^ which have been

of

Natural

been proved not to be Mechanical ; and fiace there cou d be no IJniverfal Deluge naturally, (and to allow a Principle above Nature or the eftablifhed Laws of Mecha*
nifm^
is

to yield the Caufe) particular In-

undations, cou d never have been fufficient to have obliterated the remains of Scien
ces.,

of this one., which by In* fcriptions on Medals y by the Ruins of Archite&ure^ by Pillars^ Inftruments^ and Machins^ might have been prcfcrv d n de~ fpite of etery thing but an Univerfal Con
particularly
i

flagration.

Befidcs,, it s

meerly precarioiiSj

to (ay there have been Deluges that have done any considerable Damage, to the

whole rational Creation., and may be deny d with the fame Reafon it is affirm d, fince it is certain we have heard of none
of any considerable Confequence. It s true there happen d an *Unwetfal Deluge in

NW/sDays ^butbefides, as! formerly faid,
that this

was not brought about naturally, we know not^ if this and other Sciences., had arriv d at any great Perfection before this Deluge happened. So that we are not

F

certain

66

$t)tloibpi)icai

certain if the Pcrfe&ion of Arts
ences has

and

Sci

been much retarded upon this account. Wars and Peftilences., it s true., have been and may be, but thofe do not

happen univerfally over the whole World at the fame time:, and there are always tome Countries and many particular Perfons

who

efcape

things cou

d

impoiliblc thefe have obliterated all the Re^
;

fo that

is

mains of Arts and Sciences. I believe it almoft impofllble by any means, except
Annihilation y or a general Conflagration^ fo to deface the Memory and Remains of
all

our modern Improvements^ that fome of em fliou d not laft at leaft ten thoufand
Ycnrs to come

and yet it s certain we have no evident Footfteps of Improvements ol der than three or four thoufand Years. In
iliortj

this

Argument holds good

againft

ev ry thing but Vniverfal Deluges , and to admit or fuppofe any fuch to have been,
is

to yield the Caufe., fince it s impofllble to explain fuch by the Laws oSMechanifm, or to account for them Matter and

by

Mo

tion as

things are

now

fettled

3

and to
quit

of jBatural J&eligiotu
allow quit thefe., or to

67

any thing to have is to admit happen d contrary to them Powers fuperiour to em., which for ought
,

might have produced that which they can now fo powerfully alter. And tho Arts and Sciences may have been at

we know

fome Countries, yet that is nothing to the whole Globe. For fince that Principle which prompts fome
a ftand for

many Ages

in

Men
inclin

to improve Arts or Sciences they are

d to^ iprings naturally in their Minds, according to the Scheme of our Adverfaand is neither imprinted upon them, nor were the things themfelves reveal d to this Prin them, by any fuperiour Beings ciple in an infinity of Ages, without any Univerfal Deluge, or ev n any particular one of any great extent, muft have of Neceilky brought Arts and Sciences., and the other Accommodations of Life ,
ries,

to a

much

greater Perfection than

we

fee

they have

now

attain d.

From

all

which

duly weigh d, it s plain this World has not Eternally been as it is now. And indeed, the Accounts of our Emprovei? r 2 ments

f&i)tiofopi)tcal

mcnts anfv\ er very well to the time, affign d by Mofes for the Creation of the
r

World.

^ XXV.
led
tiling.,

Number of any generawhich we behold on this Globe,
If the
finite

does either encreafe or diminifli continu
ally^

in

any

great foever., fmall foever,

Number of Years how by any finite Number how then this World cou d not

have been from all Eternity in the prefent For had it enftate we now behold it. creas d in any finite Number of Years how
great foever,

by any Number how fmall

foevcr, long before this time their ber had been infinite j fo that this poor Mole-Hill of a Globe had not been able

Num

to contain

em: And had they decreased, their Number had been none at all^ i* e. the whole Race had been extinguished.
But of thefc has happened, the prefent ftate of things has it s plain not been for ever. It s not eafie to be that the Race of Man lieve., for inftance, kind has been ebbing and flowing without
iince neither
,

coniidcrabk cncreafes or diminutions/rom
all

of
all

^aturai

Heiigtott,

Wars, Peftiand the other means knees and Difeafes, of DeJftru&ion, have not been fewer for thefe 300 Years by~paft than ever they have
Eternity.
j

We are certain

beenfince we have Records^and yet it s plain the Number of Mankind has confiderably Sir William Pet encreafed in that time.
ty

from Obfervations on Births and Buri
difcovered that in

als has

360 Years the

Mafs of Mankind is doubled in thefe Coun tries. Had they thus encreas d from all Eternityin other Countries.,
all

the Placets

within our Syftem had not been able to have contain d them by this time yea if in many millions of Years they had but
encreas

d by an Unity

continually,

their

Number had been
But
it s

infinite

by

this time.

plain both the Number of Man kind, and that of other Animals and Vege tables-, muft have perpetually encreas d, if

the
is

World

has been from

all

Eternity as

it

at prefent. And fince their Number is but finite at prefent 3 it s evident this World has not been for ever as now it is.

And

indeed the prefent

Number of AniF 3 mals

70

^!)tiofopt)ical

mals does anfwer very well to the com mon Mr a of the Creation. Thefe two laft Arguments I have fubpin d, not as
conclusive proofs of the Produ&ion of this prefent Llniverfe in time., but as concur-

ring Confirmations of the former
ftrations.
Tsrf

Demon-

it

XXVI. Laftly, that this World ihou d
Eternity?
Is

How

improbable is have been from

all

there any thing we fee in any part of it, or ev n in the whole, other Quality fui table to that that has

any

Cardinal one of Self-exiftence

?

We

our

felves are certainly the nobleft part of are acquainted with- and this Syft-em unfit any of us., or knows

we

how yet God even our whole Race
travagant a
as

is.,

to have fo ex

Compliment beftow d upon us Self-exiftence., when as we can fcarce
faid to

be

be

at all, fo very a
as

nothing our

Lives are in rcfpet of Infinite Duration.

We

might with

much Reafon imagine
oz Omnipotent , (which

Mankind Onsnijcisnt

we know
flcnt.

too well he
qualities

Thefe

not) as felf-exicannot be feparated
is
-

where

of

Natural

Sfteligtom

where one is, all the reft muft neceffarily be. For whoibever Isjelf-exijlent^ muft ne~ ceflai and independently be. Neceffarily^ ily becaafe depending only on himfelf alone when and while he for Being^ he may be
pi cafes
^

independently.,
that
s

becaufe his Being
it

and

all

necefiary to

depend on
necelfarily

himfelf alone.

And whatever
cxifts,

muft Be in Oppofition of all other Powers., and whoe ver is fo, muft be able to preferve his Be ing in dcfpite of all other Powers, / e. muft be Omnipotent. Whoever is Omnipo tent muft know all things that are pofllble to be done or let alone for he can never be ftipos d to do that which he knows not how to do, / c. muft be Ofifffiftfent; and whoever is Omnipotent and 0;;/;;//r/>;;^ all things elfe muft depend on him ^ for be ing fo\ he may make all things depend of

and independently

.

,

him

if

already they did not fo.

Befides,

other things fnnft depend of him for the %. becaufe he can very fame Reafon,

w

makeVm
potent

do fo. As alfo., whatever is Omni and Omnifrient^ depending on no-

F 4

things

neceffity ftent. nor any Power annoy him.. neceffity which muft of THE . fince after the other two. him. fince nothing can hurt him.. *// *. admit fomething to be how much more reafbnable is to believe that.. which I have is the (I think) abundantly confuted. that whatever is felf-exijient muft poflefs all the other fui- table Qualifications. And this is the third Opinion about the Origination of the Univerfe.. and having all things depending on muft be fupremely good and wife ^ all becaufe he knows things. be true. And fince we muft of (elf-exiit... as {hall abundantly be fhewn hereafter..thing. can do all has no Reafon nor Caufe to de termine him to any thing that s bad.. which bears fo vifible Chara&ers of his infinite Power and Wifdom. things. So that it s very plain. has created all noble Reprefentation of himfelf. which poffeflcs all other Qualities fuitable to that of -Exiflence y has been from Self and when this it Eternity j was his Pleafure. this only poilible remaining Choice. This beautiful State of things.. that immenfe Being.

that me feems as evident^ no Body who has confidered the Atheifts^ to matter. that there were no fecret Ohferver.. that the three Angles of a Triangle are not equal to two right ones. The Fool indeed may have faid in his Heart there is no God.. Of I. lewd and tily vicious Men. can be abfolutely convinc d. III. nor that there might .. the Exigence of a Deity. e. there are r T^H AT no Speculative as. /. may have hear wiflid within themfelves.73 THE Philofopbical O F Principles Natural Religion. CHAP.

who has ferioufly fet about the matter. becaufe it s their Intereft there fhould be neither but that a Man of an ordinary Underftanding . moft Men think nothing of the matter 5 and few give themfelves the Trouble to there be a God or not 5 inquire whether they think fuch idle Speculations become thofe only. who know not to live.. and there are millions who live . is make the beft ufe of Life that this in the may cer And of we kind of Atheifts there abundance World j for it s can never determine any thing about what we never^ or but very flighttain ly think of... firft to be convinc d that the Sum of the An true of a right Imd friangle^ can be It is more or lefs than two right Angles. as it is for one who has the attentively read and rightly gles Bool^ of Euclid^ uuderftood what he has read. and has du ly weigh d the Evidences for the Being of a Deity ^ fliould at laft come to a full Per- fuafion of his None-Exiflence^ to me fccrns as impofllble.74 $i)tlofopt)tcal might be any publick Funifhment of their Crimes. and to be.

. do fo nearly concern the Happinefs or Mifery of every individual rational Creature and the Obje&s that inculcate . becaufe they never took the But the being Pains to confider them. and are fo many. is a Matter of that Moment to the Government of the World. fb fo conspicuous. can never be too many^ and fince fome are to be wrought upon by one fort of Argument. 75 Self-evi and dye ignorant of many dent Truths.of Jive Datura! Religion. the Confideration of different.lt. who will but give thcmfelves leave to confider yet iince the Evidences for it.vi% but the wilfully that there is a faprewe Being. who made and governs this prcfent Syftem of things. the Demonftration of this great Truth ^ blind. or not being of a Deity. can withftand fuch Now tho the convincing Teftimonies. which beft with my manner of agreed think- . the neceffary Confequences there of. others by another. &amp. has employ d the Care oi many wife and fo that none can doubt of it good Men... that none it.. I fliall here fet down thofe. tor want of fufficient Proofs..

II. are fo many Proofs of the Exiftence of a furpreme Powery who made and governs this prefent Syftem of things. it muft have been produced or created. in being but this World^ unlefs we admit that fnpreme Power we are now {peaking and fince it coud neither have been produc d from the fortuitous Concourfe of Atoms .gt. cou d neither be produced by the cafual Concourfe of Atoms^ neither con d have been from all as it has been fufficiEternity of it ently prov d j and fince that it now is^ no Body doubts. fome time or another. Now fince there is nothing elfe thinking. the rather becaufe our modern Atheifls have taken San&uary within the Bounds of Natural Philosophy. by fbme preexifting Power. felf&amp. of Necefllty therefore.. . nor have been from all Eternity of of- .$f)ilofopt)icai which are founded on the Prin ciples of a juftcr Philosophy ^ and a more genuine Explication of Nature^ than was known till of late. For fince this World. And I have chofen this way of reafoning. All the Arguments of the pre ceding Chapter .

by the cafual meeting of Atoms or by al. (for if the Difficulty. that we . Deity.) is neceflarily All the Difficulty any rational Powery muft now how Now if we it could avoid this Difficulty... phin. thefe three has been World produc d by the cafual Concourse of Atoms y then a Void^ Atoms ^ and Motion have for ever been. then the Cafe is as itfelf. without a Beginning.. But fince does equally lye againft Suppofitions.. of it felf-j muft of neceffity . we might have fome Pretence for flight this all our Infidelity. He muft therefore for ever be . ledging to have for ever been of it felf. by faying that this Syftem was produc d. of em(elves j if it has been from all Eternity of it is.... t\iis fapreme Power ^ of necefllty... muft have created this beautiful Syftem of things. and have been that great exift. andfince exifting independently.. Crea ture can have about the Exiftence of a to conceive his having for ever been of himfelf without a Beginning.of Natural it J&eifgtoii* 77 have been produc d by that fupreme Power whofe Since then Being we now inquire into.

) Where fore I we fay. more reafonable to fuppofe that Being to have for ever been of himfelf. without a beginning. ceffary Exiftence. is his heceflary Exiftence. fuch eminent and tranfcendent Qualitys ? I will not fay with DCS Cartes. that becaufe in our Conception of a Being infi there muft be included nenitely perfett^ thofe others .it is much . fince the very ianie Difficulty equally and unavoidably^ urges all the three Suppositions is it not more reafonableand congruous^ to allow that Being to have been for ever of it felf. who neceflarily . that therefore fuch a Being muft of neceflity a&ually exift. nor capable of. or his having for ever been of himfelf without a beginning. But fure I am 3 fince our main Difficulty in the Conception of the Exiftcnce of a be ing abjolutely ferfcSi.78 muft allow fomething to have been without a beginning of it felf. rather than either of which we know are nei ther endow d with. and who does neceiTarily poffefs all other fuitable Perfections. to whom we may afcribe..

fince of all foever.lt. I believe no body doubts.of natural all $cli&amp. is there now exifts a Quantity offolid Mafs. not Solidity^ yet there t& jpermit us to doubt of the Exigence of Matter. it firft exifted. The Exijletice of Matter . nor when put in motion can it reft of itfelf\ nor of itfelf change it s Courfe. or more Vacuity than is dill fufficient.stoin 79 ccffarily poffeffes lities. How abfurd . celeftial out of which the Bodies were form d and terrejlrial our moft folid and tho perhaps in Bodies. nor Situation^ in a is cnclu d with no Property but In- which is but a Negation. nor alter it s deftitute Direction Figure j it can neither change it s word.it cannot move ofitfelf. it nor Colour . wou d we gladly now alearn how cou d never have been are certain^ that it a&ive Qiialities vvhat- of is it felf. Wherefore It fince Matter I ftually is. that III. a plain Demonfiration of the Exijlence of a Deity.. other fuitable Quathan thofe who neither poflefsj nor are capable of any of them. there be more Pores than Parts.

and infinite aft every thing not involving a ContraWherefore fince Matter now diftion. ter. Befides. ad mitting Matter to have been for ever of itfelf yet this will not folve half the for ever . Difficulties. of itfelf Formation and Produftion of the prefent State of things^ as has been {hewn in the preceding Chap farther now and be {hall illuftrated.uft nothing of itfelf? may as reafbnably imagine that Nonentity. nite they vanifli quite. as conceive it poffible that Matter fhou d have been.. to imagine into Being ^ it cou d have when it can do We bring itfelf to become a pofitive Being. fram d this wonder ful Syftem of Things 5 contrafts all the Difficulties of Nature into this one of For as to the Difficulties of his Exiftence.. Power. a$ually before infi implies a Capacity . and to have created the folid Mafs y and out of it. ariflng in the Creation.abfurd is it brought itfelf .. Whereas the admitting of an infinitely Powerful and perfect Being to have for ever been. fhou d then. for Power Power a Capacity to to aft.

of ^aturai Jfeligen* 8 1 a6hially is^ and yet it neither coti d have been for ever of itfelf. in the con ceiving the Manner of the Produ6Hon of this Vniverfe. which form d this Syftem at firft. Is it not much more reafonable then. but on the contrary wou d multiplie em. and which feveral Parts in their A&ions do now obey j and therefore of neceility there muft have been fome Power fiiperior and diftinft from. to admit an infinite! v wife Being to have for ever been of himfelf? arifing -J ^/ whereby the Difficulties. that of Matter. nor had it for e^ ver been. We fee all the now happen firft in this Changes that material World. ties wou d that remove in the the Difficul Formation of this prefent Syftem of things. coti Laws the Bat this Syftew of Things d never have been brought into it s G prefent .. are cftabliflicd in according to the Chapter. and prefcrib d Laws for it s Parts afterwards to obferve. do vaniih at once. to. It has been formerly fliewn^ that: *Univerfe was not form d by the it fame Laws now is govern d.. all ^ this it s IV..

By none of the known Laws of Motion. ther. ^ Laws that thin and rare fluid of Light ^ from the other and more denfe ones... the Figure^ Number^ ) Denfitics. and amafs d it in the Sun and Stars neither did fixt the Laws of fpecifick Gravities obtain in grofler the Formation and Situation of the inner Parts of our Earth . J or Diftances of the Jfixt Magnitudes. nor in the Separation and Situation of the fevcral Fluids thereof. nor all of thefe were fuffieient to have feparated. Saturn limited... (ev n admitting Matter to have been eternally exiftent of itfelf) as I have abundantly {hewn in the firft Chap ter neither one. In a word. O Stars determin d.. the Form and bulk of the Annuhts of ter. was the Num ber.. the whole pro and ccTs of the Formation of the celcftial terrcftr/al World . and the other Planets-. Diftance^ and Magnitudes of the Satellits of J^fi&quot.prcfent Order 5 by the now eftabliflied Laws of Nature.. Gravitations Situations upon one ano and Order of the Pla nets adjufted 5 the Number. as to their principal Parts .

. and Laws of Nature. and even iometimes contradifted^ by the volunta ry Motions^ aud the defign d Interpofings G Z . we can have no Notion of the Formation of this prefent State qf things. Wherefore fince this beautiful ftate of things has not been for ever of d be cou form d nor the Powers itfelf. and confequently obtain in this fet or at moft thefe by t###BOT_TEXT###amp;tfupreme Being.. tled ftate that now of things Laws had but a fmall Share in their Produ&ion... it is evident. yet they are dire&ed. by and Laws of Nature. other than what we have of a Planetary Clock^ or any other complicated Machin^ form d by the Hand of a skilful Artift^ where tho the Rules of Motion. was brought about by none of the Laws of Motion and Mechanism. And truly from what has been here faid. it is plain it has been produced by fomething fuperiour to Matter and it s Qualities. into whofe Ex- iftenc? we are tlow inquiring.. may obtain.of jftattttai Beltgtoa Parts 83 and Arrangements. and a great deal more of the fame Nature alleg d in the firft Chapter.

to fet them firft a going. with a due Velocity of their feveral along the Tangents Orbits-^ other* . nor any Combination of Particles^ can move themfclves and therefore it was abfolutely neceflary that fomething diGvrent Irom themfelves y ihou d put them in -a motion. demand the Impulfe of an almighty Hand. can frame. Heap been already (hewn that* no Particle of Matter.. yet it is the befc and moft adequate our Imaginations^ without runing upon evident Contradidions. Movement. As the Formation and Difpofition of the great Bodies of this Univerfe. be but a very faint Rcfemblance of that noble and glorious Work. and imprcfs d Motions.. did neceflfarily require the infinitely firft powerful .84 ^i)ilofopi)tcai of free Agents... Now it has of Matter moving.. V. And tho this no doubt. For fuppofing Bodies already form d^ and the celeflial cl a Being fo likewife did their Hand of rang according to their feveral Diftances from one another yet without this und Impulfej they had continu una^ive.

ving. and the Laws of Nature.. Wherefore fince it is certain been rowling thoufand Years.. fet a it mov d from is plain. along the Langcnts of their Or- but their Centripetal impuWes^ where by their Revolutions or orbicular Motions are perform d. both in Strength and Skill and confequently he who did fo great and glorious things muft ncceffa- who rily be. it that thefe glorious Bodies have about thefe four or five and fince it hath been demonftrated that they are not felf-mobeing folid Maffcs of Matter-. did.. firft Not only the Formation. to the prefervation of G 3 their .. infinite. and impulfe of the great Bodies of this Univerfe..of natural saeiifjiott.. and ftill do 3 require a bits } Power beyond that of Matter. VI. 85 otherwife they had for ever continued in the places^ and at the Diftances^ they were at firft fet. fince that they has likewiie been fhewn^ have not felves. Eternity of themthat they have been all going by fbme powerful Hand} and fufficient is what Hand but his for fuch a Work..

fo that it muft be re~ Now thefe peated ev ry Minute of time. Dr.. about which the Body moves. jecovdary Impulfes arife from that *Uni-* verfal Principle of Attra&ion^ whereby e^ : very Particle of Matter.one along theTavgcnt of the Orbit^ another toward the Center. there is neceffarily recjui/d two Impulfes. Chapter. Gregory y has dcmonftratcd ^ that to the Motion of any of the Ce/e/foz/ Boclies in an Orbit . Newton.. as is evident from the firft Law of Nature : The (econd con tinually draws the cekjlial Body from it s re&ilinear Motion. and all the Bo dies of this Univerfe tend toward one a- nother and by which the Sun being the of this our Syftem draws far greateft Body toward him the Planets^ and they their own Satellits . that this Principle whereby the Revolu- . and needs no more to be renew d.. and after hin&amp.their Motion. But it has been demonftrated in the firft . The firft being once imprefs d ^ docs continually perfevere.gt. Mr. and without which they wou d for ever wander in right Lines.. and forces it into a curvilinear Orbit.

lt. by quently (fince it muft be repeated every Minute) muft be perpetuated in it by feme uninterrupted Influence. implanted effential) and confein extrinfick fome Power. of Animals does Exiftence neceilarily infer the Exiftence of a Deitor it has been demonstrated in the ty-j ^ VII. therefore the Revolutions of the Bodies in their feveral Orbits do celeftial neceflarily infer the Exiftence of a Deity...* to but there Powers thereof. but Matter and the rher&amp. And feeing is nothing in Nature. and only accidental (noways Matter. 87 of thefe glorious Bodies are perform d. is independent of the Laws of Mechamfm. preme Being for whofe Exiftence we con tend. every individual Plant and Animal is a Machine of an infinite Number of Or gans^ that no Animal is or can be proG 4 duc d . unfefs we admit that fu.of Natural Mtston. The former Chapter ^ that all Animals are in their own Natures ferpetua mobilia^ that they have fome Principle above the ers Pow of Matter that governs their Moti-ons ^ it has likewife been (liewn that .

. VIII. and the Laws of Mechanifm. we neceflarily muft have Recourfe. to the Exiflence of fome Power fuperiour to..cluc d. the Freedom of Will. inuft fpring from a principle independent of. into whofe Exiftence are now inquiring. and indepen dent of Matter. unlefs we admit the Exiftence of befides Matter that fupreme Being. (that all Ani mals and Vegetables that ever were or fhall be. and confequently..&amp... The fyontaneons irrational^ Motions of and the voluntary Motions of rational Animals. by the Force of Mat and Laws of Mechanism . fince there is nothing ly and its Properties in the World. or generated ter. and all it s Laws and Pro and confequently to that infinite perties once. we forfake the Powers of Matter. arid Liberty of choofing or refufing in the latter. were all created or formed at fhall be afterwards fliewn) and that all thefe are abfolutely unaccountable from the Laws of Motion. we Perfect Being.gt. and altogether above the Powers and Now when ever Properties of Matter.. .

fince . But no the Appearances which are above the Powers word Power alone is fiifficient for thofe. Natural in a iaeiigtoiu all 8? and of Nature^ of Mechanifm (which are innumerable) are fo many undeniable Proofs of the Be ing of a God. of a Deity.. The Prefervation of the Bei/w flX. but his who and marvellous things^ who adjufted all the Parts of this noble fabrickjjy weight and meafure.. and there. be above the Powers of Mechanifm^ they muft have been produc d by fome Power Superiour to thofe of Mecbanifw. For fince this prefent Syflem of Things^ has not been from all Eternity and fince thefe are allow d to ofitfelf. /. Faculties both of the animate and inanimate Part of this Syflem of things. fore he that brought about all thefe glo rious things. does neceflarily require the Power^ and confequently the Exiflence of a Being abfolutedoes great * . For fince this Syftem of things has not Seen from all Eternity of itfclf. e. and ly perfeft. who alone does Wotrders y muft neceflarily be.of latter. as we now behold it..

muft produce a prefs d on therein equal to the Motion pro duced by all the feveral Parts thereof. can never be ac counted for.. in Ev ry motive Force (as all it s Motion : other Quantity) into feveral may be fuppos d divided Parts (the Sum of all which muft be equal to the motive Force firft motive Force being impropos d. muft neLet us take.. which may be fuis no neceflary : ficient for all things not involving a Con- tradition j and therefore that Omnipotent Being indow d with this Power. Now the Motion produc d by any one Part of this Motive Force. of a Body moving. im- Motion prefs d. without having Recourfe to an Almighty Power.. and their being the next. the Prefervation. this prefent Moment.. for inftance^ ceffarily be.ilnce there Connexion be of one Part thereof. and fince we fee both have been preferv d for a confiderable time This prefervation of the Being and Faculties of things... or at different times.) This a giv n Body. may be deftroy d (by . tween the being any or of it s Faculties. either at once.

docs not depend upon the Nature of Body. but with a contrary Dire&ion) the reft of the Motion remaining unalteredhave no out the therefore the feveral Parts of any imprefs d Motion neceffary Dependence upon one another. Now there franf* place into a- as the is no imaginable con nexion between a Bodies being in this place now.. nor upon the Nature of Motion.and therefore the Pcrfeveration of a Body in . perfevere in that reft they are put in lame by fome Moreover foreign imprefs d Violence. and confequently the Perfeveration of a Body in Motion.. vi^ that firft Law of Nature (preferib d bv the Author thereof) wiiereby Bodies as 1 much them $ate of Motion or as in is.. fince one can be deftroyed withreft . and in another hereafter.of $atuvtil afteitgion. (by the Oppofition of an equal Body ^ ima Force equal to that Part of pell d with the Motive Force we wou d deftroy. unlefs forced to change the Motion may be confidered^ lation of a Body from one nother. but upon fome Principle cxtrinfic ^ to both.

Now.. ding a and therefore the feveral Impulfes. and by that means ad new Velocity to the former.$t)ilofopt)tcai in motion.. a&ing ev ry Minute equally. e. is ficacy is owing to the motive Force... and it s Ef Jy. Laft- imprefs d Force is not at all permanent in the Body mov d.. that the Perfeveration of a Body in motion. or any Number of thefe Impulfes may be deftroyed without the reft. fince by contra* . which is implanted therein by fomeercitf. fince an fpent that very Moment it is imprefs d 5 it is evident therefore. by which heavy Bodies defcend. any one. is not %\ effential to it. do not de pend upon one another.. After the fame manner in the defcent of neither heavy Bodies the Acceleration of their Mo tion may be refembled (or is equivalent) to the Acceleration of a Body impelled by a conftant equable Force. nor But to that vis into the Body mov d. but confifts in the meer A&ion.. to God Almighty ^ the Author of Nature and all its Produ&ions. thing diftinft from Matter and its eflential Properties ^ /.

for the Be ing of any thing now. Continuation.. the Continuation of that is not owing to it. whatever is not effential to a thing. (and of all the Fa culties not effential to) Bodies.. things. And the fame may be faid of the Being of. as has been formerly {hewn) or unlefs Time or Place cou d change the Natures of which is abfur d. 93 ^ ry equal Impulfes they may be deftroyed ? and confequently the Degrees of the Ac* Motion of heavy Bodies defending. unleis the thing be felf-exiftent (which cannot be true of Matter.. e. (I mean of inanimate things) /..of ^ntural Religion. and therefore muft be afcribed to a higher Power. that thing can be without . does by no Means infer it s being the next Minute. have no neceffary Connexion one upon another. whatever any thing can be without.. And univerfally... to quently requires the Caufe of it s and confefome Power above it. and fo the Prefervation cehration of the of this Faculty of Attra&ion in Matter which is the Caufe thereof does not depend upon Matter. there be ing . for it s Nature. nor of any of it s Faculties.

But that Argument for the Ex* iftetice of a Being infinitely perfect.. who made and governs this Syftem of things. due Regard being had to the univerfal Benefit of the whole infinite indelible Characters of Syftem $ .i and it is altogether impot fible for the united skill of Men and An to mend any one Part. than it is. and of the feveral Parts of this admirable Fabrick of the *Vni*terje&quot. or even to find out any real Defei therein..) ino cue and have our Being. to him in whom WQ live.. and then put the Defign in execution. or to con gels. trive it better. which of all others affe&s me moft.. e. is Things . there are legible and Wtfdom^ in the Contrivance of the whole. Or which is the fame... j X. and the Being or Faculties of and confequently their Prefervation is owing to forne Power above thofe of Matter. this Univerfe cou d have been better contriv d or it is more compleatly infinite finiflicd. had Wifclom firft a&ually defign d it. i. that altogether impofllble.ing no neceflary Connexion betwixt Time or Place..

. like the Sun) to be plac d.. the moft advantages to the w hole.. which alone cou d bring. But firft of all it will be convenient to lay down a general Scheme of this noble Stru- Let us then conceive the Mundan Space. and in it at vaft Diftances from one another.. that one is pitch d upon.of 5$aturai Beitgton* Syflem for in the Contrivance and Adthis juftment of the feveral Parts of ble Machin. and moving about their own Axes only (perhaps) Stars - XL about . or indefinite in its Dimenfions.. However.. and fbmetimes infinite. I fliall endeavour to illuftratc the fame in the following Particulars. or the univerfal Place of all Bodies. to be boundlefs in it s Extent. it . keeping always the fame Diftances from one another.. and r to treat according to it s Dignity re than the Limits I quires more Room have prefcrib d to my felf will admit. This is a very large Subjefr. the fixt (huge luminous Bodies.. or which only cou d bring about the defign d E fed:. no where the Choice is various.

Our Num very fliort here. a naked eye in a cloudgive us ibme faint which is bers fall tick^ d the milky way. may but much more a good large Telefcope dire&ed toward that Region of the Skie. And how many fuch there muft be in the vaft net-like ones Analogous to the Extent of Icfs Space. and in the common . over. (or near it) the Center of Gravity of this our Syjlew.about each of thefe let us imagine fe?veral Bodies like our Planets^ fowling in feveral Orbits at feveral Diftances lefler . and our Arithmecall can fcarce give us an idea of the vaft Quantity of Syflems that adorn this ftnpenduous Piece of Architecture -^ no doubt are all their Number is fink. Na let us conceive the fixt in More glorious Body of the Sun.. Glimfs^ Night. fixt Stars with their Circumambient PlaOrbs.... conftituting that which is caird a Syflem of the Celeftial Bodies. and yet and they it s included in a bounded Extenfion- for Matter feems not capable in ture of being infinitely propagated. and about thofe Each of thefe Satellits of our Planets..

Next to Mercury. is our beautiful Morning and Evening Star Venus : next Venus . our Earth. and his furrounding Annulus QvKing. XII. perform their friendly Courfe. Saturn with his five Guards. that we can rarely obbut fo near him. and laft of all.. revolves about the fame Center.. Diftances. I (hall fet down here the bers that reprefent the Periods. For the eafe of the Reader. and meafure out the Year. View of him Moon. which . Jupiter. Gravities.. of Matter^ in thofe of the Num Dia- and Quantities H Cclejiial Bodies.next to Mars. with it s Attendant the a diftinft .of natural Eeltstotn 97 common Center of Motion (or focm) of And then next all the Planetary Orbits. in going through the following Parts of this ^ Difconrfe. and concludes our turn Syftem. lits round in concert. describes the remoteft Orbit. * j tain he being fwallow d up almoft. to him Mercury makes his oval round . the with his four Sat ellargeft of the Planets. the meters. Beyond our Earth Mars fingly and alone. in the Light of the Sun.

Newton s Rules.which have afforded any Grounds for de termining the fame. Y. as Mr. by Mr. The Periodical Times of each Planefs Re volution about the Sun. . Whifton has calculated them from the lateft Obfervations.

the Gra vity of fach of the heavenly Bodies (as Means for the determining the fawe^ at the fame diftancefrom the Cen ter of the Sun } is as The Sun s Jupiter Saturn s s The Earth s The Moon s 66690 00060 00028 ooooi ooooo * The Diameters of the Sun and Planets.of Natural Beltgioa and 99 The Quantity of Matter afford in. The Suns Saturns Jupiter Mars*s s 4^4100 043925 052522 9 Statute The Earth * The Moons Venwis Mercurys 002816 JMiles each 008202 5000 Paris 002223 Feet. 004941 002717^ H a .

IOO The weight of Bodies on the Surface of the Sun and Planets. d. 4 h. id.lt. the Denfities of Celeftial The Moons 700 387 100 The Earths The Sun s Jupiter s 076 060 the Safeltits c Saturns The Periodical Times of Jupiter. 13. Bf . &amp. of I 2 h. 17^ 57.p 7 3 Hi 6 d. 1 8 h. The Bodies.: The Moon Saturn 00804 00630 00536 i. r On the Sur face of The Sun The Earth Jupiter 10000 01258. 1 8 3 281 3 d.11.

flamftcd by the Eclipfes of the Satel.Ol The Dtftances of the Satellits from the Center of Jupiter.of I. .

gt. j&amp.) various and Her Caufes few. . we How that .gt. The Sun in a 5 Days Jupiter in i o hours The Earth in i Day Mars in 247 hours The Moon in 25? Days Venus in 2 3 hours.102 middle diflance of the Earth and Tla* their Periodical nets comfard with e . her Effe&s wonderful. What a beautiful Scene of things here ? haye and yet how wonderful are the Works of Nature ? Such like are all the EfFefts of infinite Wifdom^ her Foundations are plain and fimple buthcrfuperftru&ure. 98 522520 152350 IGOOCO 72598 58585. innumerable. XIII. Her Courfe the eafieft and ihorteft Poifible. The Times of the Revolutions of the Sun and Planets about their Sixes.4 152399 looooo 72533 38710. and her Means the feweft fimple^ &amp.

