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PHILOSOPHICAL

PRINCIPLES
O
F

Natural Religion
Containing the

:

ELEMENTS
O F

Natural Pbilofopby
And
the

,
ri

PROOFS

for

NATURAL
Arifjtng

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RELIGION.,
from them.
F.

By GEORGE CHEYNE, M. D. and

R.

S.

Printed for the Gol den Ball in Cornhill over againft the Rojal Exchange. 1705.

L N D N: U GEORGE STRAHAN at

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Cefsford. taming . My Lord. loun.T O The Right Honourable JOHN. and con- jw A 3. and Caver- Principal Secretary dom of State for the King of Scotland.. of Lord Ker. EARL ROXBURGH. HE following Treatife may in fome ttte Meafure. faing undertaken in Obedience to lour Commands. as claim Honour of Tour Lord/hips Patronage.

yet did hit the Performance. Such . when you allow d me the Honour.**&amp. r&amp. even in the more abftrufe parts ofGeo- metry. that I am not capable of offer ing any thing to Tou worthy Tour own Perufal.Epillle Dedicatory.gt.gt. I had with your Lordflrip. Thtf Tour LordJJitfs uncommon Advances. imworthy of Tour Lordfoips Protection. the Dignity of the Siibjeft. taimng part ofthofeDifcourfes.. haw made you f ogreat a Mafter of Reafonwgs of this kind.tfw/NaturalKnowledge. to talk with you on Philofophical Subjects. I Jbotid not think it. anfwer.

that Tour great Progrefs in the nobler -parts of Philofbphy.lt. What . in the Know of civil Government nor Tour univerfal Learning rendredyou more unfit for an active Life. kind. has not retarded Tour deeplnqutries. to layfuch Foundations hoth for Know ledge.s the peculiar Wif- dom of the Antients. It wa&amp. and Conduct m Tour Studies.Epiftle Dedicatory. to become Moft ufeful to Mankind. Such has heen Tour Lord/hip* happy Genius. and for Buftneis. and doing good to Man ledge . that they left it to their Stars to de termine^ which of the two afford them Occa/iort.

ifany thing could he reckorid fo. And the ^tieeiis Choice. pacity r\ i for /-v^ * Her Ma~t A* Tour Country. it is becaufe they have not had Occafion to Dtfcourfe with Tou on Subjects of Learn ing. in the moft difficult Times. had refertfd to this . for the prefent Reign.Epiftle Dedicatory. is an undoubted Proofof Tour Ca the other. if others know not as I do. It was Tour LordJJjip s Opithat the Providence of the Almighty Governour of the Univerfe. ProvifwnTour Lordflrip has laid inforthefirft. I wotfd fay too.

gt. have vainlypretended. and that Greatnefs and Honefty receive A 4 addl* true Knowledge. on purlaft this Age. to expofe the Folly ofa cor rupt Generation of Men. And upon the fame account. the Oracles of Reafon to be on their fide. as well a$ an Ornament to lour Country. who from their vithas Practices . . I cannot but look upon Tour Lordflnp a& a fingular BlefTing.Epiftle Dedicatory. great Advantages . who are a Living Exerriple/Zw/- and Probity go Hand in Hand. thofe &amp. by which the Se crets of Nature have been more than in happily unravelfd any former Times. pofe. being prone to Atheifm.

that Probity and Candor that foincs in all Tou fay or do. / J/iall choofe to tranfgrcfs again ft to the common Rules of Dedica either tions. additional Liifk e from one ano ther.Epiftle Dedicatory. Tour Birth. mention. or Breedingy&amp. as the Motives upon which you accepted . Tour Modefty.fup- pfy tie Place of a juft Enco mium. hecaiife I would not offend Tour Lordrip s darling Vertue. ) jnom J Si May Tour Jjwd { ^\ happy in your Adminiftration.?r Tem per. hut Jliatt only make good Wifljes. andJJyallnot prefume. or Fortune. or which is more valuable.lt. But.

. this fmall Treadle is the only Prefent .it. as your noble Mind. were Juft and Ho nourable. has fecufd you from mean and nar row Prejudices. as l&amp. May your In tegrity -protect you from unjuft Malice . for the many Favours I have received from you and Thefe.Epiftle Dedicatory. as you are to all ftccepted. the World in And your Temper. fuccefsful. May you lye as eafie in your Office. are the only Returns.e as your Love to it is fmcere. my Lord. I can make your Lordflip.gt. May your Endeavours for fettling the Peace and Hapfinefs of your Country .

W ^^ V *^j moft obliged Servant. y ^ti CEO. than My Lord. and &quot. CHEYNE. frefent ll)ave to offer you\ of winch however. .Epiftle Dedicatory. that no one can Honour you more.! beg your Lord- Jhips Acceptance. andthatyour Lordfiip woiid believe. . Lordfliip s Your moft humble.

may be gathered from the Title Page. to they are infcribed. the Commands and Converfation of that noble Perfon . what gave the Occafion and Rife to them. I give every doing Juftice to Man Liberty to lay in his own Claim. If any one think.THE PREFACE. As for the Ma terials.e&. (bme of them I borrowed from the Works of thofe Learned Men. others had. for I induftrioufly avoided all Quotations. and the Contents-^ I have alrea dy hinted. wi*. TH whom I E End and Defign and of thefe Difcourfes. I have made free with their Inventions.. becaufe my Subjeft wanted not . and aflert his juft Right. I have had Occafion to be converfant in . without their Names. by a little reflexion on my Sub.

The Preface. diftinguifli them. For what without particular Innuendo s. with all the Candor and Regard due to their filer its j without mentioning their Names ^ and a mannerly Liberty in Philofopbical is allow d to ev ry Body. having treated their Opinions.. Newton s Store. Borclli and Bellini^ that Friend to Mankind^ my conftant good Friend.. from thofe* who have written on the fame Subje&s with my felf. I hope the Goodnefs to pardon they will have me. on Principles (tho juft and demonftrative) Nature from mine. moft plentifully. Dr. yet of a different If I have had the Misfortune^ to differ in fome few Philosophical points^ from fome great and deferving Men. not Authorities^ but Demonstration. as will even in my rude Drefo. befides. That . both to avoid Re and bccaufe they generally went petitions. Archibald fitcairn his Differ tat ions fupply d me the I borrowed but little. Some part of the Matter was furnifhed me from Mr. eoncern d the Animal Oeconomy . points..... and his Inven tions have fuch peculiar Marks.

Wealth of Learning y not to want any Paneygrick from me. I think I may a Treatife on it was wan fay. to bis Roy Men fufficiently eminent Chrift-Church in the Common. THE .gt. I have obtain d the end of my Ambition. may not be faying fo If my Occaiion of Performance excite others^ of more Leifure and Capacity to do it the Juftice it deferves. is owing to thejudiciqus Corre&ions and Advices of the Reverend and Excellent Mr.. Friend of :&amp.ArbuthnonPhyfician al Highnefs. If I am not over fond of my Subject.The Preface. I ted^ wifh there ftill.. and Dr. That thefe Sheets have not many more Faults than they have. and the John 5 Craig^ I^zzmeA Oxford^ Dr.

That Bodies cannot ofthemfelves either move An or alter the Dire&ion of their Motion^ p. $ 5. Definition A Pag i of Nature.THE CONTENTS. 9 8. Rticle 2. I. Part of this Univerfe. p. The Introduction. The firft LAW of Nature. about 3. ^ . 2 the Philofophers . 3 4. p. 7 & 4 & 5 feq.. p. 6 firft Law of Na p. Appearances^ confuted . as to the Mate r rial The Phyfical Lam */ Nature. and of ifs $ $ Laws. 8 and Demonftration Explication of the 7.. p. 6. and uniform Apfea* ranees of Nature. CHAP. The Opinions of s it and Nature. The true Scheme of Nature. Vis inertiae in Bodies. Of the I. p. p. ?^ Phyfical Laws. p. A Demonftration of the j| ture. 12 IP* S . can move in a curve of That no Body 9. 1 1 it felf.

15 14. 28 2Q. with it s De14 monftration. Matter. 2O&2I 5 impelled at the fame time. themfelves. do not move of ibid. i88c 19 w/V/6 iVV De Nature. e. p. $ 15. drawing in Three different Directions a Body in 4quili1 8. brio. Tto ^ JEW)/ cannot move in an Orbit perpetit ally. 13 13. 24 Ibid. The Proportion of an Oblique. Ibid. f 04 perpen dicular Stroak. 27 19. is eflential to p. i. That the Influence of an omnipotent er. and refolving Motions. Pow $ The Necejfity of a Vacuum demonftrated. p. 1 6. Contents. from one Jingle impulfe.6e Impossibility demovftrated. p. is the only Canfe of the Prefervation of a Body moving. when their Direftions wAkp an Angle. II. with one another. That the Celeftial Bodies. or iMpulfe. by two different Forces. The T&amp. p. That there can be no perpetual Motion to diftinguift A p. I/&/W Law of a perpetual Motion. 25 Ibjd. 13 J 12. /?/ p. p. 22 17. That neither Motion nor Reft. Mechanifm/razz what isnotfo. p. The Conrfe of a Body The Method of compounding.The 10. p. p. that neither of thefe particularly . 7/6e Proportions of Three Forces. monftration.gt. in their Orbits. p. in its Motion. 2$ Rule . The Second Law of Nature.

$ p. 3 7 feq. Mr. or retaind in their Orbits by a central attra&ive Force i p. to Matter. 24. 49 Ibid* intt from Matter. not fufficient^ nor fat if- fatiory. p. about the Formation of the Univerfe. That the Celeftial Bodies muft be either turnd round^ by a circulating Vortex. That the Celeftial Bodies. in his Aftronomy. 33 23.The Contents. This Hypothefis. 42 feq. 30. and the Des Cartes Caufes ofthe Celeftial Motions. his Opinion. That the Attraction or Gravitation p. 41 feq.3 1. one /ingle Impulfe^ 21. y . by fome Being p. do not their Orbits from one /ingle Impulfe. Ibid. about the Mechanical Production of Gravitati on. The Hypothefis of other Philofophers. Des Cartes his Hypothefis confuted at large from the Arguments adducd by Dr. p. tial not a Property effenp. Gregory. Ibid. Leibnitz s Opinion about theCzuksof the Celeftial Motions. 48 & 49 Ibid. That the Attra&ion or Gravitation of Bo & & dies upon one another . & & $25. and Do&rine. That the Attra&ion or Gravitation of Bo dies upon one another. produced and confuted. is 47 of Bo dies upon one another. or imprefs d upon Matter. is a Faculty communica ted to.3 2. 29 move in ibid. 34 feq. is the only Principle to account for all the Appearances of fuffident Nature. 30 22. 27. 26. p. p.

p. 68 How from fo feiv Primitive Fluids as. jHW ticles extreamly fmall. 69 for. 61 $31. 66 the Nature $ $ Properties 33. p. Light Body 34. and the Perpetuity thereof. and the Conditions the necejjary to conjlitute p. That the Quantity of Earth^ denfcr Fluids producd^ does continually decreafe. anfwcred. The Flux or Reflux of the Sea. ThcFigure of rances of the Element of Water explain d. . tation being JMpreJs d on Matter^ and the man ner of it s Operation.?/ for from this Principle. 32. /Ae covflituent Par*re. Mercury and Light. The Motion of the Celeftial Bodies.The Ibid. 74 & feq.^ ^ prodigious Velocity. the on Water Ibid. 67 Mercury explain d. the and feq. Water. 55 Ibid. p. jlancc. 72 & feq. 56 $29. p. $36. 62 Freezing explaind. JF/VA 2r/&amp. 50 Sc feq. material Suba or is a T/ta/ 35. accounted Principle &amp. and the manner of p. p.?/ p.gt. The Figure of -the Particles p. of the Fluid of Light. The Nature of Cold. Fluid of Light is projected from the Sun fixt Star.lt. ^ 37. Contents. p. 28. or Gravi Attraction or Gravitation. the infinite Vari eties of compounded Fluids may be accounted and feq. and Properties of Air explain d y p.. 7/fc Nature and &amp.lt. 7^ & 38 . agzinji Attraction. Air. The Nature and Caufcof Fluidity explain W. Appea 30. p. 59 and the Nature the? arts. accounted for from this The Objections. p.

96 in accounting for the Appearances of Gravitation. A perties down as they are fet . Ibid. and what by the mojl. p.lt. Ibid. and Light. That all Bodies have p. 78 39. T&tf Bodies. and Original Colours p. in themfelves. 89 feq. and Solidi- .?/ quire. and the Bulk of the Body of the Sun and fixt-StafS. 81 What the Primitive are y Ibid. The Nature of the Sun and fat Stars. p. 79 Ibid. ibid. is & constantly diminishing^ to Light. in that admirable Treatife at full length. Bernoulli s Experiment on Barometrical Tubes relating J 43. 86 proportional to their Denfities. in the Obibid. exhibit Bodies $42.?/Cohefion 44. their refraftive 84 Powers p. p. Newton. ftwrt 88 Ibid. 82 Colours are. &amp. p. of of Light and Colours the Nature and Pro p. 95 Mr.The Contents. That Light ^w///?/ 0/ Rays differently re- frangible Ibid. 41. jeft. p. That p. Summary. by Mr. from the Principle are not confin d to one Jingle Condition thereof\ but muft alter thefe as the Appearances re &amp. we Nature. The Appearances 99 & feq. That the Quantity of Heat and Light. What Colours are made by the leaft refrangi What $ ble Light. and reflexible. *# mutually upon one another. 3&. and RefraftiReflexions The the 40. Ibid. and in our Seniatioris. p. 0/Opticks. The Caufe why different Co lours. Caufe of ons ef Light.lt.

5 & 6 . Mechanically froducd. 113 46. This Syftem of things. which fam to require dif ferent Conditions of the general Principle of Attraftion. tha t feews beft to An account for the Appearances^/Cohefion. 104 Ibid. The Appearances and Caufe of Elafticity. I JL TtaEpicareaa Hypothecs. traftion. 3 4..The ty. not being ejfential to Matter. Inquiry into the Condition. fttppofes Matter end?wd y p. 114 CHAP. Two different Demonftrations. Of II. general Principle of At p. That there ^arefcveral Degrees of Cohefion obfervable in Bodies . if not p. p. Mankind in particular. pag. Condition -of the Caufe thereof* $ p. 2. Contents. p. $ That Matter has no other gnxlity anfoerable to Self-Exiftence. and /hewn to be one the flanenefs of the Cohering Surfaces. 101 the gene 45. tewufe Motion ejfential to matter. 4 of Motions p. the Origination of tint World. p. I and of I/ the \He Introduction. of ral principle of Gravitation. Ibid. with which this Hypothefis. coud not have Lccit 3. about 2 Origin of the TJniverfe. explain d from the.

is to makp it a free-will d coud produce no Agent. coud he prodncd. yet it coud not have producd thisprcfent Sy ftem ofthings. p. . to change it s Dire&ion. it Obliquity of Dirc&ion . All the Celeftial Mechanifm. 9 7.. Self-Motion. to be perpetua Mobilia. 15 and Terreftial Appearances that have been explain W. ^ Ibid. Self-Exiftence. 7 s Suppofivg Motion ejfential to Mutter. and therefore above the Powers of Meibid. unaccountable from. Ibid. Ibid. p. Contents. Ibid. p. Allowing Matter. in confident p. p. 9 Body*. 17 of Mechanifm. 14 or the Gravitation of Bodies one upon another. and unaccountable frotn. I? 8. in- confijlcnt with. from this Principle of Attraction. coud never have ar if en from one or all ofthefe Properties^ p. 1 6 the Powers 1C. are unaccountable from meer Me chanifm. ^ There are federal Appearances in Nature.The 5. 1 1 7. and Jo p. yet nothing but fluid or/olid Spheres. to one another. and an 5 oblique Direction. Self-Motion. That to afcribe to Matter. The Production ^/Animals above p. Mechaniim. and in- cwjiftent with meer 9. Attraction. Animals dc wonjlratcd. 6. the Nature of Matter . yet farts (confijlcnt to their Nature} coud only move in Lines Parallel. wcer p. apowcr. That Solidity or Cohefion. Allowing Matter a ibid. and an oblique Direction.

of Rational Crea tures above the Powers p. frefcnt Snbfip.. is above the Powers of ally infinite in Ibid. an life or Defign^ that every thing is ne+ other th}ng y which is an in$ fa Hi It I? . That from all this TJniverfe^ coud not have been bccaufe its it Eternity of it felf. The fpontaneous Motions. 30 &c feq. A Demonstration p.The Ibid. requires^ an Extrinfick Principle for ftence. injlant. Freedom and $ 13. of the p. there was a Neccjfity. of the Origin $f the Univerfe^ p. are above the Powers of Me chanifm. 29 0/ Mechanifm. 40 $15. 27 the Icing offowethittg. and involuntary Mo tions of Animals arc perform d^ p. Ibid. of tive the Senfi- Kingdom. The voluntary Motions. 36 Freedom and Liberty of Rational Creatures. of 28 Mechanifm in the Brutes. Ibid. -aStt- That the red Organs. in Animals arc Number. 24 $11. 42 That every thing in this 1)nivcrfc has an end. inconjiftent with above 12. and therefore the Prodn(iion of Animals. The Ariftotelian Scheme. p. Several Demonftrations .. above the Powers of p. Contents. Ibid. Mechanifm. How the voluntary. 18 Mechanifhi. p. that all the parts (liquid and folid.) of which jkoud have been ^ they conjift. That In the Production of Animals. p. Mechanifm. 1 6. is formd at the fame and therefore the Production of Animals. 37 14. Liberty.

The fallible Contents. World been from Eternity. which wiift have eer now. Animals. and have not been for ever of Mark. 20. $19. had 51 been all Extingnifoed e er now. That the Celeftial Bodies. 53 Idfled from 21. Jiefiftance to their but fitch as make fome fi Motions . and conthe World been from all Eternity . they coud not. themfelves. is not infinite in his Extent. the Celeftial Bodies had been all amafs d in the Center of the materi ^22. theft Animals have wufl the frft of every Species of . they p.have movd from all Eternity. 47 That the Quantity of Fluids. 17. from all upon another had al World ^ tertiity. in all the Planets has been conftavtly decreasing. fome that they have been Created by wife Being. 49 and Bulk. p. 1 8. had the World them qittte deftroyd all Eternity. That ftnce had ft the Heat. of the Sun and the Stars all conftantly decreafe. p. fixt p. 44 Eternity fons. Since Motion is not eflential/0 Matter. do not move in void or emfty Spaces.the Attraction of thefe Bodies one the World been. That all p. and the celeftial Bodies do not move in their fence Orbits by Mechanifm. coud not have been from. and Light. fequently had there had been. of themfelves for both thefe Reap. Had the World UftedfroM all Eternity. 5 6 Since the material Part of this Univerfe. no Liquids extant in our Syftem at frefent. by . P- 5^ 2 5.

a 4 3. That this World 7 1 have been created^ by the mnft Supreme Being.gt. the Exiftence of a Deity. 60 Had the Word lifted from all Eternity. of the Being of a God. arefo many Demonftrations. p. 70 ertafed^ in anyfinite Ibid. is a f lain Proof p. 7? . Contents. it of the Deity. That this World has no other Quality fttitable to Self-Exiftence. p. of the Exiftence offowe fupreme Power. That all tlte p. Introduftion. 63 the Number of any generated thing on If Globe had either constantly encreafed or de &amp. 2 5* this than they have attain d. Arts and Sciences. p. Number ofTears^ how great mall fo ever^ foever. III. A Demonftration that Self-Eixflcnce involves p. whett was his Pleafure. and confequently that whatever is Self-exiftent muft neall the other Perfections ce/arily be God. 76 That the Exiftence of Matter. p. and particularly Mathematicks had arrivd at a greater Degree of Perfection.The been infinitely big^ 24. Ibid. 73 Arguments of tie preceding Chapter. 26. 68 Eternity. by any finite Number\ how f then this World coud not have been from all p. 2. p. 7 2 C H A Of P.

The Preservation of the Faculties of Things.. did. that. of the p. and ccjjity Principles. that the Prefervation. not only the firji Formation. That the Spontaneous Motions. 81 telligent Being. of rational Creatures^ their Freedom and Liberty and Nature . a moving Body in it s motion. but alfo their firft Impulses. nmft ofnehave been fomtd. 87 7. Contents. p. 90 . and consequently. anddofkill. and therefore txitft have been producd by an in p. Bodies. and confequently the Exiftence of a Deity. are fo God. necejjarilj in fers the Exiftence of a Deity.The 4. of irratio nal^ and the voluntary Motions. did require the Power of an Almighty Being. of right great fes. 84 That not only the Formation and fir ft Itxpulthe in did reLines. many Proofs of p. but alfo their centripetal Irnpulfes. p. 89 Demonftration. from what they are now govern d. require a Power above Matter. and Ar That 5. p. p. 8. rangement of the great Bodies of the Univerje. of Ibid. all the Appearances of which are above the Powers 0/MecbanifilL tie Being of a g* y. 88 and Being. 85 Thai: the Exiftence 0j Animals. nor of Motion. by different Laws. That the prefent State of things. quire the Power ^/Omnipotence. 6. does ttot depend A on the Nature of Matter. along the Ta gents of their Orbits. neceffarily requires the Pow er. which is God. it Muft flow from fom Power from thefc.

108 JJ 1 6. Gravities and giitwtities of Matter.The IO. Earth. That the Argument f-r the Exijhnce of a Deity. p. Order and Simplicity. 98 & feq. from the Wildom and Mdiority of the Creation. with their Ufes. and of their Satellits to our lyloon. is that which produces ^ihe nobleft Ef fects on the Minds of Men p. The Analogy. from the moft accurate Obfervations . through the univerfal Space. in thoje of the Celeftial Bodies. A general View of the Worlds of Creation. their Periods and Moti ons. ^ and a Reprcfintation of the whole Syftem of things. p. The Motions Moon. The Nature of the Sun. p. in 17. of this neat and com$a& Syftem of things. r and Light of the p i?4 t . Of the Nature. 94 II. 12. Diftances. Vicijjltudes of Seafons. detaonjlrated. and Rcfcwblance of the Pla nets. and p. 95 that represent the Periods. to our Earth. p. IO2 15. J/jcwing how the Celeftial Bodies are rangd. 103 15. p. the der. the end of their Creation. Diameters. The Numbers. which have afforded Means fir determining the fame . Irregularities of the the Affions ari/ingfrom of the Sun and . A $14. the Motions of the Bodies in our Pla Celeftidl Range and Or the Diftances and $ netary Syftem. pittance 1xt Stars. Reflexion on the Beauty. Contents.

p. From which fuits the whole Syftem beft. by a Raj from p. of all the Celeftial Bodies. p. and one Condition thereof. 135 particular Refle&ions. of cj J their Atmofphere. with a Conje&ure of The Nature of their +J * $ and dejign. the Comets. Some more . upon the Meliority of the Frame and Conftitution of the Celeftial conftant. and their widle Diftances. p. 125 the fame Principle. Contents. 128 refpett of Ibid. 118 the Demonftration Wifdom Beauty. between the Times of the Periodical Revolutions. 129 Ibid. that of Gra vitation.The j 8.From the conftant Proportion. in their Diftances from the Sun. 127 Ibid. in an infini over or under. From p. From the Velocity of the Planets Motions. when portion. &quot. uncertain and in* From $ 20. 19. viz. the conftant Proportion. hatie fitted the whole Syftem fo well. p. p. the Sun. Ibid. the Laws of the Caufe and Magnitude Motions * . of and Meliority. From Times Ibid. p. which woucl not ty of others. 123 their ufe A Ibid. between the and the Area s defcrib d. producing the conftant Motions of all the Celeftial Bodies. in refpeft of their Denfities. they might have been irregular. From the pitching npon that Proportion. 135 ?bid. and Tails. of this our Planetary Syftem. p. in all their Affe^ions. their being in a conftant regular Pro in a fettled uniform Order. 126 the Diftances of the Planets from the Sun.

of and 22. the Vfe and Necejfi Seajons of the Tear. ADewenftrationofthe Motion Mo p. p. The incredible Contents. immenfe Diftance. the beautiful the fixt Stars. to the Animals and Vegetables of the Earth. of the Magnitudes of $21. or Night. 24. p. to Ani Vegetables. with the Annual Revolution of the Earth about the Sun. 140 Reafon thereof. 136 Number. the Difadvnntages of any one perpetual Seafon. 144 23. TheWifdomof the Earth. Ibid.The Celeftial Bodies. the Vfelejjnefs of more Moons. the tniferable State of thofe who are deprivd of his Influence . p. 1 50 the Contrivance ofour Globe. or offewer than ty V&amp. the Stability of the Sun. The Vfe and Neceffity of the Moon. whence the Alterna Some farther Conjectures Deftgn of the Comets. or of one half of the Tears being Day. The Vfe and mals and p. the Necejfity and Vfe of her Revo lution about her own Axe. 138 the Earth. Diverfity. 133 Necejfity of the Sun.gt. the other Night.e f the enjoy. $ p. his tion about hw Axe. p. the Nccejjity and p. Ibid. the dreadful Conferences of her not having been. the Caufe and Neeejfity thereof. The Wtfdom of the Combination of the Di urnal dotation. about the Vfe and tion of Day and Night proceeds: the fatal In conveniences of a perpetttal Daj. 161 . 152 25.

and of a greater Degree of Heat and Warmth in thofe it mo p. the fewncfs of the Original ones. The great Advantages. 182 $30. and drying our Marines. the and the nolle fluid of Light. 155. 164 $25. 186 The Caufe and Necejjity. many Advantages $28. 169 places which want ft. p. plicity of Idea . the the and the Earth. Necejjity. and Beauty of our Fluids. and the Caufes offertility. for the fupport of our Clouds. p. of our Atmofphere. ihe Viift Ufe. and the their fpecifokGravities. The Dejign and Advantages of our Moun . p. the Inconveni ences of a Coincidence of the Equator and Eclip tick. 163. it s Necejjity for Life and Vegetation. and Rain and frejh Water.The Contents. Ibid. on the Sides of the Containing Vejjels. Diftance of juftment of Planets the from the Sun. 189 The and Sim wonderful Beauty. 156. for our Ships. extent. of the prefent Obliquity of the Equator. The Nature of Vegetation. in the wantoftheSeafons of the Tear . to the Ecliptick. of the Law of their Preflure. the Adnice The wonderful Wtfdom. Subtilty. and a Demonftration a priori of the Figure of their constituent Particles. p. p. * tains^ that they are an indifpenfible Condition of our frejh Rivers. 31. 173 reft of and The Nature. which r/idkgs \m fat* ten and enrich fo many Countries in one Courfc. for failing Vapours. of 27. 176 29. p. and give \m thefe beautiful Turnings and Windings. with great Diver/ity of theuniverjal Condition of their Preflure.

general View of p. eftheufe of Saturn s Annulus. Nzwtoris latter Difcoveries of itsNatttrCi $32. the Nature. and A $ Animal Appearances^ p. 191 Nature of the in ternal Parts of the Earth.The Contents. Idea Mr. Some Conjectures about p. The Structure of the Glands. Of the Animal Oeconomy. 207 The Stru&ttre and TJfe of the Lungs. the Mamter of their Operation. as 3. and an Account of the more particular humane Bodies^ p. 221 The the Mechanical Motions $ 38. the Opinions of others about the manner thereof confuted. the p. 204 &: feq. commonly receivd^ with an Account of a new and a more considerable ufe of them. prefent us with. 197 of the inthe the Hypothefis of Philofophers. and of his and JupiterV Satellits. whereby mofl of the difpaird of Appearances of the Animal Oeconomy. 202 the Animal Oeconomy. The true and Mechanical Account ofMufcular Motion from demonstrative Principles . qre naturally and moft eafily ex Secretions in plain d* p. p. and of their feveral Coats. 203 34. Efficiency of 33. the Courfe of the Aliment till it is mixd with to account for the the Blood. and The manner Caufe of Digestion .5. with a general Rule hoiv . p. 214 J 37. Caufe of of all the bhiids in the Httwan Eody^ the Strtilfttre of the Vejftls. and 34. Laws^ and Mechanifm of Secretion in general .

of Nature in the Fabrick of the Eye. and the true manner general of the Generation all and Vegetables Animals and Production of the Nature and Manner of dentonftrated. p. 233 41. 228 the Some 40. The admirable Structure of the Brain. the Nceffity the Nature and Manner of and Advantages becomes after they are born . the noble and amazing Fabrick. in the Order and Dijpofition of the Mufcles. 235 Some 42. proportionating to the labours. . Mufcular Fibres the Direttion of the $ $ how they operate. furprifing Infiances ofWifdow. Vifion. in their Mothers Belly. 254 noble the The Author Geometry of 45. Animals.The how from Contents. we are obliged to undergo. Ivfiances of great Wifdom and Meliority. $ Bodies about us. p. from what it $ the great and wife this and end necejfity of Diverfity. 249 $ 44. p. p. in the Strufture. The wonderful Contrivance of the Skin and Skarfskin . p. 240 43. general Reflections upon Wtfdom and Contrivance of the Animal Strufture. Articulations. . the Difference of the Texture of this Organ in. 2 23 The and wanner Nature of Senfation in 39. with Nutrition. with the manner and Organs of Feeling. and the the Expenfes of Animal Spirit s. and the admirably wife Adjustment of ofthefe Coats to kpow. the noble Fabrick of the Heart. of the Backbone. and the wonderful Strength all this Senfe to the the Bones have in proportion to their Weight^ p. and Strength of the Bones. p. and of the Nerves.

5 . Contents. IV. i JL it is Ibid. 276 CHAP. pag. and the Inconveniences of a different Stru&ure from the prefent. Some Reflexions on the Fabrick. of this . p. Of ledge. 272 79.^ and about which we make the exalfcft Reafovivgs^ with the Reafon. the great *Ufe and Neceffity with the manner and Mechanifm 0/ Hearing. 260 The Contrivance the 46.. p. and wife Contrivance of the Organs of fome irrational Creatures. and the nice Ad- juftment \ofthis Senfe to the Motions of Bodies about us. That there are fome which p. p. p. impojflble for us to attain a perfett Of. with fowe Reflexions on t/js Eyes of other Animals. wonderful of Ears. things.. or Quantity in the Abftraft is that of which we have the juft eft Notion. with the wife Adjuftment thereof for the true Magnitudes diftinguiflring of ObjeQs. Know 2 ledge 2.The Vifion. the Nature of Finkenefs and InfiniteHumane Know ne&j and the Limits of I/ I A H Introduftion. That Magnitude. with the Conclusion of this Chapter.

and mnjt be for ever. no is in there That Ibid. Ibid. the other ablblute. p. 6 are the d Numbers Pictures That mojt 5. 15 That Finitenefs and Infinitenefs in themselves hardy without an Adjunft^ are incomplcat Ideas. II have Duration That ibid. mujl be&f0r ever. p. 8 6. That Infinitenefs implies no Contradiction .The 3. p. and from thence a the manner of the Genefain$ R. That thereby two Kinds of lative. J 4. p. Contents. $ infinite. or that the univsrfal Space is Bonndlefs. p.eprefentation of nation of an infinite Number + which confifts in $ a perpetuated Addition or Subftradtion. fuppofing fome created Beings endow d with fame Properties infiuite in their Degrees^ provided thefe Pro as mceffarily imply others that perties be not fnch^ dcftroj the Nature of a Creature. p. and a the one from the dijiinguifl) A Dcfcription of finite and Mark other whereby to p. and with an Ad]un& imply nothing but the De* p.18 . one re and that finite is a midle proportion al^ between iniinitely many fnch finites and an infinitely fmall fart of that finite. 1 3 . 9 the Extenfion of the TJniverje is That 7. with the manner of the Generation of fmall or great Numbers from one givn. infinite. tftintf and Representations of Quantities. in it s Import or Signification^ p. abfiirdity. 5 Infinites. That Quantity // infinitely divi/ib le. \6 grees of the Properties of things.

Ibid. That Finites and Infinites Difparata and Natures and of quite different Properties.. go 13. and thofe whofe infinitely fmall Parts are all equal. 16 infinitely new Aritfametick of Illtijiration $12. *$&amp. Several Difficulties that might be brought thefe Inferences .lt. their Svms^ Ratio s SUMS may be equal. p. with a Method of find ing an infinitely fmall equal part. n. and the Number of the $ p. p.tinft whofe f 1 p. o ^ The in Geometrical Pro* 14. portion continued. The Divi/ion of Infinites into thofe whofe &amp. 29 of this Arithmetick tnfiveral Problems ^/^/Arithmetical Proportionals^ Infinites. p. Contents. Sum s. the po/iiive Nature and Properties of Infinites. wit ha Method offinding the mfrmtelyfaall equal part offilch. The fame illuftrat&d in fever al Problems.tre A fmall Parts are all unequal . The Method of an infinite number finding of different Geometrical Progrejfions . p. and offinding different ones. Th$ fame illujirated in the Quadratures of Exterior Hyperboloids. An their p.lt. 44 . Differences. 20 IQ.The 9. about Quantities going on in a Geometrical Pro Terms. 38 Ibid. rvhofe Sums may be equal. of owe Por tions of the Area / ofthefe figures. 22 ii. gV ^15. oi p. and the number of their Terms. fame illitftrated grejjions afcending. avfwered and clear d. That it is ivtpojfible ever for us to under-? jiand or comprehend. p.

That Infinites of all Kinds. 17. equal any givn finite 4t This Arithmetick illuflrated in fever at Problems about infinitely fmall Quantities . in their pojitive Nature. mmaHd to cut offfrom infinite Space p. an to A Method an inter Space. Contents. which ought to quiet our Minds.The 1 6. in our Difficulties about feveral Subje8s y both in Philofophy Religion. Space. 0/ Cen p* 50 above the Compreheto/ion of Creatures . and particularly in thofe about the Angles 1 8. p* and 53 t HE . tal of Paraboloids. and affirmative Properties are equally .

there are : Words B : roof a . ^TP^HERE is A Law. and fo far removed from the Knowledge of familiar. and thefe common yet. that thefe Terms imply Notions fo compounded.THE Philofophical Principles F o NATURAL RELIGION. nothing a more Subject of Difics courfe than Nature and however life has made few that The Notions about them agree in their Reafon of which feems to be. CHAR Of the *PhyJical L A w s 9 I and the Vni- form Appearances 0/ NA Tu R E.

I underftand this vaft. every one of which is adand Meafure. Words in their utmoft extent it will be enough to the Senfe I to prefent purpofe. By the jufted by Weight Perfect and Wife Production of Laws of Nature. that there are fcarce any that Ideas that diftindtly conceive all the encer their .moft Men. not infinite Macbin of the Un tyerfe. and which they inviolably obferve in all the Changes that tural State of things. give to them in the fol fhall my apply lowing Diicourfe. if Nature. as . I mean. Simple I Compofition tend to fectle (hall not pre the Signification of thefe . for not only the great Bodies of this Univerfe. confiding letter Macbins. thofe Laws of Motion by which natural Bodies are goVern d in all their A&ions upon one ano ther. the II. were created by a different Law from what they are now governed. By Almighty of of an Number infinite God. happen in the na But here we are to between the Laws of Creation diftinguifh and thofe of Nature. but the inferiour Macbins thereof.

When the Pbilofopbers cou d not account for the appearances of Nature. Thele are Allegorical their to conceal pofe meer Terms coined on pur- Author s Ignorance. they attributed thefe unaccountable Effects to unintelligible Beings of their own Contrivance. that they really meant nothing by thofe ama- B ^ zing . nor any Hylanbic Principle ac cording to Henry More. nor any Omnifcient Radical Heat according to Hip Virtue pocrates. nor any Subfian* tial Forms according to Ariftotle. keep up their Credit with the choughtlefs and credulous part of Man kind. which neither had Foun dation nor Exigence in Nature But who-* : ever will give thernfelves the leaft trouble to confider the Matter. That there no fuch thing as an Univerfal Soul animating this vaft Syftem according to Plato. will plainly fee. nor any Plaftick according to Scaliger. III.as fliall afterwards be is more fully ex- plain d. is evident from the following Confiderations $ i. they were fo far from owning any want of Know that to ledge.

IV. than employing thefe fubfervient Divinities. unlefs we endow em culties above the Dignity of fuch fecondary Agents. . but to difguife their own Ig ^. and laid down Rules.zing Terms. The Ap pearances themfelves. this who doubtlels can govern Macbin he cou d create. 3. Thefe very Beings will with Powers and Fa not (ewe the defign of their Creation. and lefs be by more intelli indirect Principles accounted may for. Beings are derogatory from the Wifdom and Power of the Au thor of Nature. The Scheme of Nature which feems agreeable to the Wifdom of its Author. and according to which. as in fliown. Thefe norance. Natural Bodies are govern d in their A&ions upon one another. to falve which they were gible contrived. Laftly. fome meafure (hall be afterwards 4. is (fuppofing the Syftem of the Umverje already created ) that he has fettled mod Laws. by more di* iet and eafie Methods. con formable to which. the Changes in the material pan of this Syftem are brought about.

form d upon Geometrick Principles. they never tranfgrefs whilft God Almighty preferves Faculties chin in the leaft degree. and which of chemfelves naturally a&ing. which of it felf as d by fome external Force . them in their and Operations. fuch as are all Animal Agents .about which all Bodies inviolably obfer ve. the Movements of this Clock-Work de unlefs difturb pend upon thofe General Rules. This Great Ma- of the Univerfe. one Part communicates its Mo tion to another. and as the Parts are kept together) will go on in the fame conftant tenour of Motion. and are particularly determin d by the Configuration of the feI (hall veral Pieces of which it confifts. my principal Defign to demonftrate his continued . ( long naturally. according to which. that have a Power of Free-Willy nor even of thofe that have Self-Motion. is On B 5 the contrary. nor do I in the leaft degree exclude the Government of God Al mighty in this World. noc here confider the A&ions of Beings. may in fome degree be liken d to a finifli d Piece of ClockWork.

and infer fuch Conclufions Laws from em ing feme courfes. and of its feveral Parts in his own ples. I fliall here only fet down the Gene ral of Nature switch virtually include thefe others.6 iMjflofoplncal continued Providence from evident Princi and to convince the World. It is not ray Defign here to ex plain of the Laws of Motion* and of Bodies upon one ano A&ions d it be well done in fo nar ther. nor cou row a Compafs as I have propofed to my all the particular felf. and without his is the firft Mover . as 1 find mod neceflfary for clea- parts of the following Dif- LAW . Befides this. when he pleates. Hand. to himfelf the thefe Power of Difpenfing with Laws. he has referv d fall to Pieces. that he not only has the Springs of this Great Machin. V. but that continual Influence and Sup the whole Movement would (oon port.

but that where ever fuch Changes happened. by fome outward imprefs d Vio all e. brought it felf to Reft j Nor that ever any Body in Motion. unlefs fome external Caufe put em in Mo And all Bodies in motion will na tion move forwards for ever in the fame turally : Line. nor that ever any Body in Motion.of Natural Religion. there B 4 were . ftrait Courfe by forne lence. bring from Reft to Motion. unlefs they are ftop d by fome or turn d out of their oppofite Force. Law is (hew how inviolably this obferv d by natural Agents. or of moving for a ftraic Line. differently dire&ed Vio VI. we To need only confider it never has been obferv d that any Body did of it felf. unlefs forc d out of will naturally. it felf of it felf altered ics Courfe. that State i. 7 LAW ward lence I ALL in Bodies perfevere in the fame State of reft. Bodies at reft and of themfelves for ever continue in reft.

hinder one anothers re&ilinear Motions. they muft continue io. s . their own Gravity.8 If Bodies were always evident Caulcs. nor wou d there be any certain Laws to regu We Motions of the Univerfe. on which they move. which by it felf can never alter its State. changed their places of themfelves. ftop or did not fome Body their Motion $ with a different Direction alter their Courfe. late the are certain Projtftils wou d for ever move on. did not the Air. A Top wou the Air. by their Cohefion. unleis fome new Force if in Motion. d never ceafe to turn round did not gradually impair its Motion. all Things wou d run into Confufion. in the fame right Line. and if Bodies are once at reft. or the Ruggednefs of the Plane. whofe parts. lame Energy will continue cm in Motion and drive cm forwards in the fame DireP dions. Natural Bodies confifl of a Mafs of Mat ter. the put em in Motion.

and confequently of it felf. Force to ftop a Motion. very well exprefles by the vis inertia. any change or alteration of State. irs Motion. Newton VII. whereby Bodies refift to the utmoft of their their Power. orDirefor to change its Direction.of Moreover. either of Reft. whatever it be. is the dion fame thing as to move of it felf another Matter then of it felf is fo far in way. tQ . as is required to put it in Motion. and docs no leis Refift a change from Reft . and e contra 5 And therefore fince the fame Body equally refifts the contrary of its State. or ftance is Direction. there is in Matter an unadive Principle. different to Motion or Reft. is And this Refi- always equal in the fame Body. proportional to and the in different Bodies quantity is of Matter as There required much they contain. that it is no more inclined to the one than to the other. this Refiequal Changes Body in ftance will operate as powerfully to keep a Body in Motion as to keep it at Reft. which Mr. Motion. it can never change its State of Reft.

if the Veflel equal be fuddenly ftop d. the Liquor continues its Motion and dailies over the fides of the Coreflary . Motion to the Liquor in its State But the Liquor perfeveres of Reft whiift the Veflel makes forward and fo feems to move a contrary But when once the Liquor has way. the it. but endeavouring to con of Reft.IP Motion. at firft the Liquor feems to move with a Dire&ion contrary to that of the Veflel full of Veflel. than from Motion to Reft. not that there is Motion imprefs d upon that the vis inertia Liquor. This vis inerti* is no where more con (picuous than in the fudden Motion of a to Liquor upon a Horizontal Plane. Motion of the Veflel communicated to and begins to move with a velocity to that of the Veflel. the Veflel its really the any fuch tinue it in its State ean t immediately communicate .

for to alter its Courfe of it felf is only to move of it felf after a particular manner. and of Ail Motion it felf move in a Curve Line. but . Matter is not endowed with Self motion. nor any Combination e* no of Particles. and indeed. 2. can either move V1H. is naturally forward in the fame ftrait Line with the Direction of the moving Force . IX. Hence it is Evident. no Particle of Matter. can never can t move of felf. Body.of Natural Religion* Corollary i . that Courfe that if it it is fettled in it . . nor with a Power to alter the Courfe in which is is it nieerly paffive and muft for put. Hence i. K Corollary &quot. it alter its Courfe of ic felf when in Motion. it is evident that of themfelves. ever of it felf continue in that State and it. or of themfelves alter the Dire&ion of their Motion . that no Body put in Motion will naturally.

of thefe Great Bodies in their Orbits lutely Motions do abfo- depend upon this whencefoever itarifes.but what ever moves in a Curve Line muft in every Point alter and therefore naturally of it can its Direction. and confequendy the right Lines. . which are Curve. Corollary 3. Hence the great Bodies Univerfe the TUneis.Lints re but are kept in by fome attractive Force. fel^ no body move in a Curve Line. which if once fufpended they wou d for ever run out in turning into themfelves. X. 4. their SatelKts Comets do not naturally and of themfelves ( of this and the their tho at firft put in Motion ) move in repetitive Orbits. cfferuial to Matter. Corollary attractive Force. e. Matter is indiffe rent . i. ( I Hence neither Motion nor Reft mean not one of era particularly ) is XI.

of
rent as to either of thefe

docs as

much

refift its

and being chang d from
particularly,

Reft to Motion,

as

it

does

the

being

And as chang d from Motion to Reft. any Force will imprint fome degree of Motion on a quiefcent Body, fo the fame de gree of Force impreiVd at the fame time with a contrary Dite&ion, will bring ic
to Reft again, but ic is not to the neceflfary emg of Matter; that it be in Reft or

Mo

tion,

for Matter

will

be

ftill
it

Matter in

which ever of

thefe States

be.

Corollary

5.

^ XIL
it
is

Since then

it is

not

eflential

to

Matter to be either in Reft or
evident
that the
in Reft or in
)

Motion, prefervation of a
(after the firft

in

Body

Motion

Inftant

docs abfolutely depend Almighty Cod as its Caufe, no part of
ter

upon

Mat

can
is

move it
this

felf,

nor when put
ic

in

Mo

Motion abfolutely tion, its being nor does depend upon
therefore the

effendal to
(elf,

prefervation of this

and Motion muft

$ttflofopl)icai

muft depend upon fome other Caufe , but there is no other Caule but affignable,
Omnipotent Caufe of the preiervation of the Being and Faculties of all natural Now this Corollary does in no Agents.
that

manner

interfere

with the preceding

Law,

as perhaps Law, the

from

its

think, for by that inability in Matter (arifing vis inerti* ) to change its State of

fome may

Motion, Reft, or Dire&ion is declared, whereas by this Corollary, the immediate Caufe of this vis iwrtiA is referr d to, vi%.
the
Influence of the
)w>

though by this State of Motion, Reft and Direction, yet this vis is not effential to Matter, but a pofitive

Divine Power, for Bodies perfevere in their

Faculty implanted therein by the Au thor of Nature, as (hall be afterwards
explained.
6.

more fully

Corollary

XIII.

Hence the

Neceffity of a

va

cuum, or fpace diftind from Matter, is for fince by their clearly demonftrablej
vis

of
vis inerti*)

Natural
all

aaeitsiott
refift

Bodies

to the turned

of of
is

Power, any Change or Alteration their State, whether of Motion or R eft.
their

And

fince the Refiftance in the larae

Body

always equal, or the fame, and in dif ferent Bodies is proportionable to the And Quantity of Matter they contain.
fince confequently,
if

two Bodies con
and
contrary

of Matter, taining equal Quantities

moving with equal

Celerities in

Dire&ions, impinge directly will one another, certainly both reft upon or flop at the Point of their Concourfc, as alfo fince it is demonftrable, that two Bodies moving contrary wife with equal
Celerities,

fo that they

and both refting

at their

meet

Bodies containing equal of are Quantities Matter, equally fkavy,

ing, are equally lows, that two

Heavy

;

it

neceflaiily fol

and therefore were there no Vacuities in Bodies, two Spheres of equal Diameters,
Chould contain equal Quantities of Mat ter, and confequently be equally Heavy,
i.

equal Diameters, one of Gold, another of Wood, fhou d have
e.

two Spheres

of

the

1

6

ffinlofopfnra I p^nciptcs

the fame fpecifick Gravities, which being contrary to Experience, there is a NeceP

of admitting Vacuities in the latter Sphere to anfwcr the Difference of their
fity

Gravities.

L A
>

W

;

II.

;

;

;^
the

$XlV.

Changes made TpHE Motions of Bodies

in

JL

arc al

ways proportional
Force, and

to the imprefs d moving are produced in the lame Di-

rc&ion with that of the moving Force. Effe&s are alway proportionable to their adequate Caufes, and if any Degree of Force produce any Degree of Motion,
a double Degree of the fame Force will produce a double Degree of Motion, and
a
triple,

a

triple,

and fo on

rnuft proceed in ftion with that of the moving Force, fince from this only the Motion arifcs ; and be-

Motion

and this the fame Dire;

caufc by the former
tion

Law,
their

Bodies in

Mo

cannot

change

Direction

of them-

of Natural ftettgion*
themfelves, fo that unlcfs

17

fome new Force alter its Courfc, it muft proceed in the fame Dire&ion with that of the moving Force. And if the Body was before in Motion, the Motion ariiing from this imprds d Force, if in the fame Diredion, docs fo much increafe the former Motion if ic
$

has a contrary Dire&ion, ic deftroys a to that part of the fofmer Motion, equal which is imprefs d j when ic has a Dire<5tion

oblique

to that of che former
;

Motion,

it

is

either

added to

or fubltradkd from

the former
tion

Motion, according as the from a Compofition of arifing
is

Mo
chefe

two,

decermin d,

Corollary.

evident, that in the prefent Conithution of things, there
ic is

XV.

Hence

can be no perpetual Motion,
tual

By

a

perpe

Motion,

I

mean an

uninterrupted

Communication of the fame degree of Motion from one part of Matter to another in a Circle, noc as Bodies put in Motion C do

8

ffrpofopptcai

do

for ever continue in the fame, but in fo far as they are refifted or other d

Bodies,

but

a

ftop by Circulation of the fame

quantity of Motion, fo that it perpetu ally return undiminifli d upon the firft Mo
ver.

For by this Law, the Motion produc d is but proportionable to the genera

ting Force,

and

all

Motions on

this

Globe

being performed in a refifting Fluid, vl^. the Air., a confiderable quantity of the

Mo

tion

Communication, it is and medium, confequently of Motion impofiible the fame Quantity fliou d return undiminifhed upon the firft which is neceflary toward a per Mover Moreover, the Nature petual Motion.
on
this
,

muft be fpenc

in the

of Material
is

no

fuch, that there avoiding a greater or lefler degree

Organs

is

of

Friiftion,

according

though the Machin be form d to the exacted Principles of

no Geometry and Mechanicks, there being nor exa6l fmoothne(s in perfect congruity Nature ; the manner of the Cohefion of
Bodies, and the fmall proportion the folid Matter bears to the vacuities in em ; and the

Nature

of

^amtai

Beiigtom

19

Nature of the conftituentParcicles of Bodies,
not admitting the fame. Befidcs, how very finiflied Mechanick Per imperfedl our moft

formances

are,

a,

very ordinary Micro/cope

will eafily difcover

Now

thefe

things

muft very confiderably diminifii the com municated Force, fo that it is impoffible there fhou d be a perpetual Motion, unlefs the communicated Force were fo much
than the Generating Force, as to recompence the dimunition made therein
greater

by ail thefe Caufes, fo that the imprefs d Motion may return undirninifh d to the But that being contrary to firft Mover. this Law, it is clear that the Motion muft continually deacafe, till it at laft flop, and consequently there can be no perpetual Motion in the prefent State of Things.
:

-

-

^
C
-$jfiM Lecn (d
?fii

LAW

$!j<lofopt)icai

LAW
XVI.
ls

III.
or

E PULSE TJ always J^L

Reason
to

equal

Im-

pulfe

or

A&ion, or the Action of two

Bodies upon one another is always equal, buc with a contrary Dirc&ion, *, e. The

fame Force with which one Body

ftrikes
firft

upon another, by that other
prefs

is
;

returned

upon

the

but thefe Forces are im-

d with contrary Directions.
pteffcs

or draws another, is as much prcls d or drawn by that other ; a Stone with his Finger, the if one prelfes

Whatever

If a Horfc Stone preflcs his Finger again. draw forward a Stone by a Rope, the Stone does equally draw back the Horfc

for

the

Rope being

both ways one ftrike an Anvil with a Hammer, Anvil ftrikes the Hammer with equa The Steel draws the Magnet a Force.

equally diftcnded a6b upon both equally, li
th<

much

as the

evident

Magnet does the Steel, as by making both iwim in water

i\

3freligtom

Jb

Barge to Land by a Rope, the Bank pulls the Barge as much as the Barge does the Bank j and in the defcent
in pulling a
attra<5ls

of heavy Bodies, the Stone
Earth as

the
;

much

as the Earth does the Stone

the Earth gravitates toward the Stone, i. e. as much as the Scone does toward the

Earth.

And

the

Motions produced by

both thefe Gravitations, are equal in both, only the Scone is altogether inconfiderable, and in refpeft of the Bulk of the Earth,
consequently

Motion
in

the Velocity of the Earth s toward the Stone is inconfiderable,

refped of the Stone s Motion toward the Earth ; and therefore the Motion of the
Earth toward the Stone
Itniverfally
if
is

infenfible.

And

in ail

the

Adions of Bodies,

Body aft on another, and change its Motion any manner of way, that other will make the fame Change in the Moa
tion of this

a contrary Direftion, fo that by thefe Actions there are made equal Changes, not of the Veloci ties but of the Motion, for the

Body with

Changes

made on

the Velocities in contrary Dire-

C

12

ff

P

B
a reciprocal proportion to
,

<SHons,

are in

the Bodies.

Corollary

I

.

XVII.

If

a

Body A, be impend by
one
in the Direction

two
fty

different Forces,

with the Velocity 3/j

another ia

the Direction \AC, with the Velocity ?vr? make to /fC, as A/ to compleac

A

N

the

Parolelograni

ABC

Dj

the Diagonal

of which is A 2). The Compoficion of both thefe Forces will make the Bodydefcribe the Diagonal At), and in the lame lime as it would have defcribed either of
y*n

the the Sides; for becaule the Force, whqfe vx
v

-J

..-

-

v-

.

>

j

.;

,

V elocity

Wherefore the Body will reach !BD in the fame time. be iraprefs therefore in the end of this time it muft be found fomewhere in ner. &r. XVIII.5t T&amp.lt. but at the Pome 2) therefore.gt. to will not ia the leaft hinder or deftroy the Velocity in the other Force. a&amp. all the Rules of Bodies C 4 . whofc d or not. a&amp. and therefore will not hinder the Velo city in the other Force in and the Body fame time. it in the Direction A C. the Force. whofe Ve is or not. and their aeccffary Confecjuetices.of Velocity parallel is Natural &eltgt om N.5ts fB D. C proceeding to will reach C V in the Corollary ^. and confequently. 2). From thefe Laws. A/. whether the Force.lt. k rnuft be fomewhere in CD. but it cannot be found in S D and C both. in like is man whofe Velocity as M y in the Direction Jlfc^ parallel to CD. ads 2). whether the Force. locity in the end of the fame time.gt. by which it tends to the LineS D&amp. and Velocity isN.

Bodies afcending or defcending in verti cal Lines. into any ob and S 2). as alfo ones. the C .5t a per and from A let fall a per pendicular CD. for Example. and another upon pendicular upon then by the former Corollary. as alfo. may be deduced. Force A may be refoved into the two Forces . fuch as A*B and D. the direct Force AT&amp. as alfo the Refolution of the dired Force. to that of the fame Force coming with a perpendicular Direction to move the fame Body .lt. at the Point C ere&amp. let an ob Force. as A C be imprefs d upon the lique Body E in C.gt. fuch as A lique the ratio of an Force to move a oblique Body. the Competition of of any oblique ones. the Method of compounding and refolving Directions Morions any given may be drawn. From the in preceding Corollary. as the Geometers have ftiewn.. C D. for Example. the Rules of the Congreffes and Reflections of two Bodies.

B has any Energy to move the wherefore the oblique Force as Body A C is fi. if it follows that drawn by the impelled or three different Forces in three a Body A be different Directions ^B. 11 cularly. to B the lar s fame Force coming with a perpendicu &amp. as A C.lt.* or as the fine of the Angle of Incidence Al$ to the ^ Radius AC.lt. The fame is true of the Energy of an oblique Stroke upon the Body to that of the fame ftriking perpendi. but con tinues .B. fo that Body yields to none of em.of ^attmrt ffcty&fim* Forces AT&amp.lt. AC. From the fame preceding Corollary.gt. and A&amp. AE. of which only A&amp.B to Direction.

refpeftivcly. two others. to which the other impelling from A to D. ailing in the Dire- A two Forces acting in the Dire(5lions .finttes in &amp.lt. whereby impell d from A to But by the former Corollary a Force. then will the fame AT) reprefent it is the contrary equal Force. So likewife pollent d:ions A C. AT) reprefent the Force by which the Body ^is impell d from A to !B. as AT) impelling from to A to T) is equi E. is as AT) to AC.equiKbrio y thefc three Powers Lines ter are to one another as three right parallel to minated by their drawn their Directions. and AE or CD. and If mutual Concourfes. $).

therefore the Forces ic&ions Force this AC and AE. we . or not future Inquiries. AE. q. three Laws do if comprehend chanifm. ^ D Force afting according to the Direction AD.lt. and the Foundation fingle Propolition is of all the Mechanicks.5ting Dirc&ion.and being equipollent to the Force A&iflg in the Dire6tions A 2). that AT&amp. AC. and in the adting in the Diequipollent to the a&amp. e. it is not to be Me So then in outchanically accounted for. AD are to y Force urg d by three different equi pollent Powers in the Directions JB. AE. Body be ailing in the Direction or to AD. AC. AC.. from A to to the will be didrts fi ? ^ C. fo vir that ic is plain.gt. if a CD refpective- ly. 2nd from A to D. thefe three Forces fhall be to one another as AD. AE to ^X&amp. d. as ^C. have nothing to do to (how any thing is Immtchanical. any appea rance concradidt thele Laws. or their neceflfary Confequences. as CD is.gt. and tually the Rules of Me- confequcatly. as this feveral Geometers have exprefly fliown thefe all -.

(fuppofing the for thefl^ftfais always the fame) by mer but every Orbit is equivalent to a Polygon of an infinite Number of An Corollary j gles. Orbit. let a Polygon be inicrib d in it. muft decreafc at every Angle in proportion to the Sine of the Angle of Incidence. Corollary 3. that it of thefe Laws or their contradi&amp. Body moving in this (Polygon. and the Body will be Corollary at reft. and confequently the Degree of Mo tion and Velocity arifing from one fingle Impulfc.lt. muft continually decreafe by a Body s moving in an Orbit. and fo muft at laft be quite fpent. with can t move conftancly the fame Degree of Motion from one finIf it move in an gle imprefs d Force. Hence it follows that a in Body an Orbit.not according to the eftablifh d Laws of Nature . then fincc the Angles of this ^Polygon are Ob the Degree of the Motion of the lique. ^ XIX. . but clearly to evince.5ts fome Corollaries.

but are kept kept in by iome other Powers. the Comets and the it is &amp. their We fee thefe Bodies do continue Motions without any fenfiblc Alte rations. that it may return upon gated in an Orbit. which they cou d never do if they mov d only by the Force of one fingle Impulfe. that the mis and their Satellits. XX. and if fo. it muft conti nually decreafe. Corollary y. and at laft flop. and do conftantly move . the firft Mover . Hence there can be no perpe tual Motion arifing from one fingle Imfor this Motion muft be propa pulfe.lt.of ffiatwai aaeitgtotu Corollary 4. Let us then Enquire how it comes about. that thefe Bodies do perfeyere in their Motions.. evident.Pla~ XXL Hence other Celeftial Bodies their *0rbits do not move in (tho we fliou d fiippofe em folid ) by the Force of one fingle impulie.

were endow d with a Motion About as common different Points (at equal Diftances) Centers. (c\d z Vortex) which carries em about. Globule*.move round in the fame Trails. into ip r each endowed little jecjual Parts. and that theie Parts being made round by produce ITJ * fuch inteftine Mptions. Des Cartes fuppofes fylatter of this Univerfe to have beea ividcd ie by Almighty God. fo as to compofe dif ferent Cortices. of Motion. and feperat- ng themfelves. Fluid i fo as to constitute as alfo that feveral Golleitions of thele Parts. of Different . that can happen but one of thele two ways. with out making the leaft Deviation j now. or by fome Retentive Central Force em from tuning out in yvhich hinders when they are 0rgit Lines. the Fingers of him Motion by this once put in who frani d marvellous Machin of a World.4a equal Degree its own proper Center. vi%. both ^iv. XXIL Celeftial In order tp- account for the Appearances. Either by the Force of forne Celeftial fluid.

he. r^ 5 Gl&amp. Fileings Globules driven and ficond fmall the that as alfo Rafpings of thele Points of the Angular calls the M^ter of his ways. Places which are efpecially at thcfe the^r^ diftan^ from its Poles. Sphere wou d in tex produce a Body Jike the Sun . and ntoviqg abo its own Axe with the Motion of i.thefp foles z% loics about the Ecdif&amp. and being there amafe d in the Center of very.gt.out fome Parts of through the Vacuities of the which conftitute fecond Element.lt. from it .of which he Element .tick y Vnd this wQu d be able tq carry rouiid witli 1C . farily wou d lylatiq Globules 6f .h of the Matter of the fartex. Element violently many different did make up the Matter of his firjt .tl^ its throw . it much by as receiving by .d 1 remaining part wou d Center t% 1^ by the Circular Motion^ of the(e which did for that rqa%i bules. that fujppofesdrivep -fowir. Sun being thus fram d. and feeing there Element than wou d was be uiqnp tp of fill this firft fiifficieat the Vacuities between the he be Globules of the fccond Element.

of which was : . have a greater centifrugal Force. till it met with Globules of the fame Solidity. as to be carried about in the Cortex of the true Sun 9 if it were of lefs Solidity. and capable of the fame Degree of Motion with it. our Syftem to have been at firft divided into feveral Vortices in the Center. or lefs capable of Motion than the Globules.it chefe Globules the greateft a leis and that fo of neceffity thefe Globules t that are nearcft the Center of the Sun would which are nearcft. and it wou d for ever be car being fixt there. and there Now (hou d fore recede from the Center. ried about by the Motion of the fortex. we may imagine Suppofing this true then. then defcend toward the Snn. or receding and fo become a Planet. to. be for without either approaching from the Sw. towards the it wou d extremity of the Solar Fortex. with Velocity. it happen that any of thefe Sun-like Bodies in the Centers of the feveral Cortices fliou d be fo incruftated and weakened. leaft. they wou d by reafon of their Velocity. and the remoter with were they greater or equal.

and the Rodies fwirhing o therein.was a lucid. that are neareft it. is fomewhat more folid than the other.lt.Bodies before. ftroyed and till at lafi they were all de- carried Solar Fortex. except away by the biggefl fome few that were from one Fortex Comets. and yolving . that are &amp. fpherical of thefe jj? lome and bigger. lucid. finiOi their Periods fooriei* than thofe that are thefe ^lamts ^ecaii fe more remote. more powerful .. which is the reafhn why the nets next the Sun.and ihac their move about own ^xes. ic- they Were Sun like. in right Lines and became Hence. tivm thole.- of ffiafttral JMtgfon* Body. thrown of to another.Pla- remoter. and that were being gradually incrufhted. which is 3)es Cartes s Reaforij why the Moon fliows always the fame Face to us. As that is alfo that the Matter of the firfl which makes up the Body * of. the Sun. fwaliow d up by others. Element. are lead folid. D XXUL . ic appears that the Tlanets that are neareft the Sun. moves with greater Velocity the Farts of theFo/tex. becaufe that Hemt/pkere oppofice to the Sun and Earth.

tho we fliou d allow the Author all that he wou d have granted. Ap the is Since the Motion of the neareft the Center of more remote. many fuch Vortices as there are one Vortex wou d neceflarily run into ano* ther. and fome fore there . they Parts. will prefs upon the exterior thereby perpetually part of their communicate and Motion to chem&amp.34 XXIII.. certain that a Vortex Wou d be as propagated it . It is produced by the Re volution of a Sphere^ about a giv n dxis. Now not to mention the many Defeats in the Mechanical Produ 1 ction of this immaginary Syfttm^ Appearances it fhall only take Notice (as Dr. which is abfurd and contrary to that Conftancy and Limitation obfervable in the Celeftial pearances.gt. of the Motions of all the Central Spheres. And. if nothing did hinder and feeing there muft be fixt Stars. Parts of the Vortices fwifter than that 2. i. in infirittum. Celeftial contra- dils and the Abfurdities wou d follow. and every Particle wou d be adted by a Motion compounded. Gregory has) of the known .

between thefe folid Bounds. are as the Cubes of the Diftances and confcquently the Pla nets cannot be carry d about by a Fortex. of Bodies. 4. Ac quite deftroy d. dcfcribe a perfect Circle.of fore thefe interior parts of the Vortex. if a Portex run out in infinitum. laft the Motion cording 5. each Tlanet f$ is of the lame Denfity with the parts of the fartex in which it (wims. to this fJypothefa. whereas the Squares of Times of the periodical Motions of the Planets. in refpeft of th Orbit ^ of unlefs D . \jvill be continually loiing Tome part of their Motion which never being reftored. only concreted parts of the Vortex : the times of the periodical Motion. folid did hinder fomething the and it. wou d certainly from the Center.gt. then a Body carry d round by it. thefc pares muft gradually move flower. and is governed by the fame Laws of Motion. till at &amp. or the larger the Bafon be which contains the Fbrtex. and is as it New were. therefore. greater Diftance there were. carry d about by a Cortex are in duplicat proportion of the Diftances from the Center .

than Channel i. carry d about with it. which contradids Experience. e. but this too is fame contrary to Likewife the Matter of the Obfervation. the nearer Circle. 5. the Sww. Bounds. the contrary of which is true.fity in a Vortex A Body of the fame den- wou d neceflarily defcribe a Circle to tral whole Plane. the Axis of the cen Body which produces the Circulation of the Fluid. for that of Mercury is greater than that of Saturn. wou d be perpendicular j but there .3 6 of the Body carry d about in it. The Excentricity of the Planets j. fince the Pla nets in this neceflarily move in Orbits nearly fimilar to that of the fides Vortex wou d of the containing Bafon. nearefl: wou d this Orbit approach to a e. be directed towards the Stars . . muft neceflarily when enlarg d in a wider the Planets muft move fa* than in their ^pbelia. it wou d follow that the Ophelia of all die Planets (een from the Sun. Moreover. as of Vortex ( every Fluid ) when bound fixt wou d up within ftrak move fafter . would be lefs than that of thole more remote. fter in their Perihelia.

Suns Axis is perpendicu their Orbits. He firft of ail (hows.efcribe a Curve-Line.of Natural Beligtotu there is not one Planet to the Plane of the whole Orbic lar. they enter into the Cortex of the Sun. Motions without any perfevere change. they defcribe equal Areas by a Radius from the Sun in equal times. for of themielves cl wou they XXlV. but (bmecimes at righc Angles with the Plane of the Ecliptick. defcnbe right Lines. and nothing but the Fluid concurs to turn them out of their D 3 way: . iometimes the Courfe of thefe Comets metrically oppofite to that of the Sun in is Dia they . This Hjpotheps is fonoewhat altered and mended by the famous Mr. The Comets have not only oblique. all which is impoflible. and makes it agree more exadly to the Rules of Gemetry. if the Solar fortex rnov d round with Force fufficient to carry thefe vaft Bodies of the Planets along with their ir. Ltibnit^ he accomodates it better to the Celeftial Appearances. Laftly. are mov d by the Fluid. that all Bodies which in a Fluid d.

. ever part of Vortex in equal it is. which will neceffarily make the (Planet in what fafteft. the muft of circulate fo as to produce which cannot in- be done otherwife. than by fuppofing numerable conccncrical Oibs ot exceeding thinnefs to make up the Cortex. and a reciprocal of the Arches or Lengths of proportion the . the Hannonical Circulation of the carrying Fluid. defcribe equal Areas Times . (paracentrical Motion of accefs to. The (planets ddcribe Areas by a G(adiw from times.lt. and the way. or recefs from their the Sun. proportional to the Fluid that carries necelfity effect.Planets Now this the Sun. for thele Areas are in a their ^adii compounded proportion of or Diftances from the Sun.lt. viz^ thofe Orbs that are neareft the Sun circulate and the Veloci ties of the Circulations are every where re to the Diftances of ciprocally proportional the refpe6tive Orbs from the Sun.3 8 f^Dttofbpitfcal l^nciples next fhows. that every Tlanet is about by a Motion compounded of carry d two other Motions. every one of which has its own proper way of Cir culation. &amp. He v/&amp.

which no other Law of a Circulating Fluid. and by a Ra from the Sun defcribe equal drea s in equal Times. whereby all Bodies moving in a Curve y endeavour to recede Center from the by the Tangent^ and the Attraction of the Sun or the Gravitation of the Tlanet toward it and this Lelbnlt^ is of Opi nion. arifes from an Impulfe communi . fince the (planets move in Elliptick Orbits. wou d throw off the Planet from the Center by the Wherefore the Tangent. which in this cafe will make a proportion of equality. Attraction of the Sun. may make the Orbits Elliptick. the Circulating Fluid. or the Gravitation D 4 of . and the Vortex this Law of Circulation of he calls is Harmomcal. we muft find out a that Law for the Paracentrical Motion. The Excujfory Impreffion of the Circulating Fluid.of Natural aaeltgtom 39 the Circulations. Motion compounded of two the Excujfory Impreffion of the Harmonica! Circulation.gt. in one cated by Now of whofe dius foci the Sun is. but the Harmonical Cir culation can Account for. The Paracentrical others. V/^&amp.

it.this Head. This to Cortices) which is very abiurd. XXV. about.40 of the to fflantt* towards cienc to deftroy this muft be fuffiEffect and befides. unlefs Attration or Gravitation be recipro cally as the Squares of the Diflances from the F@cus r which is the Sum of Leibnitz^s Dq&rine upon . well as the . d about by a Harmonically as circulating Fluid. . metS) The Co- was formerly fa id.&amp. nor is there any thing in the Mo tions ... have their Orbits. nay.. feme of them very oblique. iometimes at right Angles with the Zodiakj and fometimes the Courfcs of thefe Comets are quite contrary to that of the fplanttsi Now the Comets deicribing about j^j the Sun Anas^ rnoft be carry proportional to the times.PlamtSj and thus we fiiou d have Cortices contrary 2. inefficient for tlicle Reafons. make them move in Elliptick which cannot be brought this Orbits. But even is CeldVui Motions as Account of the undoubtedly faHeand this i .lt. is not only unreafonable^ but Suppoiicion cable to the uniform Simplicity of dilagit Nature .

In the Times are equable Motion.explain. al ways and the Ve locities Motion. 3. and therefore the periodical Times of a Fluid circulating Harmonic ally ^ are in the Now Duplicate Proportion of the tytdii. which is introduced to account for them. that this To this ic may Harmmcal not continued from Mer Circulation cury to Saturn.of ^atwai fteugfon* fb 4* difficult tions of the Heavenly Bodies to . and be at Venus s ^Perihelium. the Velocities are as the Q^adi i recipro cally. and confequently the (planets cannot be carried about by an Harmonically circulating Fluid. the Spaces in one Revolution are as the ^adii. but is interrupted. Befides. . the periodical Times of the Planets are in Sefquiplicate Proportion. but in a Circular reciprocally . be anfwer d. as this very Hypotbefis. and in an Harmonical Circula tion. and reaches gins again to her dpbtliuM) and is there again inter rupted. and not a Duplicate Proportion of the Diftances from the Center or the Qfydii. and is reaches only from Mercury s (Perihelium to his dpfaliuin. as the Spaces directly. and there breaks off.

neither do their fome Appearan ces fliew the kaft Sufpicion of thefe Inter ruptions. fophers endeavour Mechanically to account for. being thus prov d. or by fome gravitating Power in them towards him.4* rupted. the Comet t moving forward in the Zodiack. which is the fame thing. fome Tbilofoin their Orbits. means of any be kept circulating Fluid. move in the fame manner. chat the Celeftial Bodies do not revolve by the Ic XXVI. this is not like the unform and fimpleMeafures of Nature. ing Power of the great Bodies of the Univerfe towards one another. Be fides. and notwithstanding. and fo on through the whole Syftem of the (Planets : But what a ghaftly and unfightly kind of Deformity there wou may d happen on thisSuppofition^every one eafily fee. circulating Harmonically according to uniform Law. fincc it rauft be mutual by the This Gravitating or Attract third Law. as if they were carried by a Fluid. pals through all thefe Chafins and Interftices. . they tnuft by fome dttra&ive Power in the Sun.

ofjl^atutal fteiftfon* for. 4? from the Adion of a Subtile Matter. firft impoffible from the Part of this Hypotbefis. And thus. to account for 1 . and acquiring there by a Power of receding from the Center. impels the Body according to the Direction of that part of this Subalc in right Fluid. but without entering into the particular manner of the Explication of Gravitation do according to this Scheme. but allo the Planets gravitate towards the Sun. which violently whirling round the Sun the Earth and the reft of the in general. Planets in particular. not only Bodies within the Sphere of the Earth s Activity are impell d towards it. impels Bodies towards that Center abouc which the ftrongeft Circulation is made . or Gravi tation in from che Circulation of a general Subtile Matter. for the . there be three Objections againft all two or the poffible Ac counts of Gravity in particular. which is leaft refilled by the inter- pofition of other Bodies. It is Bodies gravitating towards a Poinc . or being driven with an immenfe Velocity Lines according to all poffible Dire&ions.

or elie we vity. which ding to their. Ii is ihipoflible to explain Motion of this fubtile fluid comes. which is harder to conceive than Gravity That Matter which is the it fclf.. muft admit its Motion without any Caufe.Quantity pulfe is . Bodies from the ImGravity which Abfurd of a Fluid can only gravitate in pro and not accor portion to their Surfaces. which is the Caufe of Gra and fo on in inflnitum. 2. 4. no luch thing being either concdveable or poifiblc. 3. Caufe of Gravity. is Matter being to be fuppos d of every where in realon the fame uniform Nature. which is alledged to (alve is a Contraction to this Nature. of Matter. and its Gravity to be always proportional to the Quantity of its (olid Mais. Difficulty. there muft be conceived ano ther fubtiie fluid Moving after fome cer tain manner to produce the Motion of of that Flaid.44 the Motion quaqua verjutnm a great Circle of the Sphere. or by whole Motion whence the Circular it is produced in all the poffible Mechani cal muft be without Explications thereof.

being nothing. their by fuppofing Bodies of Cylinders of to confift originally fmall fta/es^ for infinitely thele Cylinders on fuch aSnppofition. .. the (ubtile Fluid Quantities of Matter they contain.. their I only ic by Lengths of linders. the Gravities of Bodies. a Yet the fo very . Solidities. be alfo as their Solidities/ /. which arife from the Diveifities of the Texture and of their Figure conftituent Parts. Accounts. And tho this Quantity of Matter. which by the Addon of this wou d are as their Surfaces. finee the Surfaces of the original Particles of Bodies are this is as their folid Contents. primitive confticuent Cy that can account for ail can poffibly the varieties of Colours^ t fee how Taftes and Smells^ and other fenfiblc (Dua lities of Bodies.to hard ^Po/lulate^ to require Bodies be diveriified._ is of Natural Bcligion* 5 4* all for we find contraray to Experience Bodies gravitate in proportion to their i. Difficulty may be rernov d. be to one another (Safes wouM thrir as their Surfaces. and confcquemly. But that which in my all overthrows inch Mechanical Opinion. e.e.

fcveral different Conditions of thisUniverfai Law of Gravitation.Accounts. feems evident from the Na has explained ture of Light. without fuppofing different Syftems of this Fluid. nor fcem like will nei the Limitations and Simplicity of Nature. as Mr. there niuft of neceffity be fupof this pos d various and different Syftetns fubtile . which cannot be Mechanically explained. that fecm to Conditions different from that require the the Motions of the Cewhich governs Bodies. as fhail leftial account Mechanically for thefe different Conditions of the General Law of Now. 5. to move after different Manners. to Gravitation. and Caufes the inflexions of be afterwards fhown. There feems to be neceffary to ward ces of a full Explication of the Appearan Nature. That there are different Conditions of the Univerfal Law of Gravitation. which ther accord eafily together. neccffarily to be fuppos d. is that. Newton it from certain Experiment $ and there are other Appearances in Nature. and ac cording to different Laws. however artfully contriv d. Light.

evident. Affair is Corollary XXVII. that may hereafter bedifcovered neceflary to explain the various Appearan ces of Nature. Laftly. not as yec known how many and how different thde Syftems muft be fuppos d to account for all the various Conditions of this General Law. this whole more Naturally and Simply to be accounted for from Principles now to be laid down. it From what has been faid appears. it is a Principle no ways effencial to . that the Attraction or Gravi tation of Bodies toward one another. is not to be Mechanically accounted for. 47 which looks a is little efpecially if weconfider.of Natural 3&eiig?atu fubcile Fluid. 6. and fince it has been likewife fliown. that the Planets cannot continue their their Orbits. Motions in without the Suppofition of it is fuch an Attraction or Gravitation. that this mud nex d to Matter by the Creator be a Principle an* of the World . that odd.

Contact. gans of Vifion. we fmell.Newton. becaufe parts of the odorous Body touch the Nerves of our Noftrils. and univerfally all the other are tural Effe&s of Material Na per- form d by the another. and it can for we fee at a diftance by no means an Obje&. fince it is the Source and the 6rigin of the Celeftial Motions.5t . Befidcs.48 to Matter. by the firft Law of Nature and it5 Co him rollaries. things raeer Impulfe of one this Body on any Meand paf- whereas Power of Gravita tion adts at all Uiftances without dmm or Inftrument to convey it. as Mr. Matter is entirely paffive in its Nature. by the firft Law of Nature. and can no more tend to. and therefore Attraction or Gra vitation cannot be effential to it . becaufe the Light reflected from thence ftrikes immediately upon our Orcated a&amp.lt. and after And Dr. be caufe the Matter is communi efficacy of by immediate. it is not a Refult from the Nature of Matter. fes as far as the Limits ( if any luch there are) of the Univerie. no kind of Motion is eiTential to Matter. or . Gregory has demonstrated.