. in this neat. . with wonderful Confiftency and Fa cility. brought into fufion huge Body by the Fluid. and we will then have fufficient Ground to admire the frugal Simplicity of Nature. perplex their with they made. and dquating^ we fhall fee there what Work their Concentricl^ and Excentrick^ Circles. and thereby fending thin. all the Appearances of the Heavens^ are accounted for. XIV.. The Sun being of liquid Force of his Heat. Cycles. turns round his own H 4 Axe. - compaft Syficw t forry. 103 that can poffibly bring about her Ends.. their carrying. in the celeftial Ap pearances : fuch a ftrange ungeomttrical - and contradi&ory Syflem they made of the Heavens whereas from thefe few 5 plain and fimple Pofitions.of j&atutai Religion. and Epicycles. a Fire.. Let us but confult the Books of -the old Aftronomers. out Oceans of that active which is the Medium of Light. and the Caufe of all Heat. their folid Orbs. the Stations and Retrogadationr.. and the perpetual Change of the Axe of Motion .

as the Sun muft neceflarily be. trify and larger Dimenfions Planets^ makes him in refpeft of the fufficient for all the Expenfes of Light. Denfity Planets from refpeft of fome of his Fluidity. His greater Quantity of Matter.. it has continu d ever fince. the folid (fome folid Bodies being more denfe than any Fluid can be) his Sphericity. His Motion about his all own on his Axe^ has been difcovered by Spots his Surface.. things ^ till the Consummation of by Virtue of that firft imprefs d Gyration^ and the firft Law of Nature. after his And paving been feated in his Place... and will do.. whereby his Bulk and Heat is conftantly diminifliing. as alfo.04 |^Diiofopl)!tai five from Weft to Eaft in about twenty Days which arifes from his firft Being put into fuch a Circumgyration. lefler and in . muft certainly be vi d. he lays out upon them. and that all Bodies heated to fuch a Degree. there being little or no Refiftance in his Region to retard his Motion. for drawing all the yeft qf the Planets and their Satellits to wards ..

at the fame Dias has ftance. All the Planets re volve . reciprocally.. the Sun far. about the Primary ones.. is : as their Maffes^ qf Matter tains a or Quantities Wherefore feeing the Sun con very Matter by greater Quantity than any of the Planets.of ^amtai wards him} for ffitiigf on* i o$ been formerly infinuated. receiv d an impulfe... which drove em along the Tangents of their Orbits^ with the fmall Refiftance they meet in their Courfes . has made em ever fince revolve in their their Ellipticl^Orbits. neceflarily of muft draw the Planets with their Satellits to him 5 which wou d have unavoidably come to pafs^ had not the Planets at the inftant they were feated in their Places. in one Sun is fituated : And of whofe Foci the what is here faid of the Caufe of the Primary Planet s Mo tions about the Snn^ may be underftood of the fecondary f Janets Motions.. the Force of Attraction of one Bo dy upon feveral others. and the Force of the Attra&ion diminishing as the Squares this of Diftances increafe.

dent. about an Ax?) which is inclin d to the Plane of the JLcliptick. this Axe y of the diurnal them . 66r: and in it s motion about the Sun. and fa each of them niufl continue the . or fuch as are not very far different from moft of em. as alfo Rotation obferves always a Parallelifm with itfelf.) or ftrait Line. the Reafon of which is evi a Sphere move about an Axe. are two diftincft Motions^ which never inter fere.. and at the fame time always turn round it s Axe. the Earth in twenty four Hours. turn round their own Axes from Weft to Eaft.. the Axe fliall continue parallel to that Line it was firft pa* rallel to^ for that Imprefllon which perit s s Axe^ and the petuats it Rotation upon impulfe along the Tangent of it s Orbit.06 $t)tlofopf)!tai volve about the Sun in Elliptic^ Orbits.... for if Axe fuppos d this no other Motion (there being in the Sphere) is immoveable. while in the mean time every Point in the dcfcribes a Circle about this Axey Sphere^ and therefore if a Sphere move either in a curve..

retain this Paralleltfw. they.. and would Line. may alfo turn round their Axes. and at the fame time defcribing a Right or Curve muft of neceflity retain it s Axe parallel to itfel. than once enjoy his for it is from this Rota . turn that conftantly the the fame Face or Disk^ toward their p rimary Planets ^ and it is not improbable. that in a Re volution about the Sun.. that we have the Vicifliudes of Day and Night. that the others in which we have not had the Occafion of obferving the like.. ter and Saturn do likewife turn round their Axes. like our Moon. in the Earth s Re volution about the Sun. Jupiter nus y and our Moon.. i o/ the fame as if the other were not fo that every Body turning about its Axe .of ^latum 3&eitgton* . as is evident from hence. and from the farallelifm of the Axil to itfelf. if nothing elfe dilike wife. from Weft to Eaft. do alfo turn round their Axes. Mars and Ve^ fturb it.. they may in all their Parts oftner Light and Heat tion of our Earth upon it s Axis. if not difturb d by The Satellits of Jupi Foreign Violence.

Since^ I fay. and fome of em revolving in Orbits.. wkhin one another. V. and the Obliquity of their Planes to the Plane of the Ecliptic^. which is of fuch comfort and nfe to it s Inhabitants. it is not impro- . and its being inclined to the Plane of the Ecliptick} come the beautiful Seafons of the Year. From the Opacity of the Moon and Planets and their Satel lite. their Gravitations their hatellitiott-s Attractions. and their Rotati ons about their Axes. and the other -Planets with their Satellite.. Spring and Autumn. the Similar Nature of their Orbits . Summer and Winter. the Proportion of their Periods to their Diftances from the and mutual Center of Motion. all thefe and many more Particulars are exa$ly the fame in our Earth.. Since their Solidity and Opacity. their Phafes. their total and parEclipfes arife. and tial X Attendance^ their Revo lutions about the Sun. thee^^/eDefcription of Areas in equal Times. together with their diurnal and annual Motions . their appea ring and difappearing.Sun.

Plants and Vegetables.gt.. athofe in our Syftem. Water and Fire analo- of the very fame Na ture and Conftitution with ours. Water and Fire. tants both rational and irrational. nalogous to On thefe &quot. Plants and Vegetables gotis to. and fince our fixt Stars are exa$ly of the fame Nature with our Sun^ as ihall be after tho* not wards made appear. it is very likely that they have Planets. what a noble and glorious Fabric^ wou d prefent itfelf to our Imaginations ? How is it poffible for any one who had this Idea of the Vniverfey {hall to think it poffible fuch a beautiful Syftem^ con d have been produc d without infinite Wifdom None but the w ilfol^ or ob ft-ina te cou d refift fuch a powcifel Impreffion of &amp. and have Inhabitants.of Natural JSeligton* be alike in other probable that they may and that they may have Inhabi things. rational and irrational. which not only are not but on the contra ford or contradi&ory ry highly probable. as be afterwards made appear more fully. divine . ..ah- Suppofitions. and thefe Planets have thefe Planets and Satellite Satellits.

I I divine Power and Wifclom. great and noble Parts. But allowing the Planets to be inhabited... that all Animals and Plants. or other pitiful Ac cidents were to be expe&ed below.gt. have been exhaufted in furnilhing &amp. are left deftitute and bare? Certainly they muft have a great Opinion of themfelves. poor Corner. thofe vaft and huge Bodies of fome of the Planets (in reipeft of our Earth) with their noble At* were made for no other ufe but to twinkle to us in Winter Evenings.. who can think fo poorly of the reft of the Univeiie.. and that the fixt Stars have their Planets and Inhabitants. yet they are not of the fame Nature and Confticution with thofe of this out . and to their forebode what little by Afpe&s tendance. how that immenfe like Bodies poffible to conceive that. Number of glorious and Sun- of the fixt Stars. and of their own Habitation. or to be peep d at by fome poor Paltry Fellows Or can any Body force of Aftronomers himfelf to think. Changes of Weather.. is it On the other Hand. while the other more glorious..

XVI. and fo her Day is but one Hour lefs than ours /he has all the Phafes of our Moony appearing fometimes horn d fometimes halv d. Jupiter likewife en joys a perpetual Equinox. but receives only the twenty fifth of our and Saturn but the part Heat. hundredth..of Natural Religion* as is of our Globe^ ferent evident from the dif Degrees of Heat and Light they en joy j as alfo the different Viciflitudes of Day and Night.. Mercury is three times nearer the Suny than we.. Mars has no Inclination in the Axe of his Rotation to the Plane of his Orbit^ and confequently enjoys a perpe tual Equinox^ but no Viciflitudes of Seafons j he receives but the third Part of our Light and Heat. and her Courfe about her Axe is perform d in twenty three Hours.. and a Day of ten Hours. and the Seafbns of the Year. Venus enjoys twice as much Heat and Light. and confequently enjoys nine times as much Heat and Light. he never remo ving thirty eight Degrees from that vaft Body of Light. The Satellits of the feveral Placets .

the Primary Planets fufFer likewife from the Forces of the Sun y and of the fecondary Planets. whofe Plane wou d be immoveable. Thus the Moon (ifa- only by the attra&ive Force of the Earth) wou d by a Kay from the Center of the Earth. for flie neither difcribes equal Areas in equal Times by a Kay from the Center of the Earth. &ed upon wou d about the Earth in defcribe a perfeft one of it s Ellipfe of the fame Species conftantly.. or always the fame. defcribe equal Area s in equal times. for they are ...Planets fufFer many and various Diftur- banccs in their Motions from the Sun^ as alfo.) more Curve about the Quaand lefs toward her Conjnn^ions and . Neither is her Orbit always fpecifically the fame. but fbmewhat larger ones in her with the Sun Conjun&ions and Oppofetions than in her Qttadratures.. Foci&amp. nor is the Earth in any of the Foci of her Orbits .gt... and whofe Inclination to the Plane of the Ecliptwl^ wou d never vary but by the A&ion of the Sun upon the Moon-y all thefe Effe&s are difturb d.

it em in Numbers and yet thefe Irregularities are Wonderfully ac counted for. ftronomers. and both the Situation of the Plane of her Orbit. ev n to a Nicety. and all thefe Uncertainties and Aberration^ are multiply d by her nearer or remo ter Diftances from the San. defcribes a new kind of Curve. from the A&ion of the Sun and Earth upon her. befidcs a Ecliptic^ Varies great other Irregularities too tedi ous here to relate.. upon the common Suppofition of the Law of Attraftion. Newton s Theory of the Moon. beyond which Gbfervation can not diftinguifli. and to exprefs all has been fo very hard for A to reduce her Motions to Rule. On Force of the Sun. Gregory s Aftronomy^ which is a furprifing Confirmation of the Truth of that Principle. printed in Dr. and it s Inclination to the Plane of the every Mqment.. as is evident from Mr. Upon the account of many all which. the but efpecially of the as ...of Natural SMtQiom and in every Revolution ilie Oppofitions . Moon y difturbs the Motion of the Earth I the other hand..

fince altogether impofllble.. all the late Aftronomers agree. I have fuggefted is in the firft Chap And what here faid of the Earthy with refpeft to the Moon.. with fome few collateral Circumftances. We . and tranfmitted to us. XVIL That the fixt Stars a. cannot be ignorant of the latter j for when the Moon comes to the vertical Point of any Place. may be with due Limitations underftood.^ and greateft of all at the Equinoxes^ efpecially if the Moon is then in her ferigeum^ the Reafons of all which ter. 5 that he who knows the former. than Oppositions at her Quadratures.. as alfo on the Place this Tide is greater diametrically oppofite to it . of any pri mary Plajtety inrefpc&ofit sSatellits.4&quot. ^pofopDtcai as evident from our Tides. at the and Conjitn&ions of the Moon to the Sun.re Bodies like our Snn. fliou d be fcnt to them. we have a Tide there. that the Light of the Sun.. for it s plain they fliine by their own Light. which da fo exa&Iy follow the Motions of the is M00. fo as to it is make them appear fo lucid as we fee them.

. from the Sun. : By Mr.. as i to .. Befides.of natural JHeitgion* We fee how of the jixt Bulk j and yet his Diftance is but a Point in refpeft of the neareft fixt Star. difcover them* Their Diftance is faintly in refpe& of forae Stars ^ Saturn fhines for all his fo great.. how great foever) does con(b that they fiderably leffen them^ appear like lucid Points. inftead magnifying em above what they appear to the naked Eye fas they do any Obje&^cmov d by any menfurable Diftance.. tho we in this Globe.. which cou d noc were at my moderate Diftance be. if they five . approach nearer them fome twenty four thoufand Diaweters of the Earth.. Hngens Computation. that the beft Eye of the World j cou d not by it. yet their Parallax is fcarce fenfible if any at all. is to the Diftance of the neareft fixt Star from us... allowing fand Feet to the Mile) one time of the Year than another.. that the beft of Telefcope. The Rays of the Sun wou d be fo diflipated before they reach d fo re^ mote an Objeft. the Diftance of the Sun -from us... (or thou 188304000 Miles..

(hew that they are at from one is fix another. Now this being true. when parted from the Mouth of the Piece. both thefe are true. wou d fpend almoft feven hundred thoufand Years to go thro*.. according to the be ft Calculations) Star from the Diftance of the neareft jfxf us. Let us but imagine our felves removed .6 $4)i!qfGp!)icai 07664. Be- fiJe^j different as Magnitudes.. they Sun } which wou d be evident. that they Ihine by their own Light. is for it only the Diftance that creates our doubt. is at leaft 2404520928000 Bullet Miles. immenfe Diftances as the neareft of em m us. it is impofiible they fhou d be all in the Surface of the fame Sphere j fince our Sun which is one of em . and a Diameter to be of 7846 Miles. cou d they a Cannon be brought near us.. cannot be reduc d to their this Rule. which moving with the Velocity it has. that is (allowing theDiftance of the Sun from us to be 12000 Diameters of the Earth. Since then... or we near them. and that they 3re at fuch an itmnenfe Diftance from us^ muft be Bodies like our it is plain.

Since then there are feveral probable Arguments.. in that one lucid point of the Sun. for as to all the Planet s^ that we fee now d not have the both becaufe leaft Glimpfe of themtheir Light wou d be too weak to affect us. ly perceive . and becaufe all their Orbs wou d be united. and that they were at immenfe Diftances from one another. we fliou d have no attend the Snn^ fliou we occafion to imagin any Difference be tween one Star and another^ but fliou d Stars certainly conclude both Sun and fixt f the fame Nature . that if one was a lucid Globe of liquid Fire.gt. we fliou d certainly conclude the fame of all the reft^ z//%. yet at our Di ftance we cou d fee neither. fo wou d all the reft be. (fome of which I hinted before) that they have Attendant Planets^ and no poffible I one 3 . Cer tainly if the fxt Stars a&ually had JPA/nets y and they Satellits. In this Station.of natural Beitgion* 1 7 remov d at an equal Diftance from the Sun and fixt Stars.&amp.... and knowing the Na ture of one. we fliould then certain no Difference between them .

others ano- .. that like our Planets . Befides thefe already men tioned.. we have not determined the Returns of above pofitively one or two. only their Courfe in their Orbits is riot determin d one way. its certain. XVIII. which re volve about the Sun-.. which does in the Pla nets-. that the Sun is in one of the Foci. Revolutions are very long.. however. and that their Moti ons are regular.. of this Orbit .8 one to evi& the contrary. that by a Ray from the5#// 3 they defcribe equal Areas in equal Times. fmce in three or four Thoufand Years. that the fame Law of Gravitation obtains in them. we may fafely conclude that the fixt Stars are fo many Suns in the Center of a Sy&em of Planets and their Satellits. that their Periodical Times are certain and invariable. but indif ferently fqme of em move one way. they do move in a re curring Orbit .. there is another Species of Hea venly Bodies^ call d Comets. in very Oblong BUiptick Orbitsj approaching to Parabolic^ The Times of their Periodical Curves.

Thefe Comets fometimes come fo near the Sun as to be heated . and fo rare that the Stars may be feen through it. to fuch a Degree that they cannot be come cool again. generally fpeaking 5 and like them are compaft folid Bodies ^ but furrounded with a vaftly large thin Fluid. . They are alfo about the 1 1 9 lame Bulk with the Planets. and .. and uncertainly agitated Mafs^ which is call d its Atrno* fpbere.Icflening in its Rcceft. It is it is always oppofite to the 6V*. as that is ten or fifteen Befides Times as long of its Body.. intermixt with feveral an irre grofler Particles.. This Tail accompanies it through its Courfe over all the Planetary in its Approach Regions.. which is rais d in its Approach to the Sun. encreafing to the Sun. ex tremely rarified by his Rays. it has a long lucid Train.. in many Thoufands of I 4 Years. which. by the Heat thereof^and extends fometimes to four hundred Thoufand Miles above its Body. whofe Diameter..of another: natural Religion. and compofing gular unequally difpofs d. becaufe the thiner part of its Atwofphcre..

.. has pafs its Years.2o 0Mofo$)icai This with its violent Motion in a which comes near to a ftreight Line. the Reimbursement mentioned ? fince the Sun and Placets are recruited all fhort time.. and the Difpoiition of the confufs d its d Mafs of fit Atmofyhere^ makes it an un Habitation for Animals. Ciirv?j after it irregular Ferihelium. of all the at onc:^ or in a dies lois made very have fuffbr d in their Fluids for they many Years before. Now the Returns of thefe Bodies are fo irregular and uncertain. to fupply the Expence of Fluids in the $nn and the But as I have before hinted^ this does not feem fo very pro bable.) that I am afraid no fuch Benign Influeiices^ are to be expcfteel . And 5 fo far as fome have thought it defign d. becaufe Nature always fupplies conftant and regular Expences after a conftant and regular Manner.. that are not in a ftate of Puniihment conceive therefore we can of the Nature of Animals. and we fo little feel the Effefls of thefe Returns (which of nemuft be felt^ if thefe frightful Bo ceffity Planets.

it is uncertain of what Nature theie Vapours are.of ^atitrai &eiigtcn* ed from them. the Earth. I think that thefe frightful Bodies are the Miniftcrs of Pivi/te Juftice. and . it is more probable. wou d be as in the Sun. the other Yla: nets their proper Fluids fiippofs . by the Sun and Planets as they approach them.. and increafe their Bulk to a neceffary Dimenfion Moreover its hardly accountable how the Sun fliou d draw from thence only the Fluid of Light. But then. how thefe EfFe&s can anfwer the Defign. provided it be fufficient to diffolve the Union of its Parts. Now it s certain^ that Heat will raife any Body into a Va pour. or if they were prowifcuoufly. that of Water. as Fire on the Earth r which wanted only more Water. Water improper a Gueft. for every . that there may be feme Clouds of Vapours fweep d off the Tails of thefe Comets. I readily grant. Vapour will not become a Fluid unlcfs its Parts be of fuch a determin d Figure and Si^e as the Nature of Flu ids require. fincc d to draw all which wanted only more of the Fluid of Light.

Diminution of the Quantity of Fluids in the Sun and Planets^ it is certainly fo fmall and fo inconfiderable (tho ftill it be fomething) that it will never be fenfible in any finite Number of Years. that if all the Fluid which the Sun lofes in a Year were brought into a folid Form. and the Pofitions of the Tlanets^ and the very Nature of the Orbits thenifelves: and that they may be the Habitation of Animals in a ftate which.. by raifing of Tides. But as for the of Punilhment . : and may ftill bring about. Now what is that to the vaft Body of the Sun ? And as for f the ..and lend us Benign or No* xions Vapours. it would not equal a Grain of Sand. the great Cata- ftropkes of our Syftem.. according to the Defigns of Providence that they may have brought. if it did not look too notional^ there are many Arguments to render not improbable. I do believe it may be dernonftrated. as to the Diminution of Light.. changing the Figures .. in their Vifits. and fo needs not fo magnificent an Apparatus ^ as the vifife of a Comet to fupply it .

whether there be ve ry will be found that moft many new Productions or Generations of that kind.. the Matter is plain j and as for Minerals and Metals ^Idoubt much. So that tho there be fome lots of Fluids on our Globe y yet there is ftore enough to fupply all the Ufes of Life and Vege tation. as it is at of Opinion it is pretty prefent^ and I am near the Truth. without fome considerable Changes.. Thus I have given a fhort View of this Syftew of things....of Datura! Beitgtom 123 the Fluids on our Globe. for in all Animals and Vegetables . or. and make of this our ) feem defign d to laft for jlem. Beauty . and Symmetry of he can think it the if he can fo much wife and as doubt. yet them upon Examination it of the fame is again diffolv d into a Fluid . fince their firlt Production. for any finite number of Years and . and try if Effbft of Chance. Frame. by the.. tho feme of be reduc d into a folid Form. that fome infinitely powerful . it does notever. And now let any one ferioufly refleft upon the Order ^ Vaftnefl^ Magnu ficence this . Scheme . XIX.

we might pofifibly fay he did it by Chance.. fhou d throw 5000 Si7es^ once or twice ^ or even 1000 Sixes once and again.all^ we fhou d certainly con- . and that the Motions of ces Planets.. pro Now bable that fo Hm&erfitt a ful a Principle Law^ fo power and fo conftant a Rule j fhou d be owing to Chance ? If one with 10000 Dice. he fhou d always without failing throw the iame fide in ern . different Diftances from the Center of Attra&ion.. all the &amp.z/r&. is reciprocally as the Squares is it at all of thefe Diftances. their Satellits and the Comets^ are govern d by one Condition that the Force thereof at thereof..f^inciples: powerful Architect has rear d this noble But to drive the Argument far Fabrkk. but if with an almoft infinite Number of Dice. enquire a little into the par ticular and obvious Defigns and Contrivan* ther.lt. let us of this Divine Archtte&ure. that the univerfal Principle of Attraction or Gravitation obtains in all the Bodies of this Univerfe. And i* It is plain from what has been {hewn.

how conftant and beautiful a Proportion^ the Times of the Revolutions of all the Flatlets^ and their Satettits y keep to their middle Diftances for univerfally. and of the fecondary Planets about the Primary ones. or that thefe Dice cou d turn up on no other fide. from the Center of their tions.. in all the Revolutions of the Planets about the SHK. Now I have demonelude. worth our Obfervation to take Notice. are in all of them (Planets and Satellits) Mo the Squares of the Periodical Revolutions. by Rays .. as by Rays from the S/tf/j and all the Sate Hits. by Art and Contrivance. It is Foundations of the World. All the Planets 3. the periodical Times is in a Sefauialter Proportion to the middle Diftances^ or the Cubes of the middle Diftances.... fo far as this might have been with all the Bodies of the Uniwe can difcover^ are en* it dow d with it Principle ^ and therefore. was defign d by him who laid the a.of jfcatutai Religion. he either did it ftrated that Gravitation is not effential to Matter^ and fo out it^ and yet verfe.

and their Diflance by their Slownefs: Al ways making up equal Areas in equal Thefe two fo umverfal. Can any Body now. are always proporti So that when they onal to the Times. to tainly nothing make the Calculations. by their Swiftnefs. approach to the Center of their Motion.and determine the Powers } neceflary towards the . flower their Nearnefs. adjuft theF0ra.f Primary Planets. Rays from their and when they recede fo as to compenfat from it . the dreas defcrib d.. of the Motions of the regular Affe&ions.r ... they move fafter. who confiders how many things are con thefe curring to. e. juft now feft^ Celeflial Bodies^ mentioned to be the Principle of the Heavenly Motions. defcribe equal Areas in equal Times^ /... and depending upon beautiful Proportions. and fo Times. and regular Effeftsy fo much as once queftion whether they are the Produce of infinit Wifdom? Cer lefs cou d be fufficicnt. are not only difcoverable by Obfervation.. but are the neceflary Ef of the Law of Gravitation..

it is fo obvious no Body can mifs of it for it is plain the more Denfe Matter requires a greater De gree of Heat. Body think this was fo ordered without him.. 4. is a very good Argument for the Planets being inhabited. * 27 the Produ$ion.. their Diftances adjufted for this very Reafon by the bye.of Natural Religion.. - 3 Defign ? No certainly. And therefore fince thefe .. fince were and this according to their Denfities.. if there nefit were no Creatures to enjoy the Be of em and we all know Natiire has :. is farther remov d from him and the leaft Denfe of Now can any is the moft remote.. . And confequently. all. for the fame End. in refpe& of the Suny that the Denfer Planet.. they are fit ted with Degrees of Heat neceffary for natural Produ6Hons.. -. done nothing in vain. now this Adjuftment and thefe natural Productions were ufelefs. needs only a Degree of Heat.. wifely fituated. is ftill neareft and the lefs Denfe. of fuch exa& and regu All the Planets are fo lar Effe&s. to fit it for natural Produ6Hons lefler and the lefs Denfe.

is grea Now this ter than that of the remoter. which is neareft the Sun^ moves fafteft. as from the Center . The Velocity of the Pla Motions j is fo adjufted in refpe& of the Sut? y and the Velocity of the Satel* nets lits y in refpeft of their primary Planets. it was fit the Viciflitudes of the Seafons . and the For fince the Centru remoteft. Squares of the Diftances from the Center^ and the Celerities in that cafe^ recipro the fqnare Roots of the Diftan cally. that the Planet And fo in the Satellits ^ the neareft to the primary Planets^ moves quickeft. for fince the nearer Planet enjoys more of the Heat of the Sun y than the re moter . floweft of all.. 5. and thofe more remote^ lefs faft. than the fquare Root of the nearer. as the Forces. there are fuch certainly to enjoy em. petal are reciprocally . there fore the Velocity of the nearer.$i)ttofopi)tcai thefe Accommodations are provided for li ving Creatures.. is a wife Contrivance of the Author of ces Nature . floweft. and the fartheft. and fince the fquare Root of the remoter Diftance is greater.

that anfweof natural Produ&ions ring beft the Ends for fince their Diftances are leaft. in the nearcft^ and floWeft in the remoteft Satellits. And this K . and where the Heat the Conveniency of natural Produ&ion.. they not all of them.. there the Seafons ihou d be all thefe EfFe63:s are taken longeft: care of by this adjufting of the Velocity to the Diftance. by fome Angle or other with the Plane if of their Orbit.. for whatever Effe&s the primary Planets pro duce on the ^econdary ones.of Seafons. natural &eli0ton. making there moft. where the greatefi. and their Velocities greateft.. it was neceflary the Seafons fhou d be fhorteft. And what is here faid Now of the Seafons in Refpeft of the ?lanetfy Satellits Influ may be ences 5 underftood of the from their primary Planets . it is doubtlefs moft convenient 5 the Viciffitudes there of fliou d be quickeft. they muft admit of for Va is riety of Seafons. that are nexc the Sun^ their Periods muft be fhorteftj all move about their and fince Axes. there Heat is leaft. fhou d be quicker.

. and with the Plane of the Ecliptic^.$i)itofopt)!c ai this. yet ftill their Or bits are nearer Ellipses now among And tho than any other Geo- Metrical Curves^ and may be reduc d to theie and that the Planes of the Orbits of the Y lands coincide with the Plane of the and with one another nearly. one of their Foci^ Elliptic^ Orbits alfo and the Planes of all the Orbits do very nearly coincide with one another.. one of Elliptic^ Orbits of one and all the Satellits Species or another defcribe about their primary Planets in their Foci^ :. the Satellits are Orbits of that the fay... but to the already eftablifli d Laws of the Univerfe . That the Planets defcribe Elliptic!^ Orbits about the SMI 3 there is no manner of doubt . is a convin ^ cing Proof of the Planets being inhabited for ii all this beautiful Contrivance is loft ? there be no Inhabitant in thefe Celejiial Bodies to enjoy the Benefit of it. All the Planets defcribe about the Sun in .. and is not owing to Chance. as well as the former . 6. they Aflronomers. is matter . not exaflly Elliptical^ yet that is from neceffary Caufcs.

Foci. than in Summer ...for there by.. the other is not du rable j but temporary.. this beautiful of thefe three things. for Advantages thereby arifing to our* Earth in particular. 1 3 1 matter of Obfervation. are brought fome hundreds of thoufand Miles. But this change is not now to be taken notice of fince it is a Qiieftion if thefe Irregularities a K were any . the colder and more Northern Places of our Globe. nable. that by the natural Courfe of the Earth... Now this Benefit wou d be confbnt if the Place of the Pvrihetium did that is the not change ^ but fince not conftant. nearer the Sun in Winter. are evident.. and the Coincidence of the Orbits . arc depriv d of the benign Influence of the Sun at that Seafon. with that of the Eclipcou d have been the EfFeft of Chance and Cafualty? Or that it was without Defign or Counfel ? No certainly.of Natural Religion. Now is it imagi and conftant Order of Elliptick Orbits^ the Situation of the Sun in the one of the of the Planes. which cannot but be of fome ufe to thofe Places.

the . Mars. but the work of Infinite Wifdom. is : firft Contrivance of in the reft this Now tho of the the Situation of their Perihelia. and their Satellits.. they agreeing in moft things ever be the : But what Defign thereof. it is matter of ObferVation in the Sun. and that in Planes. the Axe of this Rotation is dwxy parallel toitfelf^ and they revolve all one way from Weft to Haft. and that of the As to the Rotation about their Eclipticlq own Axe.. almoft coinci dent with one another. Venus. The Sun. But this we may conclude.12 3 any part of the Univcrfe Planets. Jnpiter. the Earth. againft this Ar gument^ fince we know not the Nature of their Inhabitants^ nor of their Natural Produ&ions . all the Planets. 7. not the fame^ yet nothing is to be concluded from thence. yet the conftant Order of thefe things are a fufficient Proof that they were not Cafiial . fmce it is of notable life to one of the Planets. Co far as we have had occafion to know^ move about their own Axes. it cannot be amifs to any of eni.

and with the Plane of the Ecclipticfyj is wou d fo very near the Truth. and Confufion produce regular and invariable Efte&s? It is altogether impoU and but the Au therefore. let us now coniider... uniform and regular Appearances. a nd be nicely exa&. not to a few things. nothing fible.of natural JRcitjjion* 1 3 3 the Moon^ and it is very probable in the other two ^ and as to the Parallclijm of the Axe of their Rotation. that the it.. and Beauty. with one ano ther. but an over-ruling Providence ? Can Jum ble. that all thefe beautiful and comely Proportions . which agree. cou d have brought about fo uniform 5 and fuch conftant Effe&s. Now can thefe Conftant and regular Efte&s be afcrib d to any thing. it is demonftrable a priori^ as I have formerly fhewn. if the fame were not difturb d by fome collateral Caufes j as alfo the Coincidence of the Planes of this Rotation... fmall Difference from is not to be regarded.. all thefe con ftant and immutable all thefe Effe&s.. Farther. thor of Light^ and Order. or in fome K 3 particu- .

Thus there might have been an infinity of different ^ poflible Laws ^Gravitation^ yet none of them wou d have fitted our Syftem^ prefent Circumstances. feve^and yet none of ral and divcrfe ways. to -all s. rable proportions^ befides the Sefquialter^ yet none of em had fuited us fa well. to all their Sate!lit to the Sun . becaufe this is the Eftci of the Law of and on thefe two.lt.. their poffible Gravitation. all the fubfequent Advantages from the prefent efhblifii d Motions of the Placets depen different from thefe ding y any other wou d have depriv d us of thofe Advan The various poflible Diftances of tages. and the univerfal Benefit of the whole Syftem ^ as thefe already fettled. Celerities^ . em fitted fo well^ to the prefent Irate of things.. and the Comets^ and our word ^ to every thing in this might have been varied.?//.*34 Wiofopljtcai but in particulars.. fo well as to the There are innume Reciprocal Dnplicat. the Planets from the Sun ^ the poflible s of their Reyolntioxs. moft of them. and the in a M0&amp. the Planets.

feeing every thing and Meajurc j and Proportion. But at all. and their Bulf\S. their pofilble Derifitief. were they Add to difpos d atter another manner.lt.of j&atutAi Heligiom Celerities. and different from thofe now mentioned. J 1 3 &amp.. by weight feeing they obfcrve Order is 4 the . and to the Plane of the Ecliptic^ . Orbits j of their the poiliblc Figures O I and of the Inclinations of their Planes to one another.. thefc. . and the po and yet as I IIble Changes of many other Affe&ions ^ are in num ber infinite- have fhewn that are at prcicnt ? bring very confiderable Advantages with them. to the Syftew in general.. which moft of thefe they confequently wou d be lofi . that all thefe Affeftions of the Hea venly Bodies ^ might have been in no re gular Order 5 nor conftant Proportion. and that every one of cm is difpos d in the fitted Order. and conlequently the poifible Varieties of the Bodies might Celeftial have been infinite among cmfelves. the prefent ftate of things will admit ^ ilncc both the whole and the feveral Parts of rr K ad jink d..

and firft as Having confidered. ^ XX..&amp. now to the any thing beget a greater Idea of the Univerfe. does wonderful things paft finding fome of the more general Affe&ions. and of their Motions. arifing from their prefent Order and Difpofition. dares fo much as doubt whether he who did all thefe things lives and reigns for ever and ever ? or who can forbear to admire and adore him.. and lip femov d at Diftances from one another not to their Diftance from us? This. and ftrong Arm out. Bo I come now to confider the Celeftial dies a little more particularly....36 $t)ftQtopl)tcal is the Celejiial Fabric^ ufeful. like our Sun.. .. Stars can all glorious Bodies. rang d and down the immense Vaft .gt. of the Heavenly Bodies. who ftretch d the Hea~ and held the Earth in his Hands. and (hewn fome of the Advantages. who that con- fiders all thefe things. who weighed the Mountains in Scales^ and the Hills in a Balance^ likg a Curtain. whofe right hand. or of it s Creator^ than that frodigiom number of fixt . both very gooda and convenient.

As for the feveral other Magnitudes. but on firft ly for things being nearly fo. Befides.. as the firft and fecond are. Again^ if we examine how many Spheres can ftand round this firft Range of Spheres we will find their number betwixt forty eight and fifty two 5 and fo we find the number of the Stars of the fecond Magnitude. it is not alto gether poffible to determine their num ber. 137 not only their different apparent Magninumber of thofe tudes^ but likewife the of the firft... for.. is Supposition. becaufe they are not fo diftinguifhable from thofe of the other Magnitudes. I do not . but there are but about twelve or thirteen Spheres.. and fecond Hate. I do not plead here for Accuracy. does evince. For upon the Star. that every fixt in like our Sun^ and governs a Portion of Mundan fpace. equal to our Sythere muft be only as flew.of ^amrai laeligtcn. then imnyfxt Stars of the firft Magnitude ^ as there are Syftems that can ftand round ours. that can ftand round a middle one^ equal to em j and fo many are the Stars of the Magnitude.

or that are all of the fame Dimentheir Syftems... the Liquor in the Thermometrjcal Tubes^ and drives tjierri through .. to difplay all the and there Foldings of the {lender Seed^ them by to augment their Parts raifes juft as we find his Heat. rife to Vegetables. theie things being nearer any Re* gular Proportion^ than they are to Irre is diffident for my Purpofe . is what certain Vegetables all ! doubt. and makes force their way. that rarifies the iizy Juir ces about their tender Roots... fcrioufly to confider in his Mind.. or view with his about thcfe glori ous Bodies. for it is Heat alone... it is beyond that without him they cou d As never his above the Ground . y is the Sun. How beautiful and glorious a JXXI. and of what abfolute Necefllty to the Being of all Animals and Eyes. for gularity.not think that the fixt Stars^ are either all of the fame real Magnitude. to hinder himfelf from being ravifh d with the Power and Wifdom of the Great God of Heaven and Earth. fions : it is impofilble for any Body.