E reafon . if there were but one indivifible Part of Matter in being. and the other effential On Attibutcs of Matter are always the fame* all which Accounts. yet ftill Matter wou d be felfj like wile the fame extended folid Subftance. where as impenetrability. it s plain that this is Univerfal Force of Gravitation the ef- kt by which the Operations of Material Agents are And this Power ofGrwitapreferv d. it could not be (aid ro have this Property. More over. or draw other Bodies then it it 4? can move of fuppofing this Gravitation of the parts of Matter toward one ano ther deftroy d. thn d on Matter. ev n when indivifible* bility ties it becomes Laftly $ That can is not be eflential to Matter which inten ded or remitted.of Natural Religion. it being a Relative one. but this Property increafcs and diminiflhes reciprocally as the Squares of the Diftances diminifh or increafe. whereas impenetra or any other of the effential Proper of Matter continues with it. is one being thus imprefs of the Divine Tower and Virtue . and having refpeft only to other Parts which icattrads .

conceive how this i. It is indeed in my Opinion certain. this in admitting of the Univerfal Law of the Principle Gravitation of Bodies upon one another are. and were there upon no . can arife from. That they cannot accounted for. Figure and Difpofition of Bodies. for there is no othis ther Mechanical Caufe conceivable. is the reafon why it ought not to be reckoned among thofe Laws which arife from the particular Texture.?o rcafon of the Diftinftion between the Laws of Creation and Nature^ For tho the Ener gy of the Impreffion does ftill laft. this Principle of the Gravitation of Bodies one another. Principle can be Mechanically and they think it Unphilofophical to admit any Principle in the Explication of the Ap of Nature which can t be thus acpearances acounred for. fuch as mod of the Laws of Nature or Motion are. The Chief Difficulties that 1 can find have ftrakned Learned Men. nor arifing from its Nature. yet its not being effential to Matter. but the Mo tion of fome fubtile Fluid. that chanically cannot be Me Priciple accounted for.

but the is it felf Immecbanical. which is the Caufe of Gravity. and wou d not deprive one part of Matter of (o Cardinal a Property. Nor Omnipotent Caufe of the Unherje . which is the Caufe of Gravitation to be unaccountable without a FirflCaufe. but this one. why may we not rather ad- E ^ mit . are upon this Suppofition. with which (lie had endow d all the reft. vi%* that thereby thefe Parts of Matter which are the Caufe of. But ev n the admiffion of fuch an Hypotbefis removes us but one Seep further from Immechanical Prin for the Caufe of the Motion of this ciples. and fines we rnuft of Neceffity admit the Motion of this fubtile Fluid. deititute of Gravity I fiiou d think it fufficient to prejudice any inquifinve Man againft fucli Explications . 5 1 Argument of Motion of a plications againft all poffible Ex Gravitation arifing from the fubtilc Fluid. j has any Body ever pretended to other Caule affign any of the Motion of this fubtile Fluid. for it s certain that Nature is uniform and confident with it felf. or produce Gravi tation. fubtile Fluid.of no other ^attttal BeWgion.

the Impreffion of Rectilinear Motions.mic is this Property the to have Firft Cau/e imprefs d this in Matter. . and the prefervation of the Faculties of Natural Agents. is no harder than any of thefe but fince it is Matter of Fad: and Demonftration. . fame Syftem of Natural Pbilofopby the offered to World as fome Populates not yet.Poftulate upon Matter. both .lt. are the Exiftence of Matter. the firft Suppofition is burthen d with feverai Additional ones. that does require that are not to be accounted for Mechanically j the feweft any one pre tends to. that the Earth draws to its Center all Bo dies within of it. fince that this Difficulty in and that befides. which no Man has pretended to account for from Principles of Mecbanifm 5 and the Impreffion of an attractive Faculty &amp. that Matter is in poffeflion of this Quality . A&ivity. for we daily fee. to which the fccond is There has never been any not liable. we muft allow whether it be to be Mechanically ac its - counted for or not y anc fince it is not to be accounted for from Mechanical Princi ples.

pies. we muft of neceflhy refer it to the Power and Influence of the Firft Caufe of all things. 2. it but we know the Nature in might ftumble man The Communication of a Body in of Motion from one after it is part of Matter to another. and ev n the firft Production of Matter and Motion. and yet there is no denying that fuch things really are. I have demon ft rated. the Continuation removed from the impellent Body.lt.5tion. Now. we may come ble to conceive how Matter a6h to be aat a Di- E 3 ftance . ner of Thinking and one. Another Difficulty ingenious Men have in the ter. and yet we muft admit them. as ef neceflity it muft. judicious Perfons . is Conception of this how it can a& Quality in Mat at a Diftance with out any Medium to convey this A&amp.of Natural Religion. were there no other Difficulty this of the like Philofophy but of fymembring and Senfation. 55 as I think. Motion when we arc Souls and capable to explain how our our Bodies aft mutually up on one another . are not to be accounted for. are things not eafily to be explained. tffyflettion.

fufficient to know. World. and from thefe to account for future Obfervations and Ap if we admit: an Infinitely Wife pearances .5tions another fent . . there are much greater and harder Difficulties in the Mechanical Explication of the Nature of to belurmounted^ as (hall be afterthings XXVlll vvifds &quot. and nicate their what way they commu A&amp. of Material Organs are preferv d. there will be lictle Difficulty in al lowing him to have imprcfs d on Matter what property he pleas d. and if we will not admit of fuch a Being. but till then. who throughly underftands the Matter. and honeft Man. how this Syftem of Faculties things was produced. and that actually lodg the Caufe of all the Great and Uni No wife form Appearances of Nature.54 ftance wichout it is is any Medium . that fuch a Qua lity it is d in Matter. from the Pre- Appearances to inveftigate the Powers and Forces of Nature.(hown. whence nor how the they aroie. it and Influences to one will fuffice fuch. and ^Powerful Beivg to have made this. will offer to explain by Rules of Mecbanifm.lt.

and E 4 of . linear th&amp. the Force of the Attraction or Gra vitation of one part toward divers others. (their Diftances from the Sun y and their Recti in the Motions being once adjufted by Author of Nature. that the Force by which one part attradts another in different Diftances from it. that a Line drawn from the Sun to them.* equal Areas in equal Times . then. if no in Ellip* refiftancc Spaces in which they move.lt. proportion of their middle Di By Virtue of the fame Law. is reciprocally as the Squares of thofe Diftances. that every part Law great and primary by the Author of Na is of every Body attrads or toward every part of every other Body. and that at the fame Diftance. and the moft general Conditions of this Law are.of Natural &eligtom The 55 XXVIII. imprinted ture upon all the Bodies of this Univerfe. is as the Quantity of Matter they contain By the Virtue and Efficacy of this Law. ) and in fuch a manner. gravitates : the Planets mud perpetually move they meet with tick Orbits. and their periodical Revolutions will be in a defcribes fefquiplicate ftances.

which will like wife happen if they are directly in the oppofite part of out Globe. but Jikewife the Planets one another. will account for all the Irregularities hitherto obferv d in the Celeftial Appearances. and their Orbics will be (bmewhat irregular. Newton and after him Dr. as alfo thefe the Sun. the Sun. it is plain that by the Force of this Attraction of the Sun and Moon.- wlfe fince a great part of this our Globe is covered over with Water. the Water that lyes dirc&ly under them will be rais d above its ordi nary Level. as the Earth doth round the Sun. becaufe the remoter parts of the Wa* tcr . the Moon will for ever turn round the Earth. as Mr. Gregory has fhown Like. As alfo the Comets will in very oblong Elliptick Orbits defcribe about the Sun equal Area s in equal times. differ from exad Ettipjes which will be more fenfible in the Motions of the Moon. and the Sattellits of Saturn and Jupiter round them . not only attra&s the ]But becaufe Planets and Comets. becaufe She is fo near to us 5 and this one attract Confideration.5 6 ^Dilofopt)fcai of thcfe Conditions. well apply d.

its Bodies on prefs towards Center. which is a demonftration of its Truth. and the various Latitudes of Places.lt. And were not our Terreftrial fee this fiology ( Thus we &amp. much iefs them all. but their Forces at make up new and a compound Motion. tho not exactly thither neither. one Prin will account for all the great and conciple ftant Appearances of Nature. their De clinations from the JEquator. and leaft at thefe eflfe&s are vari- oufly limited by the different Diftances of theft Luminaries from the Earth. and none but this will exa&ly anfwer any one.of Natural &eW0t om will be lefs 57 attracted than the nearer. and the Motions produc d in the Waters by the attraction of theietwo Luminaries cm t be obferv d feperately. this Globe will by reafon of the oblate fpherodical Figure of the Earth arifing from its diurnal Rotation about its Axis. By this Gravitation. which Moon is the Quadratures.Py- more complicated than the Celeftial by reafon of the multiplicity of different Attractions proceeding from the many dif ferent Bodies that furround any particular one) . and full greateft.

and fince gravitate towards the Sun. of this Attraction Action and the Primary Read ion &amp. and that the Gravitation &amp. that A6tion and Reaction arc mutual and equal.lt. that we are certain by the Effe&amp. Add to thele Confiderations. Bodies are attracted fince we feel that Terreftrul by the Earth. fince the Center of the A&ion. it is plain that every part of Matter attracts every other part. is of the fame Nature with that by which heavy Bodies tend toward the Center of the Earth.Plawts jconfequently. and fince we know by the fecond Law of Nature.$8 one ) we fhould doubtlefs fee the Extent of this Principle. and by which the Moon turns round the Earth.lt. and lefs conftant appearan ces on this our Globe.lt.5is. as alfo the Secondary Planets tend to* ward the Primary ones as the Center of their . as in a great many we actually are. by which the are kept in their Orbits. and that the Force ( as all other Virtues proround in a Sphere ) is recipro* pogated of the pittances from cally as the Squares In Qiort.Planets is mutual. in accounting for the more minute.

and mutually gravitate upon one Sun. and the reftial Sun and Moan thofe of our Earth. eftabliJh of the following Difconrfes j having like wife fhown the Neceflity of admitting the Univerfal Celeftial Law of Gravitation to A pperances. and firft of all. and fince the Decreafe and Increafc of this Gravitation is of the fame Nature with that of our TerGravity. Gene d the Laws Laws of Nature. Planets another. Moon. and hinted next proceed to folve the the great &amp. let us enquire into the Nature andCaufe of Fluidity^which ieems to confift in theMo&Vtfjr of fome principally parts. with out carrying along with em the reft. their Satellits. and deduced fuch Conferences from em as we found neceffary to pkar fome Parts XXIX.Phy- Ufe of fivlogy. or the cafie flipping of iome Parts upon others unmov d . fince likewife the Sun di fturbs the Motion of that Moon.of Natural Betfgfon* their 59 Motions.lt. plain it is they all. Having thus in the ral. this Principle in the Celeftial let us fome of the mtiR Univerfal of our Terreftial Phenomena .

fily flip upon another. whereby each Particle of the Fluid attracts another. one Particle may eaand for this End. but their Gravity muft be fuch. That their Figures be fpberical r ot at leaft fperiodical or approaching to one of thefe. not mov d of (olid Bodies. tudes fo that they may touch only in a Point. i. and fubjeded to the Univerfal Law of Gravitation. 2.gt. whence that cohcfion in the Parts of the fineft natural proceeds . that no Eye. go after the manner folid All the Bodies in the Uni- verfe are Originally compounded of muft tho not indivifible. That their and firm.0pofop!ncai mov d. muft be exaftly fmooth and po3. and by contequence. able to diftinguifli the Figures or Magni of the conftituent Parts of Liquors. e. however a/lifted. yet very fmall neceflarily take i. They lifli d. perceive able to difcover the Figures of Bodies their we have been fwim- but no one as yet has been ing in Fluids. be able to Magnitude. and Fluids in thefe four Conditions. fo very fmall&amp. Parts be extremely little. Parts. that the Force thereof may eafily Fluids exceed . at leaft.

whereas appear in the Form the Appearances of natural Fluids do neParticles of Fire. and keep em in a and thereby make *em perpetual Agitation. The Particles of natural Fluids muft be firnilar. of equal quently of Solidity. porous. there be are to diftinguifli between thefe by the Force of the Fire. (mooth. exceed the Force of their Cohefion and we Fluids. that be Homogeneous. fmall. and equal fpeci em Gravities. and of the fame . which have between fome . 4. of equal Diameter*. of attributing any particu ing no neceffity to the Parts of the firft Kind.of here Natural &eligton . Water feems to confift hard. and confe- they may equal fpecifick Gravities. of a Fluid. all the general Appearances may of be eafily accounted XXX. which tear afunder the Parts of (olid Bodies. uniform Nature from for. fpherical Parof picks equal Diameters. ceflarily require the Conditions in their Parts juft now affign d. thefe general Sup- pofitions. generated and thofe that are naturally fuch. lar Figure which own their Fluidity to the Force of the.

fuch as Mercury. and ranged in fuch a manner. let Water pafs through it. Their Smoothncfs.61 ^pflofoppfcai f&tftt tuples fome Spaces fo large. their Sphericity keeps em from touching one another in more Points than one. makes em flip cafily upon one another. is exhaufted. incompreffible. cles The ( Porofiy of the Parti- of Water Cubical which is fo great. when the XXXI. and Gold will by much preffure. and fo may be more Pores than (olid fuppofed to have Parts. by both which. but alfo is why it more eafily concreted into a folid Form than . that a meafure of Water contains at leaft forty times ter is more Pores than Parts. their Fridions in Hiding upon one another is rendered the their Hardnefs is the reafon leatl poffible $ why Water Air lodg d in is it. as to be pervious on all Sides. Water has above forty times more Pores than folid accounts not only for the different between Water and other Specifick Gravity Parts ) Fluids. and nineteen times rarer than confequently Gold . for Wa nineteen times lighter than Gold. and by confequence.

which is the reafbn why they fwim in Water when they are rais d once. Obfen&amp. which have abundance of Sur faces in refpeft of their Solidity. whereby thefe Salts are fufpendsd in the Water. that they arc like the Effects of Free of Cold. that the of fome Salts. are thin double wed d. ftance floating in the Air Salts. mix d with Ice.of feem Natural aaeltgiotu Cold 6$ Sub- than other Fluids are. prodigioufly encreafe the Effe&s and Force of Cold. But this Effed may be more juftly attributed to the fame Caufe that is prefent- be fhown to be the Catife of ly to Freezing. much we know. before they fhoot Figures into Mattes. we fee all Salin Bo dies produce a Rigidity and Stiffnefs in the Parts of Bodies to which apply d. from Mr. . to proceed and Fr Salin fee that all from fome . zing. we but more eminently fbme. menlions both Microfcopial Boyle s Hiftory Freezing increafes the Dtof Solid and Fluid Bodies.ations inform us.gt. viz^ the fmall Points of the Salts getting into the Pores of the Particles of Water. tho they be fpecifically heavier.like g Particles.

thefe Cbryftals are obferv d to have the Form of are a double Wedge. whofe Extremities . by the Figure of thefe Cbryftals. diflblves In Summer the Heat of the Sun the faim Particles into a Fluid. keeps &quot. and fix em in a (olid Form. ( and by (Looting into thofc Chryftah as we fee the Particles of artificial Salts do. fo that they cannot flioot into a (olid are not able to Wedge. The Dimenfions of freez d Bodies are encreas d by the Infinuations of the(e Cbryftal Wedges in their Pores.. and by its A&ion. which in Freezing. and the Particles of congeal d Water are kept at fome diftance from one ano ther.em in a perpetual Motion. breaks off their (lender Points. make em cohere. and confequently produce the Appearances of Cold upon Bo dies 5 but in Winter they are lefs difturb dj and more at liberty to approach one ano ther. Liquor is exposed the Air) which by both their Extremities when the to the Pores of infinuating themfelves into the Particles of Water. infinuate themlelves in their Pores 5 for as I have before faid.pljiiofoptjical pzinciplcs Water.

by rcafon of the Largenefs of the Middle of thcfe Chryftals. both in the Pores of the watery Particles. which is one Reafon why Ice becomes But befides than Water. Specifically lighter cles this. and many of em uniting Volumes. and in the Inter ft ices form d gures. are kept ac Diftances from one another. which thereby have a greater Force to expand themfelves than when difperfed. and fo larger both enlarge the Dimenfions. its 6} Middle broader and larger. and thus the Spaces between thcfe fpherical Parti become larger and wider than before. and not come fo thefc Particles in Freezing. thefe Globules can to touch. fo that when the Extremities have infinuated themlelves into the Pores of two watery Particles. there are many little folumes of Air included at feveral Diftances. than greater they were when in a fluid Form.of Natural Betigfom but pointed and flender. Now Form by fpherical Fi the Insinuation of thefe by their the Volumes of Air are driv n out Chryftals. and leffen the fpecifick Gravity of Water thus con- F geal d . of the watery Particles.

how Hence we may guels at Water impregnated with Salts. the Parts of thefe Mixtures becoming a Ce ment to the Particles of Water. em into thcfe change different Subftances. a connumber of thefe Particles are necetfarily required. any Fluid. the manner. that the Quantity this our Globe does daily decieafe. Earths or Sulphurs. for (eparate a few Particles of. or keep em afunder from one another. Gems. Mineral. . and fatten them to a folid Body. Minerals. to produce which. or getting into their Pores. and other Fojfils. Corollary Hence Water on plain. which are not eafily diffolvible.66 geal d into Ice. Vegetable. and they are no mote fiderable fluid. which are not eafily diflblv d into t^eir component Parts again . may form itfelf into Me tals. or Metallick Subftances. ic is of fbrne part thereof being every Day turn d into Animal.

their fliorteft Diameters muft not be much greater much a greater . that their Diame ters are not much greater than thofc of tlie Particles of Light. fince likewiie it is probable. of Reflexion and Refradion. for the(e Interftices are as the bules. but rather not pafs through the Vacuicies formed by bicular Figures. Light being Material. ever fo (mall Quantities is abfolutely o- XXXH.fmooth. Cubes ot the Diameters of the Glo are by vvhofe meeting they form d. muft either make or find a Pa pake. folid. that the Diameters of the Corpufcles of Mercury muft not be feeing Light and than thofc of Light $ and if theie Corpufcles be Spheriodical or Oval. none of the Rays of Light whatever be the Caufe pafs . if the Particles of Mercury be fphedcal. and lets fagc through every refracting Medium. fphcrical or for fince Mercury in fpberoidicat Particles. that Light does through the Subftance of the conftituent Particles of Fluids. cannot pafs through thefe Interftices. ic is plain.of jBaftirai ffielfct otu 67 Mercury feems to confift of exceeding fmall. it s their Or plain. and fince.

and this is the Rea. or Figures moft refembling them. to form Paflages for it. above other fifts. form them (elves into Sfberiodf. and the extreme minutenefs of its Particles for the eafy afcent of Fire. why it is fo light. through which another Matter freely pafles. Mercury by confift XXX1IL Air fecms to of into fmall Spheres. through Spires contorted the Interftices of which.68 greater than the Diameters of the Parades of Light. accounts for that won derful Gravity of Mercury. their Accounts as alfo for Airs being compreffible. the Particles of Light fon may freely pa(s. Fluids. Spheres. The So of the Particles whereof Mercury conlidity and the fmalnefs of the Interftices they leave between them. their be ing (piral Accounts for the elafticity of Air $ being fpherical Particles which gives free Paffage to any Heterogeneous Matter. beyond all other Fluids. it hew when becaufc comprcfs d fpiral retains its fluidity. This Account . when comprefs d. the (olid Subftance Spires of the being very fmall in propor tion to the Spaces they take up.

be fuppos d to confift of fmali Par which endeavour to recede from one another. then thofe of Mercury . z j. pleafe which to me feems the if Air ticles.gt. whofe Compreffion.for. of thcfe Primitive Fluids viz. all the Appearances of Air may thence be accounted for. 01. Mercury and Light .. as of of and fhown$ XXXIV. as proportional to Mr. may haps. with a Force reciprocally proportio nal to the Diftances betwixt their Centers.. by far the leaft of all. 3)enjity ( |V0/&amp. But there is another more genuine. under which Name I com prehend all that which paffes under the Name of jEtherial or Subtile Matttr. which I (hall examin hereafter ) feem to be com (hall be afterwards pounded. of . 3 The Diameters of the Parti- Mr feem and Water greater than thofe the Diameter* of the Particles to be Vater. Other Fluids ( befides that of the Light. cles Tag. and of Par- F tides . W*~ ter3 Air.of Natural aaeltgton* Account of the properties 6? per- of Air. greater that of the Light. Newton has demonftrated . is for upon its this Hypot hefo they will compofe an Elaftick Fluid. fome.

Suppofing all other things alike. thus Water or Lymph mix d with Globules of Flefh or Blood of a greater Diameter. which mixes with the Fluid . and the may in the Figure of the parts of the Ingredient. efpecially the ^Primitive Fluid. 5. and the Varieties of fuch mixt Fluids general be thus eftii. the Fluid will differ proportionably to the Difference of the fpecifick . ^. mated. and the Dia meters of the mixing Ingredient being the fame. ) the Liquor will differ proportionably to the Difference of the Firmnefs or Softnefs dient . the mixt Fluids will differ proportionally to the Magnitude of the parts of the folid Body. make a different Fluid Globules from Mercury mix d with All of Sil other things being fuppos d the fame.7/o tides of Salts. and fuch like Ingredients. Earths. Sulphurs. will make a different Liquor from the fame Lymph. would ver or Brafs. of the Parts of the mixing Ingre thus Mercury mix d with Globules of Diamond. Cdteris Taribus. the Figure. (efpeci ally the Fluid. mix d with Globules of Flefli or Blood of a lefs Diameter.

not only all thefe may ther. Mercury fpherical Magnets. but alfo the Figures of the folid Parts in the mixture may be infinitely diversified. of the thus a mixture of Gold being fuppos d the fame. (whereas the we have hitherto only fuppos d Solids fyberical) all mixing make an Liquors. be differently combined with one ano and with the four Primitive Fluids. little mix d with little make a different mixt with And thefe Spheres of Lead or Iron. infinitely infinite which will Variety of mixt F 4 XXXV. feem to be the Trimogenial Differences of mixt Fluids . the Liquor will differ according to the different Degrees of the folid Parts the Cohefion of among themfelves $ thus. All other things only confidered. Now. . the Diffe rence of the fpecifick Gravities being here 4.of ffiatutai aaeiigiom cifick r\ Gravities of the Particles mixing Ingredients $ and Mercury will make a different Liquor from that of Mercury and Lead. will mixture from that of Mercury.

evident from reflecting Specula. It may be ftopt fifted in its Paffage from one place to ano ther. $tpme/s Reafonings upon the Eclipfes of the Satellits of Jupiter. and it obfame Law in its Reflexions that other Bodies do. reflefted. ( which are confirm d by the Qbfervations of other jftronorners ) whereby he demonftrates that Light requires about Minutes to come from the Sun to us. fccms to be evident i. as is plain from Mr. vi%.XXXV. and is not propagated in an Inftant. or re2. and 4. the Angle of Refle xion is always equal to the Angle of Inci dence . through a larger It is as Space. It is From thefe Confiderations. may congregated or fcattered rower.. go from one place to another. proand a determined to time requires gteffive. It refiadting Burning-Glafles. as other Fluids are ftopt in their Courfes of folid by the wn Oppofition Body. any be within a nar . by the Interpofition of an opake Efody. That material Subftance. may be and tlie Determination of its Mo tion ierves the changed like other Bodies.

It more or a&amp. The of the Sun will warm and heac The Light other (olid arid fluid Bodies.lt. and may be fcen by a applied to the Hole of a darkened Room through which the Sun Now all thefe arc the Properties of fhiaes. 5.of dence. which effects. others Blue. through which it pafles. as we fee by the Spirits. by communicating a certain Degree of Motion to them. and all upon upoti other Bodies. according to the Nature of the Medium. areeqdow d Laftly. Bodies .Prifm fome are ^ed % and fome Green. parts Plants. 8. others fellow. &amp. their in component . by ftriking upon them with a detertriin d Force. the parts of Light with various Original Colours. and putting them Motiori all thefe Effe&s we daily 7. and warm Juices they afford. as other fluid Snbftance? do.lt. and other Vegetables. Parts. Newton has demonftrated. continue when their paufe is removed j the of Light are yearly irpprifon d in Fruits. by leparating lee. Natural &cltgtotu It 7? may be put out of it^Courfc 6. It may be confined and (hut up in de- termin d Spaces like other Fluids. the Organs of Animals.5ts lefs. as Mr.

74
terial

iMjiiofopljtcai

Bodies and can belong to nothing but MacSubftances.

XXXVI.
are extremely

That the
little

Particles of

Light

or frnall,

we may con

clude from thence, that they pafs through almoil: all Bodies that are pervious, fuch as
Chr)flats j Claffes, feveral Gems, and almoft all Fluids but Mercury, and that it freely
pafles

ver,

where no other Fluid, how thin foecan enter, and yet, no eye, however
has been able todifcover or diftinr

affifted,

But guifh the parts of the groffeft Fluid. what moft of all demonftrates their fmalthat Light may be propagated from innumerable different Luminous Bodies, with
nefs,
is

out any confiderable oppofition to one ano ther ; Suppofe a Plate of Mettal (having
at the top the fmalleft Hole can be made ) were erected perpendicularly upon a Horizon
tal (plane,

were fet innumera ble luminous Objects of about the fame at an ordinary Diheight with the Plate,
it

and about

irance

from it, the Light proceeding from every one of thofe Objects, will be pi opaga
through
this

ted

fmall Hole, without interfe

ring

ring.

This will appear by applying a dark

the Object, in a ftraight Lineagainft

Lu

Light of this Body will through the Hole be receiv d upon the it is dark Body ; impoffible that fo many different Streams of Light cou d be

minous Body,

for the

Now

transmitted through fo fmall a Hole, were not the Particles of Light extremely fmalL

Add
fwift,

to this, that

were not the
little,

Particles

of

Light extremely
(i.e.

being

extremely

more than a Million of times

fwifter than a Cannon Bullet, continuing in its as fliall be greateft Velocity, prefently d peirce all kinds of fofliown ) they

wou

lid

Bodies with almoft as great Facility as

they

do

Vacuities,
reflefted

whereas

we
fbme

lee

Light

regularly

from

Bodies,

innumerable dif ferent Spheres of Light within our Hori%on, may he propagated from their feveral

Moreover,

we

find that

luminous Centers 5 without interfering. How many Millions of Candles and Flambeaux

may we

fending out their Tides of Light, without clafhing upon one ano ther, which argues both the Smallnefs of
fee

the

?6

^fniofoptncai 0?i nctpies

the Parts of Light, and the Largenefs of the void Interfaces between the Particles of

Air and other Bodies.

XXXVtt,

How

extremely fwift the
gather from

Particles of Light are,

we may

the foremcntioned Experiment of
tners,

Mr. fy-

whereby he demonftrates, that the Streams oiLigkt pafs from thtSun to out Earth iq about ten Minutes ; and Hugens in his Cof*
ntotheoros,

nuing

has prov d, that a Bullet conti in the Velocity with which it leaves

the F/J Percur/a being the fame in both, the Velocities will be reciprocally as the times, i. e. the Velocity of Light will
t>C

Now

the Mufle of the Cannon, wou d require twenty five Years to pafs from us to the Sun

to that of a Cannon-Bullet, perfiftin^in
greatcft fwiftnefs, as

its

twenty

five

Years

is

to ten Minutes, or as 131 4700 to one fVoxime, fo that the Velocity, with which the

Light pafs, will be more than ^ Milliqn of times fwifter than a CannonBullet. Moreover, the Diftance betwixt
Particles of

the

Sun and

us

is

at Leaft

i

zooo Diameters
of

of natural

3&eitsfon>

77

of the Earth, but allowing it to be only runs a thoufand i coco Diameters, the

Light

Diameters in a Minute, or fixteen and half

Diameters of the Earth in a Second, or that is more than beating of an Artery,
1 1

oopoo

Taf/t;, fince the

Diameter of the

Earth contains 2865 French Leagues , and
Toifes, accor every League contains Buc ding to the Numbers of Mr, <Pkard.

n8z
1

Sound goes but about

80

Toi/es in a Se

cond, wherefore Light is abouc fix hundred thoufand times more Swift than Sound. Likewife fince the Earth s middle Diameter
is

7846 Miles, 5000 Feet and
;

each of which contains
fince

Light goes in a Se

cond or in a pulfc of an Artery, fixteen and a half; Diameten of the Earth, it is plain, that in every Second ic runs at leaft a hun dred and thirty thoufand Miles, which is a prodigious and almoft an incredible Space But the extraordinary in fo (hort a time. Effe&s of Light and Heat feem to require all this 5 we fee how powerfully it ads ( being congregated ) upon the moft com{olid Bodies, and w.c never perceive

any

78
any diminution of
an abatement of
its
its

Force arifing from
fixt

Velocity.
Stars

XXXV1H.

The Sun and

feem to be huge, denfe Bodies ( like the Earth or Planets ) heated to an extraordi nary Degree, and their Heat probably may be preferv d by the greatnefs of their Bo dies, and the mutual Adlion and Re aftion between their Parts and the Light, which they emit, and their Parts are kept from fuming away by their fixity, and alfo by vaft Weight and Denfity of the Atmoffberes incumbent upon them, and power fully compfeffing them, and condenfing the Vapours and Exhalations which arife from them : The Light feems to be emit ted from them by the vibrating Motion of
their Parts,
after the

manner we

fee Iron,

heated to fuch a Degree, as to be into Fufion, by the juft going vibrating Motion of its Parts, fend forth with Force

when

and Violence, copious Streams of liquid Fire all around $ Great Bodies prefcrve their Heat longeft, and that perhaps in propor
tion to their Diameters.

Mr.

Neww

has

made

of ffiatural

&tt<gfon

79

made
pear

it

probable, that the Comet which ap-

1680. by approaching to the Sun in its&erikelium, accjuir d fuch a Degree of Heat, as to be 50000 Years a cooling,

d

in

whence we may fing the Sun and

guefs, fixt Scars
folid

that

fuppo-

Colk&ions of denfe and

be only Matter like
to

the Planets, heated to a very intenfe
gree, they

De

may

be

many

Millions of Years

without lofing any confiderable part of their Heat, dftronowers have obferv d a clofe, compa<5t and large dtmofpbcre abouc
the Sun, and there is np doubt to be made, that its Body is of the fame Nature with

the other material Parts of this Univerfe, excepting what Alterations its vehement

Heat
ly,
fixt
its

may
Stars are

produce,

and

confequent-

highly probable,

that the

Sun and

only Planets,

vehemently
aft

heated.

XXXIX.
tually

Boferand

Ugh
i. e.

mu
a<5fc

upon one another,
its

Bodies

upon-ZJg&r, in emitting refledting, refraft-

ing and bending
(

Bodie$
>

Rays, and Light upon in heating them, and putting their
Parts

Parts in a vibrating Motion, wherein Heat confifts, according to Mr. Newton s Difcovcrics.
If

we fuppofe

that Bodies aft
it
i.

upon

Light, by attracting cular to their Surfaces,
fictiilar

in
e.

Lines perpendi

fuppofing

two

Mediumi diftinguiflied by Parallel

Lines, and that a Ray in its Paffage out of the one through the other, is urged per pendicularly towards either Plane, by any Force, which at given Diftances from the Plane, is of given Quantities , then what

ever Inclinations the

Rays have to

the Plane

the Sign of the Angle of Inci dence of every Ray confidered apart, fhall

of

Incidence,

have tb the Sign of the Angle of (fyfraftion a conftant ratio j this Mr. Newton has deitionftrated, both in his (principia, pag. 117.

&

feq.
if

and
its

in his Opticks y pag. 57.

&
it

fet}.

and

the Velocity
Incidence

of

the

Ray

be greater
fhall

before

than afterwards

be refle&ed, and the Angle of Incidence (hall always be equal to the Angle of ^flexion ^ and fince it is Matter of Experiment and Obfervation, that the Signs of the Angle*

of

Incidence

and tyfrattion in

all

Rays of
what-

of $atetai meifsfotu
whatever Nature, obferve a conftant and that the Angles of Deflexion and
<fewre

s
ratio,
7/7a-

are

equal

it is

therefore

on the o-

hand true, that the Rays of Light are thus urg d by the ^ffrafting Media, and their Velocity thus abated by reflecting ic fo that is ones, evident, fyfraftion and from one and the fame <%efleiion proceed
ther

Princiciple, ailing differently

in different

Circumftances.

Mr. Newton has demon: and convincing Experi ftrated from plain ments, that the Light of the Sun confifts of Rays differently refrangible and reflexible^nd
that thofe

XXXIX,

Rays

are

differently reflexible, that

are differently Thefe Rays refrangible. that are all alike refrangible, he calls the Light

of them Simple and Homogeneal, and thofe that are fome more refrangible than others, he calls their JL/g/^Compound Mdf&terogeneal\

the greater or
is their

iefs

(

l$efrangibility

Rays,
or
Iefs

Difpofition to
their

of be tutn d more

out of

on

the

way, in like Incidences fame Medium ; and their greater or is their xibility Difpofition to bc reG turn d

pDilofoplnral
turn d back
Surface they

more or
fall.

lefs

eafily into

the

fame Medium from any

other,

upon whofe
out of the

G(efraflion

Rarer Medium into the Denfer is made (b, that the Angle of tifyfraftion is lefs than the Angle of Incidence, and on the contrary. The Colours of Uomogeneal Light are thefe, Vwlet, Indico, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and
SfcA

Thefe Colours

in

the

Objeds

are

their Difpofition to reflect this or that fort

of Rays more copioufly than the reft ^ and in the Rays of Light they are their Difpo
fition to

propagate

this or that

Motion

into

the Organs of Vifion, and in them, they are Senfations of thofe Motions under the Forms

of Colours

;

the
ieaft

Rays

that

produce

Red
thofe
reft

Colours, are
are

and that make Violet, the moft, and the
refrangible,

as they ap refrangible, of thefe Extremes in the Or proach either der fet down, that is, Orange is Ieaft renext to Red, and Yellow next frangible,
leis

more

or

to Orange, and (o on.

All the Colours

of the Univerfe which are made by Light, are either the Colours of Homogeneal Lights,
or

of ^attttai
or

compounded of
is

a Mixture of thofc

;

Whirenefs

produced by a due Mixture

of

all the ^Primary
;

Colours of Homogeneal

and Blackne(s by a Suffocation, of Light ; and all Grey or Non-refexibilfiy Colours, betwixt Black and White, may be compounded of all the ^Primary Co the Pri lours mixt in a due Proportion mary Colours of Homogeneal Light are un changeable in their Nature, and no De nor Refractions will change any of flexions thefe into another ; whereas by the due Mixture of coloured Bodies, Colours may be produc d by Compoficion, which Qiall be like to the Colours of Homogeneal Light, but not as to the immutability of Colour ; for that may be chang d according to the Colour of the Light by which they are
Light
;

Teen

Suns Light confided but of one fort of Rays, there wou d be but one Colour in the whole World, ancl
;

io that

if

the

it

be impoffible to produce any new Colour by Reflexions or Refraltions,- for all
the

wou d

Variety of Colours depends Compofition of Light.

upon
/

the

G

z

XL,

Experiments of Rays paffing by the Edges of Bodies. which being contrary to Ex* perience. that the Caufe of im Deflexion is not the Diftancej pinging of Light on the folid and impervi ous Parts of Bodies. whofe Parts are fmall and fubtile. fo that the Scratches and of its Surface become too fmall Frettings other Arguments to be vifible.gt.84 ^ XL. that they are incurvated by the Aftion thefe of Bodies as they pafs by them. yet not fo fmall as to be come truly plain mff&amp. For (not to repeat thofe which he has brought in great plenty ) fince Glais can be no other ways polifh d than by grating and (cratching it by Subftances. and that this Action is ftrongeft at the ieaft he has demonftrated likewife. . begin to bend before they arrive at the Bo Mr. if Light were reflected by impinging upon the folid Parts of Glafs j it wou d be fcatter d as much by the moft polifh d Glafs.berkal y and all toge ther to compofe one Surface*. Newton has fhown by feveral dies. as by the rougheft. The Rays of Light which fall upon Bodies and are reflected or refracted.

oblique . for then its refraCtive Power. Power. but by fome Power of the Body.Gem tis G in the ftronger than 3 con- . that tranfparent Mediums. for in the confine Superficies interceding two of Air and Sal.of ffiatutai aaettgt on* perience. or the Force of its Attraction ftrong to Befides that. for when Power various Cir- Light goes out of Glafs into Air as as it can obliquely poffibly if its ftill be Incidence then more made do. it becomes totally re/Jetted. becomes too let any of the Rays go through. Superfice greater or leffer refracting Power. it 83 is evident that the Reflexion of a Ray is not effe&ed by one fingle Point of the reflecting Body. and refraft Light by one and the fame varioufly exercifed in cumftances . which is evenly diffused over all its Surface. by which it ads upon the Ray without immediate ContaCt. the ^flexion is ftronger or as the a hath weaker. thofe Surfaces of tranfparenc Bodies which have the greateft re/rafting upon the Ray. Light in the j reflect the greateft Quantity it is of for by Experiment found. after the manner hinted Bodies reflect 37.

that conftitute Clouds or Mifts.86 confine of Air and Water ^ and in the confine of Air Cryftal. Mediums different from botK thefe between the Parts of hard Bodies. and the Reafon why uniform. Air between the aque ous Globules. and Opacity arifes from the mul titude of ^efleBions produced in the internal Parts of Bodies: XLI. All Bodies feem to have their Powers proportional to their Denrefraflive ficies. thereby . as Water between the tinging Particles wherewith any Li quor is impregnated. but at their external Superficies. is becaufe all their Parts are of an equal Denfity . excepting fo far as they partake more and or lefs of iulphurous. and perhaps. oily Particles. Between the Parts of opake and coloured Bodies. pellucid Mediums have no fenfible Reflexion. there are many Spa ces either empty or Me repienifh d with diums of other Dcnfides. Now Deflexions are perficies produced in the Su which intercede thefe Mediums of different Denfities. ftill and common ftronger Glafs or and ftronger in the confine of Air and Diamond.

fo fince mutual. this Mr. by refttttd the Action of the refrafted and G 4 Light. . that Light is fwifter in Bodies than in vacuo. fince it s from the Aftion of Bodies on Light. Sulphurs al moft that the Aftion between upon Light Light and Bodies is mutual. in the Proportion of theSVgTK which meafure the t^efrattion of upon Bodies.5ls Light congregated by a Burningmolt upon fulphurous Bodies. fince all Bodies very probable. that this refraBive in Bodies does moftly partake more or lefs Power of Sul find. refratt and reflett grow hotteft in the Light moft ftrongSummer Heat. as by Chymical dnalyfes we And as Glafs. is evident from Adion and this Confideration.of Natural aaeUgtom 87 thereby have their refra&ive Power made more or lefs . thac this refraffive Power does ari(e . Newton has found by Obfervation on almoft all tranfparent Bodies. that the denfeft Bodies which ly. to turn all a&amp. phurs. and it s depend upon the (ulphurous Parts with which they abound. which is certainly true. together with a Calculation founded the Suppofition. into Fire them is : and Flame .lt.

as may be feen by viewing fmali Bodies with a and confequently. or feparating their Parts. upon the fame Ground that thin Plates reflect or tranfmit thofe Rays j for a thin Plate of an even thicknefs appears all over of the fame Colour. be rendered diffidently opake. and Bodies become more fides tranfparent. and if this Plate were flit into Threads^ or broken che into Fragments of the fame thicknefs with . according to their feveral Sizes. thofe whofc Pores are fill d with Mediums of an unequal Denfity with that of the refrafting Medium itfclf. the moft tranfparent Subftances may by eva cuating their Pores. XLIL The haft Tans of almoft all Natural Bodies are tranfparent. are Light.a8 ^pofoppical The Bodies that reflect Light. Glafs by being pulveris d. or almoft equal Pores Den- with their Parts. as Paper dip d in Water or Oyl $ and on the contrary. reflect Rays of one Colour. or Horn by being (crap d. by filling their with Fluids of equal.gt. they muft T4icrofape&amp. as Salts or wet Paper dried. and tranfmit thofe of aqother.

of Natural Bodies be muft upon the fame Grounds reflect or tranfmit the feveral (ores of Rays. why a heap of thofe Threads or Fragments flhould not conftitute a Ma(s or Powder of the fame Co it lour which the Plate exhibited before was broken of a hibit . which pervades their Interfticesj and as there is a conftant Relation between fyfrangibility. their muft on Colours. muft be denfer than the Medium. there is no Reafcn why every Thread or Fragment fhould not keep its Co lour. fame Grounds ex Now Mr. and confequently. and this is the Foundation of the various Colours of all Natural Bodies. that thin Plates or Bubbles refletted Rays of one Colour and tra/mitted thofe of another. 89 the Plate. Co lours gible and the moft (Refran Rays being the leaft refrangible Pw . and there fore the fmall Parts ing tranfparent. But of Bodies on which their Colours the parts depend. ftolet . and the fmall the Parts of all Na tural Bodies being like fo many Fragments Plate. Newton found by Obfervation.of Natural Beltgton. according to their (everal thicknefs or thinnefs.

Newton $ for it is impoffible to feparate the Parts of this Work from one another without Difadvantage to them. Mr. in like the intergreateft thicknefles 5 and rnediateColoursat intermediate thicknefles j the Red at and lours there are ieveral Orders of thofe Co more or le(s intenfe and vivid. and refrad or tranfmit the reft. muft go to that late pearance written by admirable Treatifc of Oftic fo&amp. lation between Violet Colour and (%eflexibility.gt. ac cording to the feveral thickneffes of thefe Plates or Bubbles : and the Reafon why the Surfaces of ail thick and tranfparent Bo Light incident on dies refled part of the them. the Circumftances reflected.%eflelion y and others in Fits of Thofe whofe who deeafie Tranfmtffion. or to fum them up in a lefs room . without lofing fomething . foe full Satisfadion in this wonderful Ap of Nature.ffitinnples and thofe of intermediate Colours ha ving proportionally intermediate Degrees fo there is a conftant Re of fyfrangibility . being at lead thicknefles of any Plate or Bubble.lt. is. that fome Rays at their Incidence are in Fits of eafie &amp.

by powerful ribratwni of their fmall eft Parts. Newton s and Difcoveries. the Sun think we may fafely conclude i. or having their in a fmalleft Parts ftrong vibrating put Mo emitted from them. and moves after the fame man ner other Fluids only with a much them do&amp. has now manifefted to the World to what furprizing ments duly Heights. That this Fluid of Light e3. That the Mo Motion of Light is fwiftcr in Bodies than in .gt. and that this Light puts the parts of the(e Bodies in a vibrating tion wherein Heats confift. That fixt Stars are but Planets or Earths vehemently heated. That far great Perfon having before flhown how Numbers and Geometry would go in Natural tpbilofopby. even vulgar Experi ed in managed and carefully examin In the fuch Hands may advance it. from Mr. is That Light thefe mitted from thefe vibrating luminous Bo dies a certain time in from requires paffing to us. 2. 4.of thing Nw and Ufeful. I general. 5. tion. this Light to cm in Lines perpendicular to their Surfaces. That Bodies draw greater Velocity.

by reafon of after its this Attraction.5iion Mo diffe tion in its (fyflexion. when any Ray the is in that part of thefe Vibrations that has the fame Dire&ion with eafily that of Ray. ed than broken. That thefe Vibrations produced Bodies by the Action of their Motion confpires with Light. in 8. when brought a certain Degree of Strength. in its That the Ray cidence whole Courfe of ^flexion and In defcribes a Curve. e. i. or is rather bend 7. when that of the Rays of Light. but when it is in the conit . muft be of fuch a determin d Force to produce a diftinft Sound. juft as we fee the Vibrations produc d in the Air by tremu lous and fonorous Bodies. rent Direction thereof. muft of Neceffity retard its &amp.in vacuo. reflefted. That the Vibration of the fmaller Parts of Bodies produced by to the A&ion of Light. is the Caufe of their Light.lt. and and (lower its being than in Incidence. by reafon of the 6. breaks through a reSubftance. becaufe that Force of Attrain its which accelerates its Motion Incidence .

are 9. the Action of Bodies upon Light. pedes its Motion. 1 That cerreflefi of Bodies to 5. That tffyfle\ion caused dies. Light congregated by a Burning. That Light through Mediums only uniform Denfity. and fo every Ray is difpos d alternately to be eafily reflected or eafily tranfmitted.9$ which im contrary part of the Vibration. That the For or refratt Light are very nearly proportional to the Denfities of the fame Bodies. vi%. it is eafily refle&ed. That of their own Na ture diverfly Refrangible and ^flexible.gt. and fince k&amp. afting differently in dif the Rays of Light ferent Circumftances.Glafs ads moft upon Sulphurs. and that this diverficy in both arifes from the fame Principle. tarn . and that the refractive Power of Bodies is principally owing to the cranfmicted totally that are of the fame Sulphurs with for fince all which they abound A&ion is mutual. ces Sulphurs ought to 1 2. is 10.gt. by and happens only Mediums of is the different Denficies of in Superficies Bo that intercede different Dcnfities. 11. aft moft upon Light. &amp.

tain

Colours are

tfefrangibility

the primitive upon thefe Degrees.
lifts

d to luch Degrees of or ^flexibility, and that all and original Colours depend
ty
1

4.

That White con-

an equal Mixture of all the primi tive Colours, and Black in a Suffocation of all the Rays of Light, which is the Reafon why ftlacfo burn more eafily than other Colours and other not primi
in
;

tive

Colours
1

arife

of

thefe.

5.

Mixture That the Colours of Na
certain

from a

tural

Bodies depend upon the different Denficy of their fmall Parts, and thereby
fitnefs

Light of one Colour and tranfmit that of others. 1 6. That
their

to

reflect

of Rays make Vibrations of feveral which according to their bigbignefles, nefles excite Senfations of feveral Colours much after the fame manner, that the Vibra
leveral forts

of the Air according to their feveral bignefles excite Senfations of feveral Sounds.
tions
1

7.

That

the

lours arife
Iration

Harmony and Difcord of Co from the Proportions of the Vi*
as the

propagated through the Fibres of the

Optick Nerves into the Brain,

Har
mony

of

Natural fteHgton*

9?

and Difcordof Sounds arifes from the Air. Proportions of the Vibratms of the
Corollary.

From what

has been faid of the Nature
its

of the Sun, and

Light,

ic is

evident that

the Quantity of Heat and Light in the Sun does daily decreafe 5 like other vehemently

hot Bodies

it

muft gradually cool
of
fo

;

as alfo,

by

Rays Body upon all the Planets within its Syltem, which do not return, both its Bulk and Heat muft be diEwiffion

its

many

Millions of

perpetually, quite round

its

minifhed.
virtual

It is

Heat in Metals and Minerals, may be owing to the imprifoned Rays in em $ the Production of Animals in the ordinary way, require sa cer tain Degree of Warmth, which proceeds from his Influence. SomeBodies do ftifle and
fuffocate the

not improbable that all the the juices of Vegetables,

Light, fo as that they are never, or not duly reflected Sul again. phurous Bodies form little Cells by the

Rays of

Action of the Rays of Heat and Light to *& retain

$>6

retain

cm, and from

the Ingenious
learn

Expe

riment of the accurate and
{Bernoulli,

we

fpbere and all

d Mr. John are informed, that our Atmothe Bodies on our Globe are

faturated at all times with Rays of Light which never return again to their Fountain,

becaufe as has been
dtions,

Chown in the former
I

Se*

Bodies do attract, and confequently
thcfe Rays.
fhall here
(et

retain

down

(for he try d the fame Ex periment after different manners) the Inge

one of the Ways

nious Author prefcribes, which by my Or der was repeated here at London. They are
related in the id,

Volume of Mr.Fontanelles
Qtyyalle for the Year

Memoirs of
1

the

Academie

7 co.

We fuck d thro*

a very clean

Tube

of about 50 Inches in Length, open ac both ends, very well cleanled Mercury, till it came to the top, then nimbly ftriking off the upper Surface of the Mercury, which had been ioii d by che Air, and hindred the Effect in former Tryals, we nicely and the upper end with a proper quickly clo& d Cement fo th^t no Air cou d get in, then fu~
fpending the

Tube

that the Mercury

mighc

fubfide,

of Natural &ettgfon*
(iibfide,

97
chat

and darkening
in,

the

Room

no

Light could get

we

perceived that at

every Vibration, Flafhes of Light appear d in the Vacuity at the upper End, which enlightened
all the

Room, which as Mr.
$

@^r-

happened thus that Film of Dirt, wherewith the Air foils the upper Surface of the Mercury, and which hinders the Paflage of the Particles of Light in or
noulli reafons,

being removed 5 in the Vibrations of the Tube, the Mercury afcenddinary
ftafotneterf,

ing in

oblique Situation, lubfides again in its Perpendicular one, and thereby leaves behind it a Vacuity, to fill which, the Par
its

ticles

of Light, being the only Body that
in,

can get

rufhes in, from the Mercury and through the Glafs, in great Quantities, and fo produces thefe Flafhes ; which (hows
that the Subftance of
Light,
it

is

(battered
vifible.

every
the

where,
it s

Now fincc

though

be not

certain, that Bodies

do

attradt

Rays of .Light, and do retain em fo, that they can never return to the Fountain
of Light again of Ligb{ both
;

it s

plain,
this

the

Quantity

in

H

Bright Luminary,

and

and

in

the

Sun

like

fixt Stars

muft be

continually decreafing : However, it s alfo certain, that this Decreafe is very inconfi-

derable in any ftiort time, though
fure there
is

we

are

(ome, and our not being fenfible of this Decreafe, is only an Argu ment of the exceeding Smalnefs of the We find fome odorife Particles of Light,
rous Bodies,

fend out Steams

for

many

Years, without fenfibly diminishing either their Bulk or Weight, which argues the

Smalnefs of the Parts of thefe Steams. But the Particles of Light muft be extremely
fmall, fince the

Sun

for fo

many Ages

has

been conftantly emitting Oceans of Rays, without any fenfible Diminution : But this
can furprife no Body, who confiders that Matter is infinitely divifible 5 for it is poffible

to affign in Numbers, a Quantity, whereof a Body as big as the Sun may

conftantly, for any finite Number of Years emit Oceans, and yet the Sum of em all,

may

not be greater than a cubical Inch, or even a Grain of Sand.

XLIIL

of
XLJII.
that the

We

mod

have already obferv d, general Condition, of the

Univerfal Law of Gravitation in Bodies,was, that at the fame Diftance from the Center

of the attracting Force, Bodies did gravi tate in proportion to their Solidity, and at
different Diftances, reciprocally as the Squares

of thofe Diftances but this Condition is not fo general, as altogether to exclude
5

others
Tterfal

j

the
is

way

to

know how

this

Uni-

Law
is

diverfify d, in

the different

what Lines, Bodies in their Motions or A&ions upon one ano ther defcribe, or what the Effeds of thefe Motions and Actions are and then to in* veftigate what Conditions of the Univer al Law of Gravitation, will make Bodies
Bodies,
to obferve
;

defcribe thele Lines, or produce thefe Effedts. Thus if any of the (primary or Se
condary Planets, did delcribe perfect Circles. or about the Sun, or a
Ellipfe*

Primary

Planet plac d in the Center, the Condi tion of the Hnhtrfal Law in thefe, would be, that the attractive Force at different Di
ftances

from the Center, would be

as thefe

H

i

Diftances

$pofopl)tcal
Diftances
Parabola,
at

dire&ly.

If

they defcribed a

by fuppofing

the attractive Force

an

infinite Diftance,

changing
Force
,

or an Hyperbola, by the Centripetal into a Centrifugal

Law
ways
as

then the Condition of the Univerfal wou d be, that the Force were al
equable

and the fame at all Diftances, 1 1. Mr, Newton has demonftrated,
<Prop.

Lib.l.

We

find, as has

been infinuated in

the preceding Sections,

That the Rays of

Light in paffing through different Media, do tend perpendicularly, to either the Plane of Incidence or ti^eflexion, fo that the Force

of Attraction

always the fame 5 at equal Diftances from the fame Plane. We lee that the Parts of Air, fhun or fly from one another, inftead of tending to one another ;
is

fo that in accounting for the Appearances of Nature from the Unherfal Law of Gravitation,

we

are not

ty

d to one fingle ConK>

dition, but

may

have recourfe

others as

(he Nature and Ncccilicy, of the Appearan ces (eem to require ; for the whole Diffi culty of (philo/opby, teems to lie in invefti-

gating the Powers and Forces of Nature,

from

of

101

from the Appearances of the Motions given, and then from thele Powers to account for
all

the

reft.

XLIV.
cohering

The obvious Appearances of
two
very fmooth

Bodies are thus,

well poliflh d, plain Bodies, put together, will firmly cohere even in an exhaufted
Receiver, which fliows evidently that their Coke fan is owing, neither to the Gravity, nor

any other Property of the Air; all faline, cryftalline, and moft mineral Bodies, break in very fmooth and plain, or at lead congruent Surfaces , and univcrfally almoft all hard and very compact Bodies, break wkh Surfaces, which immediately upon the which is Separation, appear whitiflj,
to

an Evidence, that though the Surfaces be very fmall, yet they are very fmooth and polifh d, for only innumerable little polifh
all

d Surfaces, are fit to reflect plentifully kinds of Rays, whereby white Co

lours are produced. ces of cohering Bodies,
to

Now thele Appearan
do

naturally lead us

imagine,

that

one necelTary Condition
the plainnds,or at leaft

toward

Co^/^is

H

3

Congruitj

f^tnrtptes
Congruity

of

cohering

Surfaces,

and

this

fecms neceffary to exclude any Fluid from lying between cohering Bodies, for theie Bodies cannot be laid to cohere^ or be con
tinued, betwixt whofe cohering Surfaces, in all its Points a Fluid may infinuate itfelf,

The

of the cohe plairmefs and fmcothnels more Points come ring Surfaces, will make into Cotttaftj than when they are rough

and
/ton

irregular.
arifes

For whatever Caufe Coheif

from,

we

fuppofe that

Cade

to a 61

more
be
;

ftrongly at the Contatt, the Points of the cohering Bodies come
Colxfion in Curve

mod

into Contatt, the firmer the

will

and though cxal Congruity

Surfaces, will bring as many Points into Contact, as plain Surfaces will, yet Curvlty not being the fimpleft, nor mo(t expedi
tious

of producing this Effect, nei ther agreeable to Nature, (who always her Effects the fliorteft brings about all and eaiieft way ) in feems evident, that
the plairmek and imoothnefs of Surfaces, is one Condition of Cohe/ion, and that thofc

Method

Atoms that are terminated with plain Sur
faces

of ^atutai &eU0f on*
faces, will ( ctteris faribus
)

i

o$

produce Bodies

This will appear firmeft Cobefion. more evident from the contrary Quality in the conftituent Particles of Fluids. For we
have fhown before, Condition of Fluidity,
Surfaces, of the
that
is

of the

one neccffary
Particles

the Curvity of the

conftituent

of

Fluids, in
that
their

refpe<ft

whereby their Cobefion is very fraall, of the Cobe/ion of thofe Particles and are terminated with plain Surfaces,

Gravity always exceeds the Force of their Cobefion, fo that from both thefe
Gaufes, they eafily flip and move one upon /* another. that fome then may fuppofe

We

of the Primary Atoms, of which Bodies are conftituted, are terminated with plain Sur
faces
dies

on

all fides,

which will produce Bo

of the firmeft Cobefion, others are part ly terminated with plain, and partly with curve Surfaces, which will produce Bodies
of a
others again are intirely terminated with curve Surfaces, which will produce Fluids, and between thefe inCobefion
;

mean

tirely plain,

and

entirely

curve, there are

infinite Combinations,

of plain and curVeSut-

H

4

faces

Now in can be deriv d from nothing Nature. whereby all the Pares of Matter. to feparate ftill them. as this it were. On the Center A. XLV. let a Circle be defcribed. in refpeft of their Figures. let !P A be perpendicular. and &amp. by any Force how fmall foever j and dies fiiice we require are certain. that cohering Bo a determin d Force. to that by which they one another. attracted by . But though this fmoothplainncls. there wants to hinder a Cement. endeavour to embrace one another. will not hinder them from being feparated. will moft fitly anfwer the Appearances of Coatcradt he fan. but that Univer* fal Law of Attraction. bring nefs and in the Surfaces of cohering yet this moft Points into Contact.P be a (Particle of Matter. will Bodies.faces which will account for all the vari ous Degrees of Cobefion in Bodies. and at ihe Difhnce AD. to whofe Plane at^. them from being e^fily feparated when join d.lt. and cannot be feparated buc by a Force fupericur. let us then enquire what Condition of the Unfterfal Law.

PF = VE. from ? to any any Point in the Radius of the Cir in the cle draw !P Ay take . Li^.of Natural 3Reltgtotu Condition of the Univerfal Law. Newton has demonftrated. 5)0.Prop.lt. right Line &amp.lt..lt. &amp. L . of fuch a length as may reprefent the Force whereby.P by all the Particles of this Circle. the Particle attracts the E Body &amp. and at F draw F/ pa rallel to AT).?. and let Lt^I be the Curve which the Point 2^ thus constantly circumftantiated Generats 5 Mr.lt. (P^. in any &amp. 218.

&amp. y= x&quot.~ x you fubfticute you have putting m.lt.IPrincip.lt. Matkemat.P. and let F^ ? or the Force whereby the Point E attracts the be reciprocally as any Power ( fuppofe n) of F then the Equa- Body &amp.P r tion of the Curve will be. &amp. = i x a- whofe And if for x you fubfticute !P ^. =H . the whole Circle.OTJ1 r ^ 1 Wl v /r| . you have Iffot tte Area 0&amp.P/j&quot. j .lt. .lt.lt. that the Force whereby Af&amp. and F^. (hall OTHILM .Phil.?. F be call d x.and therefore i.P attrads the Corpufcte multiplied as the upon the Kftarace A &amp. r AHIL let &amp. upon the Q^adim is &amp.P JLM =^=~^^ PH.lt.P.lt. we then &amp.gt. t n .lt.

P4 tratting K If 4HIL=o x ^ = n and VA = oo i vanifhing. the i.~ consequently the the Cor- iM of the Circle upon pufcle = m t x If M = i. i.lt.lt. ti\s Area.) finite. then the Arch X&amp. when the is y attratting Plane plac d at ot the Hyperbola. then the of the attracting Circle being produced.P AH1L will be in and Jf being nothing. and &amp.lt. in which Cafe. (the Curve being the vulgar Hyperbola.P A = o. &amp. with its AD the Cow- Afympiote is .H ( whole Center .gt. or the Di~ ftance between the Corpufcle and the atTlane &amp. 107 m x &amp. will coincide wich the dfymptote $0.of Natural Bcligion.lt. Attraftim e.

let &amp. -f- &amp. and conx ftcjuently the Attraction &A it AfilL iu r. ami &amp. a./cfe upon the Gw2!_ x AHIL .cc x = i. is greater i. than that in the former Cafe. when -V A o. then the Infinite. And hence appears that . the Attraction of the Circle &quot..PA quently AL i and HI will coincide. and i.PD = &amp.PJ = o.P^ /&amp.P A AT&amp.gt. is &amp. where ?i in = If n = o 2 and (P /4 ~ oo .gt. there the 4*4 AHIL will be -nothing.^ and confe- x /4HIL =00 x o = therefore and V A = If n ^H be = 4 x And then f H called &amp.^tttlofopitfcal T.lt.gt.lt. = i.lt.lt.y - + 2L If 7i Cff. AHIL will be oi more f/. and whofe Radius t= oo ) will coincide with is . multi ply *d into it more than Infinite from whence that the Force of the Atraflion appears this Cafe.4 (the which Exprcffion fliall be after meaning wards explained ) and therefore the Attra ction will be $A x AHIL = o ..gt.

AHlLici this third in Cafe will be greater than the fecond and Cafe. the Attraction will oo for of be greater than when !P A two Produds.lt. fo that if A denote A=o . AH1L o in Force of the Attraction confequently the when PJ both Cafes. will be greater than in the in this Cafe now fecond Cafe. if (P i op A o. that ^is to a.of Natural Religion* in this Cafe. when (P traCtion. for the reafon o is mentioned. = greater Multiplicand.P in that Cafe was the fame both when was equal to o and to oo . having the fame Multiplicator. where n = i. ly AH If A = a. contrary to what happened in the firft Cafe.lt. for the Attraction &amp. vi^ i. the Attraction. If ?i J = 2 and &amp.- when (P A oo I and a the Atfay. then as former =&amp.P being cail djf.PA=--o y thmAHIL but will be more than infinite.lt. the Attraction A m = ? and &amp. as a greater than infinite is to infi nite. vi^ becaufc (P A = a . that is the greater. which has the .lt.

is Multiplicator in both. evident. tf 6 After this manner.lt.* (fi traBion will be equal to ~H 2* (Id J? 4- i 1 45 + 3Z 5 rt Hi%0r. AHIL will be equal to nothing.no a common AHIL in this Cafe. If m = and PA =00. and the increafes when thus the Powers of the Diftance n increafe^ . that the Force of the AttraEtkn of the Plane up thefe Calculations it is From on the Corpu/ck) when the Diftancc is no Cor thing. greater than AHIL in the fecond. and at any affignable Diftance of the Corpufcle eafily in be upon computed the Corpufcle P. pufcle when come into or the Plane Contaft.Plane Attraction of the any affignable cafe of the Powers of the Diftance P F. the Force of the circular &amp. and and confequently 00 X0 = 1. then as be 3 fore. may from the Plane. If the Attraction will be m = 3 and PA =a i } then the At.

when the Towers of the Diftances are high. the Force of the Attraction and PA =o. than when they are lower. thus at the Diftances. it s clear from upon greater. much lefs propor than when n=. at the fame finite Diftan- ces decreafes fafter ? or at a greater rate. I. or x. is this to Now : apply theCobefion of Bo dies It s certain that the firft Condition (vi^.of ffiatmal &eltgtotu thus when n == 2. or when n is a greater Number. As alfo. fame n than finite is when is lefs.) cannot obtain in the Cohefon of Bodies 5 for the Difference between the Force. . the Force of the Attraction tionally. when in = 3. as does not anlwer the Appear ances . and is P A o. fo fmall. than when and fo in others higher. to where the Difference one Cafe and in the other. and when they are at fome Diftance from one another^in is this cafe. is when the AttraBion reciprocally as the Diftance between the attracting Bodies. that the Force of the Attraction of the Plane the Corpufcle. when the Bodies are in Contaft. H = i thefe Calculations. and fo in others between n yet greater.

that the Force is whereby Bodies when they come to immediate Contatt. the proportion of the decreafe of this Force.) the Difference of the Force ofCohefion. between Bodiesat immediate Contaft^nd of the fame. get in between the Surfaces of Bo they are at any Diftance. ciprocally as the Squares at fome Diftance from one another^is greater than in the former Cafe . But were poffible to gather by Experiment. upon the Surface of our Globe. for we find. J3ut not fufficient to account for this Difference obfervable in the if manner of the Cohefion of Bodies. the Condition of the Univerfal it any which furround Bodies. than when cohere. becaufe the Fluids But when . In the fecond Condition of the Univerfal Law of Gravitationfoiz^whcn the Force is re of the Diftance. Diftances give from one another. they are at ever fo fmall a finite Diftance from one another. very much greater. at fome deterthat min d would Law. fame. greater than the Diameters of the confticuent Parti dies cles will be very difficult to make fuch Experiments.ances . in it to the cohering Bodies.

and a Diftance equal to the Diameters of fuch jfubtil Fluids. get faces of Bodies. and feeing one atight and Bodies aft mutually upon nother. that all the Appearances of the manner of the Cohefion of Bodies. it is affifted. is too fmali to be diftinguifh d by our Senfes. howfoever everthisbe. in between the Sur Light. removed at almoft an infenfible Diftance from one another.Prin* cipleof Gravitation. and of^ir. they render the efficacy of the Force of Attraction where of the Force thus the Particles of by Bodies cohere.of cles Natural their lateral of chcfc Fluids. altogether infenfible at any Diftances from one another. and that the Particles of 4ir y endea vour to recede from one another. Ho w- very evident. together with that other of the already mentioned.lt. greater than are the Diameters of the Particles of thefe Fluids . for if all Bodies cohere after one and the fame manner. and fo by the efficacy preffures. then of Gra* one Condition of this Uniyerfal Lw I vition . of the plainnefs Surfaces of cohering Bodies . deftroy whereby Bodies cohere . may be explained from this &amp.

there before. in fo much. to account for the different Degrees of Firmnels. others aftw another (and thefe Diverfitics to fome may feetn not improbable.- firft Bendings. find the Convex fide exceedingly ftretch d. as to be vifible as afro &amp. or in the become vifible which no doubt were K/&quot.vitation will fervc$ if fomc Bodies attraA one another after one manner. bending elaflick Bodies. and of fome one or more of the mention d Conditions of the General Law of AtPrinciples. being thus it is no hard matter to undcrftand (cxplain d. fures. traftm. Solidity and there Cohejton obfervable in Bodies ) then.gt. which feems to arife from the Elafticity. tho* opt fo large.fide. that by frequent and long con tinued Bendings. Cohefan in all pofGble Cafes may be explained. Cahejton in general XLVL fame of fmooth and plain Sur faces. we fc the . is fufficient variety in this Univerfal Law all thefe Diverfities for account fo that it s to evident that from thefe Principles. there In we in the out.

fide feparated. are join d together. or its Parts forcibly d together.fide : the fame thing happens. are turn d in towards let us their Centers .5tion tain. were fo another. mightily contracted. only the Convex fides. to hinder their A&amp.and that no forein Fluid endowed with a disjoining fuch as Air and Light arc ) cou d init is cer : terpofe. that no forein Fluid I a . the matter being thus.lt. as to move upon a common of the Congruent fquares as an /frcw . when two elaflick Globes. ftrike againft one ano ther. fo that each Particle in thefc Planes. that two very fmooth and plain (quare Surfaces. on the in. fuppofe. fo as to run prefs into Folds or lefler Convexities. attracts by fbme one or other of the Con ditions of the General Law of duration. Diftance were fo fmall. the^irtraftive Force wou d immediately bring thefe Planes and together again. feparated if thelc Planes were if the by zfarallel Motion. chat the external Force which thus fe- Force ( paraced theft Planes. or Balls. by any external Force.of jftatutal ffieiigtom the Concave fide. if thcfe Planes. ceafingtoaft.

) fuppofe. and in both Cafes. as to manner they provided they be not feparated. which may cacy of the Force. another after fome one gr other Condicion of the Universal Law 5 being feparated by a forein Force ? they muft (when that Force ceales) . admit any forein deftroy the effi Fluid to enter. feparated by a parallel or a circular Motion about an Axis y or by a - Motion both after thefe. the Surfaces of the Parts of Elafiick Bodies. changing their Figures. if the feparating Force ceas d. whereby thefe Particles If we then attraff one another. with a Force which may be.eafily gathered from the Condition of the Law of Attralkn y and the Diftance of thefe Planes being given. Now all Elaftick Bodies in their Actions upon one muft of another. the attracting Force would a6t and bring em together a- gain .Fluid could get in to hinder their Adtion. fo far. fome manner compounded of ( for it is no matter after what are disjoined. and that they attratt one plain and fmooch. neceffity have fome of their Parts in theie Adtions.

I fhall not may therefore trouble the Reader.lt.may the Elafticity of Ten dinous Bodies. Upon the fame &amp. (which is to be eftimated from the Diftance.of natural Beltgton* fes) join i i \? together again with a certain degree of Force. to defcend into all the par ticular Circumftances. the only (principles thefe intricate. ) and fo will produce all being the Appearances of Elaftick Bodies. in their un bending. from particular Conditions of the General Law of Attrattion. ic were eafie from thence. in this place with the particular Gonfcquences. but it is not my ob- Bufinefs here. there arc as great Varieties in this as in Cobefon. but per haps fome think. and Condition of the Unherfal Law given. and hitherto down pearances. toward bending Forces. to determin the Condition of the Univerfal Law by which their Particles attradt their one another . be explained.Principles. If Elaftick Bodies ferv d one conftant (Proportion. may be accounted I . but fhall content laid my fclf to have upon which dejpair d o for.

but that thefe already explain d are moft of rances what I (hall makt ufe of in the following Treacife.ii 8 I ffpofopfflcal 0?mcipltg would proceed to the reft of the Appea of Nature which lam fatisfy d can be accounted for. for which this Chapter was defign d only as a Lemma : Befides that. come into the Subje& CHAP. fome of the reft will naturally of thefe Diicourfes. from the fame Principles. .

.

.

whether he fprang from fome times the Earth dropt from the Clouds y when he began^ or if ever there was a B time or . Of the II. this Origination of World 3 and of Mankind in particular. and yet fcarce any Bo dy give Himfelf the trouble once ferioufly to confider or enquire how Man at firft became to be.THE Pbilofophical O F Principles Natural Religion. CHAP.. to fee T is a little furprifing Men contending and wran^_ gling about the Origin of their ieveral Families.

very fmall. nor their Pedi gree dcfpifcd.. but few of us go farther^ we take this World as we find it. We are pains d we and our own immedi ate Parents have not been for ever . I fhall not think my Pains ill beftow d once in my Life to have cxamin d how this prefent ftate of things became at firft to be. the firft is of thofe of the Epicurean Se&. or the Off- ipring of blind Fate and Chance.^I)i!ofopi)icai time ries when he was not . Whate ver others may do. that holds that an iwmenfe Void^ and an Infinity of different hard and ly figur d. There are three general Opini ons about this matter. tho thefe Enqui s be far more worthy a wife Man than thofe infignificant Contefts. without troubling our Heads who made it. and yet very many now a days don t fcruple to own themfelves the Children of the Earth. II.S ving . or whether it was~#We or eafily fatisfy not. extreamly Matter have for infrangible Particles of ever been . and that thefe Particles mo &amp.lt. No Body can well bear to have their Anceftors affronted..

. to which to a very high pitch we find none of its other qualities anfwerable.which is a very liberal Firft this Compliment to fuch an unadive inaiii- mate Mafs^ to make it independent for its Being and uncapable of being deftroy* ed (both which Self-exiftence neceffarily implies) tis to raife it of Dignity.of natural JReiigion.. Scheme fuppofes Mat ter to have for ever been of it felf. over But pafs this Head. after innumerable ren counters^ did at laft fettle in this beautiful Order of things we now behold. with out any Caufe. how juftly we (hall now examine. This is the Scheme upon which fome build their and upon the account of which fome of our Moderns think emfelves fuh* Hopes j til Philosophers 5 III.. as B 2 not . Time and Space it s true may have for ever been but that is becaufe they to a may have fome relation Being endow d with all other fuitable j Dualities but Matter feems to be too igno ble a Being to arrogate fuch high Endow we ments. 3 in a dire&ion oblique ving of emfelves to one another.

. No . that wou d for ever continue in the ftate it it is put in. hard.. if it was from all Eternity at reft. We never bring it fclf into Motion.. it would continue fo for ever. if in Motion. Whatever can be fuppos d to fince it is put Matter in Motion.not eiTential to the Bufinefs in Hand.. e.. that of it felf it can IV. it is poilible to form have this prefent ftate of things. But I d gladly know whence . and in and their oblique Direfrangible Particles^ Si/on to one another. and. be fuppofed to have dire&ed the feveral parts / . may at the {ame time. and with the fame eafe. Let us confider how out of thefc few Principles of an ttdwenfe Void^ an infinity of very fnjall. thereof to the Places they are to have produc d this frejent now in ^ ftate of things. it wou d for ever move on. this motion did proceed fuppos d there is nothing bcfide unadive Matter it felf to produce it. have prov d XL of the preceding Chap ter ^ that Motion is no more effential to Matter than Reft.

For... anfwcr. but that every thing is in fome degree of Motion ^ yet that abfolute Reft in Bodies clear is not it iiripoflible. that No Body But fome thing can never be without it. that the* it may be ve that nothing in this Univerfe is a&ually at abfolutc reft. Philosophers^ have afferted that no part of Matter ever was nor can be at abfoltite reft. Motion is a Quantity. tradiftion implies no cona Sphere in a vacuity fhou d B be . fay they. and may be divided in mfiiritnm as well as other tities^ Quan and a Body may be moving any fi nite time. : are only alternately to and the ter from moving very (lowly mination of the Motion. feem to be Obflacle.. 5 can think Motion effential to Matter. and yet never (enfibly change its relative Place . that . or the at reft. who fees any part thereof at reftfor what is effential to any thing.of j^aturai 3Seii0iott. and thofe of great Name too. is from hence.... for the fpace if is as the Velocity fmall y and the Velocity be very the fpace it moves through is fo Kkewife And that thofe Bodies which-&quot. To ry this I true.

. fhou d rnoYe rather in this than in any other of the klfinite number of Dire&ions. no Reafon can poflibly be aflign d why it prefs . fiippoa Body moving in ^acuo^ it muft move fing Now what is it in one certain Dire&ion. There is another Argu efiential ment which to me feems very conclufive againft Motions being effential to Matter. in the faculties of natural tbicgs. from which preffure the intermediate Sphere wou d be at abjolnte Reft wherefore if it is not abfurd a Body {hou d be at abfolute d be it is Motion fliou impoffible Reft ^ to Matter.. e. And it cannot poffibly move in more than one of em at once^ and therefore it will of itfelf move in none of em. i..which are felt move at all. and that is -from the infinite poffible Vane-? ties of its Dire&ions laying afide the confederation of all other Bodies j or. pot . that determines it to this Dire&ion rather than to any other of the infinite Variety.fM)ilofapl}fcai be d by two other equal Spheres with equal Forces and contrary Dire&ions. it will not of it and confequentFor ly Motion is not effential to Matter.

that thefe Parti cles moved with different oblique Dire&ions to one anotherby which means they wou d meet and juftle and B 4 refleft. From all which it is that allowing the plain. and to alledgc that they are ca pable of refolving what way they w ill go. and therefore they added.. yet nothing wou d follow but r an eternal wandering in Lines parallel to one another^ without any other cifeft. and no Reafon to determine any one way. poffible and their Atoms. it not being effect ial to Matter. not endow d with Free-will... yet nothing cou d be produc d Abettors of this Philofophy their Void for want of Motion. V. The Contrivers of this Scheme faw wifely enough^ that granting thefe Atoms to be felf-moving. But allowing Matter to be . felf* I wou d know exiftent and felf-Moving whence came this obliquity of Direction y this is to afcribe Will and Choice to thefe Particles. where there is an infinite variety of Choice. and there being nothing elfe to produce it. in innumc- . as has been prov d. there can be no Choice made at all...of Natural Religion.

. We fee all Motions nowperform d in the fame dire&ion with that of the mo ving Force. e. and yet according to the Opinion of thefe for infinite as Men d Ages by -pa ft.. Why do they not fo ftill? Since (according to their own fuppofition) their Na nothing has happen d to alter or the manner of their Motions ever ture^ fince. But does not every Body fee that it is as eafie and as intelligible in Being. obliquely dire&ed Mo* the Caufe of the one being no lefs accountable from their Principles than the other.. they muft all move in -parallel Lines ^ and confequently they cou d never meet in order to We now produce any regular Effe&. to iiippofe this World already as to fuppofe thefe Particles this endow cl with tion.8 innumerable different ways. they have mov they lifted. do not find that Matter or Bodies can alter their Directions. and all Motions produc d by the fame adequat fame DiCaufe have the re&ions and confequently. if the Mo tion of thefe Atoms arifes from emfelves^ they muft all follow the fame Dire&ions^ i..

.lt...ving. which cou d chufe the courfe they wou d . for that wou d be making em all converge to a point.of /Ince it is atural 3&eitgton* altogether .) felf-mo&amp. For thefe Atoms cou d not move all with the fame degree of Obliquity to one another.. But allowing. others to another. this Scheme is altoge VI. yet tis ftill inconceivable how they r fhou d produce a World. and if they again reffe&cd from one another. they w ou d produce a fluid Sphere^ their rectilinear Motions turning into circular ones . upon any other ac count but the Direction of the imprefs d Force. and all that s alleged on this Head by the Favourers of ther precariotts. or otherwife wander on in right Lines as before And to make fome con verge to one point. thefe Atoms to be ^ji Jelf-exijlent. unaccountable in why Matter iliou d move one Direction rather than another. and obliquely di- re&ed. and fo nothing but one great fo^ lid Sphere cou d be produc d if they happen d to unite after their Meeting. is r : to fay thefe Atoms were intelligent free Beings.

. Stion to produce any in the of the Sun. wou d go We have a very powerful Proof of the infufficiency of thefe Atoms. cou d meet to pro duce any real Body^ and ev n the Body which wou d be produc d woti d only be faid.o $t)tiDCopi)ical in. /. they ... tho* they move and probably juftle and inter As I have juft fere all imaginable ways. and if flop when and where they pleas d... I leave the der to confider. is. only Spheres of different Mag nitudes cou d be form d. now So that out of all their Motions. The truth of the Rea mat Bodies were fclf-moving^ they cou d move what way they pleas d.and yet thefe pro duce no regular Syftems of Bodies. differently fituated^ obtaining all poffible varieties of Obliquity. e. which how fmall a part this is of the infinite variety of a fpherical one. by the interpofition of the furfaces of refle&ing Bodies thing. tho endow d with their obliquity of Dire- Rays which as was before prov d are very fmall parts of Matter. Bodies in ter this Univerfe. only thofe whole Directions converge to a point.

VII.. To (hew a thing po fible to be done. allowing thefe Atoms to bzfelf-exiftentjfelf-moving and obliquely dire&ed. 5 the principal Bodies of this tlni- were fram d. unlefs particular Motions. I (hall not ask of thofe who defend this Scheme^ a particu lar this&quot. yet I wou d gladly know how from thence this Univerfe cou d be fram d It is not enough to fay barely thefe Atoms thus difpos flate d wou d at laft fettle into this of things. we are never certain it can be fo. what way^ and by what Laws it may be done. For unlefs we defcend to Particulars.of natural Religion. we muft tell how. Generals are always to be fufpe&ed 5 a Contradi&ion may be difcovcred in the particular Explications of an Appearance that was not taken notice of in the the general Scheme^ as indeed it happens in every individual Inftarice of prefent Subjeft hitherto attempted. d they wou d be free-will Elective Agents. be {hewn by what Directions and Refleit &ions verfe . . Again .and tis as 5 probable (till contrary be evinc d^ in fome Particulars at leaft) it may not be fo.

can by what Laws of Mechanifrn. and yet to be fully fatisfy d of the truth qf this Hypotbefis^ a Man muft underftand t}ie particular Mechanifm of the whole of things. any one Animal or Vegetable was produced. how any reafonable Man prifing to think cpu d believe this Vtriverfe to have been produc d by Matter and Motion j when as yet no Man that ever liv d. or from what mechanick Principles the tell Planets defcribe Elliptic^ Orbits.. V1I. and his Followers have It is furnot mended the matter much... We all know how wretchedly Des Cartes (the ableft Patron that ever this Opinion had) has blunder d on thefe Heads..lar account of the Mecbamfm of every in dividual Appearance in our Syft erne D for But it any one that indeed were endlefs. ./ or Terrejtrial Bodies cou d be produc d . I {hall for the fake of thefe allow their whole Scheme to be true. from thefe tell by what MecbaPrinciples alone.. and of every individual Syftem Appearance. can the moft contemptible of the Celeftial #//.

of Natural ffieiigion* VII. Thefe Atoms are fuppofed in frangible. at leaft not fo but that the leaft Motion will disjoin em again.. The only tolerable account Particles is of from Cohefzon their branched in fuch like hard folid Particles refle&ing from one another. It is impoffible to conceive how innumera ble hard and compared Atoms in Now Figure..this mutual embracing might keep em from being eafily torn be ftill movable Work y and cou d never produce the appearance of Firmnefs affunder. fwimming an immenfe Abyfs cou d ever come to co here fo as to produce fuch hard Bodies as Diamonds and fome other Mineral Subfiances are. without any other cement but their catching hold of one another. in or der to produce folid Bodies. can never poflibly lay hold of one another.. cxtreamly compared and hard of Matter muft (as indeed the leaft parts neceflarily be) which compa&idnefs and hardnefi is a demonftration that nothing cou d be produc d by em^ fince being fb they cou d never come to cohere. but like chain d they wou d .

Self- moving. and to meet according to any Laws of Mechanifm. and confequently thefe cou d never be produc d by Matter and Motion alone 5 or any Combinations of them. There are feveral Appearances absolutely unaccountable from the Laws of Mechanifm. du&ion of this prefent ftate of things.. will . fome few of the moft confiderable tors of this . VIII. befides their Matter and Motion... And thus allow to be ing thefe Atoms Self-exiftent. or fuch movable ones that are al together unlike the folid Bodies we now So that to account for the probehold. the Abet Opinion want a Principle for Both Solidity or Cohefion and Elafticity which are owing to no eflential Property of Matter. yet they cou d only produce loofe heaps of Atoms . iaid And what is here of Cohefion and Solidity . maybe likewife fhewn of Elafticity. It were endlefs to allege all the Inftances that might be brought on this Head. obliquely dire&ed.14 Firmnefs and Solidity. as is (hewn in the two laft Se&ions of the preceding Chapter.