.. and tho* perhaps -Animals. and to exhale the noxious Dews. z//%. how neceffary the Sun is to pur fie our Air.. and i the we Vapours of the Ni^ht feel a fenfible Joy in his Light.. are more apd plentifully xieriv d. knows the Reafons.. is a Difeafe alone. might make a forFood cou d be fupry Shift (fuppofing his Influence) in a ply d em without perpetual State of Darknefs. and he who underftands the Animal Occonomy. and fo thofc Exha lations. and cou d through all be of no long continuance . baleful thing ev ry Body knows . all the fuperficial Parts of the Body are open d. tint by the Heat of the Sun^ and the Aflion of his Rays^ that infinite Number of the cxcre* cretory Duels of Perfpiration. for we know.of natural Eciigton.. and a cloudy Day. yet it wou d be a very miferable fort of Life. and the Mechawcal One Necefiity of all thefe things. plac d along.. which Nature has deilgn d iliou d be carry d out of the Body.. freely which muft needs . and enlarg d. it s 1 39 winding Branches. and Heavinefs in his Abfcnce^ foul Weather.

altogether impoflible to ac count for the Appearances of the Planets } i. happens in the Abfence of this Benign Star. more afterwards. that Analogy of the Periodical Times 5 to the midk Diftances . For It is their Satellits. a. and confequently the Stability of the Sun ^ there are fome other Argu ments that will have fufficient Weight to fettle the Matter among thoughtful Men. for not to mention at about the Paral prefent the Controverfie lax of fome of the fi xt Stars^ which Mr.needs give a greater Freedom to the Blood and Spirits 5 the contrary of all which. which is . It is likewife for the Motions of impoflible to account the Comets. and whereby he the Motion of pretends to demonftrate the Earth... in any tolerable manner. Flamflead has obferv d. It s being fituated immoveable in the Cen ter of our Syftem^ no Body who has been But of this at the pains to confider the Matter^ I be lieve doubts now. any other Suppofition. without admiring the Motion of the Earth. upon And 3.. and of the fixt Stars.

and a plain Solution. Add to all that there is no tolerable Ob. to have fet him in a Corner. and difprove the Caufes of the Celeftial Motions^ we fhall never be able to prove the Stability of the all Earth... thefe.. does demonftrate the Earth s unlels we wou d a priori . been. of Light and in placing that Foun Life. 1 4* the neceflary Confequence of the cftablifti d Law of Gravitation.of is Natural ffieifgiott.e&i- s Motion. For if the Celeftial Bodies attraft one another procally . what an Inftance of Wifdom and on Now Contrivance tain his is this. to the confervation of any fuch Suppofition (fuch as the TychonicJ{ or Ptolomict^) there are requir d fo many different Laws of Gravi* . but has againft the Earth had a full Anfwer. in the Center of unartful wou d it have Syftem. in a duplicate Proportion reci to their Diftances from the Cen then the Earth (and not the Sun) moves. fo that fubvert the whole Syftent Motion of Aftronomy... ter of their Revolutions. when How he was to have giv n Light and Warmth to all the Bodies round him befides.

. Thus then this great and glorious Body is fixt.... Moreover. yet this Pofition of ours : the Celeftial Bodies.. nor the re- moteft too fuch little... Thefe are fuch great^ Ends. fpeak the Om nipotence and Omniscience of their Author. in w i(e r as clearly the flanets^ refpeft of juft Qiiantity is contriv d to have enough of Matter to draw round him thefe Maffy Bodies.. accounts for all the various Motions and Appearances of faft. like a powerful and a kindly Monarch on his Throne ^ diftributing Light. and Life in to all his furrounding plentiful EfFufion. and that fo equally. wou d cafily difcover.. and their in their Bulks and DiSatellits^ fo various ftances from him . with how much Artfulneis his Bulk and Situation... and look d moft like the Effe&s of Wiidom and Defign For here one fingle Law.2 f Ijtlofopljtcai that any reasonable Perfbn by inquiring into them. let us confider. Warmth.. neareft have not too much. that the Vaffals. and that in regular and . that whatfoever was Matter of Gravitation^ was the the moft fimplc and eafie.

Axe^ it is no doubt likewife^ for wife Ends and Purpofes. circular Motion of the whole Ho...... it being very well known. d . into a one way. the Author XXII..wever fufficient Matter Inffonces of this we Wifdom and Debe. to be able to laft fo many Years without any Orbits. are turn d innumerable different ways 5 and io by their Oppofition and Inare at laft determin terferings. but I am rather inclin d to be lieve it may be the neceffary Efteft of the Fluidity of his Body.of and uniform exa&ly his Body is rounded. perhaps it may be for the better propagating. fenfible How Diminution^ tho there are conftant . by the Force of the heat.Emanations thereof upon his AttenAs for his Rotation about his own dents. that the Particles of all folid Bo dies running into fufion. Kegions . have here fign to enforce upon us the Belief that is a being infinitely perfeft thereof. and emitting this Fluid of Light through the Planetary .. . how fully it has been faturated with the Fluid of Light.

which are i. how our times wears out ? For a very lit us reap both thefe tle Experience. for at leaft three fourths of the Year..44 otherwife gather the ufefulnefs of the fecondary Planets. to Earth. She raifes our fides. twice in twenty four Hours. how Curiofity ... now made it only to guide our Steps. fome part of Mankind iliou d be travelling by Land how pleaor Sea. in the Night Seafons fant then. fome thing A~ fupplying of the Sun in the Night time. we (hall .. 2.. to their primary Ones^ but reft XXII. but to direft us in our Courfe. is it to have a Light held us forth from Heaven. Now comfortable and delightful a thing this is. which how abfolutely neceffary it is toward the fubfiftance of Animals and Vegetables. makes laft Advantages from the Prefence and Motion of the Moon. receives from our Moon. and to point out to us. not have . We can no the Benefits we of the nalogous... Travellers and Voyagers can beft tell. that Luxury. Ambiton and neceffary. The by fuppofing the may reap rejpe&ively.. and joyful a thing.

and combining em in new Forms. will by the heat of a few Months. Earthy. L ward . and then the firft Effcft wou d be ? that all the Places toder it s Stagnation.... Metallick. Now frefh tho there be ma daily Sea are the into y yet they very inruning confiderable in refpeft of the vaft Ocean of Salt Water. the heat diffolving their Union.gt. and wou d by no means hin* ny thoufands of Water Rivers. of Water themfelves.. and Vegetable Particles^ than of pure - lement operates. Every Body knows that a Lake or Loch. the conftituent Particles a /linking rotten Pu-dle. for tho* I do not think. and it is upoti thefe... duce this EfFeft. alter is d by this yet no Water abfolutely pure. but contains a greater Quantity of Flefliy.. and its Stagnation.of /hall Natural ffieitgioti* now {hew. turn into fending forth naufeous and poyfonous Steams . Salio. and confequently it s Corruption and Stinking. and fepathefe noxious Particles which by rating pix&amp.... Bony.. But admit the Ocean once ftagnated.. that has no fi e(h Water runing into it. are Stagnation.

too fbort a time. (but I am of opinion that to the full effe& of rlns wife Defign. and then by Degrees it wou d get farther till the whole were become more baneful and poyfonons than the Lake of Sodom and Gomorrah-. and by the noxious Steams thence arifing... af terwards the Plants and Animals where ^ the Moon. as it were^ and then let fall again ^ whereby the ters near the Shores. the as by ters are lifted up in a heap. d to a Mephitis .. whereby the Fifties wou d be firft deftroy d. wou d be firft wrought turn upon by the A&ion of the Sun. expos d to the heat of the Siw. and . keeping any one Portion thereof. This of new Water on the perpetual Change Shores.46 ^tjtiofopljicai ward the Shores. Now what a noble Contrivance have we here by appointing an Attendant to our Earthy all the Vegetables and Animals arc prcferv d from certain Definition. and the begining Malady ftifled. to have it s mixture corrupted. the Salt of the Sea I does .. are conftantly fethis AcHon of Wa Wa cur d from Stagnation and Corruption.

how many Conveniences in Rivers for our Navigation. ly tear em afunder. does this ebbing and flowing of the Sea afford ? No Body that confiders them. and with the Sun... that we fliou d moreDamage than Advantage from perhaps thereby our Light in the Night (provided {he were of any Bulk.of does very natural much Keltstotn ^ 147 have contribute for as I and may obferve afterward. it And con* here perhaps fider that if will not be atniis to our Earth had any more than it. can ceafe from wonder. or can continue in Unbelief. and in their Quadra* lures we fliou d have no Tide at all. at any L a tolc- . or at any Diftance near to that of our prefent for tho Moon) might be augmented^ yet at Conjunctions andOppofetzons with one another. cannot fo cafifaid before.. the pointed {lender Particles of the Salt. fn ihort... ftick the Parts of Bodies fo together. if our Earth.. and Harbours.) Befidcs this. that the Particles of Heat. Moon were biger or nearer the or if we had more than one. we fhou d have Tides that wou d raife the Waters to the the tops ofour Mountains. one Moon attending receive it..

they muft be reafonably expe&ed to fit the Neceffities of the Inhabitants of thcfe Planets. has been contrived for our Purpofes.. in hazard of being drown d and at if our prefent Moon were or if there lefs. may hinder this EfFeft .48 ^ijiiofopljicai tolerable diftancefrom us^we fliou d be every * now and then. we by the fliou d be in noxious were none hazard of being Steams arifing ftiflcd the from it s Ocean . From all which how wifely our Satellit. However the thing be^ we may here obfcrve . or at a greater diftance. and the fre quent toffing and turning over of then*. fince our Moon fuits us fb well^ and tho the Fluids of thefe Planets. As for the numerous Attendants of and Jupiter Saturn... by the united. be not in fo great hazard of corrupting from the Heat of the Sun. or feparatcd Forces of (6 many Moons. for xve fnfKciently know. how ftrongly Fluids in Motion will refift the Efficacy of Cold. yet they may pot be in hazard of being congeal d by fibly the Violence of the Cold. J O all. which it wou d ftagnat more than evident now does..

Of the fame ufe are the Edipfes of the Sun. . which by prudent placing the Heavenly Bodies.of ferve ^attmtl ifteitstotu 149 and and of Wisdom fignal Inftance the Heavenly Contrivance.and of the Satellite of the other Planets which laft being fo frequent.. one very Bodies at (uch a Diftance from each the grcateft at the greatcft efpecially Diftance} for had they been fituated much nearer to one another.. and the Longitudes of Places are dctermin d. or great Oceans..And Moon the Eclipses call . for by them the Differences of Meridians.. in placing other. L 3 upon . are intirely prevented.. From our this d by her Name pro ceed. are of wonderful Affiftance^ toward the Solution of this fo defirable and fo much defpaird of Problem? . they wou d have caus d prodigious Diforders in very diffe rent Manners.. that neither Animals nor Vegetables woiul have been able to fuftain their Fury . at fuch a Diftance from one ano ther. . and in particular fuch dcftru&ive Tides . 3. where-evcr there was any Quantity of Fluids. which is of exceeding ufe in Navi gation.

that I fhall infift no farther on this Tofick^ but from this whole Seftion about the Ufe of the At tendants of the Planets fhall infer. that they are not mute Perfons. but loudly pro claim Author... the Head of Navigation all Wisdom and Being of their XXIII. with that Care becoming fo noble and andMifcful a Part of Philofophy. and theitSatellits has been brought to any tolerable Pcrfeftion. and much la* ter Hncc final Caufes have been cultiva ted. and Situations. I have lit what tle more to fay about them. in this great Drama of the World. than I have already (aid. in the Matter of Navigation. Motions.. (indeed it is but of late. have been fo lately determin d.. that the Aftronomy of the Planets themfelves. As fo the Comets.) there .. Orbits. their Natures. but the World is already fo fenfible of the Ad vantages arifing from the Motions and Appearances of the Heavenly Bodies.o $t)iiofoptical jipon this Agro in comes other without the which nomy 3 were meer groping in the Dark.

they may be the firft Rudi ments of Planets ^ not as yet brought into our Syflem^ or rather the Ruins of fome banifh d thence. Only. few accurate Obfcrvations al that extant. there are fo em we know of.. fending their Trains. to wander in thefe long EccentrickjOrbits^ through the World. L A . To few of em our Rcafoning upon. nay ev n fcarce of Animals not under a State of Punifliment. theie blaming Stars feem not defign d for the Habitation of build Animals in a ftate of Happinels. have vifited us twice.expenfe of a new Creation. However^ from them we may learn that the Divine Vengeance^ may find a feat for the punifliment of his Difobe- dient Creatures.. as I have before hinted. But moft likely they are the Minifters of-dibaleful Steams.of jjtiatutai Religion. that we have Icarce any folid Foundation to bout . without being put to the . from vinejuftice. upon the Planets^ they long come nigh of j and if what be is commonly faid em by Aflrologers vifit us without fome true^ they (eldom fuch direful Salu tation.

Come we now to enquire the Wifdom of the Contrivance of But having already (hewn the Analogy between them and our Earth. the parti cular ones (with allowance for Circumafter the jftances) will eafily follow. as the Subjefi deferves. if the Analogy hold in general.. hoping the Reader will reafon fame manner (bateing particular Circumftances) of the reft.. we require a Time for Relaxation j all ing 9 in and generally fpeakhealthful People this time is pretty . and how probable it is that they are in habited by Creatures fitted for fuch Habi tations^ I fliall content my felf with point ing out fome of the moft confiderable Inftanccs of Defign and Wifdom in this our flanet . arifing to us by the Rotation of the Earth about it s own Axi*. both becatife the defign d Brevity of this Treatife will not permit me to be Ib particu lar. the Planets.. We the Inhabitants of this Globe are fo made..52 ^i)tlofopi)icitl into XXIV. and becaufe. that once in fixteen or twenty Hours at rnoft. And firft let us confider the Advantages.. and that.

between the Store-houfes of our Spirits will not permit any longer Application than twen to our Conftittity Hours. pretty equal.. and the Weak. during the time of this Reft...of r natural ffieiiston. for generally find thofc that deep in the open Air. It was likewife ncccffary^ that the Air fhou d be at leaPt cool and temperate. and almoft all at their own Liberty. once in twenty four Hours. without Injury about the Time of fix tionSj and much Hours is required to fill em is again and neceflary that generally fpeaking^ it an Alternation of Application and Relaxation^ fhou d It s true Cuftom be once in twenty four Hours. and Education.. or ev n while the Sun is above the Hori^on^ the worfe for it j the we Sun and Heat exhaling the natural Perfpirations too violently. natural ly run into a Relaxation^ and recruiting their Spirits by Sleep. 1 53 fix and nine Hours. may get the better of thefe natural fropenfities^ and a very ftrong Conftitution may bear out with harder Meafures for fome time j but the Young. and too quick raifing a Mo* .

Viciffitudes for Application of Day and Night. becaufe the Blood has too rapid and quick a Motion.. if not altogether penfes ford .. And tho we generaly perfpire more in the Night than the Day.. and lay up in ftore. and the other Parts of the Body ^ for the Bufinefs of Nutrition perform d in the time of Reft. the Ex of the Spirits are too great.. whereby the Sleep is lefs calm. to af is moftly. in the Blood. to afford us time to recruit em.. for Bones. yet this is more na lefs violent. the Darknefs is lefs fubjeft to Noife and Difturbance. Spirits in. than the Day. in the Night than the Day. and more difturb d. Channels.. that of neceffity.. and more accor tural^ and ding to the Necefllties of our ConftitntU on. Day } the Expenfes of the next as alfo for nourilhing the Mufcles.. thefe things are won for by the Rotation of derfully provided the Earth about its Axis j for thereby we Now all have the the and fpending our Day about the Neceflities of Life.54 a iWofoptjtcai Motion. the Night by its Coolnefs and Quiet... Befides.

or Materials for nourifhing Be* the Parts in the time of Application : fides that a gentle uniform Motion is re- to the quir d to apply nourifliing Parts._ of natural Eeliston. and we than any other Animal Fnn&ion. that the Heat of the Sun rarifies. i $? ford Leifure. or for any long time. at the Roots of the tender Seeds. to thofe that live under the equatorial fartsy without which Life wou d be both ex ceeding fliort. deep more. Now were the Sun conftantly. we have before faid. and grofs People naturally fleep longeft. Likewife.. thefe Juices wou d not be at liberty to fettle ... and thereby forces the folded Branches to expand and en large. and are more fed by their Sleep. and to fettle em there ^ generally find that People reco vering from a Difeafe^ and Children.... neceflary Places. More over. let us refleft upon the Nccefllties of our Vegetables^ which are the Support of Animals. and very grievous. and confequently raifes the fizy Juices. fhining upon them . what a comfortable and refreshing thing is the cool Breezes of the Night.

and very hot Countries. and higher. has time to fettle and confolidate in the and it s Cold runs the thin Juices Night. firft into thick. fuddenly bring up their Seeds^ but their Parts are lefs firmly ftuck together . till at laft rifing higher they burft the Tops of the Canals. by exhaling the watery Parts harden and (which This are now brought nearer the Surface of the Plant) does evidently fee in Nntgals. mov d . and the other Excrefcences of and generally. and firft On the other Hand^ had rot the Earth much upon the make of the Seed.. whereas by this Viciffitude of Heat and Cold.. which wou d be the fupervening Heat. we Nights. tho* this too depends Conftitutioo. they may be heavier y but not fo tough or hard. fizy 3 Subftances. produce Vegetables of the firmeft Union of Parts. and confequently cou d produce nothing . what is rais d in the Day-time... the Leaves of Vegetables Countries that have moderately cool fix.fettle^ and confolidate but in the fit Places ftill of the Branches.

.. which wou d of nenot only have lock d up all Fliiids cefllty. only loft all which are fo beneficial.gt.. as neither of thefe cou d poflibly bear. our Air. the Confeqtience of which wou d have been. the Sun in its but only turn d round annual Period. which wou d have ftiflcd all the Animals^ or had they furviv d that. exceeding Rains wou d have been pour d down (as the Vapours became cooler) next Sleet.for then. but wou d have frecz d the Blood and &amp.) wou d have fafl*h. . for very near one half of the Year fhou d have been in perpetual Darknefs. mov d upon its Axe. we had not thefe Advantages. and Froft. the . if not abfolutely neceffary to the Being of our Animals and Vegetables^ but we had fuffered alfo fuch Inconveniences.. that firft baleful we and fulphureous Damps (by the Forces of the preceding Heat generated and rais d. by Degrees. Spirits of all the Ammals^we are acquainted with for as I have fhewn before^ there is a faline Body conftantly fwiming iu..of Natural ^elision. then Snow^ and Ice. which by in the Channels.

. we fliou d have had..158 i&tHiofoptical the Prefence and A&ion of the Sun. is fo attenuated and reduc d into fo (lender whofe Points (being eafieft bro ken) by the Force of the Fluid of Light are firft beat off. Snny what Abfence of the and with how much firmnefs wou d thefe Saline Bodies haveform d themfelves! Certainly nothing that moves^ whether Animate or Inanimate^ wou d have been able to ftipport fuch a cold And all this is is not only demonftrable a fait. as not to be able to do any Particles. huge Deluges of melted Waters. Now in in a half Years Quantities. they flioot themfelves into oblong {harp Wedges . during a much (horter Abfence of but this Matter of gloriom Star.. Damage. Again. from the preceding Snow. but in hi* Abfence. -priori^ and a&ually happens in thofe Places that are under the Poles... in the enlight- ned half of the firft Year. which ftick together the Parts of all Bo dies.. which likewife wou d have produc d fuffocating Mifts . next all our Ground^ wou d have turn d into a ftiff in a manner dif{linking fuddle y (being folv d by the Force and Quantity of the Snow ..

the continued rais uninterrupted Aftion of the Sun.. tho they are fupply d with conftant Breezes. and let fall by the fupervening Cold of the Night. or they turn d delirous by the violent Agitation of the Blood and Spirits^ and then dy d in Convulfions y like fo many Puppies in the Dog-Days-. neither in Houfes nor Dens ^ till at laft the Heat encreafing without Abatement. and prodigious Quantities of Rain.of Datura! Religion. the Blood and Spirits of all the Animals of our Globe... that we fliou d have found reft. d by the Days Heat.. which is a mighty Relief. for it were abfolutely im- fhou d true. being by . poffible. that any thing that has Life refift fuch a Degree of Heat. than the Depree of . falling by the Plenty of Vapour. wou d be quite exhal d. fultry 3 $9 Snow Water) then wou d Heals and a burning Air have gall d us. It s there are fome People live under the &quator^ yet they have but a fcurvy time on t. ariiing from the Earth s Kotation about her Axis. ha ving as long a Night as they have a Day.much a far harder part.

. which by no means cou d happen in our every fucceeding Hour heating the Air to a greater Degree than the former... but Waters.. but it ..lt.vi*^. that which makes the Cafe much worfe than in any part of our Globe. that our Seas even not* withftanding our Tides^ wou d either be Add to all exhal d. upon this Suppofition.. that is the Caufe of both . iSj that the Rays of the Sun wou d be both direft. of one particular kind. that few if any at all^ inhabit near em. Air. and there cou d be and Cold that no Rains nor Winds becaufe it is the cooling of the Cafe. The extreme Degrees of Heat happen there^ being in But compatible with an Animal Life. not only our Fiflies wou d be deftroy d.. feeing Air to fend it Plants or we cou d have no freflt we cou d have no cool down: If we had any Vegetables. or turn d into Defarts of Salt. they wou d be but &amp. thefe. and fo.60 $i)iiofopi)tcai at ftated Seafons. thofe which require the greateft Degrees of Heat. of the Heat for the Poles ^ And as we have very certain Infor mation.

and the Yaralleltfm of the Axe. and again of longer Days. and Harveft. and Rain..of it is Natural Beligmn. fuch as we have on our Globe now. Summer. and of fion for 5 all thofe delightful Changes^ w hich r are fo . of Snow. Winds and Calms. the comfortable Viciffitudes of colder and warmer Periods.Seedtime. demonftrable we fliou d kave Occa- none . Upon all which Accounts it is very plain. will eafily fee that no Animal.. about its own Axe^ with the Annual Revolution of the fame about the Sun. and Winter. and (horter Nights. that can be imagin d. of the Diurnal Rota tion with itfelf: And from thence we (hall have the beautiful Seafons of the Year. of ihorter Days.... g XXV.. for any body who underffonds the Animal Oeconomy. cou d bear fuch an excefliveand uninterrupted Degree of Heat.. that the prefent Rotation of the Earth y about her Axe. and longer Nights. is one of the moft fignal Inftances of Wifdom and Contrivance. Next let us combine this Diurnal dotation of the Earth .

which are of fo great ufe to US. Axe. once in twenty four Hours. wou d not have agreed. nor Vegetation. about the Sun. If the Earth had made a Period.. but our other Seafons wou d have been un certain. then all our wou d have been of Viciffitudes Days. .. If both thefe had been united without the third of the Parallelism of the Axe of the Diurnal Rotation to itfelf . neither with Life. once in the Year..... and the other confequent Changes of the Year. we enjoy our Sea fons. yea. we fliou d have had but one long Day . and Nights ^ which by no means wou d have been fufficient for Vegetation.. and another equal Night . had the Earth only turn d about her own plcafant. and in fome Places none at all} and fo theEfteft of the Annual Revolution wou d have been defcroy d in fome Meafure.^ittcipies ib comfortable. without any Rotation. we might have had Days and Nights. But by this wife Conjunction of all thefe three Modifications. and neIf ceiiary in our prcfent Circumftances. which as I have fhewn.

firft M feparate their a .. by very Reafon^ for their Particles them entry into themfelves.of us . and forth of worn and thofe other Plants that require thd leaft rich Soil.... natural &eit0totn 163 enjoy d a conftant uni form Seafon all the Year round . for toward the Produftion of the more ufeful Plants.. porous Parts. and loofe. which confifts of folid . and entry of that Heat and Moifture. yet they keep the Parts of Mould or Sandy Clay (which has little or no Water) the fame not allowing they get betwixt em. which keeps the Mould loofe (for re for the ceiving the moift Air.) For tho Salts confblidat Water.. flippofe of Summer Weather . and afunder. then our for had we Ground had been out by conftant bringing Vege tables^ and wou d have run into Weeds. there is requir d (befides a certain Degree of Heat and Moifture.. and moft Heat only fo that in a few Years the Earth wou d have been reduced into a Wildernefi of unnfeful Herbs. whereby their Particles are ftuck together.. exhaufted..) a Lixivial and Nitrons Salt.

wou d by a Now fhort .. debar d from the Aftion of the Sun.. fuch are burnt Wood. are ga thered from Places . by conftant Growth and Vegetation. whereby they pregnated with are old Turf.!M)iiofopDicat and then keep em from coming together j and perhaps both forward the Motion of the Liquors in the Vegetable Channels (which are certainly endow d with fome Degree of Elasticity and To capable of being ftimulated. as well as Animal ones) and endows the re Juices with the Qualities the Plant their union. Excrements of Animals^ or thofe new Mould.... ... thefe are either quite exhaufted. and the like. Now We wears out in a few Years.. things which abound with Lixivial Salts . and turns into wild ufelefs Weeds ^ and all the Materials for enriching Ground. burnt Turf. fee the beft Ground quires. as is evident in younger Twigs and Branches.. or dcftroy d.. Stubble. this Nitrous Salt are : im Such and the Dung. all thefe. and the Expences of Vegetation 2 but expofs d to the Air^ and Weather.

the Digeftion is better. ter^ by ftoping the Pores of the keeps the is fenfible Perfpiration. for we find now..the all this is but fufficient for one Months Vegetation.. in Time s a that perpetual fall Summer ^ there Quantities of Rain. Add to thefe.of /hort Natural Eeltfiion. the (enfible more Excretions . to that Degree that is necefiary for confufficient would not ftant Vegetation.. that the cold of the Win. and performed with more Vigour. even cou d not con veniently bear a perpetual Summer. for we find there is more than twice or thrice as much Rain falls the Winter fa Months. more natural... Moreover. and lefs and the Crudities of the pre~ ceding Summer are fettled and digefted. to moiilen and foften the Mould. Animals themfelves. than in the Summer fix Monthsin and yet fix . are ftrong. uninterrupted Vegetation have been quite fpent.. from September toApril.. tity lefs whereby there Spirits Warmth more a greater Quan of rarify d^ generated.. within. the Blood is the natural Funftions. violent M 3 I mean .

petual Summer^ ceff^iry meer fliQii perpetual Winter y d turn Dull.1 66 $l)tlofopi)tcal I mean. we fhou d be reduc d to . the Change of the one being abfolutely ne- to qualify the Errours and ExIf we had a pertreapis of the other. and lefs natural. who are and perpetually in both thefe Extreams. who inhabit this Globe of ours. the Spirits more exhaufted. in healthful and found Animals is quite otherwife in Valetu (for the Cafe dinary ones ^ asofnecefilty kmuftbe) and in a moderate and not over tedious Win* ter ^ wheras in Summer the Blood is more yarify d. neither of thefe States perpetually.. that tho as to the Prefence or Abfcnee of the Sun. So that it is evident we cou d bear more violent. all the Conco&ions lefs thoroughly perform d. anfwer. unaftive Droves* Skeletons ^ if a we db- Now perhaps againft all thefe it may be je&ed.. the fenfible Perforations and the Digeftion worfe. they may be much J the . as I To this I pretend they wou d be. yet are found to be not at all difpos d. that there are rational Creatures.

yet.of the fame as Datura! ^elision. that both hinders the perpe . which fall for fome confiderable time. there are other Circumftances. . are have faid full d from thefe hotter Countries themfelves.. fattens it for the next Crop there and are Clouds of Snow. M 4 foften .. before.. the when defHIPd into for as I is fufficient for this end Air every where of fuch Salts j as is known by Experi ment... Let any one confult Varenius^ and he will be fatisfied that thefe Southern Countries have Winters^ though not of Snow. in the more Southern Countries. impregnated with thefe nitrous Salts^ which are driven (by the Force of the Winds) from colder into thefe hotter Countries ing... to moiften. Rain. and there fall Befidcs that.for there are conftant Seafons of Rain. I concurring from the Vicijjitndes fuppofe. which arife of the Seafons in the other Parts of the Globe which alters the Cafe quite... do enrich the Ground. tual Vegetation^ fofcens the Mould. yet what is abundantly fufficient to ftop the perpetual Vegetation. and Rain. rais even the Clouds..

nor conftant 5 and Trade. fuch as require a Summers Heat. fliou d have neither Ve nor Animal in a very fliort Time efpecially of any confiderable ufe^ or va lue. and cool Breezes. and fuch like Circumftances.gt. nor overflowing Rivers... unfit for the prefent Conftitution of the Animals and Vegetables^ is. ences of a perpetual Winter^ every Body is fufficiently feniible. and other Fluids of the Ani mals. they are not fo much diftinft Sc^- fons fioin the two former..^titiofopijtcai foften and fatten the Mould. and to cool the Blood. Gentle G^whereby the one flides . that in fuch a ftate (either arifing from only a Diurnal Rotation. without an Annual^ or an Annual without a Diurnafy there wou d not be that variety of Rains. makes Summer.. as dations and eafie Steps. that upon fuch a Suppofition getable thing that this Poetical ftate of a Perpetual Principal Now the we &amp.winds. which are the Effe& of this Combining thefe two Motions to I need not fhew the Inconveni gether.. for their Growth j and as for Spring and AHlumn..

. evi how wifely thefe three fo different been link d together. and to flop conftant and we have Froft and Snow Vegetation in others^ where the Heat is not to {pare.. we have Rain..of flidcs into Natural Eeitsion* From which 1 69 the other..... we have fufficient Heat Modifications. for the Benefit of the Inhabitants of this Globe j for by thefe. foften and en rich the Mould. till the time that all Circumftances concur. and made capable of Induftry. Come we now to confider the Obliquity of the Plane of the Ecliftick^ to .. through the inter ail it is mediate Degrees. to cool. dent. keep natural. to lock up the Mould from being wafh d in and either the away. and cooling Breezes in the Winter^ of thofe Countries.. adventitious Heats. to transfer the Pro* dub of one Country to another. to have the produd of the Ground brought to its Vege tation* XXVI. have in Summer^ to ripen the Fruits that are the produft of every refpe&ive Climat^ and we are furnifii d with Reafon. or . where Heat is not wanting.

or not j and the Alte rations of Seafons. had not been at all and what a hinderance this wou d have been to Life and Vegetation. the one half of wou d have made but a very Vm comfort- . the Heat wou d have been intolera ble. which makes an Angle of 66 J Degrees. to the Plane of the Annual Orbit of the Earth.to that of the /Equator. and all the Confequences thereon depending. I have . dred the Annual Revolution of the Earth if the Earth had mov d quite ufelefs j for about its own Axe. already (hewn. I have alrea dy fhewa. that if the Equator and Eclipit wou d have rentzck^ had coincided . the Cold wou d have deftroy d both Animals and Vegetables-. and even in the Tewperat Climats. Befides that in the Torrid Zone.. or of the Axe of the Diurnal Rotation. and not to have been endured j and in the frigid Zones. whether the Earth had mov d round the Sun. had hapViciffitudes pen d. and this Axe had been at right Angles with the Plane of the Ethe fame Appearances as to the cliptick) of Day and Night...

and the adjacent Places. who are rather too much expofed to the Heat of the Suny than too littl^. for fuch Crea fo that but tures as we now are only the other half. le(s Heat. which is taken notice of this . have more of iti. had the feartb -obfcrv d a right Po- of his fition . wou d have been any ways. take the whole Year about. and that is. for by tures. wou d have been rendred ufelefs. even to the Latitude of forty five Degrees. But God who is wifer than Man.. has contrived the Matter much better . and who confequently have the greateft need of the Suns Heat. have by thefe Means... and five fixths at leaft prefent Obliquity of the Ecliptic^ to the Equator we reap one very confidcrable Advantage.. than they wou d have had... John Keitt. than if the Sun haePftiov d continually in the Equator j and they that live in the Torrid Zone. .of ^antrai Beitstom comfortlefs Habitation. by my very learn d and ingenious Friend Mr. that we be yond the -forty fifth Degree of Latitude. a tolerable Seat for rational Crea of the whole Globe.

fition. that fmce this Globe of ours. to ripen. (to {hew the manifold Will dom of the Author of Nature in the Va And fince we find riety of every thing.. Thofe who defire to fee the monftration of this. may confult Keill s Examination of Dr. and Nouriftiment. of vari ous Tempers ) Conftitutions and Dijfofitions^ and for Vegetables of different Natures and Fzrf #e. Burners The ory DeMr. & has been defign d for a Habitation of ra tional and irrational Creatures.f ^requiring different Degrees of Heat. and bring em to Perfe&ion..) the prefent Heat of the Torrid Zones ^ ve all the Kinds of Animals ry well fitted for and Vegetables that inhabit and grow there^ the Cold of the Frigid Zones ^ very tolelerable to the Inhabitants and frodtiffiiovs of thefe Places ... feq. To thefe add.. of the Earth pag.. and the Temper of the intermediate ones. and the like Animals and Vegetables. fuited to theirs thofe Animals that cannot tranfport themfelvea. and the Vegetables that require a greater Degree of Heat^ not having too much. that can . 71.

of can fufter ^atutai Religion. Earth in refpefi of the Sun j in the Situation Her- . in the fame) Climate. tranfport themfelves where they live moft at eafe. all thefe fo various and dif ferent Animals and Vegetables in a place an equable and uniform. d for our prefent Circumftances confiderable for by any other very would be can never loft. all of and that cou . who has provi ded fo liberally. And fince it was impoffible to have ac with Reafon and Means } to commodated. to the Plane of the Ecl/ptick^ is the beft (of that infinite Variety pofllble) be. been the fame with the Diftance between confpicuous. and the rational Creatures being endow d cold. Alteration.. The fame is divine Wifdom. and prudently for his Creatures. XXVII.. it s evident that the the Axe of the Earth prefent Situation of . of the for had the Diftance between the Earth and the Sun. 1 73 not having too little Heat. Wtfdom of the Author of Nature.. or moft of the mention d For all Advantages which Reafons we the (iifficiently admire. (or in one.