.. That aftive Principle which animates as it were the dead Mafs of Bodies. is that great Law In to which fubjeft. is above the Powers of . but is im^lan-* ted therein by fome Power fuperiour to that of Matter j whence it is evident that one of the primary Attributes of Matter is independent of the Laws of Mecbanifw. IX..of Natural one be inconfiftent will fuffice. the former Chapter I have endeavour d to fhew that this Property is not cffential to Matter. and which is the Caufe of all the beautiful Appearan ces of Nature owes its Origin to fomething different from Matter and Motion. and therefore this Syftem of things cou d ture or 5 not arife from thence. for if any with the Laws of Mechamfa^ then it is cou d have been impofllble this Syfteme produc d by the concourfe of Atoms. The firft I (hall inftance in. Not only Gravitation or that implanted Principle whereby Bodies tend towards one another. That of Gravitation. all the Bodies of this Univerfe are VZK. nor can arife from the Figure^Tex* Motions of its Parts.

e. that they fliould approach to and remove from a determin d point at different Sea- and that uniformly and conftant is ly.6 $i)itofopi)tcai all of Matter. altogether unaccountable from the Laws of Mechanifm.but. that as to conceive the their Poftulata thing which they pretended to account for from them.. i. all the and ferrejinal Appea Celeftial rances are likewife above the Powers and Laws of Matter and Motion. but the Effe&s and Appea rances that neceflarily depend thereupon. All the Fb/fofophers that ever were. to explain the regular and confront Appearan c ces of Nature^ were moft of em Ungeometrical^ and all of em fo inconfiftent or it was as hard to allow unintelligible. planted . Newton.. as has been (hewn in the former Chapter. But from this im fons. All the At- tempts of others before Mr. that they (hould conftantly revolve in Orbits.. cou d never from the meer Laws ofMechaniJM explain how the Planets came to move in Elliptic!^ Orbits. they might Matter had been felf-moving) have for (if ever ftray d in right Lines.

. the Motion of the Heart by the Texture of their C containing Vc fck .. The Produftion of Animals altogether inconfiftent with the Mecbaniftrt. verfe cou d not have been produc d by the there is Laws of Mechanifa. but fingle Appearance fcarce a that can thence ade is quately be accounted for. X. and forc d into the Mufcnlar part of the Heart.of Natural 3Ed!0tom ail 17 the planted Principle of Gravitation. and is thence re turn d by the Veins into the right Ventri cle thence by the Arteria Yulmonalvs unto the Lungs ^ from the Lungs by the Vena j fulmonalvs to the right Ventricle again. Laws of fqueez d by the force of the Heart from the left Yen* is The Blood tricle^ through the Arteries unto the Ex^ tremities of the Body. The Motion of the Heart is caus d by the nervous Juices mixing with the Blood in the Mujcular And thcfe part thereof. nervous Juices are both deriv d from the Blood. r. Phenomena are accounted for^ and that to the greateft nicety we are capable of So that not only this Unidiftinguifhing.

a Circle to move the constantly return in I iliou d then think their Scheme Machin : Ibmewhat is fcafible. and perhaps by the pulfation of the Arteries upon the Nerves in the Brain.. are Organs in if number a&ually indefinite I not infinite. which is a plain Circulation of Mechanical Powers i. and the Motion of the Blood in the Arteries the Nerves.. and a Gland with . But. In all Animals there be fo hkewife. By an Organ mean a diftinft independent part of a Machin :Thus a Wheel and all its parts is an Organ of a Watchj if I may fpeak fo. Here now the Heart is the Caufe of the Motion of the Blood in the Arteries. fince the firft dernonftrably impoffible. fo that the fame Water fhou d . e. is urging their Juices through the Caufe of the Motion of the Heart. the latter muft 2. If an Epicurean Philofopber cou d contrive a Water Machin that the Water fliou d move the Machia^ and the Machin the Water . a Perpetuum Mobile^ which by what was faid in the preceding Chap ter is contrary to the Laws of Mecbamfm.8 ^iiofopijicat fcls..

many. if every point of the Veflels and Mufcles of the Animal Bo the is Anfwer dy be fenfible. 2 and . is its or a Canal from are infinitely parts in the Animal. and confcquently tho ev ry minute part of the Body be fenfible. Senjation is per- form d by the mediation of an Organ arithe Brain and continued through fing from the part affe&ed. then the Organs which convey the Senfation are C infinitely fmall. it will not follow that the Organs which convey ttiisSenfation are infinitely many^fince they be only the continuation of fome few Organs through different parts. Jfceitgiotu its 19 Origin an in an Animal Organ Extremity thefe Organs or independent Now Body.. leaft Now there is not the folid part of the Veffels imaginable or Mufcles but is fenfible r and therefore the Organs in Animals that convey this Senfation. To be obje&ed. But may all obvious.of with all to its natural parts. that one this perhaps it may Organ may convey Sensation through feveral places.. are infinite in Number. which is evident both from the Nature of Senfation and Nutrition.

Nutrition by an Organ.. Again. may de cay and be impaired. . ev ry aflignable part of thefe Canals muft be the termination of forne Decretory Duft feparating a fluid fit to encreafe their Dimenfions or repair their Loflcs and thefe fecretory Chanels again muft have others to encreafe their bulk or repair their Lofles. feeing their Extremities in or the Brain conftitute a finite Snferfcies^ fill a finite Space : For a finite number of in fmall parts can never make a finite finitely is perform d Quantity. and f on in infinitum. and fince there is no part of the Body that may not be encreas d or diminifli d (as is evident from the Cure of Wounds in all Places through which the neceffary part of the Fluids of the Body can pafs) it is plain that cv ry individual point of the Ani mal Body is the termination of an Organ through which the Nutrition may be con vey d.and if infinitely fmall they muft be infi-. nitely many.. through which the Supply is convey d to the Place to be nourifh d. Moreover feeing even the Canals themfelves do encreafe in bulk.

. neft Glaffes difcover nothing in the feveral parts of the Veilels and Mufcles but and the better the Canals Microf copes are. and each Fi bre of an incredible Number of little F/bound together and divided into brils. thofe capillary Pipes are difcovered j and thefe parts which were formerly reckon d Parenchywatous are dles or heaps now found to be of exceedingly fmall bun Tubes or Threads. and the Litngs and Liver are but Heaps of little Bladders upon which the Blood Veflels are fpr cad in Net-work or of little Glands among which thcfe Veflels are difpcrfcd.. the greater Number of fine (lender . that the fiinfinitum. In one Word. The Mufcles themfelves confift of a Number of Fibres. the Brain is a numberlefs Congeries of infinitely fmall Tubes woven into feveral Figures ^ the Nerves are bundles of fmall cylindrical Pipes .. all the for7 lid parts of the Body are nothing but C 3 cither . little Cells or the Glands are no Veficles^ thing but a clew of little {lender Pipes diverfly rolled or folded together .ffieligion* Add to all thefc.

feingitconftkutesafinite Quantity. made of Organs in Number really infinite. in Fibre to another^ or fpread out into thin Membranes: For the Bones are nothing but fuch Bundles. is is beyond difpute. nothing but thefe Threads wrought toge ther into thin Skins...0?tnciples either very fine exceeding (mall Tubes for the conveyance of fome fluid.... In Artificial the more complicated and compounded the Contrivance of the Parts is^ the grea ter the difficulty is in adjufting them 5 and the difficulty encreafes in the fameproporti- on the complications do.. and or all the Membranes are Membranons Coats of the Veflels. and confequent^ the ly when the complications are infinite Machin . or (lender Bundles ty d together by others fiirrounding em^ or going from one Threads . For thefe Organs become at laft infinitely imall j and fo their Sum muft be infinitely which that every Animal all From it Now how many. Machines ^ Laws of Motion. ridiculous is it to imagine a thing fo wonderfully made cou d be the or of the blind Eflfeft of meer Chance.

r nay^ if they wou d but tell us (without runing upon Contradiftions ) a Machin might be produc d .. 23 Machin is the altogether above Power of this is Mechanic!^. and quite impracticable by the Laws of Matter and Motion: But exa&ly the prefent Cafe. No Body now-a-days thing of as that underftands any Nature or Philofophy can fo much imagine that any Animal how abject foever can be produc d by an equivocal Ge- C neratiofi .of Natural lleltgioit. 3. it s very arrogant in them to think People fhou d believe the Matter without any Reafon upon their meer Word. fince fuch a thing how fuch we might But was never feen nor pre tended. Allowing have been produc d by the cafual concourfe of Atoms ^ why do not thefe very fame Caufes continually operate. and therefore the Produ&ion of an Animal is altogether imAnimals might mechanical.. begin to hearken to their Pretences. and why do we not fee the fame Effe&s in our Days (fince the Caufes continue the fame) that w ere beheld in former Times ? If any of the Philofophers fliou d fhew us fuch an Appearance .

in the Generation an Animal. know very well that there is the . capable of receiving the Benefit of the We in the nothing Animal Machin^ but an infinity ot d with branching and winding Canals. tinlefs Animal Spirits. Veins and Arterie? fhqu d be form d at the fame time. Air.. and that the Parents conduce nothing but a convenient Habita tion and fuitable Nourifhments to it. than a thing is of ma of king itfelf. till and it be fit to be trufted with the Light. who have confidered And very few the Matter but own that ev ry Animal proceeds from a preexiftent Ammakid. fill the Liquors of different Natures.. the Heart cannot be fent from move.24 |M)ttoCopt)ical neration Male in two or without the conjun6Hon of and Female Parents.. there is a neceffity that the Heady Heart^ Nerves. in the fame or 5 different Individuals.. Befidcs. which can never be done by the Motion of any for as hath fluid what way foever mov d been juft now faid.. going fame perpetual round which are no more capable of producing thewonderful Fabrick of another Animal.

. So that it is evident that the Head and Head through the Nerves into Heart. it 25 Animal the j be cannot deriv d into the Spirits Heart unlefs the Blood be fqueez d by the Heart through the Arteries into the Brain.. the Arteries Veins and Nerves muft be all form d at the fame time^ if the Ani mal is Mechanically produc d. It is Penance to their fluids.of the ^amrai aaeitgton. for no Motion of any fluid or fluids howfoever difpofed can form all thefe at the fame inftant. But this is altogether impoflible. try able to form the Idea of the Generation of an Animal. And we know all of the internal Mechanical Ali ens of Animals are perform d by the force Let any one confider the of Canals and other Infinity Organical in an and parts Animal. Philosophers To obferve how in every ftep they contrad id . doing read the wretched Accounts of the wifeft and moft learned on this Head. again confider that all that one Animal can conduce to ward the Generation of another is by the force of fome Liquors through fome Ca and if from this Power he be nals.

From all thefe Considerations. be once folv d by indeed cou d this one of the Philosophers we fhou d be eaany J d of the reft.. e. for they are indeed only Animals of a lower Rank.. And cou d it be once prov d either by Demonftratton or by Matter of Fa& that a Plant or an Ani mal cou d be produc d by Meckanifat^ i. it is too hard a Probleme to be folv d from For (b few data as Matter and Motion.the thought ful parts of Mankind wou d be eafily temp */ JL ted to believe. the meaner i.or the Laws of Motion.. Nature... all the reft of this vifible World might have . e. that fince the better part was produc d by Mechanifm. it is evident that an Animal cannot be produc d mechanically.tradi& the known Laws of Motion j and indeed the manner after which they wou d have generated is as much above the Power and beyond the Laws of Mechanism as the true em and genuin Manner and Me thod of their Produ&ion is. tho Plants and fily fatisfy all the vegetable Kingdom be liable to the fame Difficulties.. and furnifh us with the fame Obje&ions .

The Spontaneous Mo*ionsof the fenpart of this Syfteme is an eternal contradiftion to the Laws of Mechanijw. and the Hand of the Dialplate in that given it by the Wheels. 27 So that have been form d the fame way. it is a Matter of the greateft Confequence that have demonftratcd. the Arrow in that given it by the Bowftring. We (hewn that neither Spon taneous (nor indeed any) Motion is eilen* tial to Matter.. the in the direHon of the Club or of the it is Body of the Piece out of which (hot. we There are many other Ar guments which I can produce to prove the fame Propofition which the Language I write in will not permit fitive me to fet forth. . This have fufficiently our Senfes Ball goes may on daily inform us of. ^XI. and that neceflarily and conftantly if notforc d out of the fame by fome foreign Violence... But all Senfitivc Animals have a Self-moti0/r.of ^atutai Religion. it is determin d to one direftion (while in Motion) which it can no more alter than move of itfelf. that neither Animals nor Vegetables can be produced Mechanically.

if they were d to be endow d with it ? No really fuppos thing but a fenfation in our felves of the Principle of their A&ions cou d create clearer Evidences of & Spontaneous Motion.. go back and 0#. con Befides the Demonftrafidently alleg d. What more evident Proofs thefe of a Spontaneous Motion cou d poor Creatures give than they do.. move through all the points of the Compafs. . Befides. as their Occafions require. d as that of the meerly precarious. The Docility and Segacity of fome Animals demonftrate the contrary. tions a priori I have juft now brought to evince the contrary. that the Brute-Creation are only pieces of Clock-work and that all their Motions .can turn and wind. and fome BruteAnimals fhew more Indications of it than fome of the Race of Mankind on whom But this is and may be deny d as eafily as it is they beftow it.. the Obfervation and Experience of all Mankind contradi&s it. ibme of clinations prompt em.. or In It s true. forward our Philosophers have afierted. Modern are as neceflarily determin Dial-plate..

every one of thefe Fibres confifts of a prodigious Num ber of lefler Fibres or Fibrils which are fo many very (lender elaftick Canals bound about . and fince this is far beyond and above the Powers of Matter. And we fliou d be ftrangely furpriz d if by any combination of ma terial left Organs.of Natural ffieligton* 19 Befides^ it is altogether impoffible to ac count for the far greater part of their A$ions and Motions from Mechanifm^ as we have in the preceding Propofitions {hewn at large. MuC cular Motion is perform d much after fuch a manner as this. Wherefore finCe the fenfitive World is endow d with fpontancons Motions.the Mufcles are Bundles of Fibres. we fliou d produce the fmaL part of their A6tions and Paffions.. XII.. which being clofely compared at both ends make their two Tendons^ each of which is inferted into fome one fixt part of the Body or other. it is evident this Univerfe cou d not have been produc d Mechanically. The Voluntary Motions of Ra tional Creatures are altogether unaccoun table from the Laws of Mechanism.

Knot) and fo the length Mufcle fhortned..lt. for avoiding Difpiites.. I (hall forbear at prefent to determine) whereby thefe are diftended. of the Glanditlous Subftance cretory Dufts of the Brain..30 ^Dtloiopi)icai about by fmall tranfwerfe parallell Threads which divide thefe hollow Fibrils into fo many elaftick Cyftes or VeficnU^ as Gut were ty d at equal diftances.* with the Veficul&amp.. with the other Excretories of the Body. which are nothing but fmall (lender flips of the Arteries for deriving an appropriated Juice from the Blood.. Vein. this Juice of the whole The Nerves are the/Jr- .z its Blood^ produces a rarefaction (the manner how.. the lat ter to carry thither likewife id . and Nerve enter.. if a Into every one of thefe Veftcul^ ^ an Artery... and fince the Nerves are very fmall Arterial Tubes. which mixing in the proper flu. Wherefore fince the nervous Juice is form d out of the Blood. and their Longi Veficul* tudinal Diameters (from Knot to ftraitned.. the two firft to bring and carry back the Blood. and confequently are much of the fame Nature.

that it moves Velocity be abundantly more flow. which is the Origin of the Nerve.of Juice muft ries 3 Natural move in thefe Nerves after the in the fame manner the Blood does only with its Arte this difference. Now in the MuC. cles of involuntary Motion. the Lungs.. the Stomach and Guts. fuch as the Heart.) If the circula tion of the Blood be admitted . and all the Juices of the Body be allow d to be deriv d from it. they and the influence of the nervous full . while the Auricles are are diftended. or by the rewith in the {lender fiftence the Juice meets Pipe of the Nerve it felf..... this nervous Juice is conftantly deriv d by a Mechanical In the Heart.. Necefllty. and the mufcular Coats of the Veffels. its Ve And therefore the nervous Juice in Channels is propell d after the fame manner and by the fame Mechanifm the Blood is urg d forward in the Arteries. tis impoflible that any of thefe fels Juices fhou d ffognat in their longer than till they be filPd. of Blood.. ( ing abated either by the many circumvo lutions of the Artery in the Gland.

After the fame manner are the mu^ cular . from the diftenfion of the Auricles to the influx of the nervous Juice is taken oftj and fo it flows into the mufcular Subftance of the Auricles and thereby they arifing are contra&ed^ while the Ventricles are di* ftended. and fo the Ventricles come into Con- tra&ion ^ which hinders the Blood from runing any more into the Ventricles from the/^#~ ricks ^ and then the Auricles are again filPd : andVentricles being as it were Antagonifts to one another .. And thus. and the influx of the nervous Juice into their Mufcles is thereby ftop d.32 $l)ilofoptical nervous Juices into their Mufcles thereby ftop d j but when once this Blood begins to flow into the Ventricles the refiftence . the Auricles Neceffity they the diftenfion of the firft permitting the influence of the nervous and fo on the other Juice into the lattery hand. till the Blood be deriv d into the Aorta^ and the Impediment from this diftenfion to the influx of the nervous Juice be taken off. by a Mechanical a& alternately. fo as that while thefe are diftended thofe are contra&ed.

and of the Coats of the other Veffels containing Liquors deriv d from the Blood^ alternate for by the conly contra&ed and dilated traHon of the Heart the Blood is thrown into the Arteries.of Natural ^elsgion. and the Nerves that aft in this funftion is taken off. 33 of the Blood Veiiels. thorax. and the Mulcular Coats of the Arteries then a& 5 the Mem branous by their Elaflicity concurring. and fb the influence of the nervous Juice cular Coats into their Mulcular Coat is hundred but when the Blood conceiv d deriv d the impetus it has into the Veins.. which diftends them. and fo the Mufcles of the diafragm and the other ficles thereof.. In the Lungs theGravity of the dtmofphere forces the Air into the fmall orbicular Vethe Breaft- Cavity of whereby the preffure of its Sides upon them.. the preffure of the fides of the Brcaft for -thefe j become too ftrong bir/d oppofite comtheir dilating Caufes D and then by own . and dilates the concurring ones are at freedom to and to diftend the Cavity of the till ad . this im is by pediment is taken off.

the Tranfverfe and Guts. There is no Mecha nical Caufe imaginable to force this ner vous Juice into the Mufcles of voluntary Motion. own So likewife in the Stomach and the Longitudinal Mufcular Fibres are in ASkion. and fo of of on the other Hand. . we can bend and un bend em as we will. when thofe are relax d thefe are in aftion^ and univerfally in al$ the involuntary Motions there is a Mecha nical Neceftlty for the derivation of the nervous Juices into the Mufcles employed But in voluntary Mo^in thefe Motions. tions there neither is nor can be any fuch Mechanical Neceffity ^ it being a plain . Contradiction to their Nature and there- fore voluntary Motion is quite contrary to the Laws of Mecbaniftn : we can move our Hands and Feet how and when we pleafe in an Inftant.34 Gravity and the elaftick force of the Ribs they fall down and comprefs the Lungs and (hut np the Emifiaries of the Nerves. when Spiral ones are relax d by the preffure the a&ing Fibres upon the Emiflaries the Nerves of the relax d ones.

. Juice be that curing the Nerves that ferve any Mtif^ cle. s indeed were it Mechanical^ it cou d not be Voluntary j for what ever a&s conftantly and neceiMechanically farily^ and fo can never aft volunta a&amp. .of Natural J&eiigiott Motion. ftrikes whereby it opens its Paffage into the Veficles of which the Mufcular Fibres cond pot have done by its fifi. But this A&ion of the Mind or Will upoi) thefe Animal Spirits being altogether unaccountable from the Laws of Motion..5b . And the only Conception we can form of vo luntary Motions. and adds a greater force than the natural to the nervous Juice. And rily. it is plain that volun tary Motion is altogether iwmecbdnic#I. as is plain from this hence... and no Motion can follow unlefs deriv d. tho all other things continue the fame.lt. which it cou natural Power. yet no Motion will follow.. skilful is that the Mind like a upon that Nerve Mufician which conveys animal Spirits to the Mufele to be contra&ed.

they have in their Power to forbear it or to do the contrary ^ they can rife or fit flill^ or backward forward to fliew their go ^ Freedow. than they now have. That Freedom and Liberty of refiifinpr o choof Ins. I wou d glad ly know what greater Indications of free dom they cou d wiflv to have.. they can choofe the time and Place the Degrees and Circumftances we own of It d free. of our natural AHons are neceffary. The Paflions of Mankind all thefe Aftioiis that are call s true fotne . Some Men indeed deny have any Free-will at all j but thefe need only examine their own Conferences to be convinc d of their miftake^ they will find that even when their Reafon wou d determine em to do fuch a thing. (which determine their Actions) are indeed violent. or fclves is which we find in our altogether inconfiftent with Methat chauijm. their .3 6 ^l)i!cfopl}icai XIII. Their Power being limited. but thefe which are commonly call d voluntary Aftions^ are as much free as the nature of things will permit them. but they have. it in in moft.

for the Aftion of neceffary Agents can only be fufpended by a Mira the fome time which fhe ws they Let us fuppofe that Man in a pcrfeft ftate of Health. or to be able to fufpend the effeft of na tural A6Hons.one and not the other. things in us D Tho .their Power to fufpend for of them j iatisfy ing are not neceffarily determin d toward their Satisfa&ion .. or by making an Ele&ion among many things^ when there is no imaginable Rea&n to determine him more to one than another. where there are weighty and folid Reafons for doing fuch a thing . when without this interpofition d wou Mechanically operate. we can take out the . is free and has a Pow er of election the only Indications he couVl give of this Freedom. in two or more of the fame all Circumftances alike. giving all : thefe Indications ^ to fliew our Freedom we have it in our Power to hurt or even deftroy our felvcs tho there be the beft Reafons in the World to hinder from fo doing. they Now it s certain that we are capable of cle. are by doing the contrary.

and at the fame time determine this Fnn&ion to be irregularly and uncertainly fufpen- ded.38 ^t)tlofopi)tcat Refpiration be Tho reckoned an involuntary certainly perform A&ion. Now abfurd to think that Nature fhou d determine any natural FunSlion to be per form d regularly and conftantly the fame way. if we are ne- cefTarily and determin d in all our A&ions. for if we are determin d ever fo imperceptibly fity it is ....eHon can have no Place .. it is abfolately . yet we have to keep in our Breaths and to fufpend the efficacy of this natural Fun$wn for fome time. we have no Freedom. and this feems tp. On if the other Hand. and tho mechanically and it it is d in our Power uniformly. and that by Mechanical Laws. For tho in other Cafes it may be alledg d that it is the fubtil and imperceptible man ner after which we are determin d that makes any of our Adions feem free.be one of the moft evident Indications of Freedom that can pofllbly be defired. it is by the Necef- of Nature we are determin d. yet in thi Infbnce that Ob.

of /Batutai lutely impoffible we fhou d in all make any ECircumftances it Je&ion among things alike . tho they may differ in fbme fmall Circumftances 3. that do not concern the Effence of that Species of Coin. And therefore were we not free. Now where all Circutn- we can never be determin d to any one of them by themfelves. equally odd 4. Thus.. mean By things altogether alike.. 8. Thus bers. i. we cou d ne ver I make an Ele&ion among things alto gether al&e. are and 2. 9. The fame thing happens ija the Anfwers to all thefe Problem* 4 D . there are infinitely many which are equally fuch. and if it equally even were propos d to afiign aa Num Num even or odd Number. for all things within us are upon this to be fuppos d to move Hypothefis uniformly and Mechanically. the things without us are in ftances alike.. 7. 5. for if we are determined. two Farthings are altogether alike. bers. fuch as are alike as to all the Cir cumftances neceflary to conftitute them the things requir d. can only be from the things themlelves with out us.. 6..

it. Now if moft cer is Rational Creatures be tainly they are. Tuftice and Jlnjaftice are only bare Words... And that is that with. there is nothing in their any Nature that can pofllbly determine us 5 and in d indetermind^ one of the Anfwers to call the Conditions of the Problem only being had refpeft to. as this Freedom a plain downright Contradi&ion to Mechantfnt. Now Liberty is and is only to be found by ion on our felves and our A&ions . no Arguments will make a Man confefs he feels.. And therefore fuch things as thefe are only pitch d upon by But the energy of our Wills or Freedom. if he be obftinately refolv d not to confefs felt. Virtue and Vice. XIV. free. Having I think fufficiently Jflipoflibility (hewn the Inconfiftency and of .out Free. but there K one Argument which will always have weight with the wifer and better ^ a thing a reflex } part of Mankind. for Mechanifrn produces all its Eftefts ne- ceffarily.will.40 Problems which are affigning fuch Problems .

firft part of it. which in few Words tells us very pofitively.. yet he did not think it was fo of it jelf\ and there is a very great Difference betwixt f allowing this prefent Syftem of the Univerfe to have been created from all Eter nity by an Omnipotent Caufe.of ^amrai Religion. fecond Opinion about the Origination of the Univerfe. we now behold it. and be! it ieving to have been for ever of itfelf without any . independent of any other Caufe. but falfly afcrib d to Ariftothj not as its firft Broacker but as its But tho Ariftotle held the ableft Patron. That it has been fo for ever of itfeli. That the World was from all Eternity as we now behold it. viz. This Scheme confifts principally of thefe two i. This Opinion is commonly... That this World Parts. fo as we now behold it j any Changes that have happen d therein^ have proceeded from the Laws of Mechanifm that now obtain in the World. has been for ever in the ftate a.. that this prefer) t fbte of things has been from all Eternity of itand that felf. I come to the of the Epicurean Scheme.

My Defign in the of a Deity^ I intend only to fhew. Clock$&ork&amp. That this Univerfe cou d never .&amp. have been ftom the prefent from hence 3 that Principle for its Eternity condition it now it all of is. Produftion it about the manner of its but if he fhou d fee or learn requir d fome Foreign Ajjrfiance to keep . nor without the frequent and particular interposition of a Divine fower^ and to make it plain that naturally and of itfelf it tends to Diffolution^ Tho in the mean time. that this prefent ftate of things cou d not have been from all Eternity^ neither of it felf.. is in evident requires an extrmficl( fubfifting in its prefent fliou Condition.. it is not to be doubted but that that Almighty Power which cou d create can prethis beautiful Syflem of things ferve it in being as long as He pleafes.gt. itfelf.lt.any Difcourfe following not to difpute againft any Schewe of thofe who admit the Exiftence is Caufe. If one d fee a Piece of pointing out the Divifions of time exa&ly and regularly^ he might have fome that Difficulties . ^ XV..

and of all the Celeftial and Terreftrial Appearances.. of the Spring or it required winding up d be foon fatisfy d it Weights. Their Mo tions and A&ions depend upon a Principle Matter arifes from . they wou d immediately ftop and their Motions wou d be deftroy d and they wou d become a lifelefs una&ive heap of Matter. fprings from fomething without thcm- Power were fufpendcd or withdrawn. . and if this vitation. which pro ceeds from a Principle both independent of. which a&nates the whole frame of all the Syftems of Bodies. And this Power is no thing elfe but that univerfal Law of Gra felves. Now this is the very Condition of the Earth the ^ Moon and Planets. as has been fliown in the former Chapter. The Power which produces and preferves their Moti ons.. he wou cou d not have been from all Eternity of itfelf in the ftate he then beheld it.which quite extrinfickjto none of its Powers or Properties. and diftinft from Matter and all its Faculties. its 45 keep it a going^ that Motion depended that upon fome Principle without itfelf...of Natural Beitsion.

And when a thing depends upon another thing .) . thing.44 culties. thefe cou d ther thing as its not have been from all Eternity of them- jelvef. Whatever depends upon ano Canje^ as alfo. // &. (I mean only of thofe things which are about us. . fible Wherefore it is altogether impof- this prefent ftate of things fhou d have been from all Eternity of itfelf^ fince at prefent it cannot fubfift in a regular and beautiful Syftem without the perpe tual influence of fome fuperiour and exPower. The vifible things of this World. and he no dependence on them. trinfeck^ XVI.. for Self-exiftence neceflarily implies other independency as to Exiftence on any either as Caufe or as Efteft .. whatever is neceffarily requir d for the Exiftence or Prefervation of another thing. which have but Qualities both finite in Number and Degree j and confequently have affignable relations to and dependen for it is otherwife ces upon one another in the Immense Being in refpeft of his Creatures^ which can have no Proportion to him.

ifteitston.. we fliou d fwell like poyfoned Rats. this 45 implies that the thing exifts that the fecond may exits which fuppofcs Defign and Contri vance. and confequently is a fign of Produ&ion or Creation.the Earth cou d bring forth no Fruits for our Support- take ftagnat away the Moon^ the Seas wou d ... ces . or us tyttd. it plain ifti ly implies that the thing exifts that the fecond may exift. when a thing is neceffarily requir d for the Exiftenceor Prefervation of another. and the Fi(h be deftroy d level our Mountains we fliou d have no &e(Ti Waters ^ deftroy pur Atmofyhere. which likewife foppofes Defign and Contrivance. than that moft of the things in this our Syftem are neceffary or ufeful in thefe things. from the Sun .or the Airs Elafticity. and not of the Selfexiftence of thefe things. and coni^firft quently can be no fign of Self-exijlencz there any thing more plain.of thing as firft Natural Caufe. Do not thefe and a thoufand other Inftan-. Like wife. .. is Now towards the Being or Prelervation of ManRemove the Sun from us.

. that the Accommodations and Conveniencies of this Building were exfuited in every Circumftance to the Wants and Necefllties of thefe Creatures^ aHy I think he wou d have no cluding that this Houfe wife Architect for the Convenience of thefe Creatures. meet with a Noble Palace neatly finifh d and finely ftirnifli d^ and about it fhou d find Creatures that cou d not fubfift with out fuch a Convenience.. which is a moft evident fign that all thefe things have been produc d and are not Self-exfervation of other Beings.ccs I cou d the Beings allege. fliou d iftent. he wou d certainly never dream that it had for ever been there of itfelf fo difficulty in con was built by fome he then beheld it. demonftrate that all of this Univerfe exift as the ne- ceflfary Effeft. and flioiul plain ly difcover.. or for the Exiftence orPre- and confequent]y imply Contrivance and Defign-. Now this is the ve ry Cafe betwixt us and the Syftem of the things about us j not that I think as whole . If a wild Scythian or Indian who never faw a Houfe in his Life.

Gra vitation. // *. That Animals coti d not have been from all Eternity is plain. Their Produ6Hon For 3eHons. and Exiftence depend upon Principles quite extrinfick from and independent of themfelves.. I have formerly fhown. and been for ever of emfelves. (according to this Scheme) is Matter and Motion if we once al (for low a Power diftinft from thefe. I mean of their Material fart. this Now all that is obfervable in World.. XVII. we ruin this Hypothecs ^ for we do not then know ho iv . and that confequently we were fome part in the fo they cou d not have defign of them. that they can nei ther fubfift nor be produc d by the Pow ers of Mechanifm . but for both require the conftant influence of a Principle even different from that which governs the inanimated part of the Univerfe. for both the Reafons alleged in the two former i.of Natural 3KeitQtotn 47 whole for us the Univerfe Syfteme of was made of the Race of Manfynd^ but that we cannot be without a great many of thefe things that are round us..

the Bones articulated? How wifely are How prudently the With Veins... fome Principle.. All the fevefor ever of themfelves. that it is impo Deffgn fible to confider this. and therefore fince mals is they depend upon a Principle diftinft from and independent of the Laws of Mechaand need a continual influence of niftft.. ral Parts and Organs of the Animal Body are fo prudently adapted to the benefit of the whole Compojitnm as plainly implies and Contrivance..4$ $l)rtofop!)tcai far ^nncipies how the influence of this Power may reachj as to the Produ&ion and Prefervation of the prefent ftate of things. Mufcles contriv d ? and how conveniently faftned to the feveral Places of the Body to produce the neceflary Motions ? what Judgment are the Arteries 5 and Nerves rang d are ? With what Wifdom d in their their fluids difpos proper Veffels? ..) But the Produ&ion and Prefervation of Ani above the Powers of Matter as has been formerly fliown. and imagine they have been Self-exiftent. they cou 2. diftinft from Matter and d not have been its Properties.

and therefore Animals It has cannot be Sclf-exi* ftent.. eve adapted for the Benefit of ? I fliall have occa- purfue thefe Inftances farther here but any Body who is ever fo lit tle acquainted with the ftnttfnre of an Animal. and its Corollary of the pre ceding Chapter ? that fome part of the XVIII. which by thefe Operations upon Matter is chang d into a folid Form 5 of which but a very fmall part is ever refoVd into W^ter a^ain.. cannot but difcover evident Footfteps of Defign and Contrivance in it. impregnated with fome other Body. and Element each Ani and how juftly is.. whereby the quantity E of . ilourifliment of Animals and Vegetables . been formerly fhewri in g XXX.. and the greateft part requir d to the produdion of Minerals and Metals is a wa tery Fluid.of Vcffels? natural Msrpom is 49 How carefully the propagati on of the Species provided for according to feveral Circumftances ariffng from the particular Climate mal is confin d to^ ry Particular the whole Compound fion to after.

. and we are fo little fenfible of the difference of the Quantity of Water fal then and at other times. to be Befides. and thefe ling D Comets are when they come within our Regions at fo great a diftance from us y that no fuch considerable EfFe&s as may anfwer our Demands are. Jom receive Vifits from thefe Cekftial Bo dies. which when they come nigh our welling. fend us fuch a Quantity of Vapours from their prodigious Tails. dom of Nature generally fupplies re uniform gular Deficiencies by regular and . wherefore if the World had lafted from all Eternity in the State it now is... And in deed this dccreafe of the Quantity of Wa ter on our Globe is fo confiderable^ that a very great Man is of Opinion that the Comets were defign d to fupply the fame. we had long fince wan ted both fait and frefh Water.of Water on this our Globe is daily ins~ pair d and diminifli d .. as is fufficient ta fapply the Expenfes of Water till the Re But we fb felturn of another Comet. I fear. the Wit expei:ed from em.

Stars : Now been from all Eternity. fince it s certain that the fore.. we ftiou d have been reduc d long before this time to a State of utter Darknefs. Where Quantity of Water on our Globe does daily de creafe (tho perhaps not fenfibly) had the World Eternally been. are very cer tain that the Rays of the Sun are impri* of the fixt had the Sun and jixt Stars faid may be We a E foiled . yet it ieeins to be more conftant and regular than the returns of thefe Comets j but of this we fliall have Occafion to difcourfe at more length in the following Chapter.. the whole Face of this Earth had been more parch d than the Defarts of Arabia-^ which not being this prefent State of fo. XIX. It has been prov d likewife in the preceding Chapter y that the Ligln of the Sun does daily decreafe^ and that the Body of the Sun does continually grow the fame cooler. it is plain things has not been from all Eternity.of natural 3&eltgtott. and tho the decreafe of fluidity on this our Globe may not be ev ry Year of the fame Quantity exa&ly.. Caufes.

are for ever hinder d from returning to the Body of the Sun. that the vaft Body of the Sun is perpetually a-cooling. and we had true. more than Cimmerian But fince we obferve no fuch it is Effeft as this. g XX. plain the World has not lafted from all Eternity. We are certain likewife that the Foun Heat daily impairs. and their being imprifon d in thefe Subftances^ and the A6Hon of Bodies upon Light. this be been involved in a darknefs. and are retain *! by the A&ion of Bodies upon Light and iome part of them by their feparation from others. . and tho thefe Effe&s be not fo coniiderable as to become fenfible in three tain of our or four thoufand Years (tho if ancient Hiflories abatement and diminu tion of the Light and Heat has not been infenfible) yet in an infinity of Ages (this di minution being ftill fomewhat) the Sun had been redu d to the Heat and Light of a Candle long ere this time.foned in our Plants and Vegetables^ in our Metals and Minerals..

both themfelves they muft have an end is. . and that (fince the Planets defcribe Elliptic\ Orbits about the Sun) the attra&ive Force of the San upon the Planets is reci procally ^ as the Squares of the different diftancesof the Elliptic^ Orbit from the Suns Center in its focus. thefe Planets were driven at firfi.. the Sun and Stars do not move in Spaces altoge fixt But ki fuch that do make at ther void. that the Reafon why. that our Earth. and likewife thefe Planets attraft the Sun. But that which does infallibly demonftrate that this prefent ftate of had a beginning and that of things.of Datura! 3&eii0iQu. the Planets move about the Sun is that the Body of the Sun attra&s thefe Planets . leaft fome refinance to their Motions. the Planets . But that befides. I have fliewn in the preceding Chapter.. for example. 53 XX. or at the beginning of their Motion (to fpeak a Force whofe dire&ion made an by fo) Angle with the attractive Force or that at the very fame time the attractive Force of the Sun exerted itfelf on thefe Planets^ - 5 E 3 they .

Newton has confidered the refiftence arifing from the Expanof the Elafticl^Atmofyheres of the F la(fo I call the other) abfolutely no he only finds that it s not fufthing.54 ^pofopt)icai they were puili d along in right Lines by a Force whofe dire&ion was in fome man ner or other inclin d to that of the direH~ on of of the Sun^ 6therwife they cou d never have revolv d So that it s evident the Mo in Orbits. (for in fjcient to deftroy the froje&il Motion nets^ and cannot fay it is a very . or ftray d for ever in Lines and tho* the refiftence of the right Medium cannot alter the Centripetal Moti the attra&ive Force .. on.. pafs. tion of the Planets about the Sun^ is com pounded of two different Motions in two different Dire&ions. either of which be ing deftroy d the Planets muft have fall n into the Sun. (fo I call that whereby the Planet yet if tends towards the Sun) any refiftence in the there be which the Planets on. Now tho Mr.. Medium through the proje&il Moti fion muft decreafe and (in an infinity of Ages) be deftroyed...

fo that in both Cafes there muft be fome refiftence dies pafling through this E made to Bo Ocean of Light - 4 which . yet frill they make a fluid. without the a&nal Motioijt of any one of em ^ yet neceflary that there be a Series of Bodies intcrpos d betwixt the lucid Body and the illumina ftill it is ted Objeft. that fome refiftence to Bodies pafling through tho very fmall. as if the parts of Light mov d themfelves . muft rcfift other and if it be but the A&ion of lucid Bodies communicated by the impulfe of one Body upon another. and this fluid muft give this fluid is Chapter. the Light of the Sun be a Body ( as If we have prov d Bodies that it to be) in it move it.of Natural Beltgiom a very fliort time. in a ftrait Line. which will as much refift the paflage of Bodies. muft in an init.) yet he has not men tioned that arifing from the fluid of Light which reaches beyond the Orbit of Saturn^ and tho we have {hewn in the preceding extreamly thin and its parts eafily moveable. which fufficicnt to have finity of Ages have been quite deftroycd this proje&il Motion.

it s plain this prefent ftate of things has not lafted from all Eternity in the Order we now behold - it. but more elpecially firice no Body put in or ev n endow d with Motion.which tho not fenfible in any finite time. thac Since it has been fufficiently demonftrated in the preceding Chapter. fer CorolL 3. of the firft Law of Nature j and fince w^ fte the .. g XXI.. that Motion is not effential to Matter^ nor any Combing lions of particles can bring themfelves to particle thereof no Motion^ and fince there are various and different Motions obfervable in this pre~ fent ftate of things. had the World lafted from all Eternity which not having happened.. it s evident that the Matter or Bodies of this Univerfe has been fome time or other before thisprefent time put in Motion. can of itfelf revolve in an Orbit or any curve Line. and confequently long e re now all the Planets had been broiling in the Sun.. muft have been fufficient in an infinity of Ages to have deftroy d the proje&il Moti on.

of ^aturai Beitgtotn 57 the Celeftial Bodies it s do move in curve Lines plain they have not for ever mov d of themfelve^ and confequently they have not for ever exifted in the ftate we behold /em. Therefore before d.. the thefe Motions was imprefs different ftate one of was in a that other from what it was in.. XXIt . after Motion was imprefs d. So that fince the Planets do revolve in Orbits or curve Lines. it is plain they have not for ever been in the ftate we now behold em of themfelves. been imprefs d. becaufe at every different point it muft change its diredion j and to fuppofe a Body capable of changing its of its Courfe^ is to fuppofe it to have Reafon and Difcretion.. fince it cannot move of direction at every different point itfelf by both. by the Corollary now men it tioned. It is altogether impoflible for any Body to move in an Orbit or any curve Line of itfelf. And fince to move in an Orbit or any curve Line is to move with a Motion compounded of two other Mo one of which at leaft muft have tions.

the terminating Bodies of the material part of the World inuft be all free from Attractions towards the void muft be all approaching to part. theti this things muft of iteteffity both have had a beginning and muft haVfe an end. and fo ward the common Center of Gravity of the whole j and had the Frame of the World been eternal. fince have .. they had long e re now all of em met there.XXII.. It s certain thefe luminous Bo dies each other^ fitide it s abfurd to imagine Matter not to be of the fame uniform Nature every where ^ attract do mutually and it s as certain they do not revolve about any common Center or Centers. fince they have been bbferv d never to have varied their fituations or diftances from each other.. nor the material we part of the Univerfe boujndlefs.. If the fat Stars be not ally infinite in their prefent ftate of Number. Space indeed may be infinite in its extent but there is no imaginable Reafon to believe the Number of the fixt Stars is infinite. Now if they be finite in Number. .

and the Boundaries yielding.of jjMurai have very good Reafon to believe that the folid Subftance has a very fmall Propor tion to the Vacuities interfperfed even in our and the Matter of this Univerfe is Syftemy almoft nothing in refpeft of the contain* ing Space. and nothing . the Bodies at the limits of the material part being quite free from attractions upon the fide toward the infinite Space. it s plain. Matter cannot be infinite in its extent j fince thereby it is not equal to Now if the fixt Stars be finite in Space. for nothing but an equal attraftion on all Hands can keep in their Places. and fo on ev n to the Center. or the material part of this Univerfe limited in its extent. the Bodies next them muft do fo likewHe.. as has former Chapter. their Number. been infinuated For fince Space in the is infi- nite (as I fliall hereafter demonftrate) and fince there s a necefllty of admitting of a&ual Vacuities as I have formerly (hewn.. muft yield to the attra&ing Force of the Bodies toward the common Center of Gravity of the mate rial part.

And it s not un likely that the vaft if not immenfe diftances of the fixt Stars from us and one ano ther^ has been defign d to retard this Effe$ as long as the defigns of Providence may require. ^ XXIIL Chapter bility I In the former part of this have demonftrated the impodi- of the Mechanical produftion o Ani mals and Vegetables. and I fliall have Oo it is cafion in the following Chapter to make evident. If the World had lafted from all Eterni ty the whole Matter of this Univerfe had been long before this time amafs d in the common C&nter of Gravity.nothing but an . infinite Number rang d up and down the infinite Space can be fuflident for this wherefore fince it has been evidently demonftrated that the material part of this Univerfe is finite in its extent. lifelefs it s all made a and had there Heap^ which not having happened fted from plain this World has not la Eternity . that ev ry generated Animal produced from a preexiftent Animalcul of the . nor can of itfelf continue to all Eternity.

of Natural Religion/ the fame Species .. And it is impoflihle s it can be othcrwife Scheme of admitting nothing but Matter and Motion-. that all the Ani mals or Vegetables that proceed from it were included in it. that pitching upon any one individual of ei from thefe. of that Species were once aftuaily together included in one infinitely remote from this now pitch d upon. ther kind now exiftent.for if Animals and Vegetables cannot be product upon our Ad verfary (and I have clearly prov d they cannot) they muft of neceffity have been from all Eternity. And that at any in that finitely or infinitely diftant 1 time (if they have . and that ev ry Vegetable arifes from a final! Plant of the tame kind. have a&ually been all included in the firft of ev ry ties or which is the lame thing. and it. with all thefe was included 5 one from which it proceeded and fo on infinitely backwards j and confequently fmce there 13 no new all that are or ever have been prodti&ion.. And confequently that all the Animals and Vegetables that have exifted or fhall exift.

have fo long cxifted) from their Genera tion or Produ&ion , all the Animals in cluded in the firft of ev ry Species were there moving and living Ammalcnls, and all Vegetables included in the firft of ev ry Kind, were there a&ually growing and
encreafing fmall Plants.

Now fince every

Animal and Vegetable has been prov d to confift of Organs in Number infinite (tho* if the Organs of Animals be only finite in Number, it will as efie&ually ferve our
prefent purpofe.) It is abfolutely impolfible any of the Species of Animals or Vege tables fhou d have exifted from all Eterni

ty

j

for then their

Number muft have

been infinitely many., and the Anwtalcuh and fmall Plants., being Organical Bodies and confifting of parts, and thofe infinite* ly many too, and being all included in the firft of every Species, or thofe infi nitely diftant from the prefent Individnals , thefe firft ones of evVy Species muft of necefllty have been infinitely big, for
infinitely

many

Organical

Bodies
in

how

fmall foever, amafs

d together

one Bo-

3Rett0tou+

dy, muft make that Body infinitely big; fo that unlefs we cou d admit the firft of
ev ry Species of Animals and Vegetables to be infinitely big (and how abfurd fuch an I leave the Reader to Hypothefis is,
It
is

judge)
all

abfolutely impoflible,,
ftiou

that Animals

and Vegetables

d have been from

I fee how this Ar Eternity ; gument can be evaded., if we admit all Animals and Vegetables to proceed from

neither can

preexiftent fmall Individuals of the fame Species,, included in the firft of each kind.

And
Upon

it is

impoflible this can be otherwife our Adverfaries Scheme, if the Me*

chanical

Produ&ion of thefe be impoflible^
think
I

which
ftrated.

I

have

clearly

demon-

all

XXIX. Had the World lafted from Eternity as it now is, it is altogether

but that Arts and Sciences muft have been brought to a far greater Perfe&ion than they have as yet attain d. Let us take for Inftance the Matbematick^^
impoflible
it is

certain this Science has been

more im~
in

prov d within tbefe two hundred Years, than

64

$i)rtofopDicai

in all the time paft before that,fince

we have

any Records Years more ,
thofe

;

and two or three hundred going on at the rate of

laft paft.,

may

carry

em

to a height

which we
is

now

cannot imagine.

Now

it

the Improvements altogether impofllble

already made fhou d be loft, feeing they contain things fo abfolutely neceflary to

^^Accommodation of Mankind they will as foon forget the ufe of Houfes and Cloaths^ as the Advantages to be reap d from this Science ; wherefore had the World Eter had been brought nally been., this Science to its utmoft Perfection long e er now* It may be alleged that Inundations^ Delu ges , Wars and feftilencies might have de* former Emprovements., and ftroyed all the then we fhou d have been left to begin anew. As for Deluges y it is impofllble they fliou d have been Univerfal, i. e. Natu for rally and Mechanically impodible the only Philofophical Account of an
^/z/"-

werfal Deluge hitherto afilgn d,

*>/

&. that

of Mr. WhiftonSy depends entirely upon the Principles of Gravitation^ which have been

of

Natural

been proved not to be Mechanical ; and fiace there cou d be no IJniverfal Deluge naturally, (and to allow a Principle above Nature or the eftablifhed Laws of Mecha*
nifm^
is

to yield the Caufe) particular In-

undations, cou d never have been fufficient to have obliterated the remains of Scien
ces.,

of this one., which by In* fcriptions on Medals y by the Ruins of Archite&ure^ by Pillars^ Inftruments^ and Machins^ might have been prcfcrv d n de~ fpite of etery thing but an Univerfal Con
particularly
i

flagration.

Befidcs,, it s

meerly precarioiiSj

to (ay there have been Deluges that have done any considerable Damage, to the

whole rational Creation., and may be deny d with the fame Reafon it is affirm d, fince it is certain we have heard of none
of any considerable Confequence. It s true there happen d an *Unwetfal Deluge in

NW/sDays ^butbefides, as! formerly faid,
that this

was not brought about naturally, we know not^ if this and other Sciences., had arriv d at any great Perfection before this Deluge happened. So that we are not

F

certain

66

$t)tloibpi)icai

certain if the Pcrfe&ion of Arts
ences has

and

Sci

been much retarded upon this account. Wars and Peftilences., it s true., have been and may be, but thofe do not

happen univerfally over the whole World at the fame time:, and there are always tome Countries and many particular Perfons

who

efcape

things cou

d

impoiliblc thefe have obliterated all the Re^
;

fo that

is

mains of Arts and Sciences. I believe it almoft impofllble by any means, except
Annihilation y or a general Conflagration^ fo to deface the Memory and Remains of
all

our modern Improvements^ that fome of em fliou d not laft at leaft ten thoufand
Ycnrs to come

and yet it s certain we have no evident Footfteps of Improvements ol der than three or four thoufand Years. In
iliortj

this

Argument holds good

againft

ev ry thing but Vniverfal Deluges , and to admit or fuppofe any fuch to have been,
is

to yield the Caufe., fince it s impofllble to explain fuch by the Laws oSMechanifm, or to account for them Matter and

by

Mo

tion as

things are

now

fettled

3

and to
quit

of jBatural J&eligiotu
allow quit thefe., or to

67

any thing to have is to admit happen d contrary to them Powers fuperiour to em., which for ought
,

might have produced that which they can now fo powerfully alter. And tho Arts and Sciences may have been at

we know

fome Countries, yet that is nothing to the whole Globe. For fince that Principle which prompts fome
a ftand for

many Ages

in

Men
inclin

to improve Arts or Sciences they are

d to^ iprings naturally in their Minds, according to the Scheme of our Adverfaand is neither imprinted upon them, nor were the things themfelves reveal d to this Prin them, by any fuperiour Beings ciple in an infinity of Ages, without any Univerfal Deluge, or ev n any particular one of any great extent, muft have of Neceilky brought Arts and Sciences., and the other Accommodations of Life ,
ries,

to a

much

greater Perfection than

we

fee

they have

now

attain d.

From

all

which

duly weigh d, it s plain this World has not Eternally been as it is now. And indeed, the Accounts of our Emprovei? r 2 ments

f&i)tiofopi)tcal

mcnts anfv\ er very well to the time, affign d by Mofes for the Creation of the
r

World.

^ XXV.
led
tiling.,

Number of any generawhich we behold on this Globe,
If the
finite

does either encreafe or diminifli continu
ally^

in

any

great foever., fmall foever,

Number of Years how by any finite Number how then this World cou d not

have been from all Eternity in the prefent For had it enftate we now behold it. creas d in any finite Number of Years how
great foever,

by any Number how fmall

foevcr, long before this time their ber had been infinite j fo that this poor Mole-Hill of a Globe had not been able

Num

to contain

em: And had they decreased, their Number had been none at all^ i* e. the whole Race had been extinguished.
But of thefc has happened, the prefent ftate of things has it s plain not been for ever. It s not eafie to be that the Race of Man lieve., for inftance, kind has been ebbing and flowing without
iince neither
,

coniidcrabk cncreafes or diminutions/rom
all

of
all

^aturai

Heiigtott,

Wars, Peftiand the other means knees and Difeafes, of DeJftru&ion, have not been fewer for thefe 300 Years by~paft than ever they have
Eternity.
j

We are certain

beenfince we have Records^and yet it s plain the Number of Mankind has confiderably Sir William Pet encreafed in that time.
ty

from Obfervations on Births and Buri
difcovered that in

als has

360 Years the

Mafs of Mankind is doubled in thefe Coun tries. Had they thus encreas d from all Eternityin other Countries.,
all

the Placets

within our Syftem had not been able to have contain d them by this time yea if in many millions of Years they had but
encreas

d by an Unity

continually,

their

Number had been
But
it s

infinite

by

this time.

plain both the Number of Man kind, and that of other Animals and Vege tables-, muft have perpetually encreas d, if

the
is

World

has been from

all

Eternity as

it

at prefent. And fince their Number is but finite at prefent 3 it s evident this World has not been for ever as now it is.

And

indeed the prefent

Number of AniF 3 mals

70

^!)tiofopt)ical

mals does anfwer very well to the com mon Mr a of the Creation. Thefe two laft Arguments I have fubpin d, not as
conclusive proofs of the Produ&ion of this prefent Llniverfe in time., but as concur-

ring Confirmations of the former
ftrations.
Tsrf

Demon-

it

XXVI. Laftly, that this World ihou d
Eternity?
Is

How

improbable is have been from

all

there any thing we fee in any part of it, or ev n in the whole, other Quality fui table to that that has

any

Cardinal one of Self-exiftence

?

We

our

felves are certainly the nobleft part of are acquainted with- and this Syft-em unfit any of us., or knows

we

how yet God even our whole Race
travagant a
as

is.,

to have fo ex

Compliment beftow d upon us Self-exiftence., when as we can fcarce
faid to

be

be

at all, fo very a
as

nothing our

Lives are in rcfpet of Infinite Duration.

We

might with

much Reafon imagine
oz Omnipotent , (which

Mankind Onsnijcisnt

we know
flcnt.

too well he
qualities

Thefe

not) as felf-exicannot be feparated
is
-

where

of

Natural

Sfteligtom

where one is, all the reft muft neceffarily be. For whoibever Isjelf-exijlent^ muft ne~ ceflai and independently be. Neceffarily^ ily becaafe depending only on himfelf alone when and while he for Being^ he may be
pi cafes
^

independently.,
that
s

becaufe his Being
it

and

all

necefiary to

depend on
necelfarily

himfelf alone.

And whatever
cxifts,

muft Be in Oppofition of all other Powers., and whoe ver is fo, muft be able to preferve his Be ing in dcfpite of all other Powers, / e. muft be Omnipotent. Whoever is Omnipo tent muft know all things that are pofllble to be done or let alone for he can never be ftipos d to do that which he knows not how to do, / c. muft be Ofifffiftfent; and whoever is Omnipotent and 0;;/;;//r/>;;^ all things elfe muft depend on him ^ for be ing fo\ he may make all things depend of

and independently

.

,

him

if

already they did not fo.

Befides,

other things fnnft depend of him for the %. becaufe he can very fame Reafon,

w

makeVm
potent

do fo. As alfo., whatever is Omni and Omnifrient^ depending on no-

F 4

things

admit fomething to be how much more reafbnable is to believe that.. *// *. nor any Power annoy him.. this only poilible remaining Choice. fince nothing can hurt him. him.. and having all things depending on muft be fupremely good and wife ^ all becaufe he knows things. which bears fo vifible Chara&ers of his infinite Power and Wifdom. So that it s very plain. be true.thing.. And fince we muft of (elf-exiit.. as {hall abundantly be fhewn hereafter. that whatever is felf-exijient muft poflefs all the other fui- table Qualifications. neceffity ftent. can do all has no Reafon nor Caufe to de termine him to any thing that s bad. This beautiful State of things.. things. has created all noble Reprefentation of himfelf.. And this is the third Opinion about the Origination of the Univerfe.. which poffeflcs all other Qualities fuitable to that of -Exiflence y has been from Self and when this it Eternity j was his Pleafure. which I have is the (I think) abundantly confuted.. neceffity which muft of THE . fince after the other two. that immenfe Being.

that there were no fecret Ohferver. can be abfolutely convinc d. there are r T^H AT no Speculative as. The Fool indeed may have faid in his Heart there is no God.. that me feems as evident^ no Body who has confidered the Atheifts^ to matter. lewd and tily vicious Men. Of I. may have hear wiflid within themfelves. e..73 THE Philofopbical O F Principles Natural Religion. III. that the three Angles of a Triangle are not equal to two right ones.. the Exigence of a Deity. /. nor that there might . CHAP.

as it is for one who has the attentively read and rightly gles Bool^ of Euclid^ uuderftood what he has read. and there are millions who live . moft Men think nothing of the matter 5 and few give themfelves the Trouble to there be a God or not 5 inquire whether they think fuch idle Speculations become thofe only. and to be.74 $i)tlofopt)tcal might be any publick Funifhment of their Crimes. firft to be convinc d that the Sum of the An true of a right Imd friangle^ can be It is more or lefs than two right Angles. becaufe it s their Intereft there fhould be neither but that a Man of an ordinary Underftanding .... is make the beft ufe of Life that this in the may cer And of we kind of Atheifts there abundance World j for it s can never determine any thing about what we never^ or but very flighttain ly think of. who know not to live. and has du ly weigh d the Evidences for the Being of a Deity ^ fliould at laft come to a full Per- fuafion of his None-Exiflence^ to me fccrns as impofllble. who has ferioufly fet about the matter.

&amp. becaufe they never took the But the being Pains to confider them. who made and governs this prcfent Syftem of things. who will but give thcmfelves leave to confider yet iince the Evidences for it. has employ d the Care oi many wife and fo that none can doubt of it good Men. that none it. can withftand fuch Now tho the convincing Teftimonies.vi% but the wilfully that there is a faprewe Being. fb fo conspicuous. the Demonftration of this great Truth ^ blind.. 75 Self-evi and dye ignorant of many dent Truths. is a Matter of that Moment to the Government of the World..lt. tor want of fufficient Proofs. can never be too many^ and fince fome are to be wrought upon by one fort of Argument. the Confideration of different..of Jive Datura! Religion. which beft with my manner of agreed think- . or not being of a Deity. and are fo many.. others by another. the neceffary Confequences there of. do fo nearly concern the Happinefs or Mifery of every individual rational Creature and the Obje&s that inculcate . I fliall here fet down thofe..

For fince this World. . cou d neither be produced by the cafual Concourfe of Atoms^ neither con d have been from all as it has been fufficiEternity of it ently prov d j and fince that it now is^ no Body doubts. Now fince there is nothing elfe thinking. felf&amp.gt. II.$f)ilofopt)icai which are founded on the Prin ciples of a juftcr Philosophy ^ and a more genuine Explication of Nature^ than was known till of late. of Necefllty therefore. And I have chofen this way of reafoning. fome time or another. by fbme preexifting Power.. in being but this World^ unlefs we admit that fnpreme Power we are now {peaking and fince it coud neither have been produc d from the fortuitous Concourfe of Atoms . it muft have been produced or created. are fo many Proofs of the Exiftence of a furpreme Powery who made and governs this prefent Syftem of things. the rather becaufe our modern Atheifls have taken San&uary within the Bounds of Natural Philosophy. All the Arguments of the pre ceding Chapter . nor have been from all Eternity of of- .

of it felf-j muft of neceffity . (for if the Difficulty.of Natural it J&eifgtoii* 77 have been produc d by that fupreme Power whofe Since then Being we now inquire into. Crea ture can have about the Exiftence of a to conceive his having for ever been of himfelf without a Beginning. Deity. without a Beginning... by the cafual meeting of Atoms or by al. of em(elves j if it has been from all Eternity of it is. t\iis fapreme Power ^ of necefllty. muft have created this beautiful Syftem of things. He muft therefore for ever be ..) is neceflarily All the Difficulty any rational Powery muft now how Now if we it could avoid this Difficulty. that we ... thefe three has been World produc d by the cafual Concourse of Atoms y then a Void^ Atoms ^ and Motion have for ever been.. by faying that this Syftem was produc d.. phin... But fince does equally lye againft Suppofitions. then the Cafe is as itfelf. we might have fome Pretence for flight this all our Infidelity.. ledging to have for ever been of it felf. and have been that great exift. andfince exifting independently.

or his having for ever been of himfelf without a beginning. is his heceflary Exiftence. ceffary Exiftence. rather than either of which we know are nei ther endow d with. that therefore fuch a Being muft of neceflity a&ually exift. and who does neceiTarily poffefs all other fuitable Perfections. nor capable of. to whom we may afcribe. who neceflarily .78 muft allow fomething to have been without a beginning of it felf. more reafonable to fuppofe that Being to have for ever been of himfelf.. fince the very ianie Difficulty equally and unavoidably^ urges all the three Suppositions is it not more reafonableand congruous^ to allow that Being to have been for ever of it felf. without a beginning.) Where fore I we fay. that becaufe in our Conception of a Being infi there muft be included nenitely perfett^ thofe others . fuch eminent and tranfcendent Qualitys ? I will not fay with DCS Cartes.it is much . But fure I am 3 fince our main Difficulty in the Conception of the Exiftcnce of a be ing abjolutely ferfcSi.

or more Vacuity than is dill fufficient. that III.. fince of all foever.lt.of natural all $cli&amp. it firft exifted. is there now exifts a Quantity offolid Mafs. nor alter it s deftitute Direction Figure j it can neither change it s word.stoin 79 ccffarily poffeffes lities. not Solidity^ yet there t& jpermit us to doubt of the Exigence of Matter. it nor Colour . there be more Pores than Parts. Wherefore It fince Matter I ftually is. other fuitable Quathan thofe who neither poflefsj nor are capable of any of them. nor when put in motion can it reft of itfelf\ nor of itfelf change it s Courfe. nor Situation^ in a is cnclu d with no Property but In- which is but a Negation. a plain Demonfiration of the Exijlence of a Deity. celeftial out of which the Bodies were form d and terrejlrial our moft folid and tho perhaps in Bodies.it cannot move ofitfelf. The Exijletice of Matter . wou d we gladly now alearn how cou d never have been are certain^ that it a&ive Qiialities vvhat- of is it felf. I believe no body doubts. How abfurd .

for Power Power a Capacity to to aft. ter. fram d this wonder ful Syftem of Things 5 contrafts all the Difficulties of Nature into this one of For as to the Difficulties of his Exiftence. to imagine into Being ^ it cou d have when it can do We bring itfelf to become a pofitive Being.. Befides. ad mitting Matter to have been for ever of itfelf yet this will not folve half the for ever . as conceive it poffible that Matter fhou d have been. Power. of itfelf Formation and Produftion of the prefent State of things^ as has been {hewn in the preceding Chap farther now and be {hall illuftrated. and to have created the folid Mafs y and out of it. fhou d then. a$ually before infi implies a Capacity . and infinite aft every thing not involving a ContraWherefore fince Matter now diftion... nite they vanifli quite. ariflng in the Creation.abfurd is it brought itfelf . Difficulties.uft nothing of itfelf? may as reafbnably imagine that Nonentity. Whereas the admitting of an infinitely Powerful and perfect Being to have for ever been.

to admit an infinite! v wife Being to have for ever been of himfelf? arifing -J ^/ whereby the Difficulties. nor had it for e^ ver been. Is it not much more reafonable then. are cftabliflicd in according to the Chapter. all ^ this it s IV. in the con ceiving the Manner of the Produ6Hon of this Vniverfe. ties wou d that remove in the the Difficul Formation of this prefent Syftem of things... and which feveral Parts in their A&ions do now obey j and therefore of neceility there muft have been fome Power fiiperior and diftinft from. do vaniih at once. that of Matter. but on the contrary wou d multiplie em. We fee all the now happen firft in this Changes that material World. coti Laws the Bat this Syftew of Things d never have been brought into it s G prefent . which form d this Syftem at firft. It has been formerly fliewn^ that: *Univerfe was not form d by the it fame Laws now is govern d. and prefcrib d Laws for it s Parts afterwards to obferve. to..of ^aturai Jfeligen* 8 1 a6hially is^ and yet it neither coti d have been for ever of itfelf.

. and the other Planets-. as to their principal Parts . and amafs d it in the Sun and Stars neither did fixt the Laws of fpecifick Gravities obtain in grofler the Formation and Situation of the inner Parts of our Earth . ther.prcfent Order 5 by the now eftabliflied Laws of Nature. nor all of thefe were fuffieient to have feparated. O Stars determin d.. nor in the Separation and Situation of the fevcral Fluids thereof. (ev n admitting Matter to have been eternally exiftent of itfelf) as I have abundantly {hewn in the firft Chap ter neither one. J or Diftances of the Jfixt Magnitudes.. Saturn limited.. the Figure^ Number^ ) Denfitics. Diftance^ and Magnitudes of the Satellits of J^fi&quot. was the Num ber. By none of the known Laws of Motion. the Form and bulk of the Annuhts of ter. In a word. ^ Laws that thin and rare fluid of Light ^ from the other and more denfe ones.. Gravitations Situations upon one ano and Order of the Pla nets adjufted 5 the Number... the whole pro and ccTs of the Formation of the celcftial terrcftr/al World .

Wherefore fince this beautiful ftate of things has not been for ever of d be cou form d nor the Powers itfelf..of jftattttai Beltgtoa Parts 83 and Arrangements. tled ftate that now of things Laws had but a fmall Share in their Produ&ion. yet they are dire&ed... may obtain.. it is plain it has been produced by fomething fuperiour to Matter and it s Qualities. and even iometimes contradifted^ by the volunta ry Motions^ aud the defign d Interpofings G Z . other than what we have of a Planetary Clock^ or any other complicated Machin^ form d by the Hand of a skilful Artift^ where tho the Rules of Motion.. was brought about by none of the Laws of Motion and Mechanism. we can have no Notion of the Formation of this prefent State qf things. and Laws of Nature. And truly from what has been here faid. it is evident. by and Laws of Nature. and confequently obtain in this fet or at moft thefe by t\&tfupreme Being. into whofe Ex- iftenc? we are tlow inquiring. and a great deal more of the fame Nature alleg d in the firft Chapter.

. And tho this no doubt. Heap been already (hewn that* no Particle of Matter. be but a very faint Rcfemblance of that noble and glorious Work. to fet them firft a going.. Now it has of Matter moving. yet it is the befc and moft adequate our Imaginations^ without runing upon evident Contradidions.. V. did neceflfarily require the infinitely firft powerful . with a due Velocity of their feveral along the Tangents Orbits-^ other* .84 ^i)ilofopi)tcai of free Agents. can frame. and imprcfs d Motions.. nor any Combination of Particles^ can move themfclves and therefore it was abfolutely neceflary that fomething diGvrent Irom themfelves y ihou d put them in -a motion. As the Formation and Difpofition of the great Bodies of this Univerfe.. For fuppofing Bodies already form d^ and the celeflial cl a Being fo likewife did their Hand of rang according to their feveral Diftances from one another yet without this und Impulfej they had continu una^ive. demand the Impulfe of an almighty Hand. Movement.

did... and the Laws of Nature. Eternity of themthat they have been all going by fbme powerful Hand} and fufficient is what Hand but his for fuch a Work.. ving. it that thefe glorious Bodies have about thefe four or five and fince it hath been demonftrated that they are not felf-mobeing folid Maffcs of Matter-. firft Not only the Formation.. infinite. both in Strength and Skill and confequently he who did fo great and glorious things muft ncceffa- who rily be. fince that they has likewiie been fhewn^ have not felves. Wherefore fince it is certain been rowling thoufand Years.of natural saeiifjiott. along the Langcnts of their Or- but their Centripetal impuWes^ where by their Revolutions or orbicular Motions are perform d. fet a it mov d from is plain. VI... and ftill do 3 require a bits } Power beyond that of Matter. and impulfe of the great Bodies of this Univerfe. to the prefervation of G 3 their .. 85 otherwife they had for ever continued in the places^ and at the Diftances^ they were at firft fet.

and needs no more to be renew d. about which the Body moves. and all the Bo dies of this Univerfe tend toward one a- nother and by which the Sun being the of this our Syftem draws far greateft Body toward him the Planets^ and they their own Satellits ..gt. fo that it muft be re~ Now thefe peated ev ry Minute of time. jecovdary Impulfes arife from that *Uni-* verfal Principle of Attra&ion^ whereby e^ : very Particle of Matter. But it has been demonftrated in the firft . Gregory y has dcmonftratcd ^ that to the Motion of any of the Ce/e/foz/ Boclies in an Orbit . there is neceffarily recjui/d two Impulfes. that this Principle whereby the Revolu- .their Motion. and after hin&amp. Dr.one along theTavgcnt of the Orbit^ another toward the Center. and forces it into a curvilinear Orbit.. Chapter. Mr. The firft being once imprefs d ^ docs continually perfevere.. Newton. and without which they wou d for ever wander in right Lines.. as is evident from the firft Law of Nature : The (econd con tinually draws the cekjlial Body from it s re&ilinear Motion.

therefore the Revolutions of the Bodies in their feveral Orbits do celeftial neceflarily infer the Exiftence of a Deity. of Animals does Exiftence neceilarily infer the Exiftence of a Deitor it has been demonstrated in the ty-j ^ VII. unfefs we admit that fu. And feeing is nothing in Nature.of Natural Mtston. The former Chapter ^ that all Animals are in their own Natures ferpetua mobilia^ that they have fome Principle above the ers Pow of Matter that governs their Moti-ons ^ it has likewife been (liewn that . but Matter and the rher&amp. and only accidental (noways Matter.* to but there Powers thereof.. by quently (fince it muft be repeated every Minute) muft be perpetuated in it by feme uninterrupted Influence.. every individual Plant and Animal is a Machine of an infinite Number of Or gans^ that no Animal is or can be proG 4 duc d . implanted effential) and confein extrinfick fome Power. is independent of the Laws of Mechamfm. 87 of thefe glorious Bodies are perform d.lt. preme Being for whofe Exiftence we con tend.

. and confequently. we Perfect Being.. into whofe Exiftence are now inquiring. and all it s Laws and Pro and confequently to that infinite perties once. . we neceflarily muft have Recourfe. and altogether above the Powers and Now when ever Properties of Matter.cluc d. and indepen dent of Matter. or generated ter. VIII. inuft fpring from a principle independent of. The fyontaneons irrational^ Motions of and the voluntary Motions of rational Animals.. and the Laws of Mechanifm..&amp. by the Force of Mat and Laws of Mechanism . (that all Ani mals and Vegetables that ever were or fhall be.. the Freedom of Will. fince there is nothing ly and its Properties in the World. unlefs we admit the Exiftence of befides Matter that fupreme Being.. were all created or formed at fhall be afterwards fliewn) and that all thefe are abfolutely unaccountable from the Laws of Motion.gt. to the Exiflence of fome Power fuperiour to. we forfake the Powers of Matter. arid Liberty of choofing or refufing in the latter.

e. as we now behold it. The Prefervation of the Bei/w flX.of latter. But no the Appearances which are above the Powers word Power alone is fiifficient for thofe. fince . be above the Powers of Mechanifm^ they muft have been produc d by fome Power Superiour to thofe of Mecbanifw. /. Natural in a iaeiigtoiu all 8? and of Nature^ of Mechanifm (which are innumerable) are fo many undeniable Proofs of the Be ing of a God. For fince this Syftem of things has not Seen from all Eternity of itfclf.. Faculties both of the animate and inanimate Part of this Syflem of things. fore he that brought about all thefe glo rious things.. but his who and marvellous things^ who adjufted all the Parts of this noble fabrickjjy weight and meafure. and there. of a Deity. For fince this prefent Syflem of Things^ has not been from all Eternity and fince thefe are allow d to ofitfelf. does neceflarily require the Power^ and confequently the Exiflence of a Being abfolutedoes great * . who alone does Wotrders y muft neceflarily be. and ly perfeft..

and fince we fee both have been preferv d for a confiderable time This prefervation of the Being and Faculties of things... the Prefervation.. either at once. for inftance^ ceffarily be. of a Body moving. Now the Motion produc d by any one Part of this Motive Force. can never be ac counted for. may be deftroy d (by ... tween the being any or of it s Faculties. im- Motion prefs d. muft neLet us take. which may be fuis no neceflary : ficient for all things not involving a Con- tradition j and therefore that Omnipotent Being indow d with this Power. without having Recourfe to an Almighty Power..) This a giv n Body. in Ev ry motive Force (as all it s Motion : other Quantity) into feveral may be fuppos d divided Parts (the Sum of all which muft be equal to the motive Force firft motive Force being impropos d. muft produce a prefs d on therein equal to the Motion pro duced by all the feveral Parts thereof. and their being the next. or at different times.ilnce there Connexion be of one Part thereof. this prefent Moment.

(by the Oppofition of an equal Body ^ ima Force equal to that Part of pell d with the Motive Force we wou d deftroy. but upon fome Principle cxtrinfic ^ to both. docs not depend upon the Nature of Body. and confequently the Perfeveration of a Body in Motion.. perfevere in that reft they are put in lame by fome Moreover foreign imprefs d Violence..and therefore the Pcrfeveration of a Body in .. and in another hereafter. Now there franf* place into a- as the is no imaginable con nexion between a Bodies being in this place now. but with a contrary Dire&ion) the reft of the Motion remaining unalteredhave no out the therefore the feveral Parts of any imprefs d Motion neceffary Dependence upon one another.of $atuvtil afteitgion. fince one can be deftroyed withreft . vi^ that firft Law of Nature (preferib d bv the Author thereof) wiiereby Bodies as 1 much them $ate of Motion or as in is. nor upon the Nature of Motion. unlefs forced to change the Motion may be confidered^ lation of a Body from one nother.

ding a and therefore the feveral Impulfes. nor But to that vis into the Body mov d.$t)ilofopt)tcai in motion... and by that means ad new Velocity to the former. Laft- imprefs d Force is not at all permanent in the Body mov d. After the fame manner in the defcent of neither heavy Bodies the Acceleration of their Mo tion may be refembled (or is equivalent) to the Acceleration of a Body impelled by a conftant equable Force. is ficacy is owing to the motive Force. and it s Ef Jy. fince an fpent that very Moment it is imprefs d 5 it is evident therefore.... do not de pend upon one another. which is implanted therein by fomeercitf. thing diftinft from Matter and its eflential Properties ^ /. a&ing ev ry Minute equally. e. any one. or any Number of thefe Impulfes may be deftroyed without the reft. that the Perfeveration of a Body in motion.. Now. to God Almighty ^ the Author of Nature and all its Produ&ions. but confifts in the meer A&ion. is not %\\ effential to it. fince by contra* . by which heavy Bodies defcend..

as has been formerly {hewn) or unlefs Time or Place cou d change the Natures of which is abfur d. And the fame may be faid of the Being of... 93 ^ ry equal Impulfes they may be deftroyed ? and confequently the Degrees of the Ac* Motion of heavy Bodies defending. the Continuation of that is not owing to it. nor of any of it s Faculties. does by no Means infer it s being the next Minute. that thing can be without . whatever any thing can be without. whatever is not effential to a thing. (I mean of inanimate things) /..of ^ntural Religion. there be ing . things. e.. Continuation. and therefore muft be afcribed to a higher Power.. and fo the Prefervation cehration of the of this Faculty of Attra&ion in Matter which is the Caufe thereof does not depend upon Matter. And univerfally. unleis the thing be felf-exiftent (which cannot be true of Matter. (and of all the Fa culties not effential to) Bodies. have no neceffary Connexion one upon another... for the Be ing of any thing now. to quently requires the Caufe of it s and confefome Power above it. for it s Nature.

i and it is altogether impot fible for the united skill of Men and An to mend any one Part. there are legible and Wtfdom^ in the Contrivance of the whole.. this Univerfe cou d have been better contriv d or it is more compleatly infinite finiflicd. had Wifclom firft a&ually defign d it. and the Being or Faculties of and confequently their Prefervation is owing to forne Power above thofe of Matter. e... that altogether impofllble.. Or which is the fame. or even to find out any real Defei therein. who made and governs this Syftem of things. trive it better.) ino cue and have our Being.. i. than it is. is Things . j X.ing no neceflary Connexion betwixt Time or Place. and of the feveral Parts of this admirable Fabrick of the *Vni*terje&quot.. to him in whom WQ live. and then put the Defign in execution.. or to con gels. due Regard being had to the univerfal Benefit of the whole infinite indelible Characters of Syftem $ . which of all others affe&s me moft. But that Argument for the Ex* iftetice of a Being infinitely perfect.

which alone cou d bring. This is a very large Subjefr.. or the univerfal Place of all Bodies... or indefinite in its Dimenfions.. like the Sun) to be plac d. and fbmetimes infinite. and moving about their own Axes only (perhaps) Stars - XL about .... to be boundlefs in it s Extent. But firft of all it will be convenient to lay down a general Scheme of this noble Stru- Let us then conceive the Mundan Space. I fliall endeavour to illuftratc the fame in the following Particulars. or which only cou d bring about the defign d E fed:. it . keeping always the fame Diftances from one another. the moft advantages to the w hole. and r to treat according to it s Dignity re than the Limits I quires more Room have prefcrib d to my felf will admit. the fixt (huge luminous Bodies.. and in it at vaft Diftances from one another. However.of 5$aturai Beitgton* Syflem for in the Contrivance and Adthis juftment of the feveral Parts of ble Machin. no where the Choice is various. that one is pitch d upon.

.. a naked eye in a cloudgive us ibme faint which is bers fall tick^ d the milky way. And how many fuch there muft be in the vaft net-like ones Analogous to the Extent of Icfs Space.about each of thefe let us imagine fe?veral Bodies like our Planets^ fowling in feveral Orbits at feveral Diftances lefler . fixt Stars with their Circumambient PlaOrbs. conftituting that which is caird a Syflem of the Celeftial Bodies. Glimfs^ Night. and yet and they it s included in a bounded Extenfion- for Matter feems not capable in ture of being infinitely propagated.. and in the common . and our Arithmecall can fcarce give us an idea of the vaft Quantity of Syflems that adorn this ftnpenduous Piece of Architecture -^ no doubt are all their Number is fink. over. (or near it) the Center of Gravity of this our Syjlew. Na let us conceive the fixt in More glorious Body of the Sun.. may but much more a good large Telefcope dire&ed toward that Region of the Skie. Our Num very fliort here.. and about thofe Each of thefe Satellits of our Planets.

the meters. View of him Moon. For the eafe of the Reader. in going through the following Parts of this ^ Difconrfe. of Matter^ in thofe of the Num Dia- and Quantities H Cclejiial Bodies. and his furrounding Annulus QvKing. Beyond our Earth Mars fingly and alone. to him Mercury makes his oval round . Gravities.. Diftances. Jupiter. and laft of all. Next to Mercury. that we can rarely obbut fo near him. with it s Attendant the a diftinft . Saturn with his five Guards.next to Mars.. the with his four Sat ellargeft of the Planets. our Earth. describes the remoteft Orbit. and meafure out the Year. XII. I (hall fet down here the bers that reprefent the Periods. which . is our beautiful Morning and Evening Star Venus : next Venus . and concludes our turn Syftem.. in the Light of the Sun. * j tain he being fwallow d up almoft.of natural Eeltstotn 97 common Center of Motion (or focm) of And then next all the Planetary Orbits. revolves about the fame Center. lits round in concert. perform their friendly Courfe.