. or the Sun brought three times nearer us than he is. who are put in fuch a Mediocrity. or with a little our felves againft their Inju Induftry fence as to the Figure of our Earth .e.. ries ? we may either endure tho Again. had the Sun been remov d from us. at it dity the Commencement of this Rotation . yet it . but that thefe em. that neither our Heat nor Cold isfo violent... or we from the Sun. our Ground in Winter. and what a Condition we fhou d have been in then^ we the other Hand. On Day had not afforded fo much Heat. be the neceflary Refult of the Earth s Rotation about its own Axe.. i.Mercu ry and the Sun. and the Flui of the fuperficial Parts of the Earth. wou d have been hotter than red hot Iron. to the-Diftance Jupiter or* Saturn are remov d... our hotteft Summer may eafily guefs. were three times nearer the Sun we brought than we are. as under the very Polar Star (if any fuch there be) of our Globe Are not feel in the midft of Winter. thofe that live now then very wifely provided for. between we two extream Diftances.

was fluid. Newton has demonftrated that Earth at leaft feventeen Miles higher at the Equator than at the Poles. 1 75 very s By the Parts en as Earth Motion about its Axe. . af- with a good Telefcofe. convenient for us. than that at the Poles. if the Matter of any of the Heavenly Bodies. fince it is evident to our fight. below the Surface of our Earth. arifing from the circular Motion . and fince Mr. gives an Account why at every forty or fifty fathoms. and accumulated at the Equator. the Surface of the Planets has been covered with a Fluid which -. longer. by deavour to recede from the fame Axe much as a centrifugal Force. and fo in duced a ffheroidical Figure on the Planets Body. it wou d neceflarily have rifen from the Poles. its plain is that at the Commencement of the diur nal Rotation. at the Com mencement of this circular Motion .of it is Datura! Religion.. generated by the Circumvolution of an Now fifted tor is Elliffe about its leffer Diameter. the they pofflbly can. particularly^ in that the Diameter at the Equa Jupiter. and therefore.

.$f)tlofopi)tcai It is Earth. which by reafon of the oblique Incidence of the Rays of the Sun upon them. is very confide- the Surfaces of the Polar Regions. and univerfally in every fluid Body revolving about an Having fhewn fome of the Advantages arifing from the feveral Mo tions XX VIII.. . been either fpherical or oblongly fpheroidical. The fame in the Earth.. which are moft comfortable and ufeful . and the Production of the nobler Sort of Vegetables. likewife evident from this Figure of the Body of the Planets. are {hereby confiderably enlarged. we never mifs of Water. and their Satellits but likewife in the Sun. and Figure obtains not only the reft of the Planets. are colder. fo that the Advantage of this Figure Table.. had the Globe of our Eartb^ or of the Planets. that the Surface of the temferate Climates is larger than it Xvou d have been. and lefs convenient for the Habi tation of Animals. are hereby confiderably leflened^ and the Surfaces or Space about the temperate Zones.

Fluids. . 3&eltgion* 1 77 of the Earth and the Combination of thefe.. The Nature and Properties of this Fluid. and are not the im mediate Confequence of its Motions ^ and the firft in order is our Atmofybere. that it being more eafily rarified and heated by the A&ion of the SM$. This Atmojphere is a thin that neither. have in fome manner (hewn But fome of it s ufes I lhall now I firft point out. intermixt .growth of Vegetables. five Miles.. is fitter to ces in promote the Afcent of the Jui the {lender Channels of Vegetables. Fluid. and the . and as to Vegetation^ Dr. which are common to the other Planets. cou d be any confiderable time without it. and N .. furrounding our Globe of about forty or forty to the heighth.with Particles of different Natures. already..of tions Batumi .than other more compaft. and lefs fpringy.} come now briefly to confider. it is Grew and Malpighi have fliewn a principal concurrent therein. Elaftick. of fuch Necefllty toward the fubfiftence of Animals.thofe that poilibly may be more particularly be longing to our Globe. heavy.

that the Blood is fent from the upon opening. the firft ItnpuHe of the Juices upwards.. and probably that which fo fuddenly kills thunder-ftruck Animals.... as to Animals it is well known.. and the Animal and both for the Comminution periili of the Particles of the Blood.. the Circu muft ftop there. for the l^ungs of all fuch found quite deftitute of Air. does thence arife. are right Ventricle of the Heart to the Lungs y and if the Veficles thereof be not diften- ded or blown lation up.. lodged up and down among it s Parts. and the fides of their d together. that they may more ry eafily pafs through the Capilla* and for the Propagation thereof in the wider ones. Veffels. by the Air. is the quick and violent Rarefaftion of the Air about them . It s Vejicles quite clap certain. there is ntceffarily d a Fluid of a requir determinate Gravity^ and Elafticity... that they cou d live but a few Minutes without this ElaftickJFluid.. and terminating We have .and drere being no Fluid without a confiderable Portion thereof. Moreover.

they will languifh and dye fo that ev n to them.- where the Water in feme meafure fupplys the want of Air. great Difficulty a thin as in a thick Air and ev n in as es y have F//Z&amp.gt. a certain . Another Ad vantage we fc-eap by our Atmosphere that by it our Chuds and Vapours are fupported. rifics firft its Soil. Portion of Now ElaftickJFlmA. is neceffary* how well is this Fluid fitted for the ge this of the Inhabitants of this Globe ? it being neither too heavy... without which we flieu d neither have firefli Water. and enrich our Vegetation.. nor too light.gt. neither too much^ nor too little eUftic^ for the tifes of Refpiration. nor Snow.of Batumi fficlifltotu. which are al ways found in Water. nor any of thofe things. and Steams Pr-ogrefs is yet conti * by the Aimofykere^ nued to the upper ted when it is Regions... 179 ia of breathing. and make it it it fit for raits For tho be the Sun that take the Water. and fnppof there/ to be afterwards N 2 . and makes it s flight in Vapour s. yet if you draw out all the Bubbles of Air. which moiften nerality ^ is&amp.. nor Rain .

or Rain. and that its only the Atmofpheres. and fo cou d never be cool d fufficiently. Rain./. being fpecifically heavier.. . but a Adion Void . if there were no Atmosphere.. there.: than raife the thefe Vapours ^ that greater buoys em up in the Air.. does want it more. the of the Sun.. that no Vapour cou d be turn d into Snow. that if there were perfeft Every Body knows. or Soil whofe . that forms thefe Clouds and Vapours into Snow. into SnoWj or Rain for at a fmall diftance from the Earth s Surface. ever the fupporting Afwofphere becomes lighter. no Atmofphere. when. the Vapours cou d rife to no fufficient heighth. or Hail.form d into Snow.. . to I Vapours above a few feet. make the places fo warm..for it s the Coldnefs of the upper Regions. or carried into other Regions. (being dcftitute of thefe refle&ed Rays) and the length of of their Defcent. around the Earth . ib as to be form d the Center. the refle&cd Rays of the 6V/.. wou d not be able. by its Tendency toward Now then. and Rain. from its Surface.

. N 3 Our . which (with the Concur? rence of the Sun ) melt our Snows. than thefe accumulated Vapours. our Breezes which carry our Ships and ferve for for the other Purpofes^ Accommodation of Humane Life. upon the Sea. than under Ground.ofjftatutat Religion.. Laftly. A third is. and all the BlefUngs^ that is that follow upon thefe. more in one Place. and purifie our Air.... Advan tage of our Atmosphere and our Winds ... or Cold. the Attractions of che Moon. from aoxious Steams. and fo be deprived of all the Benefits arifing thence. it s our Atmofyhere ly. and dry our Ground when over-moiftned . and the Combinations of the Earth s Motions.. than another^ is Wind by the Snns Beams . Without our Atmosphere ^ we fhou d have no more Wind above.. they fall down with the Temper of Heat lighter. fo many nothing but a violent Motion of the Air^ produced principally by its Rare* fa&ion. one of the principal Means of our Dews. they had in the iipper Kegions y and fo become Snow. or Rain according So that its plain. and Rains.

. and r fhte this wou d From r be.. but a Modulation or Percuffion of the Air^ communicated by an impulfe.^i)tlo(opi)tcal Our Attnofyhere is the Vehicle and Medi um which moftly diftinguifhes us from Fifies^ and the infe Sound is nothing rior fort of InfcBs.. all I leave the Reader to judge. ev ry way round. our. or : XXIX. we fliou d have nb fuch thing as Langua w hat a comfortlefs ges or Mufick. The Vegetables grow. Mountains^ without which it were almoft impoffible to for Animals to fubfift. Without our Air we fhoti d not be able to hear the Report of a thoufand Pieces of Ord nance difcharg d at the fmalleft Diftance. next thing in Order to be considered is. that there which it s very plain w as Counftl and Defign in the Contrivance and Produ&ion of our Atwofyhere. and propagated of found. from the vibrating fofcorous Body. that vSenfe in Undulations through the Fluid of the Atmofpbere. they being one of the principal concurrent Caufes toward the Produftion ..

and fo to little Bubbles of are expanded in larger . 1 83 on of our frefii-water Rivers. Halley^ that the Sun raifes Va pours from the Surface of the Sea. freflieft it makes the the lighteft.of natural Religion. Diinenfions than they formerly had means become fo are fpecijically and by that and lighter . where the Air is N 4 of . which refting in thofe Places. Fire under an Alembick^ by d (the Sun a&a ratifying the /. It has been fhewn from Calculation . the Portions rarifies its thereof.. Ed. in a ral Perfons . Now as thefe Vapours being rais ing upon the Surface of the Sea. whereby they are put in a violent Motion innumerable dif ferent ways. buoy d up by the weightier Atmof* phere) in fuch Quantities. to rife firft.. fame. by feveand particularly the inge nious Profeffor of Geometry at Oxford^ Mr. as is fufficient to make Streams of Vapours. and it Water by Particles the Infinu- ation of active among the porous Parts thereof. fufficient to frefli fupply all the Rivers with Water for that time. e. Year.

form Rivulets.. and by this Concuffion are condenfed. and fo gleet down the rocky Caverns of thefe Mountains^ whofe inner Parts be ing hollow. and ftony^ afford them a Bafon^ till they are accumulated in fufficient Quantities to break out at the firft Crany ^ whence they defcend into the and feveral of them uniting. but that afterwards in their Bow els they arc preferv d. fo that it is evident the great Benefit of thefe Eminences is not. till they be of fufficient quantity to form Rivulets.. Rocks... till they at laft hit againft the fides of the more eminent and Moun tainous Places.. that by the Shock thefe Vapours get in their Courfe from them. and Dew. and then Rivers ^ for doubtlefs our Vapours wou d fall in Rain. and many of thefe Pvivers ... they are condens d^ fo as to be precipita ted thereby through the Chinks of the Plains.. and thus be come heavier than the Air they fwom in. of the Globe*. are carried up and down the Atmojphere^ by the Courfe of that Air.184 of equal Gravity with them... tho there were no .

and fo or wou d be fuck d up in the Ground.of Datura! Eetigton* but then they 1 85 fall no Mountains. and Eminen is the Determination of thefe Rivers* ces. fatten. feveral Mouths into the Sea. the Rivers make innumerable beautiful turnings and wind ings.. make the Tranfppr* tations and over Lands more eaCarriage fie and manageable.. if they had run at all. and water the Soil of feveral different Coun tries in one Courfe. the Rivers cou d up and down the whereby they enrich. whereas. they are perpetually almoft.. for tho there had been Rivers without Mountains^ (which in that cafe is hardly poflible) yet only have run in a ftraight Line. Globe at wou d over confiderable Places of the once . plac d Globe. Another very con fiderable ufe of thefe Hills. they . by the afliftance of the tides . (at leaft a Nights) pouring down in fome particular Places^ and there treafuring up ^ for a conftant Supply to the Rivers... by thefe Eminences. equally. and at laft difembogue where in . whereas by thefe Mount a ins. make an ttttiverfal Fuddle-..

. Thus we fee of what Advantage thefe unfightly Mol s (as fome thought them) are to the Accommodations and even Neceffities of living. which are indeed numberkis. in of that vaft Number of compoun refpeft ded ones. nor thofe ufeful falls ^ which gives them an impetuofity that may be improved to fo many delight ful as well as profitable IHes. i.and Ports y for the they from Harbours convenience of Shiping and Navigation. (tho Nature feldom is Luxuriant in diverfity of Caufes) yet without our Mountains we cou d never have Rivers. is. The . of us^ that which I (hall prin fential part take notice of .. without which we cou d ne ver have been. Next come our Fluids to be confidered. The fewcipally nefs of the original and primary Fluids. nor cou d thefe Rivers have 5 fuch delightful turnings. feeing they are a very ef- XXX. All thefe Advantages we have by our Mountains^ for tho from other Caufes^ we might poflibly be fupply d with frefh Water Springs.

. or Lymphy of all our Mixtures. and had there not been a Fluid of the fame w eight with Mercury^ i.. Airy Water. and of Liquors^ fo frugal is Nature in Principles . had Air been as heavy as Mercuryy it had been altogether ufele(s in refpiratiODJ on the contrary..of natural 3&eitgicm 1 87 The primary ones are only four. The pofitions... For the Lewdnefs and Debauch ery . in the prefcnt Circumftances of Mankind. Now not to mention the ma ny ufes of this laft Fluid in Artificers Works. I do not know xvhat a great part of the World would have done. it had choaked us immediately.y heavy Spherules .e. a collection of exceeding fmall. three of which are but feldom much compounded with others^ fo that it is Safes the parts of folid Bodies floating in this Fluid. Mercury being about 8000 times heavier than Air. and fo fruitful and various in EfFefts and Com2.. that produces all our delight it is that is the Water alone.. vi^. vaftful and ufeful varieties r l. Mercury and Light-. great Difference be tween the ffecifecJ^ Gravities of our Fluids.

. wherein themf&amp.?lves.for no neceffary..j that I fcarce fee a how and not the Serous part cern d. which I am fatisfied are more than two or is three.. is. is is principally con* if not abfolutely this thing obftru&ion. without this Fluid j for it s certain. capillary Veffels. ny Difeafes to that degree of Malignity. has fufficient force to take away but a little weighty Sphere. cificl^ Now by all this difference of the Spe- Gravity of the Fluids. The univerfal condition of the dire&ion of their Preffure upon the fides of the containing Veffel j for in all Fluids of whatfoever kind or nature^ this is communicated in Lines perpen dicular .lt. a Remedy is provided for thefe Maladies. in the extreme extreamly beneficial. moft wonderful in thefe 3.. But that which Fluids..88 $f)iioCopi)ical has brought a great ma ery of Mankind. wherever any Diftemper arifes from an obftruftion of the Blood the Globules Veflels. and to feparate thefe Globules from one another. fuch as the Particles of Mercury certainly are.... that this Fluid. thorough Cure cou d be made of em....

if a Plane prefs two .lt. and can prefs it in a dire&amp. Law of Nature. confequently the fides of the containing Veflel preffes the contain d Fluid. rily revolve upon the Plane till the Dire&ion of its preffnre.of Natural JSeitsiou. is which of their fo beautiful and uniform.5Hon through that point of Contaft j Dire&ion through the point of Con* do not likewife pals through the Cen taffi^ ter of the Sphere. from the point of Conta& pafs through the Center of the j Sphere juft fo likewife. Now third . can only touch a in a point.. in the fame Direftion. the Sphere will nccefTa-. as much as the contain d Fluid preffes the fides of the and this preffure of the containing VefFcl fides of the containing Veffel y is direded in the fame right Line with that of the contain d Fluid. feeing a right Sphere. but is contrary to it.. 1 8? dtiular to the fides of the containing Veffel.. is Now this Property of Fluids. if this Flam. the nece fary Confequence of the Sphericity conftituent Particles . for fince by the Rea&ion or Repulfe is always equal and contrary to Impulfe or A&ion.

. . preffure of Since alfo the Particles of Fluids v are5jp/?ericaly or nearly approaching thereto.. infinite it is Number of little univcrfally true. plain that all Fluids of fides of ftion perpendicular other hand. fince true. as alfo fince curve furfaces are compoun ded of an furfaces .fame Dire&ioii. is perpendicular to the fangtnt Plane . the Line of this Dire&ion will neceffarily pafs through both their Centers.. it is alfo the Dire&ion of the the Spheres upon the Plane. two in the point of Contaft. prefs the the containing Veflels in a Dire* thereto. the Line of this Direction will neceflarily pafs through all their Centers.. And fo if there be any number of Spheres whatever^ prefs d by a Plane in the fame Dire6Hoa&amp.. But a Line through the Center of a Sphere from the Spheres. and fince this is the Dire* ftion of the preffure of the Plane upon the Spheres .gt. and fince they are fuppos d exceeding fmall. And on the what nature foeve^ that Fluids by demonftration. it is do prefs the fides of the in a Direction perpendicular containing Veffcls.

Mercury and Light . it s certain that the Par ticles of all Fluids are Spherical.. What a noble reprefentati* on of the Divine Wifdom does our Fluid of Light afford us! how wonderfully are its parts fram d gious velocity and with what a prodi are they feat from the Body of ! .. Now cou d any thing but the Fingers. but all of the fame Diameters y Solidities and Weights We among emfelves. their exal weights and {hall allow him to requird Solidities? continue in his infidelity who can demonftrate by what Laws of Mechanifm^ all the Particles of Water were turn d of the fame Diameter^ Solidity and Weight. turn d all of different Diameters^ Solidities and Weights from one another . and thofe of Air. XXXI. and Almighty Power of God. have rounded thofe infinite numbers of fmall Particles y whereof Fluids confift ? or cou d any thing but his Wtfdom^ have afiign d them their true dimenfions...of Natural JReitgtou* 19 dicular thereto. or nearly thereto ^ fo that this is now approaching no more Hypothecs but Demonstration.

. and its and Reanother One Ray Violet.. third Blew.of the Sun clude it ! itsSubtility is almoft beyond imagination.. a fourth Green . and the laft Red. without interfering ev n in the ftraiteft Pailages- in one Word. .. millions of different ways... as not to fcatter almoft one half of it. Newton s la Idea of this Fluid : . . muft this be nothing it runs ! but the a6Hon of the Mind.. but fingle Point may no be congregated into a Surface fo finely poliflied. its Rays traverfe through one another. And thefe are the primary and ori ginal . to exprefs tery.. in every Pulfe of an^fr- fome hundred and thirty thoufand Miles ^ what an amazing.a Indigo. ter is Discoveries prefent us with. can anyways And then what a beautiful reprefent it do Mr. and uncon ceivable velocity . we are not able to comprehend nor ima gine a Number fufficiently fmall. no Pore fo fmall as to ex no Stream of it fo greafc.a fifth Tellow^ a fixth Orange. its fubtility . evYy its Ray endow d with own is Colour ^ different degree of Kefrangibility flexibility.

pafs through their Pores.of Natural 3&eligt on.. but the Light that falls up on -them. and White from an equable mixture of the whole j Blacl^on thecontrary. Rays of one and of one degree of R.. Their prominent little Parts. lour too. is lefs or more intcnfc. from the final! quan of them being refle&ed on. are coloured. and tranfmit all thofe of another. For the firft degrees of Intenfentfs^ in all the primary Colours ^ feem to arile from fome determin d degrees of den fit y and ^ and the fubfequent degrees from. accord are of diffe ing as their prominent parts rent denfities^ or are thicker or thinner.and this one Co Colour..efraj7giand to let others bility and Reflexibility. and their Colours arife from their Aptitude^ to refleft Rays of one lour.. according to their different De grees of denfity and thinmfs^ are apt to refleft back upon our Organs.. tity of any mcaliire all of them in a luffo* great being So that now it is not Bodies that catcd. O the . upon their Co Surfaces. 1 93 ginal Colours find from the mixture of thcfc^ all the intermediate ones proceed.

and the rcfte&ed . aHng in different quities Circumftances y viz*. that all the different Angles of In cidences are refpe&ively equal to the gles An and all the differently Refrangible Rays of Light .. the Sines of the Angles of In cidence j are to the Sines of the Angles of Refra&ion in a conftant ratio ^ and both thefe Properties proceed from one. obferves this one Law. diffoland puting their parts in a vibrating ving. as alfo Bodies aft upon Light^ in drawing its parts to them..the other different degrees of denfity or thicknefs or thinnefs.. obferve one of Reflexion likewife ? . Motion... and that this attraftion is equal in all the Incidences^ and Refractions at equal Diftances from the fame Plane. of the Surfaces of Bodies. that Bodies attraft Light in Lines perpendicular to their Sur faces... Light a&s upon Bodies by heating. of the prominent little parts.. and that in Lines perpendicular to their Surfaces All the dif : ferently reflexible Light. to the Plane of Incidence. that in all the obli of the fame Ray. Law c/z-x. and the fame Principle .

For if the have fuch a force of at- tra&ion. Now what a beautiful. together with the degree of attraction in the refrafting Bod}% And as there are neceffarily generates. dire& impulfe. the perpendicu lar^ for it s well known y all Mediums have not the fame refra&ive Virtue. that before the Ray arrives at it. uniform. then muft of the that its enter the Body Plane.... different degrees of Attra&ion in Bodies ^ which produce their different degrees oi Elafticity and Cohefion. and fimple Theory of Light is here ? this is fo very ^ like the frugal fimfltcity^ and vet the ma- O 2 infold . and not fall upon the refleding Plane at all 5 if it a leffer degree of attraction. the Ray muft refleft. it has already made the Sine of the Angle of Incidence y equal to the Radius .of refie&ed Natural 3&eiifjton* 195 Rays are turn d back before they : arrive at the refle&ing Plane reflecting Plane.. fo there muft be different degrees of attraction in Mediums ^ fuppos d^ to account for their different Powers y in bringing the reframed Rays nearer to or farther from.. and proceed in the Line.

196 ^Jjtlofopljtcai infold variety of Nature.z.. Hugens in his Treatife of Light.lt. and particularly. This the Geometers have demon ftra ted... that one would be afoioft tempted to believe it true. I (hall only (uggeft one very remarkable Inftance of the wonderful Contrivance and Wi dom of Nature. Mr. Ray paffes from a luminous fled upon a given Point.. in paf- from a luminous Point. teft it when a Point. when the Ray one and the fame Medium. through two differently refracting Mediums^ to illumi fing nate a given Point j fpends the leaft time (the redrafting Powers of the feveral Me diums coniidered) quently pofllble.. pafles^ and confebut through / . Now I appeal to . But having been pretty copious on this Subjeft already . vi&amp. that a Ray of Light.. very ele gantly Page 40 and 41.. I might like wife iliew here the Art and Contrivance of Nature. in the propagation of Light. to reflior- takes the way poflible. in the produ&ion of the Cohefwn of Bodies. e.. were there no Democrat/on and Expert ment to confirm the truth of it.

that nothing certain can be determined about thefe Inner Regions. this 1 97 how incredulous focver. than juft what is neceflary to do the Bufinefsj which will not go about. to the Reader.. Earth. XXXII. if be not an Infbnce of Conn\d and Dcfigny is not this like the Methods of Pru dence and Wtfdom^ which will not fpend more time on a thing . I fliou d next proceed. fo lame. becaufe they faw that Springs run fafter in Froft and Snow. Others have thought that being kept in. but take the fhorteftCourfe r poflible 5 fign d? that will bring it to the Place deHe that can refift fuch pregnant and powerful Inftances of Divine Wifdom. Some have con cluded that there muft of Neceffity be a Central heat. O 3 within . and our accounts of this matter.. to fhew the wonders in the Bowels of our but our Difcoveries are fo few.. than in hot Weather y but that might proceed from (bme of the other more narrow out lets of this Baft/is being ftopt ^ by the Froft and the Vapours that the Sun raifes thence..of jaattttai Religion.. will never be convinc d.

different from the Loadftonc as &amp. after a certain moving manner.gt. yet it s after another manner... and from a different Law. One might as probably expect a different turn and figure of internal Orbs . that a Sphere (hou d be made. but I am of Opinion the Caufes of this variation is to be fought in the Magnet it felf 5 and not in fo remote and fo far fetch d a Caufe - for feems pretty odd .. If the Earth were an univerfal Magnet ( as it s commonly but erroneoufly believ d) then the parts might follow the Nature of But tho it attracts Bodies. to make a feeble turn it this or the other way above Ground.. fome confidequite round.gt. a large Sphere. to account for the variation of the Magnet ... well as the Loadftone does. there diffonce. and that there was fucceeding this.caI this outer Cruft of Earth for muft be a rable D ifcontinuity^ . count for the Effe&s and Vertues ral others to ac of the Metals^ Minerals ^nd rious and of many other Fofftls^ Bodies. pi .98 within 0!)tloCopi&amp. to whirl within the Bow els of the Earth. as the whole..

it is thefe Planets . and of Nature and artfulnefs. I believe Hypothecs may be form d. the one be ing exteriour the other interiour../ of its dire&ion might be accounted for .. the other a King only Neither can I think that this Annulns can : be fome remains of the Ruins of a Cruft. and that of the Annulns of Sa turn. this and th0 cwr^/tf. becaufe this Ring appears to be regular and uniform. (hou d be fo ruinous as this Suppofition wou d make that Planet to be. I cannot think it As holds. fcarcely probable that which like ours. and at an equal diftance from the Body of the Planet . for the analogy between thefe inter nal Orbs.of ^aturai Beligtotu 1 99 an of their Brother the Magnet.. Laftly. that is fall n in upon the Body of the Planet.. that the Works O 4 Truth . befides. whereupon by the figure and llze of its parts in regard of Bodies attra&ed. allthefe Hypotbefes have not that fimplicity . but: this is not a proper Place for thefe things. of an equal breadth quite round. the one a whole Sphere. may be defign d for the Habitation of fome fort of Animals.

If it be true that all the Bodies of the Univerfe attract one another..fM)ilofopl)icai Truth carry along with them. and I have fuggefted before. then it s very plain that when ever a lefTer Body (however figur d) attends the Motions of. and revolves with a greater.. the Fluids. and fo the Satelhts of Jupiter and Saturn. Thus raiie it s our Moon was defign d to and regular Winde^ and to difturb the Motions of our Earih^ for our TfefeJ^ Purpofes that poffibly we may. attra&lion^ to plain.and the greater number of the Satellits of Sa turn^ than Jupiterj feems to favour this ConicSure. Now this Anvnhis may pofllbly lerve fome fach purpoie as this^ fince it . were defign d to attraft.. or diforder the Motions of their refpe&ive Planets-. that the Multi tude of the Satelltts of thefe Planets may ferve in their vaft diftance from the Suny to hinder their Fluids ( by frequent and various Difturbance) from free7ing.. that that lefier Body is defign d by it s is that produce fome effeft. the Confequent of this Attra&wn. or may never 5 come to difeover..

. the variety. . beautiful Figures.. by that we have frefli depth. Ores. Bowels. and Stones^ which . for the Accom*. we haue all our natural Salts . and the fubfervience of Medicine from the depths of the Sea. in any considerable moft Places diftant from the Sea its Water at we have from and Minerals. which do us fo great and manifold Services. it is likewife certain that its Strata are not of fuch Gravities as a regular fubfidence according to the Laws of Gravi tation of Bodies. pro^ ceed from fome Motion and Mixture of different Particles within the Body of the Earth. of Shells. all our Metals with all their Varieties . . and the Bowels of the Earth. modations of Life.of it Natural Religion* moves differently from the Body it fel But all thefe are but Conjectures on both It s cer fides j and as fuch I leave em. Minerals. which fhews it has not been compounded thefe Laws. It s likewife certain . to look over.. tain that Earthquakes.. and Vulcano s. which is of fo much ufe. wou d require.. If any one had but occafion. and Colours.

on the Head am about.202 $l)tiofopDtcai \vhich Induflry has colle&ed^ he cou d not but admire the manifold Wifdom of the Author of Nature. Inftances But of Counfel and have fo many other I things to fugged that I muft content rals. they can produce nothing coherent. XXXIII. Having dwelt Dentation of the fower and Wifdom of the One of Democritus or Author of Nature. But when they come to a Plant . my felf with Gene fo long up on the inanimate part of this Syfleme of now to confider the Animal things. This were a very large and copious Field. or Ani mal^ they are perfe&ly at a lofs.. and I wou d afford very demonftrative Contrivance.. or of a are like the peice 5 their Schemes tjien .. Des Cartes s Ditciples 5 may perhaps un dertake. .. to give fome faint and imperfcft kind of Explication of the Celeftial Ap from their Principles. tho how pearances. I come Kingdom that noble and manifeft Repre* . wretched their accounts of this Matter are^ we have in fome meafure already fliewn.

that For ev ry has neither Form. The Fibres. of the Animal Fabric]^ and economy and Philofophy. an odd inconfiftent Mixture of things. an infinite Wisdom. being grofsly the and foftened by Teeth. thrUft into thfc Stomach j . is fo exadly adapted... divided^ by the Saliva. is through the Gullet. as I did in the Ccleflial fome general Scheme. to fbme wife Defign.. follow. ev ry thing is fo fitted. but a Being abfolutely per- fe&. the reft will ca- begin with the proceis of the Aliment and the Circulation of the Blood. to its own proper ufe and -thefe Ufes ^re fo manifeft and evident. that they clearly argue. an exaft and exquifite Knowledge. as being the moft perfcft^ are with. and which once acquainted fully underftood I (hall being . nor Beauty. to the H//- mane we fily Structure. by the Conftri&ion of its Meat | XXXIV.. give lhall confine my Speculations..of the cafual concourse of Atoms. in the Laws of Geometry and Nature. I (hall here. that nothing is efFefts - fufficient for. part of thefe.

to be thruft parts are A&ion of their Spiral . of the Mefen* receiving firft a foe thin Lymph frpm the . out of the Body. mate parts are broken^ Coheiions diffolv d. the other to dilute the Chyle^ by the vermicular Motion of the Inteftins (arifing from the alternate and Longitiidinar of the Midriff and the Fibres) the preffnre the lower Belly the groffer Mufcles of deriv d downward. while the finer. where being fwell d and. farther ibftned by the Sncciis of its Glands^ and the Liquors taken in. Inteflins 5 thruft into the it is irri entry into which.. fhe Mufcles of the gainft Midriff and Abdomen employed in refpiration. by the perpetual Motion of the Coats of the Stomach. gated with the Bile and Siveetbread-juice r the one to fweeten.. aone another... are the narrow of the fqueez d into Orifices la&eal Veffels^ which open into thefe inwhence in {lender Chanels they teflines^ are carried into the Glands tery.Stomach . its and their inti this And by preffure of the at its fides of the Stomach upon it is the contained Aliment.

re ceives the Blood from them. and fcours its containing Veiled which from the Mefenterie\Glands unite in larger Channels^ and pafs dire&ly into the common which is nion of Veflels Receptacle of the Chyle ^ a Bafon.gt.of Batumi Bciifiiotn 205 the LpmpbaticJ^ Du&s which dilutes this Chylom fluid.. form the Vena Afcendens and Dewhich two likewife join at their fcendcns. and creeping along the Gul to the left Subclavian it let^ paffes on Vein 5 where in one or two Mouths.*) bring tremities of the Body. and all uniting in two large Veflels 5 whofe fides diverge. it opens into that Veffel. form d for it by the Uthefe La&eal. and Lymphatic^ in one Dud.lt.. con- .. it afcends into the Thorax 5 and about the Heart fometimes dividing.. which in its Relaxation or Diajlole. it immediately unites again. which Circulation is thus perform d. and circulates with it.) entry into the right Ear of the Heart. and in its from thence Ca&amp. and there mixes with the Blood.va.&amp. The Veins (in a continued Channel with the the Blood from the Ex Arteries.

by the Vena Pul~ monalis. which bending a little fends forth the Cervical and AxiUary Ar teries.. it is difcharged in to the left Ventricle then likewife dilated. drives . an uninterrupted Channel. which are nothing but the re turning Arteries ^ and thus the Blood is carried about in a perpetual Circle... and is carried into the left Awri cle of the Heart.conftri&ion or right Ventricle. Syftole. thrufts it into the Rcrnidlon it : which is then its ftate of which when contra&ed. through the Arteria Pulmonaltt j into in the Lungs whence it is receiv d. by whofe contra&ion it is pulhed into the Aorta. duly perform d^ Life and Health confift. . from the Arteries into the Veins ^ and from thefe to thofe^ and in this Circulation . forms the defcending Trunk. carry the Blood to the feveral parts of the Bo upwards. the reft turning down again. XXXV. where leaving fome of its Particles proper for their ufe j the reft is fent into the Veins. dy. then open to receive it j by \vho(e conftri&ion. and thefe dividing into innumerable leffer Channels.

the Tefticles. This Stru&ure is evident. that all the Expences of living are furnifhed. which fometimes unite in one common Pore . fnch as the Inteftins with their Secretory Duds. in all the larger and more confpicuous Glands. As it is XXXV. of equal Diameters. And therefore the fame is reafonably to be concluded of all the Glands . Now made by the afllftance nothing folding. fince Nature . that it that is recruited by the Chyle. and fome of the Conglobat Glands . and a Gland but the Convolution or various the Evanefcent Artery . fends out feveral little Du&s. the La&eals... fo is it likewife evident from thence^that it is only from plain from what is only the Blood. and fo fwell to become vifible. and that all the Secretions of what kind foever are thefe Secret ions.. are derived. has been faid. This Cylindrical Artery .of Natural Religion. and may be feen in all the reft if they happen to be obftru&ed. in its windings. fometimes run into a common Bafon. the Blood. whole laft Bran ches muft be Cylindrical. of is of the Glands.

&amp. and produces milar Inftruments.. greater than that of DU&. Effeb by the Nature of the Secretions themfelves depend upon thefe three things. of the longitudinal Motion is yet it is not in the proportion of this Ve for this prejjure is always fomewhat locity even. i The different Dia~ meter of the Orifice of thefe Secretory Du&amp. with the Trunk of the Artery The different Angle9 already demonftrated. thefe Motions. that all Fluids the containing Veffel^ prefs the fides of and that in a direction perpendicular to it is thefe fides and this is evident in the fince it is. this lateral preffure. is Now when s tho the fo. are excluded. whereby 2. greater. fo that the Motion of Secretion muft be compoun is this pnlfation ded of both Velocity. when the Fluid is at reft.lt.Nature is conftant and uniform in her fimilar Afi- &ions. Arteries^ to that owing. and is - 5 then ..5b. Now ..gt. puL of the fation prefigure. Particles this of a Diameter.. which this Du& for makes. It is likewife evident that the Blood is urg d for ward by the Force of the Heart.

different and of different Denfides^ and Cohefions&amp.. then in proportion. and in a Fluid urg d by a Longitudinal Di re&ion. that the Blood is zHetrogeneous Fluid^ and contains parts fities different Specificl\ Gravities. to be the fame.gt. The different Velocities\ with which the P . as the Blood is in the Arteries y this lateral preffure. to the Specifick Gravity of the Fluid. of the feparated Fluid muft be Homogeneous to perform the uniform Fun&ions of Life.. yet they will not both pafs 5 becaufe their Motion of Dire* So that this Diverfity in Skion is different Particles : the Angles ^ thefe Secretory Duch make with the Trunl^ of the Artery. nothing elfe being in this Fluid to produce this preffure. For it is not to be doubted. both 5 compound Proportion of whence it is evident that if two in a of equal Diameters D but of une* qual fpecificl^ Gravities^ arrive with the fame Velocity ^ at an Orifice capable of ad mitting either of em.of natural Religion. feems altogether the poillble Diverneceflary to account for of fecern d Fluids .ev n admitting their Diameters^ and Figures.. 3.

. there is no po ilble Reafon can be afngn d..10 the Blood Secretory made in arrives. eafily others of an harder. but this .. muft be in the fame Proportions.. 3 *Urin. feparable Texture firmer. it is certainly that which is of greateft Moment in this Affair of Secretion^ yet is impoflible to account.. different Velocity of the Blood. why fome Animals are of a foft loofe Texture. Du&s^ at the Orifices of thefe for fince the Secretions are form of a Fluid. the .. as the Blood is. and Union of folid Parts. Now tho upon this iuppofition of only different Diameters^ . and more clofe Cohefion. of the Kidneys^ Liv-er and Tefticles. and why one part of the Body is of a tender.from this alone. loofe. For fuppofe^ (as my worthy and lear ned Friend Dr. at the Orzof the feparatory Duds.) Diameters of the Secretory Du&s. for the ftmilathe fecern d Fluids from fo Hetero* rity of geneons a Fluid. And tho* fices the Diverfity of the Diameters of thefe Du&s. Cockburn has very juftly reafoned) the Dtaweters of the Particles of The Gall and Semen ^ to be as i ^ .

.. for the Homogeneity or fimilarity of the feccrnecl Liquors for all the Particles of whatever : kind. which carries a fuitable Portion of the Blood. yet the Parti cles of Vrine and Gall may be feparated by the Excretory Dufts of the Tefticles. muft be the termination of a Secretory DU&. to every part to be nouriflied.. muft be indifferently But from this general feparated there. of the Diameter of the Excretory that Du&s of this the Tie/tides. through which a proper part of the Blood is brought. arifmg from the terminating Artery. The Blood being brought by P a the . the Diameters of the Particles of thefe Fluids.of Datura! JMujion* the Particles of Gall and Semen cannot be feparated in the Kidficys .. Nutrition is perform d by a Secretory DU&. fo that ev ry point in the Body. lefs than being by fuppofition. that are lefs than the Diameter 6f the Secretory DU&.. view of the Nature and Manner of Secre tion s^ the particular ones may be underflood. So that upon fuppofition of only different Diame ters^ it is impoffible to account.

and terminating in all the points of the Body j fb that properly .. and the Secretory Pores of the repositories of the Animal Spi rits . and by the fame Mechanifmy the Blood circulates through the Ar teries .?#.. yet by reafon of the many convo lutions form to which they are TLxcretories^ And the ilendernefs of their Mnfcular Coats ? the Arteries. of thefe Arteries by innumerable volttiicns^ form innumerable little Glands^ of which it s C^rf/r^/part confifts. they are hollow but extreamly fmall^ fo that tho* the Spirits move in them after the fame manner. ^aW Particles of the Blood.the Arteries to the Brain parts . the finer. Thefe Nerves are Bundles of fine fmall Pipes.. which Glands in the Brain r their original . are feparated^ and log d in the (lender fmall Tubes of the Medullary parts. which are the beginning of the Nerves. arifing from thefe in* finitely many little Glands of the Cineri* lions part of the Brain. the Capillary &amp. in thefe Glands.lt.&amp.gt. they are only the Secretory Du&s of thefe little Glands. and more fubtile. O of the Evanescent exceeding ..

thence by proper Tubes into the Bladder. this very much abated however flow Motion keeps em very near full. the Animal is a6Hvc and watchful. I eft ides ? the other and Conglomerate Conglobat Glands of the Body.. and when thefe Tubes are quite full of this nervous Fluid.of Natural Heltgtom exceeding fmallnefs of their Cavities y and their diftance from the Heart ... is in refpeft of that of . the Blood is brought to the Kidneys^ and is there freed of its Se* rnm^ by their little Glands^ and is receiv d into the fmall Excretory Dufts of thefe Glands^ to be carried into the Pelvis and .. . and the immediate Organ of Senfat ion. fo that it is needlcfs ^ to infift on thefe. Much after the fame manner ^ are their proper Fluids feparated from the Blood in the Liver and Sweetbread. when they are near empty it is languid and dro wfie for this Fluid is the 5 principal concurrent in Mufcular Motion. the Veloci ty of their Motion. By the Motion of the Heart y through the E- mulgent Branches. P 3 XXXVI. the Blood.

And wlien by the weight of the Thorax^ and the . Each Lobe confifts of an of fmall fpherical Vefides. fo that they (when blown up) as may be confidered fo many fine Tubes ending in little hollow Spheres . but as foon as this . upon the fides of thefe Vefides .fetu s enjoys the benefit of the Air3 by its weight and elaftick^ Force.. of different Figures. and Magnitudes ^ hut fo join d as to leave but fmall Vacuities between *em.4 $i)iiofopijtcai Lungs are compos d of an infinite number of little Lobes. thefe Velie flat upon one another 5 and by fales their freffure upon the Blood Veffels 5 hin der its progrefs through them . this Air ifufhes in through the Pipes of the Tnacbea into thefe and blows -ern up. Now before brought to Light. Vehicles y is the fetus whereby they fhnd of thefe little ereft upon the Trunks Wind-pipes^ and give a free paffage to the Blood through thefe Vcffcls^ ipread upon their fidesJ. the Blood Veflels in a fine Net-worl^ are fpread. The by the Coats of the fmall Branches of the Trachea . form d infinity g XXXVI.

feparate the Globules of the Blood^ which had Pvoorn and Liberty* to unite in the wider Channels of the this Veins j and by reparation of thefe Globules of the Blood. and Aliment) and thefe red Globule s. ind confequenrly. But. renders it more capable to circulate ^ in the more narrow fels.of natural A&ion of the Mufcles thereof.. feveral Salts ^ K&went a of a thick confidence . on the Blood Veflcls fpread thereon. and Midriff\ thisdttjtzcl* Fluid is thruft out of the Vejides. It is un doubted Matter of Faft and obfcmtion 5 that the Blood confifts of a Lymph ^ which is the common Vehicle. through.. paflages of the Capillary Vefif I be not very much mifta- ken. there isftill a more confiderable ufe of this natural Fun&ion behind.. (which is probably the unform d part of the Chyle . and the ela- Fluid a&ing upon the fides of them.. and that is to form thefe Globules of which clafticl^ the Blood principally confifb. with thoi e of the Abdomen. of P 4 which . fti cfy thefe Veficles preffing againft one another. the Trachea in Expiration. from one another.

. and by the neceflity they are under to change their Figures into oblong Spheriods ... j Place in the Body.6 ^Dilofophirai are we now fpeaking but fometimes they are of different Colours. that thefe Glo bules muft be form d fomewhefle in the Body from the Chyle. in the capillary Veflels. as White. Blew and Purple ^ thefe any body may difcover with an ordinary Mzcrofcope. and that Acids do ahially de{troy their Figures . blown from the viicid it is part of the Chyle ^ more fubtile by the force of fome Now no Elaftic^ Aura. Now certain. it s exhaufted^ as in violent Hemorrhages. they may bubles. yet wherefore it is of neceflity. as alfo from their Colour. and coagulate thefe Globules be little highly probable. can the Afford tbis elafticl^Plmd and this may be * . as in obftru&ions . and be all recovered and recruited again. And fince it s cer tain that they are not folid Particles 5 both by ocular infpeftion and touch. but the Lungs. that thefe Globules may be or may be all burft.

. by that vaft Force u(ed in Expira in thruft be the fides of tion. to be fent into the Lungs. brought into the returning part pf the Blood. which is the principal Agent. tho* the groffer Eliment cannot... that thefe Globules are form d there after this manner : The vifccws Chyle being by the fhorteft and poflible. in all the fubcile fe&s commonly afcrib d to the other. to the Blood Veflels... which are why immediately ro the Heart. and feeing thefe Blood Globules muft be gene rated fomewhere^ and fince there is no can be fqueez d with fufficient JForce^ to fides the of the Blood Veffels. yet this finer Fluid..of the reafon Natural Religion. it feems to me all part in the Body. this fubtile E/^/V^ Fluid beyond doubt. For fince in our grofs Eliment of Air.. Veins 5 the Chyle enters into the and thefe too only . get through but in theLfl/Tgj. and is fpread upon the fides of the Vejicles there tricle of . is fent from the right Ven part of the fafeft courfe of the Heart to the Lungs.. may through thefe Vefides. a finer Elafticl^ Fluid. there is conftantjuft returning ly loged.

it is preferv d in its figure in all the various Motions of the compound Fluid of the Blood and if it little bubles fhou d be happen that thefe moft certainly are by a biirft^ (as they j thoufand Caufes) when ever they come to theLtfflg. and by the force of the fucceeding Fluid. whereby greater the thin Serum ads upon it. which is runing by in the Serwt. this fine Fluid d. in the Aft freffure the Blood Veffels.r. this lit tle bulk is broken off from t\ePorey and carried along the Artery y and the Cohefwtt of the parts of the Shell of this biiblc^ being than the force from without. For fliou d thefe Globules be all . $pofopi)tcai of Ex being fqueez a piration.8 of. and th.ick. they are new.. is forc d into the wfcow part of the Chyle.gt..nefs of SWl^ from whence it has its Colour. in little fine Tubes. whereby the circulation is rend red conftant and uniform.form d again. through Pore^ continued through the Veftcle of the Lungs y and the fide of &amp. and by its ferfendmilar it upon the fides of that Cavity forms^ produces a fmall little buble^ of a certain magnitude.

of all natural Eelt sicn. J7 ples^ flag. but with an ordinary Microjcope. the Subftance of which Mixture . a general teries. there muft oneceffity arifc Obftru&ion in all the Capillary Ar The manner of the little Produfiion of thefe ftick^Flmd. and the manner of the Operation of Medicines vanifli.. to be but an appears nothing infinity of fuch like little bubhs^ form d by the im* niiftlon of the Air... in the forc d Blood by the Elathrough the fides of the Vefides } and Blood Veflels in the Ltivgs^fo obvious^that I fliall infift no farther upon it^ fince ev ry body may fee an inftance of the fame Nature. bubles. when view d.. 2 1 9 deftroyed. in mixing Oil with Vinegar. and Vinegar. And this makes it look the more like truthj Nature being frugal in her Princi T t 4^7. ciple. and unfit for the Limits I have prefcrib . many of the dcfpair d of Appea rances^ in t\^ Animal Oeconomy^ may be made eatie. into litJ But from this one Prin tie Shells of Oil. and a thoufand Difficulties about the Gaufes of Difeafcs.. but various in the effecfo thence But it being both foreign to ari- my d Peilgn.

and are call d Membranous Fibres-. enter an Artery. of the preceding Chapter . vided into innumerable little orbicular two concave Segments of a Cells. the firft and fecond. ted is A Mufcle.... into thofe orbi cular Cells. to deduce I fhall all the arifing. the Fibrils of the one are di which are always inferted into fome folid as to thofe of the Bel places of the Body . to another Gccafion. are hard and Sphere-. is only the flefhypart lax} the tendinous. have hin XIII. each Fibre confifb of ly of the Mufcles. ty d tranfverfe fmall Threads y together by which go from Fibre to Fibre . of which all fame Plane run parallel-. inftance reft but in one Particular. foft and part in the compared. the fleihy of the Mufcles is fpongious. the latter to let in (upon . Vein and Nerve.. and leave the as I XXXVII.$i)tiofopi)ical __ prefcribM to my Corollaries thence felf. to bring and carryback the Blood.. only a bundle of Fibres. an infinite number of little Fibrils. folid^ thefe make the Head and Tail. form d of thofe of the other.

Bernoulli s DoSrine on all this And metrical Theorems he the Geo confequently^ has difcovered a- bout mufcular Motion. And ned which wou d contra& the length of the whole Fibre. own proper Juice. and confifts fo leave the imprifoned Elaftic^ Aura. And upon an immiflion of this Liquid of the Nerves.. to efcape. the Globules of the Blood may be a&ually broken. thefe little daick^ Cells of the Fibres muft of neceffity their thereby Longi tudinal Diameters. by which means. This is undoubtedly the true manner of mufcu lar Motion. into the orbicular Cells of mufcular Fibres. are now a&ual But I fliall Theory^ and Matter of Fah have an occafion of fpeaking of thefe after wards . and agreeable to the learned : Mr. from Cell to Cell ftrait- be blown up. and fo move that Organ to which one of the tendons is fixt. 22 1 (upon any Impreffion communicated to its very proba ble from its Acid tafte 5 that this nervous Juice.of jfratttrai Belision. John Head... Now it s it) of Particles which are pointed and fit to break the Shells of the Globules of the Blood.

and the one Extremity of the Mufcle. and the other to the Bone .place of theProduftion of thefe Globules. muft be So ..that dra\vn toward the fixt Extremity. Only now. the moveable Bone. which has been long thought uncapable of being d. and Animal Spi rits are in fufficient plenty. which is the reafon that muscular Motion is fb conftantly and uniformly perform d. . that is to move beyond its Articulation. fo long as the Blood Globules. to be new-form d.. The very evident demonftration of the true Caufe of mnfcular Motion . is faftned to fome folid part. For the Mo tion of the Joints and Limbs the Bones which are the Pillars of the Body. Thus the Motions of all the . are ar ticulated one into another . accord and Determination. and their Na ture being thus determin d^ a priori is a Xvards... The broken Shells of thefe cxplam Globules. the length of the Mufcle being fliortned. of ing to the Manner the Articulation. are carried back by the Veins to the Lungs.

Now confifting of feveral Orders of flefliy FibreSj of different Dire&ions^ it has two little Ears and as many Ventricles. But the Membranous Coats. a Mufck. a& by the Longitudinal Diameters of its Mujcular Cells being fliortnedy and fo by the win ding and fpiral Dire&ion of its feveral Orders of Fibres^ the Cavities of the Ears and Ventricles are leflcn it is And d or conftring d.. iblid parts form XXX VIII. meerly by their own Elaflicity^ being ftretch d firft by ex ternal . Fibres of the The Body are principally propelFd^ by the Adion of the Heart. like other Mufcles. which are Cavities for receiving or holding the as it comes from the feveral Ve Blood. fels. and the elaflicl^ Force of the the Heart is containing Veffels. ad af manner already explaki d. The Fibres of this Mujcle.of the ^atutal of the Body are perFluids of the more d.. or is to be driven to different Places. all obfervable that thcMufcu/ar Fibres of the Coats ter the of the Veflcls..

it is a fure Indication . excepting thofe for Senincluded Fluid. the outermoft Membranous^ the fecond flefliy and Mufcular^ turning ob from the uppermoft end of the Oe- is fophagus to the Stomach .ternal Violence. So that the Nature of the Coats. The Coats of the Gullet are three. tendinous and mufcular^ of white {lender Fibres diverfely interwoven. The Stomach has . and wou d ne ver have diftinguifh d a Coat into Fibres^ but for Mufcular A&ioo. together with the Range and Di- liquely re&ion of thefe Fibres^ it is eafie to know the manner of their operating upon the included Fluid... that this Coat a&s as a Mufcle for Na ture does nothing in vain.is more capable of a&ing by its own Elafticity. branes are Thus the fides of all Mem bent or prefs d outward by fome but reftore emfelves by their own natural Elafticity 5 whereas when ever a Coat confifts of Fibres of whatever kind.. bring known. and of their conftituent Fibres^ of the Channels. when a conti nued Membranous^ Tendinous one. Ration or Nutrition. the third.

the fecond is of two Orders of Muscular Fibres^ Longitudinal and Spiral. and ferve the dy . fmall. the innermoft is of the fame nature with that of the innermoft of the Stomach . The Nerves y as I have before bundle of fine.. and are terminated in all the points of the Bo faidj are a ten pairdefcend immediately through proper Holes of the Skull.. of white Carpettendinous Fibres ftan* the next Coat. ad jacentParts^and particularly the Organs of four of the Senfes the reft in a large bun dle^ are let down by the Cavity of the Q.. Vertebra..of Natural Beligion* the innermoft (liort is *2 5 has four Goats^ like. flender Pipes j wherein the Animal Spirits are treafur d up for the Expcnfes of Motion and Senfation-^ they arife from the Glands of the cineritious part of the Brain. ding perpendicular upon which is nervous and extreamly fenfible j the third isfleflry and Mufcular.. the third is common and mem branous 3 arifing likewife from the Peri toneum. of ftraight - and fift circular Fibres 5 the fourth Membra nous from the Peritoneum. . The G///^ con- of three Coats.

and at fit Places are fent forth to a&uate the feveral inferiour parts of the Body. and for firaitning the the Cavity of the Guts and Stomach . From this of the Vcffels. oi the fttu6hire general account their Aftions upon the in- clofed Fluid underftood.. wou d tear the The Veins have only the Mujcular Spiral Fibres are thinner. according to the bignefs of the The third is a cloie tranfparent Membrane very ftrong and compaft. . for the nourishment of and for the Mnjcnlar A&ion of the intermediate one. to keep in the Blood which otherwife upon the dilatation of the Artery ^ Mnfotlar Fibres afundcr.. gainft the than thofe of the converging Arteries. which is thefe other Coats made up of feveraly?r^ta of Spiral Mufcnlar Fibres^ Artery. the fame Coats with the Arteries .$i)ilofopi)icai idnnaples Vertebra. the fhort erefted Fibres ferve for the at eallly may be trition of the Aliment. becaufe of the IcfTcr force of the Blood afides of the diverging Veins . . The Arteries have three Coats^ the outermoft is a fine of Nerves^ Web and Blood Veffels..

up or down to its length. the force of the natural of the Membranous Elafticity Coat .of natural few turns oblique Fibres. the Longitudinal ones to move the Veffel.. dimenfion and thereby /. ? after the propell the Blood in a continued Stream. among the Originating Nerves in the Brain. which make but ferve to propagate gently the included Fluid.5Hon manner already explain d. leflening the other. long their whole length. the tranfvcrfe the Spiral ones by fqucezing it it in length tranfverfely. e.lt.. be equal to the force of this Impulfe then that Elafticity of aft. through the uninterrupted Channels of ^ the .. Thus the Blood being puflit by the contrafiion of the Heart diftends their Coats atill into the Arteries. in a dirc&ion parallel this by encrcafing Diameter . And both thefe Forces a&ing at once. this Coat be feme time the ner vous Juice is {queex d out from the Nerves by this dilatation of the finall Arteries. and fo encreafing or leflening it in breadth. and fo brings the Mufcular Fibres into Aginning to at the &amp. and the included -Fluid.

tranfmitted to the Nerves. XXXIX.. flrikcs on the -tympanum ^ which mo . ing.&amp.. firikes the filaments of the Optici\ Nerves which con In Hear vey this Impulfe to the Brain. Organs upon the through them appropriated and contriv d them for fuch a Senfe^ and to the Brain. Thus in Vifwn. propagated only by the Membranous Coat.$!}ticibpi)ifal the irnpulfe of the Heart. by thefe fubtile parts of Bodies^ fifly is difpoted . in its diverfe Modifications. through thcL/g/j/ from the Surfaces of Bodies.gt. And call d a Pulje or Puljat/on of the Ar~ All Senfation is perform d by the immediate A&ion of the finer and more fluid parts of Bodies. is the Veins and Arteries.. the Sound after- ving . is tranfmitrcd through the HUMOWS of the D Eye. paffage through the Meatus Anditorius. in the lame mdnner it was rcflcfted from the Body. and thereby an Impulfe modi reflected fied after a certain manner. upon the Or gans of Senle the Impulfe communicated -. . is that which when feltj lery.. and congregated upon the Retina.

and they communi cate this A6Hon to the Brain So that in fome manner. and no Difpofition or Arrangment of either. fince all the parts m lift be form d together. and Touching . and they the inclofed Air of the Labyrinth . the Effluvia and more fubtile parts of Bodies. Tajlittg. ration is Gene it is nothing but Accretion. that all Generation is from a preceding little Animal lodged in the Male. I have demonftrated the Me chanical produ&ion of Animals. after wou d have been. aft immediately upon the Nerves themfelves.. Animal. to be im~ there is no poifible and unconceivable thing in an Animal but an infinity of bran ching and winding Channels ^ and their contain d Fluids. the Auditory Nerves there^ the fame manner they are mov d. can produce an . In Smelling. all for beyond doubt . 3 . all Sensation is nothing but : Touching. with the Advantage of a better qualified and gentler Impulfe than they cou d have had otherwife. Q. had the common Air afted upon them.of jsatnvai Religion ving the Bones of the Barrel. feveral ways diversified.

evident then that they muft circulate after a manner proper to etnfelves. cv ry Generation of an Ani and that thefe Animals themfelves are all confpicuous in Male Seeds ^ it is plain that they muft have been all created at once:. tho doubtlefs the Velocity of their Motions is perfectly accommodated to the fmallnefs of their dcrncfs of their Bul^ and parts. Now. if they did not move in the wou Channels of thefe fmall Animals. mal.230 or together. d corrupt and deftroy their contain It s ing Veffels. which can never reach to that wonderful Number. the flen- folid and fince thefe . and lodg d in the Loyns of the Ori ginal pairs of all the Species of Animals.. iince itisabfurd God Almighty \z in confin d to a new Creation. Blood Globules ^ may be form d out of the and one kind of Li quor may be feparated from another^ out of the Blood in the Glands^ and thefe are all the Produftions an Animal is capable of. we find fame little bubles. an^Chyle in the Veffels^ nimal confifts to think of. and Difpofition of parts. Like wife the Fluids.

in know the (lender Tubes of the Plant.. without fome infenfible Evacuations and Secretions^ this Lofs muft be repaired fome way or other.. to be afterwards log d in the Female . till they arrive to *// *. fuitedto this Degree of Growth and Perfection. to the next Period of their Lives are cer bear the Light and the Air. and involv d in Membranes^ or furrounded with Walls proper to defend them in this ten der Eftate. are that the Eggs of Animals only an Vie* rns for a little Animal ^ furniilied with . from external Injuries j and that Vegetation is only the unfolding and extending of thefe Branches and Leaves. is not improbable they in may fome lurk fomewhere the Male. thefc Fluids cannot Wherefore it ... move. by the Force of Juices rais d by Heat. 4 proper . We We Q.of natural Religion.. pcrfe&Jy form d. be carried off in the foft and tender Fluid of the Stolen . with Branches and Leaves duly folded up. where they are fitted with Accommodations. tain that the Seeds of Plants arc nothing but little Plants. in till they be fitted to proper Place.

but the Analogy between the manner of the Generation and transformations of thefe lower. Now were that all there no other Argument. produce the fame very Effe&s with that of the Females. is owing to the feveral Mem branes they are involv d in. and more eafily pafs into the nourishing Channels of the included Animalcul^ and the Heat of the Sun or of our Culinary Fires^ when duly adjuftcd. and the fure^ that all breaking of the Membranes that folded em up by the Augmentation of thefe parts ^ the feveral Figures and Shapes they put on. with thefe already men tioned ... Injuries and fenc d from external and we know likewife that all the Effeds of incubation^ isfupplying a fit to make degree of Heat and Warmth the congeal d Fluids flow. We the feveral Transformations of InfeSis and other Animals^ is nothing but the Expansion of their parts. who confiders the fimplicity and uniformity of Nature in all her Works. it were fufficient to perfuade any one. But this. are .3^ |M)itofop!)itai proper Food. and the more noble Animals ..

are. general view of the and of the manner how the Animal Fun&ions are perform d evVy body may fee how wonderfully we are made. how wifely our (everal parts are fitted for their Ufes. that we are all deriv d from one Seed.. and yet how fuffi- cient. Mo It i$ impoffible duly to confider thefe things without being rapt into admiration of the infinite Wisdom of the Divine ArclnteB and contemning the arrogant Pretences of the World and Animal Wright s y and much more the Productions of Chance or juftling Atoms .. From Stm&ure of the this parts. how fimple. for fince even Mechanifm^ affifted by fome kind of Art and Contrivance^ does fo miferably blunder in the Undertakings of . and have been ever fince / grow^ ing to our pretent Eftate.of j$atttrai Heiigtott* 25 3 tioned put it beyond all doubt. and were once all actually in the Loyns of our firft Parent. theCaufes of all thofe various the Animal performs.how juftly our Fluids are contriv d and difpos d. XL. tions. to make thefe uninterrupted Circulations wherein Life confifts .

make but an ItifeSl or a Plant y with the fame Faculties and Qua we ihou d begin lities that Nature does But they are fo far to hearken to em. Put . and he thai made the Ear mufl himjelf hear. and he that indnd Majj with Wisdom mnfl and he that contriv d hitnfclf ^tnd^rftand^ fo wonderfully and wifely. and form d fo all things both ani juftly and exaftly^ mate ^nd inanimate^ muft needs bt. from that.34 0!)ilofoptical of this Nature (as we may fee in all the Schemes of the Projectors upon t\ck Heads) we may be afliired blind Chance and JHWble cou d never produce fo beautiful fimuniform Effects. Cou d any of our pie and mechanical Undertakers . that the moft exaft and nice Performances of Art^ come fo far fhort of the dead Organs of Animals^ or the inani mate Productions ot Nature^ that a weak Eye may difcover the vaft Difference. Wherefore of unavoidable Neceflity^ He that for id the Eye waft him felf fee. with all their skill and cunning..

.The Scarf d of feveral Lays of fmall compos which cover one another more or thicker. Thefe Glands fecern an Animal Body muft be. Lervenhoecl^ reckons that about one Cuticular Scale. is Scales^ lefs. 500 fuchDtifts may lye. skin being upper. Number a prodigious of fuch Glands muft there be on ! Now what the Surface of the whole Body Into ev ry one of thefe Glands an Artery^ Vein and Nerve do enter ^ fo that we may guefs how prodigious the Number of Organs in from thefe that are vifible to the Eye afliftcd with an ordinary Micrvfcope. . according as it. g XLI.. and that a Grain of Sand will cover 250 of thefe one Grain of Sand will cover 125000 Orifices of thefe Ex Scales^ fo that cretory Dufts.of atural 3&eltsiom *35 But I proceed to make fome reflexions upon the particular Inftances of Council and Wisdom in the Animal Fabrick..is thicker in one part of the Body than another ^ between thefe Scales the Excretory Du&s or lye of the Miliary Glands of the true Skin open. The Skin with its parts is what offers itfelf firft moft..

. and in each interfeftion In the Summer the planted. to convey the Impulfe more immediately for the Senfe receiv Nerves to the Brain. along the other VeiTels make thefe the Nerves and all cover d over with a miia fine Web. is composed Scales of which the Scarfskjn a Hair is ..^ . d About and ferve of Feeling. by reafon of the heat coinpaft The and cold of thefe different Seafons. -Scarf they are the finite like wile in Number- Extremities of the Nerves of the 5%..gt.. in Winter more and hard. to moiften thefe Fap/U* and then under this the M/- Glands thcmfelves are placed.36 ^i)i!ofopt)tcat cern the Sweat and intenfible Perfpiration. that fince San&oriu* obfervcs ^ through a of Fluid them fifteen Ounce weight Next under the Hours. and thefe interare many by parallel fefted others. to the Surding their Secretory which there face^of the Scarfskin^ upon Lines. Skin is thinner and fofter. of NecefTity they muft be many . cous Subftance. in And paffes 24 in skin arc the Papilla fyramidales. fyramidalcs //&amp.. protru Dufts up.

and to be the Organ of the Senfe of muffing and Feel Now what can be more wonderfully ing.. and to skreen them from exter rhe Skin it fclf is nal Injuries defign d to to hinder Obje&s from wrap up the whole Body. then the Inter Pap ill vals c had been without any Senfe of Feel and fo might have been deflroy d ing. to receive the Impreflions of external Obje&s. to fiiftain and to keep the Papilla Fyrawidales in their Places. to the danger of the whole and thefe Intervals had not been freed from the noxious parts^ which are here thrown out of the Body but by their infinite by thefe Glands ev N timber.. ry point and Atom of the ABod is taken care of But that . and the Miliary Glands from being difordered.. without our Knowledge. contriv d than this exterior part.of is Natural Iteiigiotn a 37 defign d to fence the Orifices of the 5Vthe Mtliary Glands and cretory Dufts of ^ making too pain ful and cxquifite an Impreffion on the Nerves. if the Tyranridaks or the Miliary Glands had been few and large..

and might have J O been torn away or confum d. our tendereft parts had been as infenfible as our Hairs or Nails. the touch of a Feather. is the ap: proportioning this Senfe of Feeling^ to the which is r been ten or twenty times as exquilite as it d have been in perpe is. we fliou d not have dar d to have approach d our Cloaths or our Beds^ in t . we had loft fome of the moft exquifite Plcafures of Life. we can live in indolence from the Difturbance of the and AHeffluvia.yet moft wonderful . A6Hons and Impulfes of the Bodies among which we live. without our Knowledge or Concern. many times duller. to hinder . had made us cry out. or of the Wing of a Fly.. ev ry Hair had been a Dag ger. ons of little Bodies that are ncceflarily in Motion and we feel fenfibly enough. or in more callous than it is. Whereas by this nice adjuftment of the Senfe of feding to the Impulfes and A&ions of Bodies round us. then we fliou tual Torment.. we had it liv d and had been as perpetual Mifery. For had our Senfe of Feeling & fliort.

Scale. grows upon it. And confethe more moderately we ufe the ... And it is worth noticeing. which there becomes a irnall and therefore the oftner the Mouths of thefe VeiTels are preis d upon^ or the oftner we life thefe Organs of touching. and guard the Organs of this Senfe from being violated.. for it is as it is more or lels ufed highly probable. the more of thefe Seal s are form d.. that thisSenfc of Feeling fcnfiblc. by which forae drops of a vifcid Fluid is that the Scales which forc d out. and fo a caUoiijvefs quently . And univerfally indeed in all Animals whatfoever. this Senfe is adapted to the Circumftances wherein they live. drying and hardning.of Natural ffietgtotu hinder us from hazarding the Ruin of our Fabrick. is rendred more exquifite and or more dull and imperceptible. and the Skin becomes the thicker. compofe the Scarfsk^n. do arife from the preffitrc of touching Bodies upon the Mouths of the Superficial Veffels at different times. which is a notable Inftance of Council and Defign in the formation of thefe Parts.

they are not kept from Excefles that way. Situati has fomething that fpeaks its Defign and Council. of which there are about 446 in a Hu mane Body. Having already fliewn the wonderful yet fimple ftru&ure of the have little more to add upon Mufcles.. I For tho ev ry fingle Mitfcle.the Pleafures of Senfe (the moft exquifite of which lie in that of Feeling) the more lively and fenfible they are life ^ and the more immoderately we the full lefs r they are fo . either in on or Insertion. yet feeing Borelli has written a whole Book to fhew this. Figure. prefent Punifliment. that Head. w ife Contrivance of the Author of for thefe Pleafures. that they wou d certainly deftroy themfelves. to that learned . fince we fee where there is both Sin and Nature-. which is a wonder- were it otherwife. my Reader for his full Satisfaftion in this Affair. XLII. and to inftance in all the Particulars. or to write a whole Syfteme I fliall refer of Myologie. fo diftra&ed is the moft part of Mankind.. were to tranfcribe it..

has plac d them at a conft derable diftance from thefe Organs.. learned and furpriflng 24 Book De motit malinm.. i .. they wou d have aL ufes Motions^ and made thefe Places foft and fpungy. now had they been fituatcd neat Or about thefe Parts. {hall Then only fuggeft a few Inthe maiiner of the Dif- of the Fingers and poiition of the Muftles know that for the Toes.of ^attttai BeWgion. and ftances. and and going confequently unfit for grafping their * together difturb d to avoid this^ the Infinitely wife An*tbor of Nature. and that ev And n there. is admirable* We of Life 5 thefe Mufclcs were to be ftrong and large. the Arm or Leg. they might not rife in bending thofd . up and fill Places with their Bodies or Tendons he has ty d them to the Bones by Annn* lar Ligaments ^ and alfb that one TLendoit might not be interrupted in its Courfe by another. that they might be fufficient for the various 5 and forceable Motions of thefe Organs .. he has (lit fome^ that other s might this is through then! undifturb d^ fuch a wonderful Inftance of WiC pafs R dom .

Bernoulli in that Curious Meditation &quot.. than the ele vated Weights j for fuppofing the Animal Spirits expended. Lipfirf 1 printed in the ^ ASla 694 . that none can pafs it over without Admiration. in burfting the Blood the veficnlar Cells of the then a Mtifcnlar Fibres^ to be as 8. the like or the other Propor tions of the Animal Spirits-^ efpecially. derful wife Contrivance Now what a won and compendium of . the And Difference becomes moft fcnffble between thefe Animal Spirits and the fuftain d weights^ when thcfc Spirits are expended in greateft Qtiantities. It is very obfervable that in Mnjcular Motion the Expenfe of Animal Spirits^ is not in Pro portion to the Labour the Animal is at. has demonftrated that the Expenfes of Animal Spirits^ are in a much lefs Proportion.about Mufcular Motion. a. Weight four times as great r as when they Globules j in are but as 5. may be to 4. Mr.$i)ilofopt)tcai dom and Defign . So that when t\e Animal Spirits are but as $ to 8 r the Weight fuftain d by em fhall be as i lifted.