. Y. The Periodical Times of each Planefs Re volution about the Sun. by Mr. Whifton has calculated them from the lateft Obfervations. as Mr. Newton s Rules.which have afforded any Grounds for de termining the fame.

of Natural Beltgioa and 99 The Quantity of Matter afford in. the Gra vity of fach of the heavenly Bodies (as Means for the determining the fawe^ at the fame diftancefrom the Cen ter of the Sun } is as The Sun s Jupiter Saturn s s The Earth s The Moon s 66690 00060 00028 ooooi ooooo * The Diameters of the Sun and Planets. 004941 002717^ H a . The Suns Saturns Jupiter Mars*s s 4^4100 043925 052522 9 Statute The Earth * The Moons Venwis Mercurys 002816 JMiles each 008202 5000 Paris 002223 Feet.

11.IOO The weight of Bodies on the Surface of the Sun and Planets. 1 8 h. d. Bf . of I 2 h. The Bodies. 13.lt. id. the Denfities of Celeftial The Moons 700 387 100 The Earths The Sun s Jupiter s 076 060 the Safeltits c Saturns The Periodical Times of Jupiter. r On the Sur face of The Sun The Earth Jupiter 10000 01258. 17^ 57. 4 h.p 7 3 Hi 6 d. 1 8 3 281 3 d.: The Moon Saturn 00804 00630 00536 i. &amp.

Ol The Dtftances of the Satellits from the Center of Jupiter.of I. flamftcd by the Eclipfes of the Satel. .

102 middle diflance of the Earth and Tla* their Periodical nets comfard with e .4 152399 looooo 72533 38710. and her Means the feweft fimple^ &amp. . What a beautiful Scene of things here ? haye and yet how wonderful are the Works of Nature ? Such like are all the EfFefts of infinite Wifdom^ her Foundations are plain and fimple buthcrfuperftru&ure. The Times of the Revolutions of the Sun and Planets about their Sixes. 98 522520 152350 IGOOCO 72598 58585.gt. her Effe&s wonderful.) various and Her Caufes few. innumerable. j&amp. Her Courfe the eafieft and ihorteft Poifible. we How that . The Sun in a 5 Days Jupiter in i o hours The Earth in i Day Mars in 247 hours The Moon in 25? Days Venus in 2 3 hours.gt. XIII.

Cycles.. The Sun being of liquid Force of his Heat. and dquating^ we fhall fee there what Work their Concentricl^ and Excentrick^ Circles.. and the perpetual Change of the Axe of Motion . brought into fufion huge Body by the Fluid. with wonderful Confiftency and Fa cility. XIV. perplex their with they made. their folid Orbs. and Epicycles. their carrying. . and the Caufe of all Heat. and we will then have fufficient Ground to admire the frugal Simplicity of Nature. a Fire. in the celeftial Ap pearances : fuch a ftrange ungeomttrical - and contradi&ory Syflem they made of the Heavens whereas from thefe few 5 plain and fimple Pofitions. - compaft Syficw t forry. and thereby fending thin.. all the Appearances of the Heavens^ are accounted for..of j&atutai Religion. out Oceans of that active which is the Medium of Light. the Stations and Retrogadationr.. Let us but confult the Books of -the old Aftronomers. in this neat. turns round his own H 4 Axe. 103 that can poffibly bring about her Ends.

things ^ till the Consummation of by Virtue of that firft imprefs d Gyration^ and the firft Law of Nature. after his And paving been feated in his Place.. and will do. lefler and in . muft certainly be vi d. he lays out upon them. the folid (fome folid Bodies being more denfe than any Fluid can be) his Sphericity.. His greater Quantity of Matter. for drawing all the yeft qf the Planets and their Satellits to wards . as the Sun muft neceflarily be... it has continu d ever fince... His Motion about his all own on his Axe^ has been difcovered by Spots his Surface. trify and larger Dimenfions Planets^ makes him in refpeft of the fufficient for all the Expenfes of Light. there being little or no Refiftance in his Region to retard his Motion.04 |^Diiofopl)!tai five from Weft to Eaft in about twenty Days which arifes from his firft Being put into fuch a Circumgyration. as alfo. and that all Bodies heated to fuch a Degree. whereby his Bulk and Heat is conftantly diminifliing. Denfity Planets from refpeft of fome of his Fluidity.

the Sun far.. in one Sun is fituated : And of whofe Foci the what is here faid of the Caufe of the Primary Planet s Mo tions about the Snn^ may be underftood of the fecondary f Janets Motions. which drove em along the Tangents of their Orbits^ with the fmall Refiftance they meet in their Courfes . receiv d an impulfe. at the fame Dias has ftance.of ^amtai wards him} for ffitiigf on* i o$ been formerly infinuated. the Force of Attraction of one Bo dy upon feveral others. has made em ever fince revolve in their their Ellipticl^Orbits.. is : as their Maffes^ qf Matter tains a or Quantities Wherefore feeing the Sun con very Matter by greater Quantity than any of the Planets. neceflarily of muft draw the Planets with their Satellits to him 5 which wou d have unavoidably come to pafs^ had not the Planets at the inftant they were feated in their Places. and the Force of the Attra&ion diminishing as the Squares this of Diftances increafe.. about the Primary ones. reciprocally. All the Planets re volve ...

for if Axe fuppos d this no other Motion (there being in the Sphere) is immoveable. the Reafon of which is evi a Sphere move about an Axe. 66r: and in it s motion about the Sun. and at the fame time always turn round it s Axe. the Axe fliall continue parallel to that Line it was firft pa* rallel to^ for that Imprefllon which perit s s Axe^ and the petuats it Rotation upon impulfe along the Tangent of it s Orbit... this Axe y of the diurnal them . are two diftincft Motions^ which never inter fere. and fa each of them niufl continue the . while in the mean time every Point in the dcfcribes a Circle about this Axey Sphere^ and therefore if a Sphere move either in a curve.06 $t)tlofopf)!tai volve about the Sun in Elliptic^ Orbits.. dent. as alfo Rotation obferves always a Parallelifm with itfelf.. or fuch as are not very far different from moft of em. about an Ax?) which is inclin d to the Plane of the JLcliptick. turn round their own Axes from Weft to Eaft. the Earth in twenty four Hours.) or ftrait Line...

. may alfo turn round their Axes.. turn that conftantly the the fame Face or Disk^ toward their p rimary Planets ^ and it is not improbable. than once enjoy his for it is from this Rota . Jupiter nus y and our Moon. in the Earth s Re volution about the Sun. that the others in which we have not had the Occafion of obferving the like.. Mars and Ve^ fturb it. they. they may in all their Parts oftner Light and Heat tion of our Earth upon it s Axis. i o/ the fame as if the other were not fo that every Body turning about its Axe . like our Moon.of ^latum 3&eitgton* . if not difturb d by The Satellits of Jupi Foreign Violence. ter and Saturn do likewife turn round their Axes. and at the fame time defcribing a Right or Curve muft of neceflity retain it s Axe parallel to itfel. as is evident from hence. from Weft to Eaft. and from the farallelifm of the Axil to itfelf. and would Line.. that in a Re volution about the Sun. that we have the Vicifliudes of Day and Night. retain this Paralleltfw. do alfo turn round their Axes. if nothing elfe dilike wife..

wkhin one another. V.. together with their diurnal and annual Motions . From the Opacity of the Moon and Planets and their Satel lite.. and their Rotati ons about their Axes. their appea ring and difappearing. which is of fuch comfort and nfe to it s Inhabitants. their Phafes. all thefe and many more Particulars are exa$ly the fame in our Earth. the Similar Nature of their Orbits . their total and parEclipfes arife. the Proportion of their Periods to their Diftances from the and mutual Center of Motion. it is not impro- . thee^^/eDefcription of Areas in equal Times. Since their Solidity and Opacity.. and the Obliquity of their Planes to the Plane of the Ecliptic^.Sun. Summer and Winter. and fome of em revolving in Orbits. Since^ I fay. and its being inclined to the Plane of the Ecliptick} come the beautiful Seafons of the Year. their Gravitations their hatellitiott-s Attractions. Spring and Autumn. and the other -Planets with their Satellite. and tial X Attendance^ their Revo lutions about the Sun.

.. Plants and Vegetables gotis to. . which not only are not but on the contra ford or contradi&ory ry highly probable. athofe in our Syftem. as be afterwards made appear more fully. and have Inhabitants. nalogous to On thefe &quot. Plants and Vegetables.gt. it is very likely that they have Planets. and thefe Planets have thefe Planets and Satellite Satellits. tants both rational and irrational.of Natural JSeligton* be alike in other probable that they may and that they may have Inhabi things.ah- Suppofitions. rational and irrational. divine . Water and Fire analo- of the very fame Na ture and Conftitution with ours. what a noble and glorious Fabric^ wou d prefent itfelf to our Imaginations ? How is it poffible for any one who had this Idea of the Vniverfey {hall to think it poffible fuch a beautiful Syftem^ con d have been produc d without infinite Wifdom None but the w ilfol^ or ob ft-ina te cou d refift fuch a powcifel Impreffion of &amp. Water and Fire. and fince our fixt Stars are exa$ly of the fame Nature with our Sun^ as ihall be after tho* not wards made appear.

and to their forebode what little by Afpe&s tendance. Number of glorious and Sun- of the fixt Stars. while the other more glorious.. or other pitiful Ac cidents were to be expe&ed below. great and noble Parts. that all Animals and Plants. are left deftitute and bare? Certainly they muft have a great Opinion of themfelves. is it On the other Hand. who can think fo poorly of the reft of the Univeiie.. and that the fixt Stars have their Planets and Inhabitants. yet they are not of the fame Nature and Confticution with thofe of this out . and of their own Habitation.gt. Changes of Weather. how that immenfe like Bodies poffible to conceive that..I I divine Power and Wifclom.. thofe vaft and huge Bodies of fome of the Planets (in reipeft of our Earth) with their noble At* were made for no other ufe but to twinkle to us in Winter Evenings. or to be peep d at by fome poor Paltry Fellows Or can any Body force of Aftronomers himfelf to think... poor Corner. But allowing the Planets to be inhabited. have been exhaufted in furnilhing &amp.

. he never remo ving thirty eight Degrees from that vaft Body of Light.of Natural Religion* as is of our Globe^ ferent evident from the dif Degrees of Heat and Light they en joy j as alfo the different Viciflitudes of Day and Night. and the Seafbns of the Year. XVI.. Mercury is three times nearer the Suny than we. and fo her Day is but one Hour lefs than ours /he has all the Phafes of our Moony appearing fometimes horn d fometimes halv d. Mars has no Inclination in the Axe of his Rotation to the Plane of his Orbit^ and confequently enjoys a perpe tual Equinox^ but no Viciflitudes of Seafons j he receives but the third Part of our Light and Heat. and confequently enjoys nine times as much Heat and Light. but receives only the twenty fifth of our and Saturn but the part Heat. hundredth. Venus enjoys twice as much Heat and Light. and a Day of ten Hours. The Satellits of the feveral Placets . Jupiter likewife en joys a perpetual Equinox. and her Courfe about her Axe is perform d in twenty three Hours...

for flie neither difcribes equal Areas in equal Times by a Kay from the Center of the Earth.. or always the fame..) more Curve about the Quaand lefs toward her Conjnn^ions and ..gt. but fbmewhat larger ones in her with the Sun Conjun&ions and Oppofetions than in her Qttadratures. defcribe equal Area s in equal times. and whofe Inclination to the Plane of the Ecliptwl^ wou d never vary but by the A&ion of the Sun upon the Moon-y all thefe Effe&s are difturb d. Foci&amp. for they are . &ed upon wou d about the Earth in defcribe a perfeft one of it s Ellipfe of the fame Species conftantly.. the Primary Planets fufFer likewife from the Forces of the Sun y and of the fecondary Planets. whofe Plane wou d be immoveable.. nor is the Earth in any of the Foci of her Orbits . Thus the Moon (ifa- only by the attra&ive Force of the Earth) wou d by a Kay from the Center of the Earth. Neither is her Orbit always fpecifically the fame..Planets fufFer many and various Diftur- banccs in their Motions from the Sun^ as alfo.

ftronomers. and both the Situation of the Plane of her Orbit. and to exprefs all has been fo very hard for A to reduce her Motions to Rule.. Upon the account of many all which. Newton s Theory of the Moon. from the A&ion of the Sun and Earth upon her. Gregory s Aftronomy^ which is a furprifing Confirmation of the Truth of that Principle. printed in Dr. upon the common Suppofition of the Law of Attraftion. On Force of the Sun.. it em in Numbers and yet thefe Irregularities are Wonderfully ac counted for. ev n to a Nicety. as is evident from Mr. and it s Inclination to the Plane of the every Mqment. the but efpecially of the as . beyond which Gbfervation can not diftinguifli.of Natural SMtQiom and in every Revolution ilie Oppofitions . Moon y difturbs the Motion of the Earth I the other hand. befidcs a Ecliptic^ Varies great other Irregularities too tedi ous here to relate.... defcribes a new kind of Curve. and all thefe Uncertainties and Aberration^ are multiply d by her nearer or remo ter Diftances from the San.

4&quot. 5 that he who knows the former. fo as to it is make them appear fo lucid as we fee them.. we have a Tide there. cannot be ignorant of the latter j for when the Moon comes to the vertical Point of any Place.. as alfo on the Place this Tide is greater diametrically oppofite to it .. fliou d be fcnt to them. I have fuggefted is in the firft Chap And what here faid of the Earthy with refpeft to the Moon. may be with due Limitations underftood.^ and greateft of all at the Equinoxes^ efpecially if the Moon is then in her ferigeum^ the Reafons of all which ter. and tranfmitted to us. of any pri mary Plajtety inrefpc&ofit sSatellits. at the and Conjitn&ions of the Moon to the Sun. that the Light of the Sun. We .re Bodies like our Snn. which da fo exa&Iy follow the Motions of the is M00. with fome few collateral Circumftances. for it s plain they fliine by their own Light. XVIL That the fixt Stars a.. ^pofopDtcai as evident from our Tides. than Oppositions at her Quadratures. fince altogether impofllble. all the late Aftronomers agree.

allowing fand Feet to the Mile) one time of the Year than another. yet their Parallax is fcarce fenfible if any at all. from the Sun. that the beft of Telefcope.... The Rays of the Sun wou d be fo diflipated before they reach d fo re^ mote an Objeft. tho we in this Globe. approach nearer them fome twenty four thoufand Diaweters of the Earth.. if they five ..... as i to .. Hngens Computation. : By Mr.of natural JHeitgion* We fee how of the jixt Bulk j and yet his Diftance is but a Point in refpeft of the neareft fixt Star.. (or thou 188304000 Miles. the Diftance of the Sun -from us. that the beft Eye of the World j cou d not by it... how great foever) does con(b that they fiderably leffen them^ appear like lucid Points.. which cou d noc were at my moderate Diftance be. Befides. inftead magnifying em above what they appear to the naked Eye fas they do any Obje&^cmov d by any menfurable Diftance. is to the Diftance of the neareft fixt Star from us. difcover them* Their Diftance is faintly in refpe& of forae Stars ^ Saturn fhines for all his fo great.

and a Diameter to be of 7846 Miles.. which moving with the Velocity it has.. immenfe Diftances as the neareft of em m us.. when parted from the Mouth of the Piece. and that they 3re at fuch an itmnenfe Diftance from us^ muft be Bodies like our it is plain. cannot be reduc d to their this Rule. (hew that they are at from one is fix another. they Sun } which wou d be evident. Let us but imagine our felves removed .6 $4)i!qfGp!)icai 07664. it is impofiible they fhou d be all in the Surface of the fame Sphere j fince our Sun which is one of em . wou d fpend almoft feven hundred thoufand Years to go thro*.. is at leaft 2404520928000 Bullet Miles. Be- fiJe^j different as Magnitudes. both thefe are true. that they Ihine by their own Light.. cou d they a Cannon be brought near us. according to the be ft Calculations) Star from the Diftance of the neareft jfxf us. Since then. Now this being true. that is (allowing theDiftance of the Sun from us to be 12000 Diameters of the Earth. is for it only the Diftance that creates our doubt. or we near them.

&amp. we fliou d have no attend the Snn^ fliou we occafion to imagin any Difference be tween one Star and another^ but fliou d Stars certainly conclude both Sun and fixt f the fame Nature . In this Station..of natural Beitgion* 1 7 remov d at an equal Diftance from the Sun and fixt Stars. and becaufe all their Orbs wou d be united. ly perceive . we fliould then certain no Difference between them . and that they were at immenfe Diftances from one another. for as to all the Planet s^ that we fee now d not have the both becaufe leaft Glimpfe of themtheir Light wou d be too weak to affect us. yet at our Di ftance we cou d fee neither.. in that one lucid point of the Sun. fo wou d all the reft be. and knowing the Na ture of one. (fome of which I hinted before) that they have Attendant Planets^ and no poffible I one 3 . that if one was a lucid Globe of liquid Fire..gt. we fliou d certainly conclude the fame of all the reft^ z//%. Cer tainly if the fxt Stars a&ually had JPA/nets y and they Satellits.. Since then there are feveral probable Arguments.

Befides thefe already men tioned. that by a Ray from the5#// 3 they defcribe equal Areas in equal Times. there is another Species of Hea venly Bodies^ call d Comets. in very Oblong BUiptick Orbitsj approaching to Parabolic^ The Times of their Periodical Curves.. which does in the Pla nets-. XVIII.. they do move in a re curring Orbit . its certain. others ano- . that the Sun is in one of the Foci.. of this Orbit ..8 one to evi& the contrary. but indif ferently fqme of em move one way. however. fmce in three or four Thoufand Years. Revolutions are very long.. that the fame Law of Gravitation obtains in them. that like our Planets . and that their Moti ons are regular. that their Periodical Times are certain and invariable. which re volve about the Sun-. only their Courfe in their Orbits is riot determin d one way.. we may fafely conclude that the fixt Stars are fo many Suns in the Center of a Sy&em of Planets and their Satellits. we have not determined the Returns of above pofitively one or two.

to fuch a Degree that they cannot be come cool again. in many Thoufands of I 4 Years. It is it is always oppofite to the 6V*. This Tail accompanies it through its Courfe over all the Planetary in its Approach Regions. and fo rare that the Stars may be feen through it.of another: natural Religion. and compofing gular unequally difpofs d... Thefe Comets fometimes come fo near the Sun as to be heated .. intermixt with feveral an irre grofler Particles.. and . whofe Diameter. encreafing to the Sun. ex tremely rarified by his Rays. it has a long lucid Train. generally fpeaking 5 and like them are compaft folid Bodies ^ but furrounded with a vaftly large thin Fluid.. as that is ten or fifteen Befides Times as long of its Body.Icflening in its Rcceft. They are alfo about the 1 1 9 lame Bulk with the Planets. .. which is rais d in its Approach to the Sun.. and uncertainly agitated Mafs^ which is call d its Atrno* fpbere. which. becaufe the thiner part of its Atwofphcre. by the Heat thereof^and extends fometimes to four hundred Thoufand Miles above its Body.

that are not in a ftate of Puniihment conceive therefore we can of the Nature of Animals. Now the Returns of thefe Bodies are fo irregular and uncertain.. and we fo little feel the Effefls of thefe Returns (which of nemuft be felt^ if thefe frightful Bo ceffity Planets.. has pafs its Years. becaufe Nature always fupplies conftant and regular Expences after a conftant and regular Manner. the Reimbursement mentioned ? fince the Sun and Placets are recruited all fhort time.. to fupply the Expence of Fluids in the $nn and the But as I have before hinted^ this does not feem fo very pro bable.. of all the at onc:^ or in a dies lois made very have fuffbr d in their Fluids for they many Years before. and the Difpoiition of the confufs d its d Mafs of fit Atmofyhere^ makes it an un Habitation for Animals.2o 0Mofo$)icai This with its violent Motion in a which comes near to a ftreight Line.) that I am afraid no fuch Benign Influeiices^ are to be expcfteel . Ciirv?j after it irregular Ferihelium. And 5 fo far as fome have thought it defign d.

Water improper a Gueft. Now it s certain^ that Heat will raife any Body into a Va pour.of ^atitrai &eiigtcn* ed from them. that there may be feme Clouds of Vapours fweep d off the Tails of thefe Comets.. Vapour will not become a Fluid unlcfs its Parts be of fuch a determin d Figure and Si^e as the Nature of Flu ids require. provided it be fufficient to diffolve the Union of its Parts. it is more probable. that of Water. But then. and increafe their Bulk to a neceffary Dimenfion Moreover its hardly accountable how the Sun fliou d draw from thence only the Fluid of Light. how thefe EfFe&s can anfwer the Defign. and . by the Sun and Planets as they approach them. the Earth. for every . wou d be as in the Sun. fincc d to draw all which wanted only more of the Fluid of Light. I think that thefe frightful Bodies are the Miniftcrs of Pivi/te Juftice. I readily grant. as Fire on the Earth r which wanted only more Water. it is uncertain of what Nature theie Vapours are. or if they were prowifcuoufly. the other Yla: nets their proper Fluids fiippofs .

and the Pofitions of the Tlanets^ and the very Nature of the Orbits thenifelves: and that they may be the Habitation of Animals in a ftate which. Diminution of the Quantity of Fluids in the Sun and Planets^ it is certainly fo fmall and fo inconfiderable (tho ftill it be fomething) that it will never be fenfible in any finite Number of Years. by raifing of Tides. : and may ftill bring about.. as to the Diminution of Light. changing the Figures . Now what is that to the vaft Body of the Sun ? And as for f the .and lend us Benign or No* xions Vapours.. But as for the of Punilhment . in their Vifits.. and fo needs not fo magnificent an Apparatus ^ as the vifife of a Comet to fupply it . it would not equal a Grain of Sand. if it did not look too notional^ there are many Arguments to render not improbable. that if all the Fluid which the Sun lofes in a Year were brought into a folid Form... the great Cata- ftropkes of our Syftem. according to the Defigns of Providence that they may have brought. I do believe it may be dernonftrated.

Frame. Scheme . yet them upon Examination it of the fame is again diffolv d into a Fluid . that fome infinitely powerful ... for any finite number of Years and . without fome considerable Changes.. and Symmetry of he can think it the if he can fo much wife and as doubt.. it does notever. XIX. the Matter is plain j and as for Minerals and Metals ^Idoubt much.of Datura! Beitgtom 123 the Fluids on our Globe. Beauty . fince their firlt Production.. and try if Effbft of Chance. And now let any one ferioufly refleft upon the Order ^ Vaftnefl^ Magnu ficence this . as it is at of Opinion it is pretty prefent^ and I am near the Truth. tho feme of be reduc d into a folid Form. Thus I have given a fhort View of this Syftew of things. whether there be ve ry will be found that moft many new Productions or Generations of that kind. or. and make of this our ) feem defign d to laft for jlem. for in all Animals and Vegetables .. by the. So that tho there be fome lots of Fluids on our Globe y yet there is ftore enough to fupply all the Ufes of Life and Vege tation.

let us of this Divine Archtte&ure. all the &amp. we might pofifibly fay he did it by Chance. he fhou d always without failing throw the iame fide in ern . fhou d throw 5000 Si7es^ once or twice ^ or even 1000 Sixes once and again. but if with an almoft infinite Number of Dice.z/r&. pro Now bable that fo Hm&erfitt a ful a Principle Law^ fo power and fo conftant a Rule j fhou d be owing to Chance ? If one with 10000 Dice. that the univerfal Principle of Attraction or Gravitation obtains in all the Bodies of this Univerfe..lt..f^inciples: powerful Architect has rear d this noble But to drive the Argument far Fabrkk. and that the Motions of ces Planets.all^ we fhou d certainly con- .. different Diftances from the Center of Attra&ion. And i* It is plain from what has been {hewn. is reciprocally as the Squares is it at all of thefe Diftances. their Satellits and the Comets^ are govern d by one Condition that the Force thereof at thereof. enquire a little into the par ticular and obvious Defigns and Contrivan* ther..

. and of the fecondary Planets about the Primary ones. from the Center of their tions.. how conftant and beautiful a Proportion^ the Times of the Revolutions of all the Flatlets^ and their Satettits y keep to their middle Diftances for univerfally. worth our Obfervation to take Notice. It is Foundations of the World. Now I have demonelude.. was defign d by him who laid the a. by Rays . he either did it ftrated that Gravitation is not effential to Matter^ and fo out it^ and yet verfe.. as by Rays from the S/tf/j and all the Sate Hits.of jfcatutai Religion.. or that thefe Dice cou d turn up on no other fide. the periodical Times is in a Sefauialter Proportion to the middle Diftances^ or the Cubes of the middle Diftances. by Art and Contrivance. are in all of them (Planets and Satellits) Mo the Squares of the Periodical Revolutions. All the Planets 3. in all the Revolutions of the Planets about the SHK. fo far as this might have been with all the Bodies of the Uniwe can difcover^ are en* it dow d with it Principle ^ and therefore.

Can any Body now. e. who confiders how many things are con thefe curring to. the dreas defcrib d.and determine the Powers } neceflary towards the . and fo Times. are always proporti So that when they onal to the Times. Rays from their and when they recede fo as to compenfat from it .f Primary Planets. flower their Nearnefs. are not only difcoverable by Obfervation..r . defcribe equal Areas in equal Times^ /.. they move fafter. approach to the Center of their Motion. but are the neceflary Ef of the Law of Gravitation. and their Diflance by their Slownefs: Al ways making up equal Areas in equal Thefe two fo umverfal.. of the Motions of the regular Affe&ions.... juft now feft^ Celeflial Bodies^ mentioned to be the Principle of the Heavenly Motions. to tainly nothing make the Calculations. adjuft theF0ra. and depending upon beautiful Proportions.. by their Swiftnefs. and regular Effeftsy fo much as once queftion whether they are the Produce of infinit Wifdom? Cer lefs cou d be fufficicnt.

to fit it for natural Produ6Hons lefler and the lefs Denfe. And therefore fince thefe . they are fit ted with Degrees of Heat neceffary for natural Produ6Hons. all. needs only a Degree of Heat. - 3 Defign ? No certainly..... wifely fituated. now this Adjuftment and thefe natural Productions were ufelefs.. And confequently. done nothing in vain. if there nefit were no Creatures to enjoy the Be of em and we all know Natiire has :. their Diftances adjufted for this very Reafon by the bye. in refpe& of the Suny that the Denfer Planet. . Body think this was fo ordered without him. -.. is farther remov d from him and the leaft Denfe of Now can any is the moft remote. 4. is a very good Argument for the Planets being inhabited. of fuch exa& and regu All the Planets are fo lar Effe&s.. for the fame End.. * 27 the Produ$ion. fince were and this according to their Denfities. it is fo obvious no Body can mifs of it for it is plain the more Denfe Matter requires a greater De gree of Heat. is ftill neareft and the lefs Denfe.of Natural Religion..

than the fquare Root of the nearer. and the For fince the Centru remoteft. is a wife Contrivance of the Author of ces Nature . as the Forces. as from the Center . which is neareft the Sun^ moves fafteft.. is grea Now this ter than that of the remoter. there are fuch certainly to enjoy em. and fince the fquare Root of the remoter Diftance is greater. and thofe more remote^ lefs faft. The Velocity of the Pla Motions j is fo adjufted in refpe& of the Sut? y and the Velocity of the Satel* nets lits y in refpeft of their primary Planets. that the Planet And fo in the Satellits ^ the neareft to the primary Planets^ moves quickeft.$i)ttofopi)tcai thefe Accommodations are provided for li ving Creatures. Squares of the Diftances from the Center^ and the Celerities in that cafe^ recipro the fqnare Roots of the Diftan cally. 5. floweft. there fore the Velocity of the nearer. it was fit the Viciflitudes of the Seafons . and the fartheft. for fince the nearer Planet enjoys more of the Heat of the Sun y than the re moter . floweft of all.. petal are reciprocally .

And what is here faid Now of the Seafons in Refpeft of the ?lanetfy Satellits Influ may be ences 5 underftood of the from their primary Planets . there the Seafons ihou d be all thefe EfFe63:s are taken longeft: care of by this adjufting of the Velocity to the Diftance. that are nexc the Sun^ their Periods muft be fhorteftj all move about their and fince Axes. for whatever Effe&s the primary Planets pro duce on the ^econdary ones. that anfweof natural Produ&ions ring beft the Ends for fince their Diftances are leaft. in the nearcft^ and floWeft in the remoteft Satellits. there Heat is leaft.. where the greatefi.. by fome Angle or other with the Plane if of their Orbit.of Seafons. they muft admit of for Va is riety of Seafons.. it is doubtlefs moft convenient 5 the Viciffitudes there of fliou d be quickeft. and their Velocities greateft. and where the Heat the Conveniency of natural Produ&ion. fhou d be quicker. making there moft.. they not all of them. it was neceflary the Seafons fhou d be fhorteft. natural &eli0ton. And this K .

the Satellits are Orbits of that the fay.. one of Elliptic^ Orbits of one and all the Satellits Species or another defcribe about their primary Planets in their Foci^ :. as well as the former .. and is not owing to Chance. is a convin ^ cing Proof of the Planets being inhabited for ii all this beautiful Contrivance is loft ? there be no Inhabitant in thefe Celejiial Bodies to enjoy the Benefit of it.$i)itofopt)!c ai this. yet ftill their Or bits are nearer Ellipses now among And tho than any other Geo- Metrical Curves^ and may be reduc d to theie and that the Planes of the Orbits of the Y lands coincide with the Plane of the and with one another nearly. not exaflly Elliptical^ yet that is from neceffary Caufcs. That the Planets defcribe Elliptic!^ Orbits about the SMI 3 there is no manner of doubt . they Aflronomers.. and with the Plane of the Ecliptic^. All the Planets defcribe about the Sun in ... but to the already eftablifli d Laws of the Univerfe . 6. is matter . one of their Foci^ Elliptic^ Orbits alfo and the Planes of all the Orbits do very nearly coincide with one another.

arc depriv d of the benign Influence of the Sun at that Seafon.. this beautiful of thefe three things. nable. But this change is not now to be taken notice of fince it is a Qiieftion if thefe Irregularities a K were any . the other is not du rable j but temporary.of Natural Religion. than in Summer . that by the natural Courfe of the Earth.... nearer the Sun in Winter. with that of the Eclipcou d have been the EfFeft of Chance and Cafualty? Or that it was without Defign or Counfel ? No certainly. Now this Benefit wou d be confbnt if the Place of the Pvrihetium did that is the not change ^ but fince not conftant. Now is it imagi and conftant Order of Elliptick Orbits^ the Situation of the Sun in the one of the of the Planes.. Foci.for there by. are evident. which cannot but be of fome ufe to thofe Places. the colder and more Northern Places of our Globe. for Advantages thereby arifing to our* Earth in particular.. 1 3 1 matter of Obfervation.. are brought fome hundreds of thoufand Miles. and the Coincidence of the Orbits .

and that in Planes. fmce it is of notable life to one of the Planets. they agreeing in moft things ever be the : But what Defign thereof. But this we may conclude. it cannot be amifs to any of eni. is : firft Contrivance of in the reft this Now tho of the the Situation of their Perihelia. the . againft this Ar gument^ fince we know not the Nature of their Inhabitants^ nor of their Natural Produ&ions . almoft coinci dent with one another. Mars. Co far as we have had occafion to know^ move about their own Axes.. but the work of Infinite Wifdom. Venus. and their Satellits. it is matter of ObferVation in the Sun. The Sun. not the fame^ yet nothing is to be concluded from thence. the Axe of this Rotation is dwxy parallel toitfelf^ and they revolve all one way from Weft to Haft. yet the conftant Order of thefe things are a fufficient Proof that they were not Cafiial . Jnpiter. 7. and that of the As to the Rotation about their Eclipticlq own Axe.. the Earth.12 3 any part of the Univcrfe Planets. all the Planets.

and Confufion produce regular and invariable Efte&s? It is altogether impoU and but the Au therefore. but an over-ruling Providence ? Can Jum ble. let us now coniider. a nd be nicely exa&.. if the fame were not difturb d by fome collateral Caufes j as alfo the Coincidence of the Planes of this Rotation.. with one ano ther. that all thefe beautiful and comely Proportions . fmall Difference from is not to be regarded. all thefe con ftant and immutable all thefe Effe&s. thor of Light^ and Order.of natural JRcitjjion* 1 3 3 the Moon^ and it is very probable in the other two ^ and as to the Parallclijm of the Axe of their Rotation. or in fome K 3 particu- . cou d have brought about fo uniform 5 and fuch conftant Effe&s. and Beauty. uniform and regular Appearances. Farther.. and with the Plane of the Ecclipticfyj is wou d fo very near the Truth.. Now can thefe Conftant and regular Efte&s be afcrib d to any thing. it is demonftrable a priori^ as I have formerly fhewn... nothing fible. which agree.. not to a few things. that the it.

their poffible Gravitation. Thus there might have been an infinity of different ^ poflible Laws ^Gravitation^ yet none of them wou d have fitted our Syftem^ prefent Circumstances.*34 Wiofopljtcai but in particulars. and the univerfal Benefit of the whole Syftem ^ as thefe already fettled. Celerities^ . fo well as to the There are innume Reciprocal Dnplicat. all the fubfequent Advantages from the prefent efhblifii d Motions of the Placets depen different from thefe ding y any other wou d have depriv d us of thofe Advan The various poflible Diftances of tages.?//.lt. and the Comets^ and our word ^ to every thing in this might have been varied. to all their Sate!lit to the Sun . feve^and yet none of ral and divcrfe ways.. the Planets. to -all s.. moft of them.. rable proportions^ befides the Sefquialter^ yet none of em had fuited us fa well. em fitted fo well^ to the prefent Irate of things. and the in a M0&amp. becaufe this is the Eftci of the Law of and on thefe two. the Planets from the Sun ^ the poflible s of their Reyolntioxs.

and conlequently the poifible Varieties of the Bodies might Celeftial have been infinite among cmfelves. thefc. Orbits j of their the poiliblc Figures O I and of the Inclinations of their Planes to one another. . the prefent ftate of things will admit ^ ilncc both the whole and the feveral Parts of rr K ad jink d. feeing every thing and Meajurc j and Proportion. that all thefe Affeftions of the Hea venly Bodies ^ might have been in no re gular Order 5 nor conftant Proportion. and the po and yet as I IIble Changes of many other Affe&ions ^ are in num ber infinite- have fhewn that are at prcicnt ? bring very confiderable Advantages with them. and their Bulf\S. by weight feeing they obfcrve Order is 4 the .. were they Add to difpos d atter another manner. and to the Plane of the Ecliptic^ .of j&atutAi Heligiom Celerities..lt. and that every one of cm is difpos d in the fitted Order. their pofilble Derifitief. which moft of thefe they confequently wou d be lofi . to the Syftew in general.. But at all.. J 1 3 &amp. and different from thofe now mentioned.

Stars can all glorious Bodies. dares fo much as doubt whether he who did all thefe things lives and reigns for ever and ever ? or who can forbear to admire and adore him. both very gooda and convenient.36 $t)ftQtopl)tcal is the Celejiial Fabric^ ufeful. or of it s Creator^ than that frodigiom number of fixt . does wonderful things paft finding fome of the more general Affe&ions.&amp. arifing from their prefent Order and Difpofition. and lip femov d at Diftances from one another not to their Diftance from us? This.. who that con- fiders all thefe things. ^ XX. whofe right hand.. who ftretch d the Hea~ and held the Earth in his Hands.gt.. and ftrong Arm out.. . and firft as Having confidered. like our Sun. now to the any thing beget a greater Idea of the Univerfe. Bo I come now to confider the Celeftial dies a little more particularly. and (hewn fome of the Advantages. and of their Motions. rang d and down the immense Vaft .. of the Heavenly Bodies.. who weighed the Mountains in Scales^ and the Hills in a Balance^ likg a Curtain..

it is not alto gether poffible to determine their num ber. equal to our Sythere muft be only as flew. for. that can ftand round a middle one^ equal to em j and fo many are the Stars of the Magnitude. 137 not only their different apparent Magninumber of thofe tudes^ but likewife the of the firft.. then imnyfxt Stars of the firft Magnitude ^ as there are Syftems that can ftand round ours. I do not . but on firft ly for things being nearly fo. but there are but about twelve or thirteen Spheres. that every fixt in like our Sun^ and governs a Portion of Mundan fpace.. Befides.. As for the feveral other Magnitudes. For upon the Star. Again^ if we examine how many Spheres can ftand round this firft Range of Spheres we will find their number betwixt forty eight and fifty two 5 and fo we find the number of the Stars of the fecond Magnitude. I do not plead here for Accuracy.. is Supposition.of ^amrai laeligtcn. as the firft and fecond are. does evince.. and fecond Hate. becaufe they are not fo diftinguifhable from thofe of the other Magnitudes.

the Liquor in the Thermometrjcal Tubes^ and drives tjierri through . or that are all of the fame Dimentheir Syftems. is what certain Vegetables all ! doubt. that rarifies the iizy Juir ces about their tender Roots. and of what abfolute Necefllty to the Being of all Animals and Eyes.. theie things being nearer any Re* gular Proportion^ than they are to Irre is diffident for my Purpofe . to hinder himfelf from being ravifh d with the Power and Wifdom of the Great God of Heaven and Earth. for it is Heat alone. or view with his about thcfe glori ous Bodies.. rife to Vegetables... fcrioufly to confider in his Mind..not think that the fixt Stars^ are either all of the fame real Magnitude.. fions : it is impofilble for any Body.. for gularity. and makes force their way. it is beyond that without him they cou d As never his above the Ground . y is the Sun. to difplay all the and there Foldings of the {lender Seed^ them by to augment their Parts raifes juft as we find his Heat.. How beautiful and glorious a JXXI.

which Nature has deilgn d iliou d be carry d out of the Body. tint by the Heat of the Sun^ and the Aflion of his Rays^ that infinite Number of the cxcre* cretory Duels of Perfpiration. and fo thofc Exha lations. it s 1 39 winding Branches. plac d along.... and a cloudy Day.. might make a forFood cou d be fupry Shift (fuppofing his Influence) in a ply d em without perpetual State of Darknefs. for we know. is a Difeafe alone. how neceffary the Sun is to pur fie our Air. all the fuperficial Parts of the Body are open d. and cou d through all be of no long continuance . and Heavinefs in his Abfcnce^ foul Weather.. freely which muft needs . knows the Reafons. and tho* perhaps -Animals. yet it wou d be a very miferable fort of Life. and enlarg d..of natural Eciigton. are more apd plentifully xieriv d. and the Mechawcal One Necefiity of all thefe things. z//%... and to exhale the noxious Dews. and i the we Vapours of the Ni^ht feel a fenfible Joy in his Light. baleful thing ev ry Body knows . and he who underftands the Animal Occonomy.

which is . a.needs give a greater Freedom to the Blood and Spirits 5 the contrary of all which. any other Suppofition. and confequently the Stability of the Sun ^ there are fome other Argu ments that will have fufficient Weight to fettle the Matter among thoughtful Men.. altogether impoflible to ac count for the Appearances of the Planets } i. and whereby he the Motion of pretends to demonftrate the Earth. upon And 3. It is likewife for the Motions of impoflible to account the Comets. for not to mention at about the Paral prefent the Controverfie lax of fome of the fi xt Stars^ which Mr.. without admiring the Motion of the Earth. Flamflead has obferv d. For It is their Satellits. more afterwards. It s being fituated immoveable in the Cen ter of our Syftem^ no Body who has been But of this at the pains to confider the Matter^ I be lieve doubts now. in any tolerable manner.. that Analogy of the Periodical Times 5 to the midk Diftances . happens in the Abfence of this Benign Star. and of the fixt Stars.

of Light and in placing that Foun Life. fo that fubvert the whole Syftent Motion of Aftronomy. and difprove the Caufes of the Celeftial Motions^ we fhall never be able to prove the Stability of the all Earth. in a duplicate Proportion reci to their Diftances from the Cen then the Earth (and not the Sun) moves. Add to all that there is no tolerable Ob.of is Natural ffieifgiott. ter of their Revolutions.... but has againft the Earth had a full Anfwer. thefe. does demonftrate the Earth s unlels we wou d a priori .e&i- s Motion.. been. in the Center of unartful wou d it have Syftem. what an Inftance of Wifdom and on Now Contrivance tain his is this. to have fet him in a Corner.. to the confervation of any fuch Suppofition (fuch as the TychonicJ{ or Ptolomict^) there are requir d fo many different Laws of Gravi* . For if the Celeftial Bodies attraft one another procally . when How he was to have giv n Light and Warmth to all the Bodies round him befides. and a plain Solution. 1 4* the neceflary Confequence of the cftablifti d Law of Gravitation.

let us confider.. neareft have not too much. nor the re- moteft too fuch little. and that in regular and .. Thefe are fuch great^ Ends. accounts for all the various Motions and Appearances of faft. with how much Artfulneis his Bulk and Situation. like a powerful and a kindly Monarch on his Throne ^ diftributing Light. yet this Pofition of ours : the Celeftial Bodies. that whatfoever was Matter of Gravitation^ was the the moft fimplc and eafie. in w i(e r as clearly the flanets^ refpeft of juft Qiiantity is contriv d to have enough of Matter to draw round him thefe Maffy Bodies... Moreover. fpeak the Om nipotence and Omniscience of their Author. and their in their Bulks and DiSatellits^ fo various ftances from him . Warmth.. Thus then this great and glorious Body is fixt.2 f Ijtlofopljtcai that any reasonable Perfbn by inquiring into them... and that fo equally. and look d moft like the Effe&s of Wiidom and Defign For here one fingle Law. and Life in to all his furrounding plentiful EfFufion.. wou d cafily difcover..... that the Vaffals.

but I am rather inclin d to be lieve it may be the neceffary Efteft of the Fluidity of his Body. that the Particles of all folid Bo dies running into fufion... circular Motion of the whole Ho..of and uniform exa&ly his Body is rounded.Emanations thereof upon his AttenAs for his Rotation about his own dents. . by the Force of the heat. into a one way. it being very well known.. and emitting this Fluid of Light through the Planetary . the Author XXII.wever fufficient Matter Inffonces of this we Wifdom and Debe. perhaps it may be for the better propagating... have here fign to enforce upon us the Belief that is a being infinitely perfeft thereof. d .. how fully it has been faturated with the Fluid of Light. to be able to laft fo many Years without any Orbits. Kegions . fenfible How Diminution^ tho there are conftant . are turn d innumerable different ways 5 and io by their Oppofition and Inare at laft determin terferings. Axe^ it is no doubt likewife^ for wife Ends and Purpofes.