. and thoughtlefs. and all Sensation perform d. that aftuates all our Enjoyments.. e. we live. unaftive. by which we have that Livelinefs and Agility..by which all the Pleafures of Life are reliflied. as one that is under no neceffity to work. this. fo neceflary and ufcful was to be fav d by all means poflible.. that no Expenfes fliou d be made therein that cou d be avoi ded.... and our Blood circulates. and we fee the wife Author of Nature.. the Animal Spirits which are the Subftance. of Mo3. by all know which we move. the very ElTence of the Blood.. are fav d as much as is poflible ... we are languid.. that Chearfulnefs and Tran quillity. we that the Spirits are the moft precious things in all the Animal Body. a Subftance. and without which. has taken wonderful Care.. or rather. and agreeable to the Neceflities of Life.of Natural Urttcjtom of Nature is this ? Here in great Labour. and No\v dull.. What a ftrange variety R a tions . not reduc d to the necefllty of having is Man who twice or four times as much Vi&uals. /. io that a is obliged to hard Labour..

. as to fall. by a Line drawn from it to the Center of the Earth . ftrongeft Mufcks upon their Breafts. And in thofe Animals that live with the Water. the various Motions of our Head. have all tjieir in the Surface of the Watery there is a Bladder . whereby they are kept in the fitteft Pofture for fwiming or fo difflying.. Thofe Animals that are defign d for flying or fwiming on the Surface of to us that we want.. and falling. the Center of Gravity is fodifpos d. the Center of Gravity being pofed as naturally to keep their Heads creft. and two Lines drawn by our Toes and Heels.^44 tions are our Organs capable of? There is no poffible one. and Rreaft. that might be ufeful and how wonderis the whole Machin adjufted ? For iully our erc& Motion. immediately bring it back within that Space. and if at any time we chance to rhrow this Line without that Space. and fo be in hazard of our Arms. by which means we are kept from tum bling. al ways in fome part of the parallelogram form d by the outer fides of our Feet.

whofe Orifice isendow d with a Mttfcular Sphintier... naturally lay their Heads linger their Wings. that fo the Center of R 3 the . than the Fluid they fwirn in. which is under fome Degree of Condenfation. as renders em in an /Equilibrium without any Pain... they become heavier. from the preffure of the full Mufcular fides thereof. by which they let out and take in the Air. the Fifli ever after. which being cut out.of Bladder Natural ^elision. with that kind of Fluid they in.. and by let and fo neceffarily emerge ting out fome. and fb fink fill or emerge as their Occafions prompt them. But this Bladder is commonly of Air. by the Comprefllon or Expanfion of this Bladder. d with Air. live and they commonly alter their Equilibrium. they become lighter than they were. either fwims on the Surface or finks to the Bottom. to render them Specifically lighter or heavier. or as they pals to a Specifically lighter or heavier Element j for by taking in more Air. fuch to wit. Birds moft and Fowls that fleep^ refting on one Foot to eafe the other. and fb fink.

find to their Satisfaction.. are fo ftraitned as to admit only what is fufficient to repair their De All the considerably thick Bones cays.. which upon the compleat growth of thefe Bones. Thefe are wonderful Inftances of Divine Wisdom and Providence ^ but thofe who pleafe to will confult that noble Work of Borellfs. may grafp the Branch more ftrongly.the Gravity of their whole Body.. ty d together by Tranfverfe ones.. prc- ferv d . are either hollow or and both fpongious^ forts contain an oleaginotft Subftance. XLIIL The Bones compared of hard Fibres.. incline a little backwards. without any Mufcnlar Contra&ion. may fall upon the Foot they ftand on^and the Animal be preferv d from overturning j and thofe Fowls that deep fo on the fmall Branches of Trees. a thoufand fiich Inftances^ relating to this Head alone of confift Mufcular Motion. that their Claws by the Gravity of their Body.. after the manner of the Mnfdes ^ they are nourifhed by Blood Veflels which enter their Subftance at feveral Pla ces.

. that they dry not.. the Cen joint. 247 which by the Heat of the Body. our Limbs had been in hazard of being dif- made jointed upon ev ry Occaiion. no other Contrivance pofllble.of fefv natural Veficks. in the Articulati*OHS of the Shoulder and Knee efpecially.. and thereby grow brittle. There are fevcral and ter R various . JaeiiQton... e. is exhal d through the po rous Subftance of thefe Bones y to fupple and anoint their Fibres. By the largenefs of thefe TftJfirr&r^ it comes to pafs. and that for very wife Ends call d the Periofteuw. and Purpofes: For culations are i.. the Arm and Leg.. is considerably bigger at the Extremities than at the middle. is capable of moving round. Thereby the Arti ftronger^ for had they been leffer. that in all the Revolution of the is kept at the fame diftan-ce of the Sevridiaweter of the Tubercle from the Center thereof. All the Bones are cpver d with a very fenfible membrane din little each large Bone. whereby . And 2. but this cou d be obuiiVd. more than a Semicircle which by.. /. The Tendon of Motion-.. or equal to the middle.

as was reconcileable with a fufficient degree of Strength.. Now all thefe dif ferent Articulations are from the Neceffi- or Motion of thefe ty of the Situation The Bones in order to be the i$ones..lt. wonderfully ted for the Motions of the feveral fit Mem ber^ one is like Ball and Sockgt. might not re quire tpo great an Expenfe of Spirits. ought to have been as light. has wonderfully provided for this. by which the Bone can move equally any way .&amp.*~ ture. for he has made em light..348 ^t)ofopl)icai various manners of Articulations of the Bones into one another..gt. that the Inftruments of Motion. snoft convenient that might be. to move them. and yet they are thaji if th?y ha4 (iranger by very far. and that the mechanical Ma~ chin might not become a Burthen to now the wife Author of themfelves N&amp. as the Radius with the *Vlna^ a third are only ty d to gether by intervening Cartilages 5 as the Vertebra of the Back. as the Thigh-Bone with the Ifchium^ others are by way of Charnal. cpmpos d .. . by evacuating their middle Subftance.

.. two Bones of and of equal Number of that of is to the Strength of the other. or the firfi is twice as ftrong as the fecond. This is moft confpicuous in thofe Animals that are form d to fly . cou d no othcrways be obtain d but by this Contrivance. Connexion. to a clofe one of the fajiie Num ber of Fibres... Order^ and Motions of thefe fiUars of the Body. compos d one has demonftrated.* of the Mttfcles elevate. the Quils of their Feathers and their Bones are^ and this wonderful wife End.lt. BoreUi hath fhewn that thefe Bones are fo many Ve&es. of which the Center of tlv* Articulation the Fulcrum. or overcome any Rcfiftence. and move a- ny weight. by which the Vires Moti~ is v&amp. the Tendons are the Ropes.of Natural Religion* folid Cylinder. Diameter. the Strength of the one Fibres -. and exactly nice Geometry ufed by Nature in the Figure. equal lengths. as their Diameters fo that a hollow Bone of ^ double are -.. how light and yet how ftrong. ^nd pf their Cover the . it is wonderful. is as 2 to i. There is a wonderful.

the wife Contrivances3 and prudent adaptati ons of thefe admirable Machines for the I (hall inftance benefit of the whole. which made lends Nerves to all the Inferiour part of the Body. but have gone forward like a Poft or a Pillar. without Articnlations ^ we cou d not have ftoop d or turn d.. only in two or three proceed. and then Then.. had of one entire Bone. what can be more wonderfully contriv d than the Backbone. Particulars. it were alone a fufficient work. muft have it been all a large Angle upon their innermoft edges. had been in hazard of being bruis d at ail quently in every ftooping j and confethe inferiour Parts. and fo the Spinal Marrow. whole wou d not have been pli- for the various Poftures to put our felves in.the Muftles-.. have If it had we . had it been compos d of a few Bones only.. i. had bcei* perpetual hazard of being depriv d of the Inftruments of their Motions^ befides that the able.. then the Articu lations of thefe Bones in bending our Backs. to {hew all the Necejfities.

from being thruft backwards or forwards. we had not been capable of thefe Varieties of Motk ons that we now are. the Ar* ticulations might have been cafily disjoin ted. keeping the middle. than if it had been entire without Articulations. that Medullary Subftance... or had thefe Articulations been after the manner of fome others of the Bones. if each Vertebra had had its own proper Cartilage. the Contrivance of were. to hurt the Spiral . by which it obtains that Curvature that is fafeft for the included Marrow. the oblique greateft degree Proceffes of each Superiour and Inferiour Vertebra. we fhou more Benefit by it. ty d by the Back for the Se common Cartilage. and brings the of firmnefs . that curity of runs down its Cavity . of the Body is the for by thefe beft that can be imagined as it Hulk many and what a plain fmall Articulations upon {bmeand fmooth Surfaces.of corififted natural Beligion. *5 * of various Bones without inter d have had no vening Catilages. is bent after the manner of the Catenarian Curve. this So that we fee.

Proceffes ..2 Wlofopl)icai Befides Spinal Marrow.. to keep the intermediate Vertebra from being thruft backward or forward. As I have obferv d be? fome Bones are articulated after the manner of Ball and Socket as the Humerus with the Scapula and that for this wife fore. had not the been fo plac d as they . . that the that Arm . might have all man ner of pofllble Motions j but the Vint and Cub it us is join d by way of Cbarnal. then there fon why have been no more reain Inspiration . Now can there be a more manifeft In* fiance of Council and Contrivance than this. End. and fo lift upthe-StowiM**. the Ribs fhou d wou d have mov d upwards and forwards^ than backwards.. thefe Proceffes force the Ribs to move upwards.. whence the dilatation of the Thorax proceeds. 2. Tranfaerfe Proceffes are. if infinite Wifdom were fuppos d to have fram d this part. it cou*d not have giv n a more pregnant Indicati on thereof.which cou d not dilate^ were there no Tranfaerfe or they otherwife difpos d. But as they are now contriv d. Certainly.

3. fift with the good of the whole. that it could have by another of the fame kind in this other Articulation j and we fliou d have loft the Benefit of fiich it. thefe points of the Fingers which are at the Articulations^ cou d only come into contact cou d not be conveni Proportion to the middle with the Body fqueex d ^ and fo the Aftion cou d not be uniform. for that Articulation of the Shoul der. the Hand by the greater Strength in this Joint. and by this fmalnefs of thefe Tubercles. becaufe thereby in grafping or fqueezing.. Thus we fee. Be- caufe the Tubercles of the Bones of the Fingers and Toes.. ently fo large in of thefe Bones as they are in others. there was a hazard of bringing the direction of the A&ion of the Tendons of thofe Mufcles . manner^ we fhou d have had no Benefit thereby. here . takes off the Neceffity of another having all the Motions.of ^atutai ffieligiotn a53 that this Articulation might be the more for had it been after the former ftrong. that can con. Nature in thefe Motions lofes no Benefit in the feveral Parts.

to ferve as fo the Tendons many pafs. or almoft deftroy d.which contract the Finger and Toes. The fame Artifice is us d in the Knee. of. by means of the P at ella thefe are wife and noble Ends. or very near the Center of Motion whereby this A&ion wou d have been quite. about which at fome diftance from the Center of the Articulation . by a thick Wall of hard Bone. Now clcs. Pullies. the dire&ion of the whereby Motion of thefe Ten remov d always at the fame diftance from the Center of Motion.. how carefully and ftrongly is that principal Organ of the Body. How wonderfully is the Brain contriv d. fcnc d from external Injuries. of the Articulation. the Ojja Sefamoidota (call d fo from their Refem- blance to the Grains of Sefawntn) are plac d at the Articulations of thefe Bones... and two very clofe and compact Membranes? What an infinite Multi- .. quite through.. to prevent this Inconvenience. are ^ XLIV.. which the Wit of Men cou d not have thought d them. had they not obferv dons.

. then upon any violent Motion of the Blood. that ferve for four of the Senfes y and all the parts of the Su per/our Regions 3 feat out the ihorteft and fafeft ways through proper Holes in the Head? And thole that ferve the Infericarry is our Regions of the Body. and fo occafion a ft agna tion and extravasation of the Blood in the Brain. at Arteries enter ^ for if do not they did. are in the Cortical and of begining Nerves in the Mepart. Thcfe Veins alia do not run along by the fides of the Arteries ia the Braio. Channel. dullar Part.of Datura! 3&eit giott* ^$5 Multitude of Glands.a Bony able. And it jin. their dilatation and pitlfatzou wou d cornprefs the Veins againft the bony fides of their Paflage. d down very remark that the Veins the fame Holes the pafs out. as they do . to the dcfhu&ion of the whole which by thcfe different Entries hlachin and Exits of thefc VciTels is prevented.. a hundred of which do not exceed one fingle Hair? How commodioufly are the Nerves.. log d in the Arte ries .... or any greater Quantity thereof than ordinary .

its point to ward the left fide.. and with what a Force does it fqueeze out the Blood into the Arteries . for the Arteries here.. . which is alfb another wife Contrivance of Nature ^ were by their dilata* tion to prefs out the Juice from the Nerves. for the more eafie a cent of the refluent Blood in the Cava . and with what are its Columns and Furrows clofer is Contra&ion of turn d a little its Ventricles .do through all the reft of the Body. Judgment for the difpos d ! Fibres arranged. into the Mufcles of involuntary Motioi^ which wou d have been hindfed if the Veins had always gone along with the Ar teries for thefe Veins wou d have receiv d the impulfe of the Arteries^ and thereby in fome Meafare kept it from the Nerves. for thereby like a reclining inverted SiAuricle becomes lower that! pbon. How are its varioufly vmfcttlar and effe&ual for its end.. the left the . pa and that 350 Pound weight of (es through the Heart ev ry Hour. Next how ftrongly is the Heart built. Boretti reckons it equal to the force of 3000 Pound weight^ Blood..

juft oppofite Y&tW) to the Mouth of the Cava afcendens^ there is a Hole from the Cava. and iscall d the Foramen Ovak^ there is likewife a Paflage.of the right. by and Situation of Contrivance prudent And ev n the Figure of the the Valvs. which wou d to the Ruin of the Animal . is feveral different for wife is Ends and Purpofes. Valvs themfelves. fame the in from that of the In the Heart of adult Perfons. to the Trunk of Arteria Pulmonalk. whereby the Blood has a in its true courfe forward y but paflage the fame wayis hindred from returning frequently happen. Batumi EcitQion. in the Places. w hich r runs from the Tmnl^ of theAorta. upon the equal prefjureof the Blood on all Hands^ and the Rcfiftance of the fides of the Vet (els. 257 All the Auricles and Ventricles have Valvs . in this which is moft wonderful the different Stnt&nre of the Heart in the Fatus . that opens into the Vena Pulmonalis... Now the Blood which is receiv d by the Placenta from S the . But that Affair. is which Inconvenience this entirely prevented.

is by the umbilical Veins car ried into the Port a.. from whence the communicating Canal. whilft that which comes from the Defcendens. to the Tntnl^of theother^by the Cava it is thrown through t\eforamen Ovalejnto the VenaPultnonali*. by pafles only through the right Ventricle. from which it is fent to the Cava. and falls into the right Ventricle. Blood that comes from the Super iour Parts of the Body. is diverted by the Ifthmns of file Cava from the for amen Ovale... in the FoetiM cou be- d not go through the Lnngs^ their Veficles by their coHipreffure upon the Blood Veffels. which throws it .into the Arteria Ptilmonaltf. by a Canal which goes ftraight from the Trnnk^ of the one. did . to be difpers d over the Body.the Mother./ obftrudHng that Courfe^ neither indeed. pa-ffes only through the left Ventri is The reafon of which caufe the Blood Paffages. fo that the Blood that comes from the Cava afcendenf. by which it is fqueez d into the Aor The ta. which carries it to the left Ventricle of the Heart. cle. it is imme diately carried into the Aorta.

.xtw being the Mother. in her Lungs . And this is certainly one of the moft con vincing Proofs of Defign and Conafel. and is no longer nouriflied from the Blood of the Mo is taken off from ther j this preflttre the Blood Veffels . that the Blood can no more pafs that way from the Cava. by : the communicating Canal And fo that dries up. is fuflicient for.lt. And through the Lungs fo finding a free Paffage it runs no more . but when ceiv d. before and after its Birth This is a plain Indication of fore-knowledgej and of fuch an one as no thing but Omnifcence. that neceffities ! S a can .of Natural 2Mi0tom 25 9 did the Blood need to pafs through the nouriftied from Lungs. and by the current in the /Wmonary Vein. by the diftenfion of the Lungs. the F&amp.. after the manner already explained. Now wifely are thefe different Channels for the Blood contriv d. for the different how of the Foetus . the Valve of the foramen 0* vale is {hut fo. it all comes into the Air .. whofe Fluids had already rethe Advantages they cou d reap from the Air.

by fome intelligent Being. all the feveral Steps of the growth and Vegetationfioth of Animals and Plantsy have been forefeen. But this is not the only Inftance of a Precaution.. and confequently. for it s evident. the animated part of this Syftcm^ wou d be but fo many PupfetSj tofs d up and down by Chance and Organ ^ Fortune. nor be forewarn d of approaching Danger.. for to provide for an Event.can pofllbly be wifh d for . and the manner of Vifion ! Without this XLV. by the wife Author of Nature rent Provifions are made.. feeing. cou d not guard againffc it^ without the Benefit of Light. What Animals cou d not provide themfelves with Food. and the Provifion defign d. without Houfe or Habitation^ and . for thefe various a noble piece of Get?metry is manifefted in the Fabric^ of the Eye. and fore-deffgn d. that the thing was forefeen. that in the natural Courfe of things. muft happen a long time after^ is an infallible evidence. diffe and different Circumftances adjufted^ Periods of their Lives.

Thefe things are not only contriv d and fram d nited with fo great Wifdom and Skill y as not to admit of a better j but to any one who attentively confiders them. and never to behold the chearful Light ? the Mifery of fuch a Life is beyond Exprefllon and Conception And on the other Hand. which is emit ted from luminous Bodies. to tranfmit through them : that fine. andfubtile Fluid. and depriv d of all the Pleafures and Con What a mifcrable veniences of Life. and Colours of re Diftantes. for feems impoflible that Light fhou d reprefent Obje&s to us^ at fo it 83 . to be confined to per petual Darknefs. they feem of fuch a Nature as fcarcely to allow any other Method. and u- on the bottom of the Eye. State wou d it be. what can be more amazing. than that the Particles of Matter fhou d be (b fram d^ as by their means to {hew us the Shapes^ Portions.of Natural Religion. and refle&ed from the Surfaces of Opake ones .) Motions^ yea mote Bodies ? How wonderfully muft the feveral Coats and Humours of* this little Ball be difpos d.

but Tranfparent before . firil Coat is call r The fourth Coat is the Choroides it . from the Qbjeft upon the Eye. The fecond Sclerotica. as to It is of obftruft very little of the Light. and fmooth. The the Globe of the Eye is fpherical-. hath little !&quot. And it feems impoflible that any other Compofition of the Eye. it is compos d of fix Coats and three Humours. to wafli and clean it. -. hard. Opake behind . confifts of feveral Lamintf^ w hich are pourifli d by fo fmall Blood Veflels. fhou d be equally fitted for that end. that upon any toucli 3 the Tears might be fqueez d from the la chrymal Glands. where it makes the third Coat call d the Cornea^ from its Refemblance to a piece of Transparent Horn^ it has a greater con vexity. than the reft of the Globe of the Eye. it lies under the Glands which feparate a black Liquor. but by the trartfmifll- on of fome fine Fluid. it is thick. d the ConjunQiva^ and jnakes the white of the Eye.. an exquifite Senfe../- is . which the internal fide thereof (which Sclerotic a.fo vaft a diftance.

apd. that their Force hurt not the Eye ^ and when it is weak. for the infide of the TiJvea from joins the Choroides^ Ciliare. at the approach. according to the ftrength or weakfor when the rtefs of the Light. The fixth Coat is the Kttina^ which covers like a Net the bottom -of the}^ it is only a fine expanfion^ of the ^Fibres of the QpNerve $ upon this -Coat. the ftraight Fibres dilate it.Vifion.of is ^atumi Belfgion... Circumference which rifes the Ligawemum forepart of the Eye is by whichthe d outward. its On Rays.. of too near Objefts. IJvea. to let in more the more diftinft...) The the which is nothing but the Circum it is ference of the P tip illa compos d of circular and ftraight Fibres. th^ Pifturcs of 84 prefs . to contrafl: or dilate..the Retina backwad^ or the Axe of the Eye lengthned. which is called the fupilla^ for admitting the Light. otherwife of a whitjih Colour) for dring the re$e$cd Light from difturbing the Pi&ures of Gbje&sthis Coat has a fifth is Hole before. Light is 5 too ftro ng^ the Circular Fibres contraft the Papilla.

it is The it lies is fir ft Humour immediately thin and liquid^ and of a fpirituous Nature. is The fecond . which it keepeth at a diftance from the Humour. infide in the of the Optil^Axes^ whereby the middle point of ev ry Objeft is diftinftly feen^ for the Center of the Reti na is infenfible. the in^ midle point of any Objcfr. upon its back part^ is the F^etina fpread. as Monfieur Mariotte has fhewn by Experiment. Aqueow it is The the glaffy Humour. it is thicker than the Aqueous . And confequently y had the Center of the Optick Nerves coincided. Nerves are inferted Objefts. calFd the Aqueous^ under the Cornea .of Obje&s are fram d. reChryjlalline quifite to receive the diftinft impreflion of The Optick. and thinner third is than the ChryftaUine^ it gives a Spherical Figure to the Eye. the ChryftaUine^ next the convex on both fides^ and refembles a double convex Lens ^ it is co vered with a fine Coat y call d Aranea. with that of the Retina.. had been vifible . in fo much that it will not freeze in the greateft Froft.

and then placing the Eye a darkened in a fit Hole. for looking then upon the back part of the Retina. d fall on the infide of Rays both Eyes at the fame time. from the Eye of any dead Animal. what can be more admirable than this ftru&ure of the Eye ... and there to paint in the fame Order and Proportion. dent by the Image thereof. ev ry part contribu ting fomething toward its Perfe&ion. are the Caufe of Vifion. The Cornea .gt..but by this lateral Infertion of thefe Nerves. The light which comes from the feveral points of Obje&s. the Figures of external Obje&s painted upon its infide) and thefe Piftures propagated by Motion^ along the Oftic^ Now Nerves. isforefra&ed (by the Cornea and ChriftaUineHumour principally) as to meet again upon the Retina. of Room . which covers the backfide of the Retina. (as taking off that part of the is evi Dura Mater. with that the the Obje&&amp. vifible in the other j fliou for it is impoflible. the point of the Objeft which is invifible in the one Eye. becomes vifible . we fliall fee through it.

the Hairs of the .break the dire$ Rays that . produc d by the of the Opticl^ Nerves. The OpticI^ Nerves are inferted on the infide of the dxes of the Eye... by which all the Rays are ga thered. render it oblong. according to the De grees glajjy of the Strength of the light. to Mufcles protrude.Cormais more convex than any other part of the Eye. that the whole Objc& may be diftin&ly view d. that the Rays that pafs through it may not be reflected back again upon the Retiaa. and few of em loft on the The A*U&amp.vea*..Eyebrows.. queouf its Humour being either thin. eafie black.he Ligamentum or both the the Bulb of the Eye. Ciliare contra&s.. the Fibres of the IJve. when Obje&s are too near . and fo confound the Obje&. to pafs through the Pupilla. the Images are painted upon a Skin..a contract or dilate the Pupilla.. The Humour keeps the Retina at a due diftance from the Chryjlallin. when t. for the Expanfion more conveyance of th? Impreflion The Choroides is tinl:ur d to the Brain.lt. eafily changes oblique Figure.

funk in a Hole. wall d with a ftrong Bone. As aL is fo.. when one Eye accidentally rendred ufelefs^ we enjoy the Bleflings of this fo neccflary . between two Obje&s is meafurcd. that they hart not the fight thofe on the Eyelids defend it from filth and light Bo dies that fwim in the Air^ the continual Motion of ty j Eyelids the Cornea^ elfe it it is moiflen and fweep woit d dry or grow dir . thence arifing. Our Eyes are double^ to (ccure both fides from Danger ^ becaufe if the Objects were near... The feveral refraftive Vir tues of the Coats and Humours^ ferve to correft the Errors arifing from the diffe rent Refrangibilities of the Rays of Light. however one Eye were plac d^ we cou d not diftinfily perceive them that fhou d be fituated toward the fides of our Body.of natural . Befidcs we cou d not diftingtiilh the diftance of Ob)efi:s by one Eyc^ for our two Eyes are like two the different Stations in Longimelryy the diftance by affiftarice of which. to keep it from more pow erful Injuries. and fo cou d not guard our felves from the Dangers.

. for oCreatures that by their ther reafons. and living which fend in the Piftures of Objefts around them .. than that great deal of Land Animals . and thofe that feek their .neceffary a Senfe. by the Benefit of the It is obfervable that the other. thefe ceffities two of thefe Animals. for that Vertue of Water from convexity which wou d unite the Rays of Light coming through Air 3 \vill not unite the fame fo perfe&ly at a point. in thofe that feek their Food on higher Pla^ ces 5 its greateft Diameter goes from the top of the Head towards the Feet perpen different Figures be to the different neing wonderfully fitted dicularly. in the fame diftance. coming In thofe Animals that Water. have a Clufter of Semifpberical Eyeballs all Thofe Figure. have no Motions of their Neck. Figure of the ChryftaUin Humour of Fifties^ is a nearer to a Sphere. through ga ther their Food from the Ground the Pupill is Oval or Elliptical. and that becaufe of the different refraKve Air. the greateft Diame ter going tranfverfly from fide to fide ..

the Laws of remov d that had the Retina been pricks farther &amp.gt. Now all we know from from. which Varieties over concur to demonftrate that Objeds at a due Diftance. have their Retina coloured white . or brought nearer the Chriflallin Humor.. or had the Di ftance .. of Forefeght and Connfel in that Being that fram d thefe Organs but that which to me fair^ is is moft furprizing in this A that in rational Creatures. and under y as to reprefent Objefts at a due Diftance of their true and real Magnitudes.gt. which refleds the light and enables them to fee beft in the leaft their ifi Food light j thefe are wonderful and furprizing Inftances. or (keeping the Retina at the fame Diftance from that Humor) had it confifted of two Segments of a lefs or greater Sphere^ the Vifion had been indiftinft or none at all . and this we are certain of by our other Senfes.of Natural ^Religion* the dark. are of the iame real Magnitude our Eyes reprefent them.. whofe Organs are found they fhou d have been fb nicely fram d in all the infinite pofllble &amp.

which we cou d not have difcovered. but by . and hindered us from taking in any other Objeft} in a covered all Word. any thing confiderad have feen but a very fmall bly. the Precipice that perhaps was not many Feet from us^ might have appear d at Ibme Paces Di- have tumbled down^ ere we were aware. or the Atom that we now fcarce take Notice of.. bcfides that thus we fhou d not have difcovered the true Magnitude of Obje&s ^ which wou d have had a thou fand fatal Confequences. wou d have ftancc 3 and we our View. we had feen Obje&s ev n at a due Diftance. either bigger or lefs than the Truth. but had it confifted of of Segments of Spheres^ leis or greater^ than thofe of our Chriftallin Humour^ that are at prefent. we cou part of them at once.. and twenty dange rous things might have been in our ways.. had our Eyes magnified Obje&s...270 ftance been fitted exa&ly in the Focus of the Chriftattin. which wou d have expos d us to a thoufand dangerous Miftakes^ for Example..

likewife. In one Word. wou d have been able to have damn d up. there are Infinities of different Ways. and we might have been deftroy d by thofe which we thought at a difbnce. our Eyes might have poffibly been form d 5 none of which cou d have brought with it^ the Advantages the prefent Strufture does. that was beft . he certainly deferves not to enjoy . thor . the Blefllngs of his Eye Sight^ whofe Mind is fo deprav d. than thofe ofReptils. Can there then be a more pregnant and convincing Evidence of the Being of an infinitely wife Power ^ who out of the infinite pofllble Varieties..of by a great deal of Pains .. fo that our Promuft have been flower greffive Motions.as not to acknowledge the Bounty and Wifdom of the Au.. . and then ev ry little Particle. we coti d have feen them but faintly and iridiftin&ly all mi nute Bodies wou d have vanifhed... and obftru&ed our ObSight ^ and had our Eyes diminiflhed jeb confiderably. of difadvantagious Fabricks of this Organ^ has fingled out that only one.

according to the Exigences of different Climates^ by Motion our Winds are produc d. Hearing is the next Senfe in Dignity to Seeing^ (for I reckon his thor of Nature. its and our Blood lations . in Feeling a general one. and buoy d up to the higher Regions . and purifie our particular Modifications) wou d : Atmofyhere ^ by drawing it in we fitted to live. it s which fail our Ships.the ravijbing and aftonijbing Stru&ure of this noble Organ. XLVI.. is perform CircH* by it Sounds are convey d to our . fhou d ferve us for fo ma By it ny different. yet neceflary Ufes our Vapours are fupported. we enjoy the Benefits of Converfation ^ and the Pleafurcs of Mnjick^ and by it we are forewarned of thofe Dangers. this of It is by Means Senfe. to be there form d into Snow or Rain. and what can be more wonderful than that the fame Medium of Air. our Eyes cannot inform us of. of which the reft are only without which be our Lives very Comfortless.

or any hurtful thing. and then are many Glands y which feparate a vifcid glutinous Matter. and the Os orbicular?. Paflage refembline m it T . riming firft downward .. behinds the Palate of this and receives Air to fupply thefe Cavities. one of which opens. The Internal Parts of the Ear are thefe. that have no Communi cation with the Air.of Natural Bciigioti.. In Bony Barrel there are fevcral Holes. which hinders Infe&s. which ends in the VejiibuhtM y and is follow d by the Cochlea^ which is a a Snail s Shell. and other Mcns Thoughts to our Minds. Next to the Barrel^ is the Labyrinth. a thin Membrane^ like a Drum. ftretch d upon a It is behind which is the Barrel^ in the Cavity of which there are four little Bones call d the Hammer^ the Anwily the Stirrup. here upward. 273 Ears.. coming in by the outward Ear. the Head of Circle. The Meatus Andit or his ^ which is a contorted Paflage for the out ward Air. i. from corroding the Tynrpa?ntt& y which is a fecond principal Part of the internal Ear. the Mouth.

Waves in a Circle round it) thefe are gathered by the Concha. to ftrike the in-* ternal Air after the fame manner. thus mov d. .2/4 it Auditory Nerves terminate.atus Andit or ms or to the . the four little Bones that are in the Barrel. to hinder d. Tywpanuni Drum. and carried through the Me. after the fame manner is the internal Air mov d by thefe little Bones and this internal Air. makes $ anlmprdlion upon the Auditory Nerves. and all Apparatus feeins intended. in the Labyrinth and Cochlea fo that as the ex-r . Air by many repea ted Vibrations.. tcrnal Air ftrikesthe Druwfo does it move the Bones in the Barrel. mov fo the. and as k is accordingly is the Impreflion inade upon the Auditory Nerves.. excites thefe undulations in it.. on which beating. raifes in the Water.. through the Air (the Sonorous Body ftriking the Ambient. after the manner any heavy Body thrown into a (landing Lake. Now when any Sound is propagated in Undula the tions. or ex ternal Ear. are thereby mov d and as the Drum is ftruck by the external Air.

is ftill able to difturb thefe (lender Tubes. and fometimes to diforder them fo^ as to Now how wife deprive us of this Seuje.Noife had been capable of difhirbing us.of Natural ffidigiotn the Sound from coming -with too great Violence upon theib Nerves.Hearing^ is nicely adjufted to the Gonvcmencies and Neceilkies of Life^ which is a of Deftgn in the plain Inftance the fame might two remaining Sen. Fabrick of this Organ be demonftrated of the fes. ly is this neceffary and plcafant Senfe eontriv d. Wou d have pirc d our Ears like a Peal of Thunder. deprived of all the Fleafures and ! Advantages thence arifing : fcl that it s e- vident our . and the Morion of every little Atom wou d have rob d us of Reft and had this Senje been any thing confiderably more dull. for we find that too fudden^ and violent a Noife. for the Conveniences of Life Had it been more exquifite. which for Brevities fake I mult now omit.. the buzzing of a Flie^ or the Noife of our own Breath. we fhou d have been in proportion thereto. T 3 . then every little &quot..

the La&eals and it is DuStus Thoracicus-... lyes. and with others...$M)ttofopl)icai all have before obferv d. all thefe Valves^ opening toward the term of the Natural Motion.and that for all unite again in this w ife End r . that . do one Trun^ whofe Branches communicate with one another.. and obfervable that this laft Channel always goes up the left fide. It is likewife remarkable.. the Blood may . as before. and thereby obftrufting that backward Motion. Valves. of thefe Fluids. when any fmall Artery is obftru&ed or cut. at any fmall Diftance from the Trunks.. that all the Branches of the Arteries which go off... in their Courfe. but fhuting by the Preflure of the Blood in a contrary Direction.. Thefe Valves are but in vifible. that by the Pulfation of the great Artery. by which their Fluids are per mitted to go forward. that the Canals except the Arteries have I XLVII. not only in the Veins the Lymfhaticks. but hindered from returning back. upon which it immediately the Chyle may be propell d upward.

.. ftru&ion..of Natural ^Religion* the 277 may be brought by Branches. whereby it appears the Diameter of the Aorta^ does not bear a greater Pro portion. than that of the fame at the Heart. to the primary Branches of the Ar and doubtlefs the odds is teries . Ke/ll. greater in the fmaller Branches...than ^ to 7 : fru. Di* evident from : this curate Compendium y Anatwiy of Human Bodies I have always had recourfe where my Memory fail d me) has giv n us all the Branches of the Arteries to the ateat . or its Entry into the Aorta^ becaufe it is of thefc extreme Ar teries the Glands are form d them the fccretions Velocities are made.. and by which as was . has Nature been in the Stru&ure of the gal How Veins ! . (to whofe of the Ac Trunk. before demonftrated in the Blood require different to fecern the ^ different Fluids in thefe Glands minution of the Velocity is the Proportions Dr. The Velo in the extreme Arteries city of the Blood is confiderably lefs. to the Parts communicating below the Ob- which muft have otherwife been depriv d of Nourifiiment.

are endowed with Valves. againft the fides of thefe wi the thicknefs of their dening Channels. not omit here the wonderful Contrivance feveral of Nature in the Pofition of the the Vterns j the Parts of the Ftfns in in the iirlt part of the time Skyll whereof and of its Geftdtioti being Very thin. for their widening Channels. Veins ! for becaufe of the lefs Preffure proportion the Arteries. large . I can to fpeak of the containing Veffels. than thofe of Walls is in lefs. but the foreward Motion of the pres d bv Blood. Now thcfc Valves were ufelefs in other Veins. which flick to their Sides like fo many Thimbles. Occafion to the Blood to pufh back give no and not ward. and foftop Pailage. that only thofe Veins that nin perpendicular to the Hori-j^off. Branches of thefe linall the Horizon communicate with one another. perpeud/cnlar backward. are are tornits fill d.$fttlofopi)ical of the Blood. that the for the fame ends and purpofes and having now Occafion Arteries did -. Bcfides. which when the Blood prdfles back. Veins. it s Gravity afting laterally to the as in thofe ...&quot.

and fo to put a Clofe to this Chapter. Counfel and Forefight.of natural Beiigiom only Membranous. diffidently to wit that are wonderfully wade. though I have at a few of thofe Inpointed only ftances that we the Animal Fabrick and Oe~ conowy affords.. with its Face to toward it s Mothers Belly. has . and fo the Head becomes the heavieft place in the Body whereby it tumbles over. but about the time of its Delivery the Skull and hardens^ the Limbs and Members ft retch out. but I haften to thickens.already fwell d to a far greater Bulk . in the Formation of thefe Organs and parts.. it in a Direction that upward.. I now come to make a few general Obfervations under one Head.. XLVIIL Having I think made out that great Truth. and acquires that Pofture which is fitteft for its Deli Thefe are fignal Inftances of very. the Thorax and Abdo men with the Limbs are fo dispos d as to make Fluid the Head always emerge out of the or at leaft preferves it is ftill it lies in. a Cloib...

than Foxes or Lyons-.. Thus Iron is found almoft every where. that thofe Animals. are fuch as will grow almoft in every Soil and Climate... thus a Crane. the Infitiency of the Cawe!. and Turtles are more produHve than Crows or Jackdaws. and the Alka and fome lays but other Sea Fowls. nioft value for for . while other more curious and nice Plants will only thrive in their proper Soils: Thus Hens^ Gecfe. lay oftner. Corn is the Produft of all Soils. two Eggs. than the fitnefs of ev ry Crea ture for the ufe we make of him ? The of the Elephant. and Hares. and Minerals. and Advantage to us. whereas the IV tridge ty &amp. which is but fcurvy Meat. as the Woodcol^ and the Dove. and are more produftive of their kind than others. and is are found in moft Places.gt. and Climates.. Plants. but one.. and are of Food. and Conies. that are of moft life. fo long employ docility ed in War. It is very remarkable. and the Pheafatit hath fifteen or twen and thofe which lay fewer. What is more admirable..280 Bulk than I at firft defign d it.

and there by fo well fitted for our life frugally and Service ! How ufelefs has Nature avoided any Cir-. have no very quick fight.. it being ufclefs to fuch. tl iifelefs . Beauty^ Strength. as Fifits and other Inhabitants of the watery Element. and Swiftnefs of the Horfe. fince their (lownefs allows them time to dwell as Snails and Moles longer on an Objeft. thefe other \Vou d beufelelk.of Natural SRtltgien* for travelling in the parch ferts^ d and dry De- the gentlenefs of the Sheep... when the cumftances of the Animal wou d haverendred ern Fo ? Thus thoFe Animals that are (low of their Nature. b* caufe thefe Teeth render more Stomachs both Jaws. but thefe that are enclow d \vith a quicker Motion. and ev n Excrements are fwcet. Sd alfo.. Expcnce of Organs.. whofe Breath * Foam. have brisker Eyes^ and a more as Hawkj and quick piercing fight ^ Hares. the Cleannefs.. Thofe Animals alfo. that have no Ears have no Organs for making a noife with^ becaufe \vanting Ears. thofe Animals which have Teeth on have but one Stomach..

thcPattch^ the Read and the Feck. partiqn to his Body than any other w* mal. may be gathered by any one who will cpnfult the V/ritings of natu ral Hiftorians. have three Stomachs to fupply the want of thefe Teeth.Brains.asinBeafts. and in all granivorous Birds. the Crop.. Bat tho. and confequcntly can have no has not fo great Ute for much dexterity^ well q. Thefe. and a thoufand fuch Inftances of Wisdom .fe who I will not be canvinc d by the Inftances that there is have brought doms of parrs.. fiiap d nor eafily applicable a Hand.be prevaiKd upon by thofe behind* THE . who numbered all our a and appointed them out their feyeral Ends and Uies v I am afraid will flpt. A Man which has a bigger Brain in prq.. the God who rules in the King Earth.^i)ilofopi)icai ufelefs and thofe Animals that have no upper Teeth or none at all. has a better and more eafiiy manage able Hand ^ whereas a Mortice that has littie . the Echinus and the Gi^^ard. Counsel ^ and Meliority in the Contrivance arid Fabrick of the feveral Animals .

Of Suture ) of Finltenefs and and the Limits of Human \. for us to extend poffible Faculties. CHAP. but Darknefs and Confufion : We may (boner Aaa be able to accem- . There can never by a perfect Comprehenfion of. that our Minds and Capacities.. in vain we Struggle. in vain things. are as really bounded and circumour Bodies and chat it is as imis . beyond all Difpute.lt. attain to are fome we Labour. the IV. for us to add a Cubit to our beyond their Stature . the Eyes of our Underftanding are capable of but a limited aperture^ and of receiving but a bounded Obje&amp. TT 1 T as JL fcrib d. we perceive nothing. that we all our Endeavour. r .5t If we drive to enlarge it. our Intellectual as it is determined Limits.

Figures and Numbers. II. and moft diftindt. as it dent from hence. leaft compounded. and not . how fome Exiftence notwichftanding. in a Circle of a Foot Diameter. whofc things can be. Magnitude or Quantity in the Abthat of is which we have the clearis eft Apprehenfions. that almoft all jufteft and evi Men.accommodate a Line of ten Feet. in a proper Method. who have apply d themfelvcs diligently to difcover. to allow 5 and fince it is fo. to our Reaionings 5 and yet all this. that the Notions and Ideas* of : rhefe things. are both the fimpleft. The Reaion agreed in their Conclufions ot which is. and where he muft be contented to be ignorant. the Proper have ties of Lines. our Minds can never concei^ Interefts.and comprehend. and have the lead Influence on our Paffions. than be able to con ceive. Preju dices which generally give the for Byafs. we are forced it becomes a Wile Man to diftinguifh between what he can really underftand.

. We may call finite. that. infinite An which is both ways a Line with no Extremity at i. beyond which all is palpable Darknefs. a right Line with but one Extremity. that Bounds or Limits are given is or that j whofe which bounded on all poffibie (ides infinite chac which is bounded or limited no way thus a Line is that. all. but $ i. but ftill there arc which we can never at tain. or a that right Line. e. one of whofe Ex definite right Line. and profound Ob- fome things. there is a Non pita ultra. Circle of a given fide A or Radius.of Natural aHeUgfom nor our Imaginations form an Idea of an unlimited or boundlcfs Quantity. We may ties. to fcurity. e. III. indeed improve either of thefe Facul by Study and Induftry fo far. indefinite. both whole Ex finite right An itremities arc determin cl or given. tremities is not the other given. . cotnpreheads a a a . as to be able to reach Heights that may feem furprifing to thofe that do not apply themfelves to fuch Matters . Thus an equilateral Triangle.

of a given Solid . nor apprehended. in al- low d an to fpeak fo) an Cone. be Infinite. [cribe fpeak any not. that infinite always than any -finite Quantity.e But ^ecaufe it Infinitenefsis of that Nature. but of fide or Radius.gt.4 but of an hends a given or finite 4re a fide or Radius. how great greater loever 5 for whatever Quantity always ex ceeds. from its /?o- Jitive Properties. we muft I tome Mark or Rule. . all poffible Degrees of Finites. thing diftindtly a bout the Na what ture ofFiniteneJ* or Jnfinitenefs. from the other. equilateral /zw&amp. muft how can have no Notion of any real Quantity but with the Degrees thereFinite and Infinite ot IV.gt. there certain. ( if one may be finite &amp. rather And feeing before we can is. an nt/wil* Solid. infinite Area y asalfo or Sphere. by Attributes. to diftinguifli is have the one none. fince we great foever. think. telling its effential we are forced to it is de- by than what it it. makes a an infinite fide or Radius. is more than this. that neither can be defin d by us.

or this infinitely Grcat^ in refped of that. refped: Thus any thofe infinitely Lefs. ^Planets. in in felves.of IV. There is are two ICinds . %- re/ped: another Quantity. of one In* or infinitely lathe. lin d dngky is infinite in refped of the cir And there are ocular Angle of Contatt ther Curves in infinitum. fmall *Porlions of in refped: is infinitely Little. The other Alfoiute. is in* in refped of the finite Space. finits. Quantity. of an infinite A a a 3 . is tho infinitely Little. in infinitely Orbits. each of and of themof right of which. and a Line par olid thereto. CwtaEi are as in infinitely Lefs. whole Angles of . we the fliall afterwards demonftrate. infinitely Lefs : thefe there are Gradations in infinitum. how refped: of foever : great in any thus finite the Space contained between the Jfymptote of fome Hjperlokids .. Thus their Motions of the is the Centri petal Force. which is infinite. of the projeflile Force. yet infinitely Great. which only great Quantities in Infinite . than circular ones. finite at a Diftance finite from it.

in or Space refpeft is of the place of Body. is to finite. Numbers. we muf confide . diftinft (Pitturet. to an infinitely fmall Part there fo is finite of. infinite an Number were thing. and confequemly the] would be fo likewife of infinite ones. as finite to an infinitely fmall Part thereof. or^fprefentatkns.infinite fion Length. alfo Small ones. Thus the ExpanAfymptote and of the Univerfe. Infinitely Small . for if an in fmali Quantity. as infinitely Great. fo is that. may be a Relative finitely of an infinitely infinitely Great one. comprehended between the the Curve. and infinitely Small. in refped of other in Greater. correlatives. in refpedl true of infinitely Lefs. and become the fame may be quently will then finitely Great. is affignable j Bu feeing fuch a impoffible. as alfo. and therefore Univerfally.lt. o\ Quantities. are the moft fimpl&amp. is infinite. of infinitely And what is (aid great Quantities. or Smaller. to an infinitely fmall Part of this infinitely fmall one. ^ and finite V. and confeinfinitely infinitely Great.

e. confider thus frame our Notions of infinitely how great unity otfmall Numbers . join d together. of fuch a Number. ons . infinitum. a a$ by perpetual Subtra&ion. fo many times. may may be more by fome one or more Mul Like wife. i. Aaa from any finite 4 . if we add we fhall have as great perpetually to icfelf. i. or the Repreientation of -the Nature. therefore what be had by a perpetual Addition. by fuch ano ther Number. we fhall have an in* Number. we (hall have the Progreffion. and if we con finite tinue thus adding in infinitum. Thus. whofe Sum at laft would be equal ties. to an infinite Number of Uni or other finite Numbers. And becaufe a conftant Addition. a* Number as we defire. and go on in and or diminifliing in incrcafing. we can never actually go thro thefe infinite Additi e. we (hall at laft have a Number greater than any finite one. how finite great foever . becauie But Virtually. eafily obtained. tiplications.of any finite determined Number. is increased or diminifh d. of a determined Number. is a Mul equivalent to tiplication of fuch a Number. not actually.

8 finite Number how Great unites. VI. lies in the infinitely perpetuated arithmetical Operations. whatever Cafe by Subtra But ction. that the whole may be obtained in this Force of this manner of generating an infi nitely great or fmall Number. finite upon given Numbers-. finite not that thefe Operations. if (uch a thing were to be obtain d. how fmall foever. And becaufe Divifion only a perpetual Subtra&ion of fuch ^Number. fb many times as the Divifor implies. loever. fo by fiich a Subtraction per petuated in infinitum. in any time. therefore. e. fmaller then any finite Number. may be alfo had by Divifion. can a&ually compleat or exhibit the infinite Numbtr re But that thefe continued in infiniquired. an infinitely is fmall Number. tum. we flhould obtain a Number. would at laft exhibit them. of one or more we fliall at laft obtain a re finite mainder. how fmall foever. i. . equal to any Number. here it is to be obferv d.

implies no Contradi- fhould be again. it may be ftill i mulciply d or another Number and To it by im plies . e. Number greater Number. in being added ta and the Sum of all itfelf. you may do it atiply and again. it may be again added to itielf. and again. for whatfoever has once been. thefe. or Quantity may be once added to itfelf. (as fome have thought) is evident from both the ways juft now mentioned. at leaftic implies no Congain. how great foeverj a than i. in nerating an infinitely great or (mall Number &amp.gt.of $atut ai Religion* Vf. tradition. itiliouldbefomultiply d^ and after an affignabie N^m^roffuch MultiAgain. plications^ itfelf. 6tion it and confequently it implies no Comradiition it fhould go on conftantly. of ge tradi&ion. in infinitum^ third time. and if a finite Number. That infinitenefs implies no Cqpits Import or Significarion. which may reprefent any infinitely great or fmall Quantity whatfoevcr . if any finite an infinite Number. and a would make you can mul a Number by itfelf.

. how great foe- Number. the Parts there and an &amp. i. Quantities. thus be twixt ~ and o the Sum of an infinite we Num ber of to is i mean (Proportionals. are ~ 5 ~ ? 5^c - Befides. can imply no Contradiction. e.io plies jtMnlofopiiiral no Contradiction. then any finite. and univerfally betwixt -and o. and the Truth s difcover d by poffibility of infinitely Methods. Sum is and the mean themfelves. and the Sum of all which Products. infinite Number of mean whole Proportionals Proportionals in the ratio of a to i. at the rate fince the of 2 is and Sum can imply no Con* tradition . infinite an fince can affign their Sum . would make a Number . the depends upon and fmall gveat. of Geometrical mean Proportionals. greater ver.gt. equal to Unity . Likewife it s certain that between any two given Terms an Infinite Number. which depend upon thefe Sup- positions.one. the whole abjlraEl Geometry . affignablc. it fliould be ftill the Produft of going on in Multiplying all which Multiplications.

of by other which have other Foundations and they are too well fupported. fince whoever does underftand this. and whereever our Imagination may place the Limits of the Extenfion y of the Univerfe. Univerfe from hence. i Contradiction in . two Diftances in the one going forward. and Quantity to That the Extenfion. need not be told VII. is evident is the termination of right Line. But that its hfinitcnefiy involves no Import or Signification. there muft be ftill further Extenfion . that whereever we flop. to allow of any pofitions. in thofe that are throughly ac with this Science. arc confirmed $ Hefitation. Inftances arc quainted needlcfs. the end of one Part of it . will convince us. the other backward. for every Limit is boundlefs. . fame yet a little further Reflection. of allowing is evident from the neceffity both Extenfion and Duration to be boundbe infinitely Divifilefs. from the Limiting Poinc. of the ble for. there muft be Extenfion beyond thefe Li mits. for in Extenfion. thefe things.

to it. is ffiijtiofoplncal the beginning of another. equal fide. equal Sphere. may be found Moreover.2 it. and fo it go on without Bounds or Limits. if the muft Extenfeon of the Univerfe is then a Sphere of a finite Dia finite only. nite Let us then fiippofe the whole fi to the Exttnfion of the Univt rfe. is the Product of the fide of of a finite the Cube multiply d. into the Cube ^oot of -| of the parts & ratio of the^^w to the Grcumi ference. may be found equal to any finite Content whatfoever. as is well known . . and the Radius of a Sphere equal to this Cube. for a Cube meter.

of every main. of admitting fome real Being to have been for ever. it s certain from the Elements of Euclid. finite Extenfanhow Exttenfon. of which only the Point A falls upon the from Circle. let this Sphere be cut by a plane through its Center.of Natural Religion. and muft be without an end. fince a plane paffing through this Tangent. yet time or Duration muft have for ever been 5 there is an abfolute nccefiity. evident^ tharit both has been without a beginning. and fince this is true. for whether thisUniverfe had a beginning or not. is ic s evident the Extenfan of the Univcrfe finite greater than it any is 2. tenjioH without this Circle. or che Sphere by the Sedion of which it is generated . 1 5 whofe QfaJiiM is A ft. be the Circle ADFE-. that there muft be Ex. that to any gi ven Point At a Tangent A C. the reft falling without it whence it s evident. great foever. will only touch the Sphere in the Point A. and the Se&ion. may be drawn. Sphere. . As to Duration. by which there will an extended Diftance re between the Circumference of the Sphere and the Tangent in all their Points ex cepting one.

the very Suppofition. The infinite Divifibi5.& poft. is the common one. when time was not. Befides. needlefs to dwell it. wherefore Time or Duration. in the preceding Chapters .have already demonftrated. fo many different Principles. fo that it s evident. yet rime could not be faid not to exift. destroying itfelf. therefore the Duration of this thing muft for ever be . lity were there of Quantity it ftrated upon moft perfect and unavoidable Proof of.lt. &amp. and confequentever. is. Duration muft be infinite both a farte ante. and fince fome real thing muft for ever exift. as I ly the Duration of this Being.Philofopby we go upon. as the Schools fpeak. nothing actually exifting. and muft be infinite.lt. for we cannot fuppofe a time. has been for ever . the is fo and demon there incom- menfurability . from the that from were plain. whatever Scheme of &amp.

y^D to tht Diagonal &amp.gt. 5(A/w are Similar.Pp &amp.lt. Aft Z&amp.gt. CD be a Square.. that ding the fide AT) into Parts equal. any . i yet to ftill or &amp. whofe Diagonal is !B theft is the fide 2..of Bdigion.I(m ^ 2. as i: V from whence it s plain. fmalifoever divi how fliall T p. as be to Mm.gt. fo that impoflible before an adual infinite Divifion of the fide A to find a Part in D&amp.lt. thatfhould have to (P/&amp. Since the 7H- 4H/w is ^D.lt. let men/urability of fufd Quantities.BD.

infirittum j that neither Great. yet !B ftill on. or Qua lity of a real Being. I e. nothing in their Import but the Degrees of the Properties of Things .any fuch Proportion as either Integers. fliould equal if DS exactly. that taken a certain finite. but the Modes. divided in capable of is and confcquently AD. or even infinite Nunber of times. to find a part Tp in the fide AT). and / Mcalures of the Affections of Things thj is an abftrafl jfenw. and that from all which. or they do not fignifie really Beings. it is abbefore an adtual infinite folutely impoflible Divifion. or frattions have to one another. but like all oiher till JdjuhBsj. fignifying finitenefi unboundednefe of the Property.gt. were T&amp. involves any Contradiction in their Import or VIII. Signification. Things in themlelves. it s very evident. involve and Conception. ever fo fmall Parts. nor infinitely infinitely Small. Finitude and infinitude. it is to fame Subfttntive j thus jjoyn d in finite . does not imply a real Idea. in being further divided.

that there no I there fhould be fuch. any one Property. may be which may have no B b b . and belong to a Crea ture. but Infi intelligible Properties nity is till its a vague and undetermined Notion. they thought muft neceffabe io in ieveral others. . infinite in is Degree tain it is. I have fhewn in the two falfity infinite becaufe whatever was in former Seffions. but upon immediately it muft belong to thefirft Be fo could not ing. of the firft.. and endlefs Duration. unli mited Exttnfton. which deftroylily cd the Nature of a created The Being. \? or infinite Wi/dom. are of things. that there no Creature. that 5 any Quality. tion of a proper Subject (brine Perfons have thought that Infinitmfs was a contra dictory Term. is and tho I am of Opinion.of Natural Beltgtom finite JKjiotffledge. that nothing could be capa ble of having Infinity afcribed to it. endowed with yen cerabfurdity. fince there infinites I of feveral Kinds. or paint an Image their Imaginations j others have thought. irs prehend thereof becaule they could not com Extent. Import is determined by the Addi .

nor Wifdom fome Proper as So ties involve fome others neceffarily. as Extenfion does no way . but unlimited at the o- ther. and yet have no other real Property and Time. j . fome do not at imply others. but when a finite Degree of any one Property. may be boundlefs. a Parallelogram but of a may be of an infinite a Solid finite Breadth. Knowledge and when a finite Degree of any one Pro a finite Degree of another. lidity all does Impenetrability. . perty. and Length. may be eternal. may have infinite Length.8 no Relation another : nor Dependance upon one Thus a Line may be limited at to. does not at all alter the former Cafe. and Breadth. nor im ply any Degree of that other. nor Motion. either finite all or infinite : Wherefore there is no Impoffibility . implies the infinite implies the infinite . one Extremity. or the mundan Space. and have neither Knowledge. but thus alfo a finite Thicknefs or Profundity the Extenfion of the Univerfe. or Du~ ration. imply Thought. the infinite Degree of that Property. does not at imply any Degree of another.

unit to have been from all lefs we fuppofe Eternity of tt felf. but in effect. and yet be fince infinite in its Knowledge implies neither nor Reflexion.gt. implies many have fhewn in the laft Article of the it . a created Extenfion.of bility. may be the Immenjiiy and Eternity is of that firft with all great Being. Natural ffiel&totu or Abfurdity.dce.are fiftences. nor compleat SubS/&amp.. tho per* B bb 2 haps endow d . infinite Duration. Being. for eternal Dura tion implies no other poficive Quality. I do not here deand eternal tcmine 5 whether Extenfion. provided thefe do not imply others which deftroy the Eflence of a Creature And this Univeife may be infinite -. for the neceffary Exiftence of a from as I thing other Qualities. which quire alters the Cafe . fecond Chapter Time and no real things. fdf. which other fuitable Qualities. that a created Being in their Oiould be endowed with fome Qualities Degree. nor any of the Extenfion Properties of fpiritual Beings. As alfo this World may have been from all Eternity^ and yet have been created. they are only the Modes and 0Vcumftances of other things.

infinite in their Degrees. that deftroy the Being of a Creature. like Infinites ones finite finite $ and very many quite contrary is bounded. to one another. finite conceivable.20 ^pofoptncai $?inctplcs be abundance of Reaion to . that finite $ is no part of infinite. infinite incomprchenfible. infinite boundlefs. ther be niteJiQi added to. different Nature. haps.which do not neceflarily in maintain. that Abfurdity in admitting Creatures all I volve thofe others. there may lead one to think fo there is no to be endowed with fome Qualities. or Subtraftion thefe and that finite can nei nor fubftra6fced from w/zthat are of the fame things . exhauftible ? infinite inexhauftible.Extmfion and thought. are Difparata. which by finite Multiplications. no/* nite Addition norMultiplication of fimtesj&n produce an Proportion infinite.not has finite to infinite any for thefe only have a aflignable Proportion. is. only kind are capable of Addition. they have few or no common Qualities. Finite* and or things of a quite Light and Sound^Coloun &ndMufick. IX. can mutually exceed one another from whence it is evident.

in refpeft of thofe of a lower. and the Squares. and fo in the higer Powers. of any infinitely great or Quantity. fo like- wife in the Aritkmtick of finite*. 3 But in Bbb . all infinites are to be thrown away. for when the Proportion between any kinds of infinites. wherefore in the can drithmetick of the one. The fame little is true. of a higher Rank. nor fubtradt infinites. becaufe no finite Number make an infinite^ nor any finite part of an infinite make a finite. becaule no Number. is to be thrown away.lt. the other is to be neglefted. ib likewife not zddfidites to.of you cannot add Cows to Horfes. the other. &amp. nor pare of the one. ( mtdy Small) ?n infinite of the lowert kind and a then in the Arithmetick of fuch either infinitely Great or infi* is the fame. of is fquare An infinite Quantity.5tion. as no parts of the thing we fearch for. can make you can em from offinftef. the lower to be rejeacdj in the Aritbmetick of the higher kind j thus the Root.as no parts of the Qjt&fitum . in the dritbmetkk of the Squares of infinite Quantities . as that between finite^ infinite*. in that of the Cubes.

nor form a Notion of Infinity our Me mories and our difcurfive Faculties.gtfjiiofopitfcai $tfncfpies in infinitely fmall Quantities. arc li . by none of the Faculties. nor run over the Parts of Infinites^ word. be- caufe no finite Multiplication of Part of that. by reafon that the Produdt of the of two Fractions. X. fo we can neither exhauft the Con tents .lt. and therefore is no mean in Arithmetical Operations. this can produce the former. The pofitive Nature of Infinites. mited. can we in a attain to the pofitive Properties. nor any of the Operations of the Mind. ginations and Apprehenfions are finite. both our Ima pacities. we can neither frame a Picture to ourfelves. wherethan lefs to ob ever the Proportion of infinite finite tains.gt. the contrary obtains. isabfolutely incomprehenfible. I the latter. is always Multiplication of the But either Fa&amp. the laft is always to be rejected in the Arithmetical Operations of the firft. of Addition and Subtraction of thele Quantities. fo&amp. or cffcntiaJ .5lors. by finite Ca fuch as ours are.

but we know very commonly. came at hft to be infinite. Numbers all finite ( the moft adequate Pictures of Apprehenfion. fo that they are very &amp. cility with much if Fa and our CompnlMnfions. Bbb 4 far . flies little and that is all that Study and Application does. of their Nature.of ffiatutal Beligfon* tial & 3 Attributes of in Infinites. and our Undcrftandings open. as eailly. or Force. in to give us a furniconceiving things. is the laft thing we attain to. that the natural Enlargement of our Minds.gt. ends . as we now do the leaft. to the natural of our Minds. as we well do now finite ones . we might per haps. we are capable to advance. and us with variety of Objects j but adds Vigor. we then fliould conceive. and that a di(Quantities ) of their pofidve Qua Relations. and if our Capacities did conftantly enlarge and encreafe. time of our Maturity Facility. at the and Capacities. come diftinftly to conceive as the greatcft finite Numbers. We fee for Ex- emplc ftinft lities. when we are Children. the pofidve Na ture of infinite Quantities. as our Minds enlarge.

we fliotiid diftinguifli Number of which... the Proportion that n has to XL ther. for it s certain. . with any probability of Succefs. Since then thus is. i4 . we muft be contented. nother. for all the Proportions that finite* have. or the finite Relations of infinites to one another. the relations of neceflary to one ano the Parts. i t. fince it is abfolutely impoffible for us to ftretch our beyond their prefcrib d Limits.gt.. which we can attain to.&quot. far from arriving to that Strength. an as n. $J)Sofbpj)fcai ._...-. io as to it be able to conceive. an flitutes the infinite. and that is their relative Nature. Quantity of equal Parts. fince we can never comprehend the pofitive Nature of Infinites. fuch has to an infinite Quantity of equal infinite ###BOT_TEXT###amp;amp. it For is the more diftind Appre Infinites hending. Pro* +1 +3+4 +5i &c. con* infinite Now thefe may be ei unequal. ther all and that in a regular. ______. fuch as greffion. the pofitive Nature of Infinites. -. that infinites have to one aCapacities. i. Parts fuch as Unity. to improve that Part of infinites.

who(e Parts infinitum are 2. and CXD a Numinfinite of indetermin d equal Parts 5 then | will m . regular Progreffion : all thefe Varieties may happen in the Parts.&c. or as the Roots of fucb Powers. as turn. conftkures the infinite. infinite. C0fej. where the Pares that at laft con&itute. let 2. are as Natural bers ? or thefe Parts may be as che&fftirif. or any other Powers of Natural - Num Numbers. &c. ininfinior QQ 2 ovoo x ^ in fignify er an infinite Number.2 4. Or the Parts.o &c. of which.. grefiion aicending or defcending from or the Parts may have no in- of which the infinite Number. or they may go on in any Geometrical Profinite. i at laft con- ftitutes or reprefents the i quai. in infinitum. i + f y alto let 2 QO 4. or z 4- i -^ i -}- . infinitum j for Diftinftion nify finitt oo an infinite Number ( reprefenc or figof Unities or /#- I would be underflood always. fake. i. this I here declare once in general^ for fo for all) or oo turn i = 4. laftly. &c in may be e- in infini- +z 4. when I do not exprefs its in fmall finitely Parts. an infinite Number. the infinite.

5. 004 oo z . S C H Article L I U M. and infinite the indefinite Power of an forth. alfo oo x oo = oo i * is an infinite i Number x of oo or V+ &*c. having firft reduc d to thole.16 ^DflofopDfcal Wnctptes will be equal to*. may be Infinites all Infinites Parts are e- thus. whole infinitely fmall cjual : with one ano with Infinites. oo e. From ther.or the infinitely fmall part of an infinity of Unities. + + oo oo 3 likewife oo x oo Infinite or the Cube of an oo * is Number and fo of Unites. oo = oo a -}- 20Q K) = . Number of Unities.. = oo J oo ^ + ^ = 00 . oo 3 4.-^^^ the Ninth. IDO+OO 2 5 = oo 2 4-2^=oo. i? r= \j^j z and ^= \J*J a. this and the whole dritbmetkk of and of Finites deduced . Addition. which is i.

MultipKcatton.. z 3 -|- oo 4-x Z 4. izoo . co * -|- oo = OQ lefs n and ob * -}- oo *~&quot.oo 104 17J * 024=007^. oo x 4 -J-oo 3 oo a.Batumi aaelfgton* 2 = oo 4. = oo ].00 = 00 1 . oo 5 -f oo 00 z ~ oo .=:00? let 004 ^ then oo ? -^. 1 4X. 00x5 oox oo^oo 1 and o * 00^x00^=00 ^ +1. co i or oc 700 _ 5 oo = 1 oo -a /? 900? 500^= 400 x *. 007 ^ 3. 00 ^ 5 _7zz:oo ^00^ _400^=:^_^00^. 4^004 aO ? C0^~. ^oo 3 00=003. oo P~^ oo ? . Let be than n by any finite oo Quantity. oo oo ^ x 4. f = oo &quot. 5 .006?! GOJ 004^=00 2. oo 4 x ooe = 4eoo 3004x400^= = oo 6. . then Subtraction.

gt.&quot. Q ^ X OO a P M f O^f e ? -. will cafily Underftand the Truth and Realbn of theie Operations. ^=OO P ^53 ^.&amp. Now to illuftrate this Ariihne- in Tome few Problems let the firft be th^c of the Sum of an arithmetical Trogrefto j from having the firft Term in y y = a* .&quot. oo 2* f 7 = &quot.28 fiivifon. tick. 5 * ct ^ = oo 2 ry&quot.!? ~l ^ 00 /I ? &quot. ~ oo or oo ~. 00- ^ Thofe who are ever fo little acquainted with the Speeious Arichmetick. f ^ oo ^ oof JtHt -2 ^ J 5 ^7 5^5- .* J 5* k OO ^gr = 59/ 4-1* oo i* ft C3 Fractions. XII.lt.5 | + co A = co ~ A ^oo ep . O 4. QO * =* f ~ &amp. 2- oo P * I *&quot.

} Lee \si fignify. of natural Term is d.gt. laft is cxs ^ 4. be ( if I ginning at a. If ^ ==oo.gt. in infinitum =^ 4 i oo i x oo i = ( by the Pvules of . giventhe Difference of two Quantities equal to e. 4- 4.x&amp. hap or oo ) if ^ (^ f a or oo ^ . is u* ^atnral fttUgfon* and the Common theiaft = &amp. infinitum) is e- qual to ~\ or the natural Numbers. o 5 &c.. Sum i of a whofc or firft i Series.= d. the fame for pens the = o and ^ = oo &c. which as is greateft. then y = #* -f- v e -\- TT&quot. i Exemple. by the Rules of Addition ) And the infinitely (null equal Part of fuch a t Sum. when uncertain &amp.i or an Infinite Number of U- nities. of ^9 Dif ic ference.lt. and Roping at M/zwte may be allowed to (peak fo) vi%. and the i Numbers. all i .and v ( = o} then j-== ~l^^i^ ^.

the infinitely is fmall equal infinite part of fuch a Sum. for Example.. ) or &quot. or Five is the infinitely fmall equal part of fuch a tical Sum of Arithme 01. for Exemple.Multiplication. i =: ~ . infinitely Rules of Addition) fmall and the ^ ^ = co ( or oo i ) equal part of fuch a bum.the. if 0.= -&quot. d ootfj V = = oo = oo /?. had been then had been equal to IfJii^.= oo 5. (by. we fuppos d. where a be put to a equal finite Quantity. t Suppofe * + ** Proportionals. Number of halves.gt. between i ^ and o. f. v = and* = oo i. If inftead equal to an of the common the Number of Terms &amp. is equal to an infi nite Number mean * of Five s. if (by . or the Sum of all the poffible Arithmetical mean Proportio nals..^=^0 = i f then &amp.. if a 0.gt. = Difference. given. thus if in^f might be in an Arithmetical Progreflion. fhould have their Sum . t henj=^-.

of ( Natural meltgtom 5 and the by the Rules of Addition) fmall infinitely equal Part of fuch a Sum. the Series oo m wputum. = ^~= part oo 2. fmall equal of fuch a Progrcffion is 2. continued. f i.. ~ 31 ^ XIH. - and go -Ji 7 -]- 7 + s ? &c vi%. . be at 0. the laft o. or tht in finitely u/que ad a..I(atio and if their the Sum s y. if it be required to find the infinitely fmall equal part of fuch Prothat let part be called * the greffions. let r co s be as z then a Geometrical at oo Series continued.lt./ . the la ft &amp.. If rto . And universally. In let a Geometrical the firft Term be Progreffion call d a y s the &amp. . firft Term * of the Terms r to sy r * * * then J where y r s = &amp. ginning at fuch a on ing CO OO OO i and ending rate. If r be as 2 to then i ^-^ 2.gt. oo * r s and confequently / * ) = cor^oo/ .lt. = ( by to 5 the Rules ofDivifons i. y be comes -^y.o be oo . to 1 3 for Example.

gV r to If tffytio i i^DaofopDicai be as | to i. ^. and fo in other Cafe.^ laft nothing. as i to then * 00 00 for = i. and r to *. then x = $. r ly = if of the Terms be the fame. if and confequent*. equal . Example. continu Terms of a ally defcending. the firft be and firft the laft nothing. and of the &amp. be required. be t . be and the and gteffion. of fuch fmall equal parts If it bt to 2. e. to find the infinitely ftmll equal part of the Sum of fuch a Profinite. and confequent) ly * = ( by the Rules ofDivifan -^-~^ s . if the firft Term of the Se ries.i^. whofe firft given Quantity. y ~ If ~^.gt.-iH ii^rh f . as the it alfo if the thelaft finite y firft = ~ x be nothing. = J i. and : rt . equivalent to find the tifytio of the required. then OQ = -- -. the firft Term of the Series. then jp 7^- =~ finite. an infinite is Number. and of the $(atio of the Terms. may have Term its Sum being a at laft. Geometrical Progreffion.

then in that Cafe.-. D z Progreffion.of Natural fttUgtott* equal to the 33 of another Progre/fion. W^. Sums an are at laft equal And thus s Infinite Number of different Series may be found. and confecjuently if . for the Term of the Series. and going on in a different ^atw. and going on in whole Sums.-i 4- 8 j becaufe both their to 2. the 3{atio Sum of the Terms. ^TY r * a . laft all equal lefs . + r* as r -~^. begining ac a different given Quantity. fuppofe the firft Term of fuch a Progreflion ~ . r to T fuppofed. a Quantity firft than the Sum. for Exemple. a to i . and of the (Ratio of the Terms. j. may be at for if you pur. both their Sums mufl at laft be equal. and put the fecond and then Term of the *I(atio unknown. be a^ and therefore the Geometrical i continually defcending. i to ~ then a = -}- f f ~ f r^ 4 5. begining at different Quantities. the Sum of fuch a Procollecting C c c grcffion. different fl^f/Vj. .

for 9 2. their Sums fhould be equal j you it greffio^make which all will find the unknown Term Excmple._ . + - i - infimtum. and having ~ to j. begining at different Quan tities. confequently 5 the firft Term of the Smes^nd of the ^at\o } = being and the fecond ^-. and ~. then Progreffions. & of cwo Terms.- . for to find & Series begirjing at its Q(atio were required ~.14 to ^I)tiofc|)!)ical equal to the Quantity given. that ks Denominator. rrr *7 . if it of the Series {ought . wherefore. to the of either of the two preceding which were equal to 2. Term i of the Q(ajf tio^ i/i the Sfnw it felf is. which Series (hould be equal. r Sum -^-=: (in s this Cafe) * rAb^fesss v 3 - 9 9 17 f := a. .^. i. 9 fo thatnow 3 fuch to find an infinite Number of Geometrical Progteffions._ 01 . * confiftins. = ^ . but to form an improper Fraction (as it s calTd) whofe Numerator being any Number fuch. and going on in different tifytioSy We have no more to do.

continued the firft finite. Numbers. Let 00 .gt. $ we fhall have the 7 4 Series s fought ]0 &quot. % Ccc .of ffiatutal aaeltgtom or ? 5 . fhall be fliewn. Ihall be (by the Method ufcd in the preceding Article ) the firft Term be /. laft thctifytio of Terms : i to j. the the . according to the Arithmetick of Cojjick Quantities.let the fitft + \ + f &c m * &amp. for Exemple.= -^ equal afterwards all 9~5 15 65 Reafon why all thefe &n&tj confiding of at laft Terms to io different are one another. ~. part. of the Sum this infinitely equal fmall of the Progreffion Hull the be | Or Progreffion reduc fliall d to ics equivalent. Again . in equal parts be ~ 4. XIV. Suppofe the Geometrical laft Term&quot. thus. of a Progreffion infinite r then x or the infinitely fmall Sum of (uch a Progrcfequal part of the lion. wfiwtum. join d by the Sign us Value may be equal to 2 . for then per forming the iDmf/Joif.

. the the laft c* 5 the of the Terms i. If it be defied to find a Geometrical Pro greffion.. and ending at oo . begining at the Unity. the infinitely fmall equal part. ~.firft Term be * . means. of any given equal parts. finite may Number have Term of its tf^atio its Sum equal to Unity an in- fuch as 4.gt. fhall be or the Progreffion it felf. we may Quantity. to an infinite Number of equal parts. and having tffytio firft ries the laft Unity. three s +3 4-3 +?&amp. to ~. then5=|. be equal to an ^ infinite Number of in infinitum. fliali 3. and having the alfo. be i. &c. gining at and ending at oo and going on . infinite. you if &amp. which begining firft at Unity. and infinite j thus if to the Progreffion. and s ifd 4 ^^ ^. Term ot its Term of the Se . And thus reduce any Geometrical Pro begining at a finite greffion afcending. =a.*~ 5 then 5= By fuch may have an infinite Multiple or to any other on Submultiple. going in any affignable Progreffion.lt. of the Sum of fuch a Progreffion.

and having qual to the the firft Term of the Quarto. cTerm of the Series. Unities. vi^. infinitum + -f 4 you fliould be triple of this.of Natural met&totu on -|- 37 1 in the ^(atio of i to 2. begining infinity of at different tits all ~= and having different 3^ Let r *a* equal to one another. firfl you may thus find luch a Series. in have a Progrefllon. then is 5 = -^-^ = ~ Number obcainU fo that no fuch an Geometrical Progreflion. I fay. a then s and r = ~ Ccc = ^Vo . find an Geometrical Series finite Quantities. &c. i 8 -f- would 16. whofe Sum you will had it you would have a fliould be equal to an If &ritt. = oo 2. having its Sum in any given proportion to any other Geometrical Progreffion and affigned 5 confecjuently you may s. infinite con finite fiding of of Terms can. infinite Sum Number of whofe oo . poffibly be unfaerfall)) And you may find a Geome* tried Series begining at any given Quan lefs than the fecond Term of the ^atio 9 tity.

F. let 336 . infinitely all different Geometrical whofe Sums may be equal.lt. in are the fixt point computed from the ^xe A1H. 4K^. you may have Progreflions. you may find gratia the other . Huofc H T 5 sr Let there be a Curve dlfciffes 2&amp. and making the firft Term of the Series begin with the firft Term of the &amp.fo that fuppofing one of the Terms of the afTum d at pleafure.gt.H(atto. A.

of the Area of the ^polhnian Hyperbola. then ( becaufe 71 D^~~~^ AGLFGf^l x = y~~~ m where ~ | be &quot. to c c 4 C . x. n n 1 is that i ^re&amp. * 9$ J and the Area AftC DELI^ will W be equal to** i = i i i i = + + + i i i i + 1+5 &c. e and the Equation of the be ) = -^^ Area by the common Methods of Quadra* the indefinite &amp. If the Indefinite Area required.gt. Unity.of ffiatutal aaelfgiom 39 = then tiires. ~ 1 . that the fpace adjacent.* becomes in =~ fo ^r 1 4it + + + i^&c.e* AiBCDELfi^ indefinite will be :*!_ and will the be . Now if n i then the Equation of the Curve will be y =3 i .gt. that evident.^nd I j~ i. i infinitum&amp.*/ = Crt&amp. is the continued infinitely in infinitum. IE be i.lt. (b that (mall equal part.gt. t ac Cafe) as alfo it becomes i _TI. . .

B . becomes I. Afymptotes of the Apollonian infinite $ and the whole Space on both If n = A/ywptotes 2. or oo 2.lt. by the preceding Arti will be x cle. = ~ =^i =2. n 2.lt.lt.?c. A CD Lf^. fince the infinite its fmall equal part. &amp.40 to both the is Hyperbola. would be equal to an as alfo infinite Number of two s. r and fo the interminated Space. Now this firft is is a Geometrical Prois greffion. * . and the Apollonian And y = i like wile. in this Hyperloloid. i. or ( computing only to the Area * where 4- 1 6. contained between the CurVe and its Afymptote. this Space would be double of Space. Hyfcrbolick when becaufe &amp.BEFH the Space i = __ a z i . whofe Term laft i i. and t 3 if it be continued only till its Q(atio of the Terms ly be oo to 2. the Area oo 2 &amp.

Sum of the Terms ^ = i. of the Terms i -i.= (by the Seftim f + f + f + | O^c. = + j +i + ^ ^w hoi eAfymptotick Space of this is Hyperfoloid. when n the laft Term = i. and to laft o.1 4. A1ET&amp. 4 is i 2 4.lt. upon i that Suppofition. and if ABEFH and the &amp.of Natural -I.2 upon fupthat the = pofition that the greateft Term of its un* i. whofc firft Term fl^if/0 1. . oo z. 1 3 And Univerfally.o Bcligion&amp.6rc.1 4 J &c.gt. or z to the therefore by the is preceding Article. and jf=i a i only op the ^re^ is i.lt.C= ifx= = + + + + Term of the Series then the Space w4 n n M j^ infi laft whofe nitely fmall equal part ( fuppofing the oo i. =~.Crc. then the ^r^ and 5 n= = ^= preceding 1 x= AlEDC + 5 + j + i7. equal Progreffion were only Infinite or eo If i. would be oo 2 4. = So whole Jfymptotical Space of 2 the Hyperbola whofe Equation is jf x i.&c.gt. 5 equal to oo | =| +| +| +| 3 &amp.) only by the pre ceding .. ) . and the i.

) is equal to.B = ?i AI= 4 4 w . ( putting - A &amp. of an infinite Num ber . of fuch exterior Hyperbololds. . ^-^j-. i -f- +w+n + ? upon fuch a Suppofi* Hence it appears in fome part.ceding Seftion. atid -f ~-^ &rc and = i i . which might be. in certain Ratio s to one another. i. then the the Sum of which is ^ n ~~ . thus the Area of the Apollonian Hyperbolaj confifts of an infinite Number ot Unities. the Area of the Hyperbola.lt. ^ == oo they confifted. whei^thc laft Term of the -Series was only oo . whofe 7 Equation. is is ~-^ to oo this Series J[- ^ equal ~ = ^ + -~ confequently if &amp. and both Ajymptotes. fo that the whole Space. comprehended between thefe Curves^ in infinitum. had the equal parts of which rc. thofe Geometers meant by the Area s of thefe Hyperbolc ids.gt. that iome of thefe HyferMick Spaces. what tion. which in their Language were call d plufquam Infinite or more than infinite. * is jfx = f.

that fhall with the AJymptote If it AftCDEL only oo fymptote. of which the Area of this Curve confifts. let the given quation be y ^.x of an infinite infinite Number of ~ j but here the Num ber of equal parts. 4. Let the Multiple or Sub. to exhauft thq whole Area of the Afymptotick Space.gt. as fliall be afterwards (hewn. of two s $ whofe Equation s is 3 i &amp. be a. Expreffion of the given which contains with the AC. i Suppoiing the laft Term .ber 4? of ffiamcal aaeltgton* the Area of the Hyperbola. and confequencly the given . be y = x~*. then it s plain that muft be equal to fl and confequencly H- 7 . confifts. is greater than the whole in either of the other two. be required. for the whole Space in this. A the given infinite Space. for Exetjiple. muft be much greater than the infinite Number of two the former of which equal parts. as every Body knows lefs. let the Hyperbola. to find the Equation of a Hyperboloid. multiple required. $ fo that though the Parts be the Sum muft be more.

i -j-i J|-i -j. may appear a little odd. in to OQ or o. the Sums cannot be equal the fame Objection parts are . to fome People. or defcending.i -j-i^ Space and let ic be required to find another infinite = infinite Space. that of an Arithmeticaly or Geometrical Progreffion. takes place in Geometrical Progreffions. that might be made againft them . afcending. and i .44 given Cfrc. whofe equal parts i triple r of this. to fave the trouble of Animadverfiom ( if it be poffible ) I fliall here obviate fome Objections. and perhaps falfe. whofe Terms have begin different at different and which given Quantities. thcnw~ a and fo the Equation a -part of the infinite Space = will be y = ^ it may i be = ~ z 3 ~~ . to an infinite Number of equal parts. for fince all the fuppos d to be unequal. If it be objeft- ed. the Sums fhould be equal. becaufe. fome of thefe Inferences. and j felf = + +3 + ? ? 4-?&amp. &c in infinitum* Now. aor fcending defcending to oo or o .gt.%atios.lt. and yec &amp. it is infinitum impoffible. their .

there of two s.&c. as Well as above Exemple. of i +1 +~+ all continued to oo . or in a given to one another . j].lt.lt. of three s. to oo . lee fuppos d to have. as above an infinite Number of Unities. equal to continued till equal to &amp. equal to o &amp. Num How the continued to jfliould be but the third part of the Sum &amp.rc. the parts of the firft and the parts two Equations of the third. as their Sums arc In Anfwer to thefe. &amp. continued i fhould l be j_ss + ssj_2_LS2^ ~ i ^ a * c.lt.&c. .lt. the Number of the Terms become 001. of is an infinite Number folltt . it 5 for ties. continued to oo fliould be equal to 2 till +2 + 2+2 + ber of O*c. how are i the Series +1 + 3+4+5+6. for Exemple.&c.lt. that there an infinite Num ber of Series s.&amp. i. Since are unequal. whofe Sums may actually below an infinite Number of Uni infinite. us Confider. continued the Terms be Sum oo i of 1+1+4 + 8. How 5 1 + 1+4-1-8 + 16. i. have no fuch Proportion.of Natural their fyttio afrcligt om Sums fuppos d equal.

of makes the air finite Quantities whatfoever.2 r i + 2 i are actually i Infinite. in fc&amp. for all which infinite- are real infinite Quantities an Number.c. oo z z 3 0&quot. O*c.lt. there are an iw/zwrt of halv s. becaufe.. . Greater. nued to oo be may be equal to 2 till + * *H * firft 4. of one thirds of one In fourths. becaufe the . = + + J 4. vi%* as i i 4.ffrpofopfrtcal fours.gt. conunued pares. all the Number of Se ries equal to oo i.lt.^ &c. ^c. and fo forth fo below oo i there and oo i -4. tho* Number of parts in both. may be the Sum of another infinite Series parts be all infinite 5 equal tho 1 their unequal. the other a Leis ple. and both have an the yet Number of parts.^f.5- infinite Quantity and therefore to Sum of minjwite Series. they may be different infinits. infinitum. * j &amp. 1 -[- 1 j e^r. Exemconti i-j-2-j~4-}~S-{-i6. i. infirittunt . be infinite. all whofeSums above is &amp.*&amp. below an infinite Number Number of Unities. 6^c. the one a thus for &*c. and oo 5 = + V+ ? -f 5. there . and (b \ on.gt.

in firft Series. in the Arithmetical Progreflion at i and tural Numbers. fo that there is not fo encreafes faft ? great a as Number of ^ Terms in the firft Series. then r V ar f . continued to oo =: and the -. not therefore the Number of Terms. i . into the Sum of the Terms . more particu in the fecond Serai. z. in the fecond for let the Number of Terms of a ed. only. than the Number of Terms But 5 . Now is certain that infinitely oo theLogarithm of lefs. greateft t &amp. becaufe both the laft. begining bccaufe the Sum of ending equal all fuch is to the half of the Rectangle of the greaccft. is con- fiderably left. the and cheleaft a. therefore i + 14-5+4+5 &c.. be. and a is t ~^. larly. it v = oo 11 becomes than oo the ^. of na at . .gt. = where r = . Sum of the .bf jgafttral meligiom n&amp. Progreffion continu the fytio of the Terras r.$ 4? and always doubles the preceding Term.gt. Geometrical in this Cafe. and fo quickly arrives ac oo i. whereas the fecond on at the goes fame equable Rate.

i 15 and confcquently the and of all the preceding Terms. ufque ad oo . + ) ( by the Rules of Addition to oo z. it is evi Term here is equal to the Sum + i. there equal to the Sum of all the foregoing Terms. that the Series i continued to eo i. vi^ + z -f 4 + is i dent. ufque ad is double of all the 1 Term preceding + 3 Terms. is greater. K^. every of all the former 8 &c. to oo in the^dft oof i to 3. i + 3 o . oo + ^ oo i = ( by the Rules of Addition ) \ . than +2 + 4+8 i -]- +9 3 . where it is obfertrc.the Terms is oo . and becaufe the laft Term is oo i . is equal to ao i oo i _ = . vable. and fince the laft Term fore oo _ i fuppos d i. becaufe every 9-1-17 &c. and therefore the laft. with all the preceding. in like manner in the Geometrical from i Progreffion continually afcending. therefore the Sum of all the Terms except the laft. or oo i . is infinite. is Sum of the is laft. then as for the Geometri in cal Progreffion i Afcending infinitum.

%atio. +1 +4 + 8.lt. continued to GO i. be- there are more . if the Series be i 4-4 16 643 &c. viz. and at a greater Rate than the firft. *. Number of Terms than ihe bo likewife. as for the two.. and of all the ( 00 1 w = ~i i -[ preceding. /. the Geometrical Progreffion and going on continually to oo &amp. continued to oo j. an a laft. and confccjucntiy the Sum of all oo 4 and + ~ = - univerfaily. then i is of all the Sum every Term triple of the preceding Terms. Terms in the than in the fecond the fecond di- verging fafter. _ i -[- n -f n* all preceding. is by the Rules of Addition oo ) to Laftly. i isi=I Every Term Sum of all the preceding.of ffiatutai meltstotu + 9+27. continued to oo & Odd and . after a fewer firft. is --^confequently the Sum of the the _ . caufe firft. arrives at oo i /ooner. j n the n -f n\ times. &-c. the -}- of i to n. begining at i i. and becaufe the laft is oo i. Series s tsrc. therefore the Sum of Crc.

than the in the fecond.50 and the i +1 + p+ of as has firft &amp.i -J-^c con equal to i -jtinued till the Number of Terms be infi 1 4FDCB and ( may be objected. it is evident that Number Terms in the firft. 7 Log. Number of Terms It is much lefs. would feem to follow that Space ^FPCS. both which have the fame Numerators. but the Denominator of the firft is much greater. ~!&amp.&r.. Area ( fee the following Figure ) is found -]. that the Hyperbolick i . becomes ^-^. taking AB= i to the Infcri- bed fquare) yet the Area of the Infinitely is no more than B A FG long Tarallehgram i _p i -|- i ^it i from whence the jfrCt continued in infinitum. in the on ^TT&quot. for the much Number of Terms been fliewn. is t = ^-^ Log. To . nite. were equal to the which is abfurd. is fewer than in the fecond. a r* which fecond in the Log.lt.gt. than that of the fe cond. and 2. and confequently the Number of Terms in the firft.

infinite fuppofing the Diftance between A and B oo a and Aft) (the Concurfe of .gt. i. e. i ? and H-i-l-i greater crc.gt. make this yet more Ddd plain. yec the Spaces are not equal. Concurfe of with Aft. with Aft. this is be equal anfwered.. yet) F C meets fooner with Aft.of Natural ic ffieugtotu To thefe. and the Diftance between A and ft ( the FD =&amp. Not only but a Pwallelo- gram. is not the fame infinite and the reafon why that infinite Number. AFGftt? AFDCft. let A^ To = GL (fee 2 . d.\(l may be al~ oo low d to (peak fo) then b will FG = /&amp. whofe Breadth is i. is not the lame in both. chat tho each of to an infinite Number of Unities. is oo c fi x . becaufe that Number. be greater than (hall have C^c. is becaufe (kho* both FCand FG meet at sn in both. c = oo AFG=\-iri i/ x 1 5 where than and therefore fo. than J*G with^S. And i = AFDCft^ + + + i confequently i we i+i. Diftance. and whofc Length is oo a ) (or the Diftance between A and the Concurfe of FC with Aft) is greater. than the Hyperbolick Area. a.

then y = oc~ . when GL infinite is o. for i . than the point ^ : L the fecond (yx in ) wheg you and take AG the fame therefore the greater you the it will before the fuppofe w. of two Curves y x* AG . the longer will the ordinate be. integer preceding Figures ) be call d x.= -^- flhews. that the greater you fuppofe n to be. be. from i. vi%.e. and . longer Curve meet with the Afymptote AC. G L. = ( of which the former gives GL =~ y x == the other GL = 3 ~~} v^J^ that which has w 5 ?i = 2. Let n be an =1E n Number. at an Diftancc from A. exprefles the Nature of an this infinity you have x = ~ of Hyperboloids. and Al be i. which GL 5 3 in refped of the fame Abfcifs i Exemple.5* ( ^pofopptcai the fee KiLy. j both LED But they all meet with AC. and (hall have a ) longer Orthan the former. which has i confequently the point i) fliall L in the to firft (yx*=: i approach nearer in ^C. 3 jx GL.

z = .gt. n Suppofe rr = oo in then GL = K * ^O 1 *^CX5 f GL. and confequcntly of i any two . meet with it as alfo infinitely produced. among of the Hyperbolick Spaces. note by 09 ^ I a fay that 3 iis lefs than -v/&amp.lt. meet with the dfymptote /L.gt.of Natural and therefore thefe infinite Diftances AC muft be different according to the different Values of of n . is which Cafe the i. = b. which n ByferMtidt y x = i .5t of the is for the Unity the the Came in both.of thefe Hyperboloids y x whofe Concurfe with the Afymftote A Cy we ftiall denote by oo a and y x i we fiiall dewhofe Concurfe with 3 . AC&amp. . in infinite Parallelogram^ refpe&amp. AC^ before . i is the becaufc y x ^ Equation for the = infinite Parallelogram^ it may be reckoned Thefe things the Hyperboloids. duly confidered will remove all the Diffi culties arifeing in the different Expreffions. Ordinate conftantly which is the proper ty of the Parallelogram fhews that all the ACXGL. only the d d Number of D Terms .

be equal to oo ^ ? the Number . for Exemjplej^.*x z. muft be Number of Terms in the we fuppofe that theie equal parts exhauft the whole Areas t ) for if the Number of Terms in the firft.z -J.2 + i + 2. may likewife feem odd. (if of Terms than the of thefe laft. whofe equal parts are 2 -f. the thefe )aft are than the greater firft.) Areas of yet its certain. of the Hyperbntoidj whofe Equation z is j/x = i confifts. But the Difficulty will raniQi.. the equal parts of which the Areas of the dfywftotical Space. the equal parts of which the Area of the Afymptotical Space. in than the Number of Terms It the infinite (parallelogram. and yet. and in of them.. ply what for it s certain that the Number greater firft. And Area of the whofe Equation is yof == f. &c. if we ap has been already faid to this Cafe. in fhould be m/tfH mto. ^-\-^-\-^J^ ^-\-^) &c. of the in others bormAj (hould be leis.54 Terms all in all of them lefs is different. (where n is an in infinitum teger Number. why for Exemple.

on the Suppofition. pie. then e muft be greater than a. that all thefe Series s flop at oo i and go no further. infinitum. But the Truth of the Matter is. ni whofe . equal Parts in is of theft thedfymptotical Space of thefe the Difcovery. Tv^.n* J- n* -}-n* n\ &c. jI u yfer -f K j n i equal to oo e. to go on. that the Invention. in their at oo i . (chofe. where arrive at QQ t fooner. an equal Number of in Times* Now fome of em. -j- flop.gt. they muft be all fuppos d. for Exerru all Series in -f- n -J. equal parrs. the Invention infinitely fmM part ^-^ depends up . equal parts are J JL e&amp. which expreffes the 4/ymptotical Spaces of its AlEDC. thus equal parts which Dd d 4 i + . obtained upon cannot be equal to the iw^i^Number of un conftitute the Area . than others. and greateft Number) Ib by thefe means an infinite Number of the this Suppofition. in the that they i unequal Progreffions. diverging finite n is the fafter. Hyperbohids.c. tr where 2 ^ be or the Ground of .of ffiatutal ^Religion* 5 y Number of Terms w i in the others. whereas to give the true Hyperboltck Spaces.

arrives fooner at oo i . but the reafon of this divcrfity is. is taken from its ar the And oo i without confideration of the .of the l Spaces.s. whereas the febut | + \ +& +~.7 *9.&c. &c.which diverge tafteft. but the 2.&c. from the Number of Terms . whereas the parts are lefs fecond Area is greater than the firft .gt. than the nitely Denomination of the infi fmall equal part. riving at or Slownefs thereof. 1 rea of the Curve i + 4+8 5 1 6&amp. cho in the time.gt.have the leaft infinitely mean when fmall equal parts. and as the Area of this laft. and 1. firft fo are the parts refpe- dively is . they make the greateft Area j an equal infinite Number of parts are taken.equal to -f 9 the ^red of the Curve whofe Equation is jy x E= i . is greater i -f + + 3 than that of the firft. as they fliould do. is equal to the Ais yx&quot. + i + + 1 -h 2. fo that the Quicknefs unequal part. reduced to equal parts. than the former . whofe Equation = I .^. which cond i is &amp. If it werepoffiblc to find the fmall infinitely equal parts.56 4. becaufe the fe cond Area firft.

which I have uied to reprefent in fome manner their Re* lations. then we Qiould infallibly. can be exprels d. . do not at all extend to the whole to an Alfcifs. f as to j . I know no way. even of the Relative Natures of thefe infinite Spaces. gible nent. with- Terms being = oo i out knowing what the Logarithm of an infi nite Quantity is. Infinite equal in the Relati is ons. or as r p+ . Space veil Qtytio. at leaft. oftheO^w. Spaces. but if we defire (hall be in a gi fuppofe i to m y to . but one of thefe two. then thefe i Spaces i fliall be one another. for thefe equal parts. f n both p i i which Expreffions. it feems impoffible. but to thefe Spaces to me. have the Relation of one another . J. of the other n.of Natural Beligfon* given 57 or oo a . but which them all. in it s pofitive Nature. to n+ n l . are equally unintelli to find the Expo whofe fuppofe/?. of thefe J/jmptotical Spaces to one another. fuppofe the Exponent of the AbJclfs of the one be /?. ever to arrive at a compleat Comprehenfion.

iftt . i.f then -^ n . becaufe thofe Terms the ter in remoter. which happens. is -2. and if Exponent Power .to the other . = 2.. w=== where 5. in the firft is 2. double = = = +4+8^16. = ~. become firft than the fame after the firft Terms of in num- bred from the begining. ftant the fecond Term for Exemple.and n = 2.and this in always an affignable Term.gt. i. that the Equation have its infinite of that whofe Expreffion is y x *. m =2. equally dithe Series. in the reft fecond. which fhall Jfymptotical Space. if /&amp. is from the begining of comes equal. Term both. and the Spaces are (puting isj^l x i) i ^-2 of the Cwwe. and the the of the Terms of the afcend refpedively in the Powers of thefe Numbers. and p then /? =~ _= -i.. be thefe Cafes. = 7. is fon why is this laft Space the double of the of the lat greater firft.

From the fixt Point the Indefinite right Line ^. and Leg. F in 3n indefinite Parallel to It is evident.lt. fb that it muft be the firft and lowed infinite Space its . and = z^H!the s .Power of i and | be required that fhall make them 2 both the fame 2** Number 2 w then _ L and = 5&quot.- that as its Unity. It . which renders in other Cafes 3 If both equal. and fo on then ~ Multiple^ or Submuhiple which (hews that no of the Jfymptotkal the Jppollonian Hyperbola^ can be Space of found but it felf. that if AB. FG. ^ A draw draw infini- at ereft a y perpendicular AF i. were produced turn. is . 5. from n i ? which gives the beginning. ^ = Log. is Cube ) O*c. own Square. ^ x ^F. its own Multiple and Sub- XVI.B. Term. and from A&amp. or own flfyof fo the rf/ymptottcal Space of the dppolhman Hyperbola multiple. the Parallelogram A FG B would con* x \ tain an w/witfe Space = oo =.

C. contain an interminated Space.gt. and l let y= x^7~ equal to lx- for Exemple^ ^ let a be 4 then the Equation becomes y is = X-* /x. finite equal to Aft.e y FX&amp.It is required to fiad the (hall Nature of a Cun&amp. which with the Afymftote A. of fignify the Logarithm then the Equation of the Curve (hall be x. let this finite Number called y. be d a y the ordinate E D be /x the Abfclfs E A. reprefented ABC DP given call by any finite Number. x. multiply d into any Number whatfoever. and the Area i. x^/x-^x* where putting x =? and confequenly /x . or equal to a finite Space.gt.

becomes affum 4. for the whole o. alfo 9.B=Al be i.lt. and = ~n. and ktm=:a i .4. AfcEFG I is x = dfymptotical and given calling i^the^r^is i. = we have d.gt. and confequently intermediate . which. from the Hyperbolical Curves ( fee the Figure of the let A&amp. the and fubftra6ting Unity (nzto Square A ft El) from the ^ra* thus found. = 9 A F x AF Area + theruhat Space is 9 ~AF\* be obtained.) and let 6fi be produced i.) this Area = AFC.-~? Space j. If a 9. then = = ^^4. the Exponent of the Curve fliall be fought + n=-^r. cuts the Axe (becaufe the Curve continued. for Exemple. we fhall have the remaining Area I E FG a. preceding Article . let a 3 .i the infinitum^ The fame may general Equation for the whole j&amp. let the Num ber to which we would have the intermi- nated Space equal be a.i) = 4 .

in ibme few Problems. Having illuftrated the Ant###BOT_TEXT###amp;amp.lt. that involve Quantities Great. let us now apply the fame. to the Axe AH y let the Curve. may be equal to any finite Space. i/i from which fubftra&ing Unity (= have the the interminated Space 76 IE EG is = +f + two + Hcncc k H&amp. of the Circle which may have at the ftrtex A the fame De AlE.=4=1 + we * + f6 4.\x defcribed.**- =.A*BG be defcribed.B &amp. let a Semicircle and let it be required to find the Radius r. infinitely to fmall Quantities. Al/dfs with the Radius AC ks AD Equation is = x7 =r.. the Areais. from the fixe Point A. 9 4 c r Sum or Difference of + 4=13 XVII.lt. whofe Qrdinate its being y m ji x.gt.? evident that different two interminated Areas of Curves may be whofe found. C&amp.gt.g.- infinitely metical Operations of relative Infinites. gree . &c. for in the and 9 former Solution.

x t j the an&amp.lt. be the next Point in the Axe to and fo AC (hall become infinity fmall /= equal to the Fluxion of the Abfclfi x \ and then the of the Circle. with the Curve defcrib d whofe Tangent to the Vertex is 4 or Let C.of 6 ^G.z. But if A and C the Circle fuppos d to have thcfe Points . = C. coincide. gree of Curvature.e JF = i= Equation of the then I and cauft. will be Equation z i r x ^. AF. tnuft likewife coincide beis .

If m ti r. and lo to be thrown away and Circle. and =^Il= JL + 2 but in this cafe finite # is infinity fmall in refpeft is of any a quantity. and confequently common with the other 2 %r* # = xw y - =x!j^l = 2. or infinitly fmall. 1 + * a So 2 ifm= i. If to one half of its Latns rettum. I - is infinitly Radius AD is infinitly fmall. is ortheC#minfinitly fwiof fuch Cr^w ^@G.X yW &quot. r becomes ~ i. Cm r then = JClldlJi-= oo. ture. great at the Vertex. for in that Cafe x is x fmall in refpeft of i. no GVcfe can fall. The 3(adiiMo[ that has the fame degree of Curva is with the Apollonian Parabola. or between the Tangmt AF? and the ^ . and i to be fuppos d o.64 Points at the Vertex Curve. equal j? m l9 then r x . ^ 2 * == o. the Cn* r becomes * 2 Parabola. For in that Cafe . when is a Wherefore the flowing Quantity. in refpedt of the Curvature of the GVc/e.e.

gt. And fmall. If m 2 . ^r -. there be whofe Equation* are^ = x&quot. Let let m be any Number^ iwf^ger or fraftion. reciprocally proportional to the G(adiu4 of the Circle which couches the Curve at that Vertex) in refpeft of the Curvature of a Circle. becomes Negative^and i in the fecond Term. X ~7 oo . being fuppos d infinity to ~ r becomes ao. and fo the Curve A*B will fall within the GVcfe ^/.of $atttrai Cafe the Exponent of i in the fitftTerm of the Value of r. at their Ver* is = fmall (for in the Curvature at the Vertex infinitly all is fuch Cafes. = ^ then r &amp. Exemples. 2 v. and j&amp. Wo. tex y equal fo the Curvature of fuch Curves. or the Circle will cut the Curve. = ^ = ^-=o. If m = then r ==Jr!i if = 3 r = two Curves* = &quot.. =- ^3 the E e .gt.

for in that Cafe /y little.gt. may ries s Smaller. Relations of Having Infinites thus explain d. as to their are epofitive Nature.Hadiuis of their Curvatures at the will be. or o to i..2fy- dwj of the Curvature fzrtrt in the firft Cwm. qually . fmall. in refpeft of as x to i. of which the Curvature. in refpcd of that And thus infinities s of Se of the fecond.gt. nothing. integer.66 the ^po(bp!)i(cai &amp. or 772 1 . y and - m be an or a fraction the &amp. that Infinites of all Kinds.gt. And infinitly firft therefore the Curvature of the Kind of Curves. of the Exponents of fuch Curves.gt. v/^&amp.. than Curvature of the immediatly following. 2 is A: 5:^ 2 :: &amp. of the be infinitely Greater or preceding.lt. is infinitly great. I dull only fubjoin this General Reflexion upon the whole Difcourfe.-. is w- of the in refpeft of the Radius Curvature in the fecond . But&amp. may be found. the to one another.lt. : . cal Point if ^~ : A&amp. XVIII.

as the fixt Stars feem to our Eyes. all ftuck into the fame Concave Sphere. or infinitely infinite. and pofirive Qualities. and hope for Succefs. adequate for fuch ^e/erches . if not infinitely different Diftances from us. this Reflexion may where the pofitive Nature neceflary to be underftood $ of Infinites. it is the fame thing as to us. in quieting our Minds. their eflen- and pofmve Proprieties are equally be yond our reach. but to leave the Matter as we find it . but where ever Infinity in its absolute Nature. is involved. about the Difficulties in the arifing conception of thofe things. we ought to pafs over all thofe in which Infinity is concern d. as it were. and be of u(e to us. And ture therefore in our Inquiries about the Na and Proprieties of things. tho they be an various. there we have nothing to do. whether they be firnp\y tial infinite. as being without our Sphere. and not belonging to our Province nity is : where Fi- only concerned. God Almighty having given us Capacities. there we may la bour. arc and fuch are fe- veral .of qually Natural fteuston* 67 above our Ccniprehenfion.

. And no it s wife Man will at tempt what help. and fo ic for him to make us unis impoffible even derftand the pofitive Nature and Qualities poscl to of Infinites. both of Philofophy and God Almighty cannot be fup- workContradi&ions. and by confequence. nor be difquieted at what he can never JF I * I & . we muft partake of the efTential Natures of (uch.Veral Subjects. Religion. be of finite Capacities and Faculties. impoffible he fhould obtain. and if we be Creatures.