We can no the Benefits we of the nalogous. but to direft us in our Courfe. fome part of Mankind iliou d be travelling by Land how pleaor Sea. makes laft Advantages from the Prefence and Motion of the Moon. which how abfolutely neceffary it is toward the fubfiftance of Animals and Vegetables.. Travellers and Voyagers can beft tell. twice in twenty four Hours.. now made it only to guide our Steps... to Earth. that Luxury. She raifes our fides. to their primary Ones^ but reft XXII. how our times wears out ? For a very lit us reap both thefe tle Experience.44 otherwife gather the ufefulnefs of the fecondary Planets.. fome thing A~ fupplying of the Sun in the Night time. for at leaft three fourths of the Year. and to point out to us. we (hall . Ambiton and neceffary. not have . which are i. The by fuppofing the may reap rejpe&ively. and joyful a thing.... in the Night Seafons fant then. receives from our Moon. Now comfortable and delightful a thing this is. is it to have a Light held us forth from Heaven. how Curiofity . 2.

and then the firft Effcft wou d be ? that all the Places toder it s Stagnation.. and wou d by no means hin* ny thoufands of Water Rivers.. Earthy. will by the heat of a few Months. L ward . the conftituent Particles a /linking rotten Pu-dle. for tho* I do not think. Now frefh tho there be ma daily Sea are the into y yet they very inruning confiderable in refpeft of the vaft Ocean of Salt Water. Bony. Every Body knows that a Lake or Loch. Metallick.of /hall Natural ffieitgioti* now {hew.. and combining em in new Forms.. and its Stagnation.. duce this EfFeft. turn into fending forth naufeous and poyfonous Steams ...... and Vegetable Particles^ than of pure - lement operates. But admit the Ocean once ftagnated. and confequently it s Corruption and Stinking.. but contains a greater Quantity of Flefliy. of Water themfelves.gt. Salio. and fepathefe noxious Particles which by rating pix&amp. are Stagnation. the heat diffolving their Union. and it is upoti thefe. that has no fi e(h Water runing into it. alter is d by this yet no Water abfolutely pure..

are conftantly fethis AcHon of Wa Wa cur d from Stagnation and Corruption. Now what a noble Contrivance have we here by appointing an Attendant to our Earthy all the Vegetables and Animals arc prcferv d from certain Definition. to have it s mixture corrupted. as it were^ and then let fall again ^ whereby the ters near the Shores. the as by ters are lifted up in a heap. whereby the Fifties wou d be firft deftroy d. keeping any one Portion thereof.. and then by Degrees it wou d get farther till the whole were become more baneful and poyfonons than the Lake of Sodom and Gomorrah-. d to a Mephitis ... expos d to the heat of the Siw. too fbort a time. wou d be firft wrought turn upon by the A&ion of the Sun. the Salt of the Sea I does . and the begining Malady ftifled. (but I am of opinion that to the full effe& of rlns wife Defign.46 ^tjtiofopljicai ward the Shores. af terwards the Plants and Animals where ^ the Moon. and by the noxious Steams thence arifing.. This of new Water on the perpetual Change Shores. and .

fn ihort.. ly tear em afunder... and Harbours. the pointed {lender Particles of the Salt.of does very natural much Keltstotn ^ 147 have contribute for as I and may obferve afterward.. and in their Quadra* lures we fliou d have no Tide at all. and with the Sun.) Befidcs this. can ceafe from wonder. that the Particles of Heat. does this ebbing and flowing of the Sea afford ? No Body that confiders them.. it And con* here perhaps fider that if will not be atniis to our Earth had any more than it. we fhou d have Tides that wou d raife the Waters to the the tops ofour Mountains. cannot fo cafifaid before. how many Conveniences in Rivers for our Navigation. at any L a tolc- . Moon were biger or nearer the or if we had more than one. ftick the Parts of Bodies fo together. or can continue in Unbelief. if our Earth.. one Moon attending receive it. that we fliou d moreDamage than Advantage from perhaps thereby our Light in the Night (provided {he were of any Bulk. or at any Diftance near to that of our prefent for tho Moon) might be augmented^ yet at Conjunctions andOppofetzons with one another..

fince our Moon fuits us fb well^ and tho the Fluids of thefe Planets. by the united. and the fre quent toffing and turning over of then*. may hinder this EfFeft . yet they may pot be in hazard of being congeal d by fibly the Violence of the Cold. they muft be reafonably expe&ed to fit the Neceffities of the Inhabitants of thcfe Planets. or at a greater diftance.. As for the numerous Attendants of and Jupiter Saturn. we by the fliou d be in noxious were none hazard of being Steams arifing ftiflcd the from it s Ocean .48 ^ijiiofopljicai tolerable diftancefrom us^we fliou d be every * now and then. which it wou d ftagnat more than evident now does.. how ftrongly Fluids in Motion will refift the Efficacy of Cold. J O all.. However the thing be^ we may here obfcrve . or feparatcd Forces of (6 many Moons. be not in fo great hazard of corrupting from the Heat of the Sun.. has been contrived for our Purpofes. for xve fnfKciently know. From all which how wifely our Satellit. in hazard of being drown d and at if our prefent Moon were or if there lefs.

one very Bodies at (uch a Diftance from each the grcateft at the greatcft efpecially Diftance} for had they been fituated much nearer to one another. are of wonderful Affiftance^ toward the Solution of this fo defirable and fo much defpaird of Problem? . or great Oceans.. and in particular fuch dcftru&ive Tides . From our this d by her Name pro ceed. 3. at fuch a Diftance from one ano ther. L 3 upon .of ferve ^attmtl ifteitstotu 149 and and of Wisdom fignal Inftance the Heavenly Contrivance. where-evcr there was any Quantity of Fluids. .. Of the fame ufe are the Edipfes of the Sun. for by them the Differences of Meridians. which by prudent placing the Heavenly Bodies. that neither Animals nor Vegetables woiul have been able to fuftain their Fury . and the Longitudes of Places are dctermin d. in placing other.And Moon the Eclipses call . which is of exceeding ufe in Navi gation....and of the Satellite of the other Planets which laft being fo frequent.. . are intirely prevented. they wou d have caus d prodigious Diforders in very diffe rent Manners.

their Natures.. but loudly pro claim Author. As fo the Comets.o $t)iiofoptical jipon this Agro in comes other without the which nomy 3 were meer groping in the Dark.. that they are not mute Perfons. have been fo lately determin d. that I fhall infift no farther on this Tofick^ but from this whole Seftion about the Ufe of the At tendants of the Planets fhall infer. in this great Drama of the World. in the Matter of Navigation. but the World is already fo fenfible of the Ad vantages arifing from the Motions and Appearances of the Heavenly Bodies. and theitSatellits has been brought to any tolerable Pcrfeftion. than I have already (aid. and Situations. (indeed it is but of late. and much la* ter Hncc final Caufes have been cultiva ted. the Head of Navigation all Wisdom and Being of their XXIII. that the Aftronomy of the Planets themfelves. with that Care becoming fo noble and andMifcful a Part of Philofophy. Motions. Orbits. I have lit what tle more to fay about them...) there ..

from vinejuftice. they may be the firft Rudi ments of Planets ^ not as yet brought into our Syflem^ or rather the Ruins of fome banifh d thence. However^ from them we may learn that the Divine Vengeance^ may find a feat for the punifliment of his Difobe- dient Creatures.of jjtiatutai Religion. to wander in thefe long EccentrickjOrbits^ through the World. Only. as I have before hinted. L A . have vifited us twice. that we have Icarce any folid Foundation to bout . upon the Planets^ they long come nigh of j and if what be is commonly faid em by Aflrologers vifit us without fome true^ they (eldom fuch direful Salu tation. nay ev n fcarce of Animals not under a State of Punifliment. theie blaming Stars feem not defign d for the Habitation of build Animals in a ftate of Happinels. few accurate Obfcrvations al that extant. But moft likely they are the Minifters of-dibaleful Steams.expenfe of a new Creation.. there are fo em we know of. without being put to the .. To few of em our Rcafoning upon. fending their Trains.

52 ^i)tlofopi)icitl into XXIV. that once in fixteen or twenty Hours at rnoft. and that. we require a Time for Relaxation j all ing 9 in and generally fpeakhealthful People this time is pretty . We the Inhabitants of this Globe are fo made. And firft let us confider the Advantages. as the Subjefi deferves. the parti cular ones (with allowance for Circumafter the jftances) will eafily follow. hoping the Reader will reafon fame manner (bateing particular Circumftances) of the reft. and becaufe.. the Planets.. and how probable it is that they are in habited by Creatures fitted for fuch Habi tations^ I fliall content my felf with point ing out fome of the moft confiderable Inftanccs of Defign and Wifdom in this our flanet .. Come we now to enquire the Wifdom of the Contrivance of But having already (hewn the Analogy between them and our Earth.. both becatife the defign d Brevity of this Treatife will not permit me to be Ib particu lar. arifing to us by the Rotation of the Earth about it s own Axi*. if the Analogy hold in general..

during the time of this Reft. and almoft all at their own Liberty. natural ly run into a Relaxation^ and recruiting their Spirits by Sleep. 1 53 fix and nine Hours. or ev n while the Sun is above the Hori^on^ the worfe for it j the we Sun and Heat exhaling the natural Perfpirations too violently.. without Injury about the Time of fix tionSj and much Hours is required to fill em is again and neceflary that generally fpeaking^ it an Alternation of Application and Relaxation^ fhou d It s true Cuftom be once in twenty four Hours. once in twenty four Hours.of r natural ffieiiston. may get the better of thefe natural fropenfities^ and a very ftrong Conftitution may bear out with harder Meafures for fome time j but the Young. and the Weak. and Education. and too quick raifing a Mo* .. It was likewife ncccffary^ that the Air fhou d be at leaPt cool and temperate.. for generally find thofc that deep in the open Air. pretty equal. between the Store-houfes of our Spirits will not permit any longer Application than twen to our Conftittity Hours..

. to afford us time to recruit em.. and more accor tural^ and ding to the Necefllties of our ConftitntU on. for Bones. and more difturb d. the Night by its Coolnefs and Quiet. that of neceffity. the Darknefs is lefs fubjeft to Noife and Difturbance. to af is moftly. yet this is more na lefs violent. Befides. Spirits in. whereby the Sleep is lefs calm. in the Blood. Viciffitudes for Application of Day and Night. the Ex of the Spirits are too great.. Channels. in the Night than the Day.54 a iWofoptjtcai Motion. Day } the Expenfes of the next as alfo for nourilhing the Mufcles. if not altogether penfes ford . and lay up in ftore. thefe things are won for by the Rotation of derfully provided the Earth about its Axis j for thereby we Now all have the the and fpending our Day about the Neceflities of Life... and the other Parts of the Body ^ for the Bufinefs of Nutrition perform d in the time of Reft.... becaufe the Blood has too rapid and quick a Motion.. than the Day. And tho we generaly perfpire more in the Night than the Day..

thefe Juices wou d not be at liberty to fettle . fhining upon them . i $? ford Leifure. what a comfortable and refreshing thing is the cool Breezes of the Night. and are more fed by their Sleep. More over.. that the Heat of the Sun rarifies. Likewife.. and very grievous. or Materials for nourifhing Be* the Parts in the time of Application : fides that a gentle uniform Motion is re- to the quir d to apply nourifliing Parts.. or for any long time. we have before faid. Now were the Sun conftantly. deep more. and confequently raifes the fizy Juices.. and to fettle em there ^ generally find that People reco vering from a Difeafe^ and Children.. and we than any other Animal Fnn&ion.. at the Roots of the tender Seeds._ of natural Eeliston. and grofs People naturally fleep longeft. let us refleft upon the Nccefllties of our Vegetables^ which are the Support of Animals. and thereby forces the folded Branches to expand and en large. to thofe that live under the equatorial fartsy without which Life wou d be both ex ceeding fliort. neceflary Places.

. by exhaling the watery Parts harden and (which This are now brought nearer the Surface of the Plant) does evidently fee in Nntgals. they may be heavier y but not fo tough or hard. and higher. tho* this too depends Conftitutioo. produce Vegetables of the firmeft Union of Parts.. firft into thick. what is rais d in the Day-time. and very hot Countries. fizy 3 Subftances. and the other Excrefcences of and generally.. has time to fettle and confolidate in the and it s Cold runs the thin Juices Night. the Leaves of Vegetables Countries that have moderately cool fix. mov d . till at laft rifing higher they burft the Tops of the Canals. and confequently cou d produce nothing .fettle^ and confolidate but in the fit Places ftill of the Branches. we Nights. whereas by this Viciffitude of Heat and Cold. which wou d be the fupervening Heat. and firft On the other Hand^ had rot the Earth much upon the make of the Seed.. fuddenly bring up their Seeds^ but their Parts are lefs firmly ftuck together .

. only loft all which are fo beneficial..) wou d have fafl*h. and Froft. the Confeqtience of which wou d have been. for very near one half of the Year fhou d have been in perpetual Darknefs. which wou d have ftiflcd all the Animals^ or had they furviv d that. the Sun in its but only turn d round annual Period. if not abfolutely neceffary to the Being of our Animals and Vegetables^ but we had fuffered alfo fuch Inconveniences. which wou d of nenot only have lock d up all Fliiids cefllty.for then.. Spirits of all the Ammals^we are acquainted with for as I have fhewn before^ there is a faline Body conftantly fwiming iu. . but wou d have frecz d the Blood and &amp. by Degrees. our Air. exceeding Rains wou d have been pour d down (as the Vapours became cooler) next Sleet. we had not thefe Advantages. then Snow^ and Ice. which by in the Channels. that firft baleful we and fulphureous Damps (by the Forces of the preceding Heat generated and rais d.. mov d upon its Axe.of Natural ^elision.. the . as neither of thefe cou d poflibly bear.gt.

-priori^ and a&ually happens in thofe Places that are under the Poles.. Again. we fliou d have had..158 i&tHiofoptical the Prefence and A&ion of the Sun. they flioot themfelves into oblong {harp Wedges . Snny what Abfence of the and with how much firmnefs wou d thefe Saline Bodies haveform d themfelves! Certainly nothing that moves^ whether Animate or Inanimate^ wou d have been able to ftipport fuch a cold And all this is is not only demonftrable a fait. which ftick together the Parts of all Bo dies.. as not to be able to do any Particles. next all our Ground^ wou d have turn d into a ftiff in a manner dif{linking fuddle y (being folv d by the Force and Quantity of the Snow .. in the enlight- ned half of the firft Year.. Damage. from the preceding Snow. during a much (horter Abfence of but this Matter of gloriom Star. but in hi* Abfence. is fo attenuated and reduc d into fo (lender whofe Points (being eafieft bro ken) by the Force of the Fluid of Light are firft beat off.. Now in in a half Years Quantities. which likewife wou d have produc d fuffocating Mifts . huge Deluges of melted Waters..

being by . tho they are fupply d with conftant Breezes. poffible. wou d be quite exhal d. for it were abfolutely im- fhou d true. than the Depree of . which is a mighty Relief. the continued rais uninterrupted Aftion of the Sun. and prodigious Quantities of Rain.... ha ving as long a Night as they have a Day.of Datura! Religion. the Blood and Spirits of all the Animals of our Globe. d by the Days Heat. fultry 3 $9 Snow Water) then wou d Heals and a burning Air have gall d us.much a far harder part. ariiing from the Earth s Kotation about her Axis. falling by the Plenty of Vapour. that we fliou d have found reft. or they turn d delirous by the violent Agitation of the Blood and Spirits^ and then dy d in Convulfions y like fo many Puppies in the Dog-Days-. and let fall by the fupervening Cold of the Night. neither in Houfes nor Dens ^ till at laft the Heat encreafing without Abatement.. that any thing that has Life refift fuch a Degree of Heat. It s there are fome People live under the &quator^ yet they have but a fcurvy time on t.

of one particular kind. or turn d into Defarts of Salt. that which makes the Cafe much worfe than in any part of our Globe. and fo. thefe. they wou d be but &amp... iSj that the Rays of the Sun wou d be both direft.. of the Heat for the Poles ^ And as we have very certain Infor mation. and there cou d be and Cold that no Rains nor Winds becaufe it is the cooling of the Cafe. feeing Air to fend it Plants or we cou d have no freflt we cou d have no cool down: If we had any Vegetables...60 $i)iiofopi)tcai at ftated Seafons.lt. that our Seas even not* withftanding our Tides^ wou d either be Add to all exhal d. The extreme Degrees of Heat happen there^ being in But compatible with an Animal Life. upon this Suppofition. that is the Caufe of both . which by no means cou d happen in our every fucceeding Hour heating the Air to a greater Degree than the former.. that few if any at all^ inhabit near em. not only our Fiflies wou d be deftroy d. but Waters.. thofe which require the greateft Degrees of Heat. Air. but it .vi*^.

and (horter Nights.. that the prefent Rotation of the Earth y about her Axe. is one of the moft fignal Inftances of Wifdom and Contrivance. g XXV. the comfortable Viciffitudes of colder and warmer Periods. Summer.. and again of longer Days. and the Yaralleltfm of the Axe.. fuch as we have on our Globe now. Upon all which Accounts it is very plain.. that can be imagin d.of it is Natural Beligmn. demonftrable we fliou d kave Occa- none . and Harveft. Next let us combine this Diurnal dotation of the Earth . and of fion for 5 all thofe delightful Changes^ w hich r are fo . and Winter. of ihorter Days. of the Diurnal Rota tion with itfelf: And from thence we (hall have the beautiful Seafons of the Year. Winds and Calms. cou d bear fuch an excefliveand uninterrupted Degree of Heat. for any body who underffonds the Animal Oeconomy. and Rain.. about its own Axe^ with the Annual Revolution of the fame about the Sun. will eafily fee that no Animal.Seedtime. and longer Nights. of Snow...

^ittcipies ib comfortable. we might have had Days and Nights. once in twenty four Hours. had the Earth only turn d about her own plcafant. once in the Year. and another equal Night . without any Rotation. but our other Seafons wou d have been un certain. nor Vegetation. wou d not have agreed. and neIf ceiiary in our prcfent Circumftances.. which as I have fhewn. which are of fo great ufe to US.. If both thefe had been united without the third of the Parallelism of the Axe of the Diurnal Rotation to itfelf .. and in fome Places none at all} and fo theEfteft of the Annual Revolution wou d have been defcroy d in fome Meafure. Axe. If the Earth had made a Period.. . neither with Life.. we fliou d have had but one long Day . yea. then all our wou d have been of Viciffitudes Days.. about the Sun. and Nights ^ which by no means wou d have been fufficient for Vegetation. But by this wife Conjunction of all thefe three Modifications. we enjoy our Sea fons. and the other confequent Changes of the Year..

and loofe. and moft Heat only fo that in a few Years the Earth wou d have been reduced into a Wildernefi of unnfeful Herbs.... exhaufted. which keeps the Mould loofe (for re for the ceiving the moift Air. which confifts of folid .. for toward the Produftion of the more ufeful Plants...) a Lixivial and Nitrons Salt. whereby their Particles are ftuck together... and forth of worn and thofe other Plants that require thd leaft rich Soil. yet they keep the Parts of Mould or Sandy Clay (which has little or no Water) the fame not allowing they get betwixt em. there is requir d (befides a certain Degree of Heat and Moifture. firft M feparate their a .) For tho Salts confblidat Water. and entry of that Heat and Moifture.. by very Reafon^ for their Particles them entry into themfelves. flippofe of Summer Weather .of us . porous Parts. then our for had we Ground had been out by conftant bringing Vege tables^ and wou d have run into Weeds. natural &eit0totn 163 enjoy d a conftant uni form Seafon all the Year round . and afunder.

burnt Turf. thefe are either quite exhaufted. as is evident in younger Twigs and Branches.. this Nitrous Salt are : im Such and the Dung. fee the beft Ground quires. Stubble. .. or dcftroy d..!M)iiofopDicat and then keep em from coming together j and perhaps both forward the Motion of the Liquors in the Vegetable Channels (which are certainly endow d with fome Degree of Elasticity and To capable of being ftimulated. things which abound with Lixivial Salts . whereby they pregnated with are old Turf. are ga thered from Places . and the Expences of Vegetation 2 but expofs d to the Air^ and Weather.. fuch are burnt Wood.. Excrements of Animals^ or thofe new Mould. and turns into wild ufelefs Weeds ^ and all the Materials for enriching Ground.. debar d from the Aftion of the Sun. all thefe... wou d by a Now fhort . Now We wears out in a few Years. as well as Animal ones) and endows the re Juices with the Qualities the Plant their union.. by conftant Growth and Vegetation.. and the like.

the all this is but fufficient for one Months Vegetation. even cou d not con veniently bear a perpetual Summer. uninterrupted Vegetation have been quite fpent. to moiilen and foften the Mould. than in the Summer fix Monthsin and yet fix . tity lefs whereby there Spirits Warmth more a greater Quan of rarify d^ generated.. Animals themfelves. and lefs and the Crudities of the pre~ ceding Summer are fettled and digefted. from September toApril.. Moreover. and performed with more Vigour. the (enfible more Excretions ... more natural. for we find there is more than twice or thrice as much Rain falls the Winter fa Months. to that Degree that is necefiary for confufficient would not ftant Vegetation. the Blood is the natural Funftions. ter^ by ftoping the Pores of the keeps the is fenfible Perfpiration. violent M 3 I mean . for we find now.of /hort Natural Eeltfiion. are ftrong.. that the cold of the Win.... within. Add to thefe. in Time s a that perpetual fall Summer ^ there Quantities of Rain. the Digeftion is better.

as I To this I pretend they wou d be.. that there are rational Creatures. yet are found to be not at all difpos d. that tho as to the Prefence or Abfcnee of the Sun.petual Summer^ ceff^iry meer fliQii perpetual Winter y d turn Dull. neither of thefe States perpetually. in healthful and found Animals is quite otherwife in Valetu (for the Cafe dinary ones ^ asofnecefilty kmuftbe) and in a moderate and not over tedious Win* ter ^ wheras in Summer the Blood is more yarify d. who inhabit this Globe of ours. we fhou d be reduc d to .. who are and perpetually in both thefe Extreams. unaftive Droves* Skeletons ^ if a we db- Now perhaps againft all thefe it may be je&ed. and lefs natural. the Change of the one being abfolutely ne- to qualify the Errours and ExIf we had a pertreapis of the other. they may be much J the .1 66 $l)tlofopi)tcal I mean. the Spirits more exhaufted. the fenfible Perforations and the Digeftion worfe. all the Conco&ions lefs thoroughly perform d. So that it is evident we cou d bear more violent. anfwer.

and Rain.. the when defHIPd into for as I is fufficient for this end Air every where of fuch Salts j as is known by Experi ment.. fattens it for the next Crop there and are Clouds of Snow. which fall for fome confiderable time. tual Vegetation^ fofcens the Mould.. do enrich the Ground.. I concurring from the Vicijjitndes fuppofe. which arife of the Seafons in the other Parts of the Globe which alters the Cafe quite. before.. are have faid full d from thefe hotter Countries themfelves. to moiften.. M 4 foften ... rais even the Clouds. that both hinders the perpe .. there are other Circumftances. Let any one confult Varenius^ and he will be fatisfied that thefe Southern Countries have Winters^ though not of Snow. in the more Southern Countries. impregnated with thefe nitrous Salts^ which are driven (by the Force of the Winds) from colder into thefe hotter Countries ing.of the fame as Datura! ^elision. and there fall Befidcs that. .for there are conftant Seafons of Rain. Rain. yet what is abundantly fufficient to ftop the perpetual Vegetation. yet..

that upon fuch a Suppofition getable thing that this Poetical ftate of a Perpetual Principal Now the we &amp. fuch as require a Summers Heat. and cool Breezes. and other Fluids of the Ani mals.. unfit for the prefent Conftitution of the Animals and Vegetables^ is..winds.. and to cool the Blood. nor overflowing Rivers. ences of a perpetual Winter^ every Body is fufficiently feniible... Gentle G^whereby the one flides . for their Growth j and as for Spring and AHlumn. which are the Effe& of this Combining thefe two Motions to I need not fhew the Inconveni gether. as dations and eafie Steps..^titiofopijtcai foften and fatten the Mould.gt. nor conftant 5 and Trade. and fuch like Circumftances. makes Summer. without an Annual^ or an Annual without a Diurnafy there wou d not be that variety of Rains. they are not fo much diftinft Sc^- fons fioin the two former. that in fuch a ftate (either arifing from only a Diurnal Rotation. fliou d have neither Ve nor Animal in a very fliort Time efpecially of any confiderable ufe^ or va lue.

dent. to cool. Come we now to confider the Obliquity of the Plane of the Ecliftick^ to . till the time that all Circumftances concur.. and cooling Breezes in the Winter^ of thofe Countries.. for the Benefit of the Inhabitants of this Globe j for by thefe. to have the produd of the Ground brought to its Vege tation* XXVI. keep natural. to lock up the Mould from being wafh d in and either the away. where Heat is not wanting.. or . and made capable of Induftry. adventitious Heats...of flidcs into Natural Eeitsion* From which 1 69 the other. evi how wifely thefe three fo different been link d together. foften and en rich the Mould. to transfer the Pro* dub of one Country to another.. we have Rain. through the inter ail it is mediate Degrees. have in Summer^ to ripen the Fruits that are the produft of every refpe&ive Climat^ and we are furnifii d with Reafon.. and to flop conftant and we have Froft and Snow Vegetation in others^ where the Heat is not to {pare.. we have fufficient Heat Modifications..

or not j and the Alte rations of Seafons. had not been at all and what a hinderance this wou d have been to Life and Vegetation. to the Plane of the Annual Orbit of the Earth. and not to have been endured j and in the frigid Zones. Befides that in the Torrid Zone. that if the Equator and Eclipit wou d have rentzck^ had coincided .. I have alrea dy fhewa... the Heat wou d have been intolera ble. dred the Annual Revolution of the Earth if the Earth had mov d quite ufelefs j for about its own Axe. I have . the Cold wou d have deftroy d both Animals and Vegetables-. and this Axe had been at right Angles with the Plane of the Ethe fame Appearances as to the cliptick) of Day and Night.to that of the /Equator. and even in the Tewperat Climats. the one half of wou d have made but a very Vm comfort- . had hapViciffitudes pen d. which makes an Angle of 66 J Degrees. or of the Axe of the Diurnal Rotation. already (hewn. and all the Confequences thereon depending. whether the Earth had mov d round the Sun.

which is taken notice of this . have more of iti.. . and the adjacent Places. even to the Latitude of forty five Degrees. But God who is wifer than Man. have by thefe Means. has contrived the Matter much better .. le(s Heat. and that is.of ^antrai Beitstom comfortlefs Habitation. for fuch Crea fo that but tures as we now are only the other half.. for by tures.. by my very learn d and ingenious Friend Mr. who are rather too much expofed to the Heat of the Suny than too littl^. and five fixths at leaft prefent Obliquity of the Ecliptic^ to the Equator we reap one very confidcrable Advantage. wou d have been rendred ufelefs. John Keitt. than they wou d have had. a tolerable Seat for rational Crea of the whole Globe.. had the feartb -obfcrv d a right Po- of his fition . and who confequently have the greateft need of the Suns Heat. than if the Sun haePftiov d continually in the Equator j and they that live in the Torrid Zone. take the whole Year about.. that we be yond the -forty fifth Degree of Latitude. wou d have been any ways.

. Thofe who defire to fee the monftration of this. fuited to theirs thofe Animals that cannot tranfport themfelvea. and the Vegetables that require a greater Degree of Heat^ not having too much. Burners The ory DeMr. of the Earth pag. may confult Keill s Examination of Dr. that fmce this Globe of ours. To thefe add.. of vari ous Tempers ) Conftitutions and Dijfofitions^ and for Vegetables of different Natures and Fzrf #e.f ^requiring different Degrees of Heat. that can . to ripen.. & has been defign d for a Habitation of ra tional and irrational Creatures. and the Temper of the intermediate ones.. and the like Animals and Vegetables. 71.. and Nouriftiment.fition. (to {hew the manifold Will dom of the Author of Nature in the Va And fince we find riety of every thing. feq.) the prefent Heat of the Torrid Zones ^ ve all the Kinds of Animals ry well fitted for and Vegetables that inhabit and grow there^ the Cold of the Frigid Zones ^ very tolelerable to the Inhabitants and frodtiffiiovs of thefe Places .. and bring em to Perfe&ion.

Alteration. who has provi ded fo liberally. it s evident that the the Axe of the Earth prefent Situation of .. (or in one. and the rational Creatures being endow d cold. or moft of the mention d For all Advantages which Reafons we the (iifficiently admire. The fame is divine Wifdom. d for our prefent Circumftances confiderable for by any other very would be can never loft. been the fame with the Diftance between confpicuous.of can fufter ^atutai Religion. all thefe fo various and dif ferent Animals and Vegetables in a place an equable and uniform. all of and that cou . tranfport themfelves where they live moft at eafe. 1 73 not having too little Heat. Wtfdom of the Author of Nature. Earth in refpefi of the Sun j in the Situation Her- ... And fince it was impoffible to have ac with Reafon and Means } to commodated. in the fame) Climate. and prudently for his Creatures. of the for had the Diftance between the Earth and the Sun. to the Plane of the Ecl/ptick^ is the beft (of that infinite Variety pofllble) be. XXVII.

.e. wou d have been hotter than red hot Iron. or with a little our felves againft their Inju Induftry fence as to the Figure of our Earth .. and the Flui of the fuperficial Parts of the Earth. were three times nearer the Sun we brought than we are. or the Sun brought three times nearer us than he is... to the-Diftance Jupiter or* Saturn are remov d. our Ground in Winter. at it dity the Commencement of this Rotation .. our hotteft Summer may eafily guefs. between we two extream Diftances. who are put in fuch a Mediocrity. be the neceflary Refult of the Earth s Rotation about its own Axe. but that thefe em.. ries ? we may either endure tho Again. as under the very Polar Star (if any fuch there be) of our Globe Are not feel in the midft of Winter.. thofe that live now then very wifely provided for. yet it . and what a Condition we fhou d have been in then^ we the other Hand.Mercu ry and the Sun. had the Sun been remov d from us. or we from the Sun. i. On Day had not afforded fo much Heat. that neither our Heat nor Cold isfo violent.

the they pofflbly can. generated by the Circumvolution of an Now fifted tor is Elliffe about its leffer Diameter. arifing from the circular Motion .. particularly^ in that the Diameter at the Equa Jupiter. at the Com mencement of this circular Motion . below the Surface of our Earth. if the Matter of any of the Heavenly Bodies. the Surface of the Planets has been covered with a Fluid which -. it wou d neceflarily have rifen from the Poles. was fluid. fince it is evident to our fight. gives an Account why at every forty or fifty fathoms. than that at the Poles. longer. convenient for us. Newton has demonftrated that Earth at leaft feventeen Miles higher at the Equator than at the Poles. . and fince Mr. 1 75 very s By the Parts en as Earth Motion about its Axe. and fo in duced a ffheroidical Figure on the Planets Body. and therefore. and accumulated at the Equator. af- with a good Telefcofe. by deavour to recede from the fame Axe much as a centrifugal Force.of it is Datura! Religion. its plain is that at the Commencement of the diur nal Rotation.

are colder. which are moft comfortable and ufeful .$f)tlofopi)tcai It is Earth. had the Globe of our Eartb^ or of the Planets. likewife evident from this Figure of the Body of the Planets. been either fpherical or oblongly fpheroidical. we never mifs of Water. and univerfally in every fluid Body revolving about an Having fhewn fome of the Advantages arifing from the feveral Mo tions XX VIII. are hereby confiderably leflened^ and the Surfaces or Space about the temperate Zones. are {hereby confiderably enlarged.. that the Surface of the temferate Climates is larger than it Xvou d have been... which by reafon of the oblique Incidence of the Rays of the Sun upon them. and Figure obtains not only the reft of the Planets. . is very confide- the Surfaces of the Polar Regions. and lefs convenient for the Habi tation of Animals. fo that the Advantage of this Figure Table.. The fame in the Earth. and the Production of the nobler Sort of Vegetables. and their Satellits but likewife in the Sun.

. that it being more eafily rarified and heated by the A&ion of the SM$. it is Grew and Malpighi have fliewn a principal concurrent therein. is fitter to ces in promote the Afcent of the Jui the {lender Channels of Vegetables. already.. and are not the im mediate Confequence of its Motions ^ and the firft in order is our Atmofybere. Fluid.. . and the .with Particles of different Natures. 3&eltgion* 1 77 of the Earth and the Combination of thefe.of tions Batumi .. cou d be any confiderable time without it. five Miles. and as to Vegetation^ Dr. have in fome manner (hewn But fome of it s ufes I lhall now I firft point out. The Nature and Properties of this Fluid.thofe that poilibly may be more particularly be longing to our Globe.} come now briefly to confider. furrounding our Globe of about forty or forty to the heighth. of fuch Necefllty toward the fubfiftence of Animals. Elaftick. intermixt . This Atmojphere is a thin that neither. and lefs fpringy. Fluids.growth of Vegetables. heavy. and N .than other more compaft. which are common to the other Planets.

and terminating We have ... Moreover. by the Air. and the fides of their d together.. and probably that which fo fuddenly kills thunder-ftruck Animals. the firft ItnpuHe of the Juices upwards... does thence arife. there is ntceffarily d a Fluid of a requir determinate Gravity^ and Elafticity.. as to Animals it is well known. that they may more ry eafily pafs through the Capilla* and for the Propagation thereof in the wider ones. the Circu muft ftop there. that the Blood is fent from the upon opening. and the Animal and both for the Comminution periili of the Particles of the Blood. that they cou d live but a few Minutes without this ElaftickJFluid. is the quick and violent Rarefaftion of the Air about them . lodged up and down among it s Parts.. for the l^ungs of all fuch found quite deftitute of Air..and drere being no Fluid without a confiderable Portion thereof. Veffels.. It s Vejicles quite clap certain. are right Ventricle of the Heart to the Lungs y and if the Veficles thereof be not diften- ded or blown lation up..

nor any of thofe things.. a certain . nor Snow.. and fnppof there/ to be afterwards N 2 . yet if you draw out all the Bubbles of Air. rifics firft its Soil. which moiften nerality ^ is&amp. 179 ia of breathing.of Batumi fficlifltotu. neither too much^ nor too little eUftic^ for the tifes of Refpiration.. and Steams Pr-ogrefs is yet conti * by the Aimofykere^ nued to the upper ted when it is Regions.- where the Water in feme meafure fupplys the want of Air. great Difficulty a thin as in a thick Air and ev n in as es y have F//Z&amp.. they will languifh and dye fo that ev n to them.. Portion of Now ElaftickJFlmA. and enrich our Vegetation. nor Rain . is neceffary* how well is this Fluid fitted for the ge this of the Inhabitants of this Globe ? it being neither too heavy. and make it it it fit for raits For tho be the Sun that take the Water.gt. nor too light.. and makes it s flight in Vapour s. without which we flieu d neither have firefli Water.gt. which are al ways found in Water. Another Ad vantage we fc-eap by our Atmosphere that by it our Chuds and Vapours are fupported.

.for it s the Coldnefs of the upper Regions. and that its only the Atmofpheres. (being dcftitute of thefe refle&ed Rays) and the length of of their Defcent. Rain. make the places fo warm. ib as to be form d the Center. and fo cou d never be cool d fufficiently. by its Tendency toward Now then. no Atmofphere. wou d not be able. or Rain./. does want it more. that forms thefe Clouds and Vapours into Snow. being fpecifically heavier.. that if there were perfeft Every Body knows.. the Vapours cou d rife to no fufficient heighth. when.: than raife the thefe Vapours ^ that greater buoys em up in the Air.. if there were no Atmosphere.. the refle&cd Rays of the 6V/. . the of the Sun. or Hail. but a Adion Void . from its Surface. that no Vapour cou d be turn d into Snow. ever the fupporting Afwofphere becomes lighter. around the Earth . or carried into other Regions. and Rain.. or Soil whofe . .. there.form d into Snow. into SnoWj or Rain for at a fmall diftance from the Earth s Surface. to I Vapours above a few feet.

Advan tage of our Atmosphere and our Winds . upon the Sea. and Rains. and the Combinations of the Earth s Motions. from aoxious Steams. or Cold. than thefe accumulated Vapours.. the Attractions of che Moon.ofjftatutat Religion. and all the BlefUngs^ that is that follow upon thefe. and purifie our Air. and fo be deprived of all the Benefits arifing thence. our Breezes which carry our Ships and ferve for for the other Purpofes^ Accommodation of Humane Life.. and dry our Ground when over-moiftned . one of the principal Means of our Dews. they had in the iipper Kegions y and fo become Snow.. it s our Atmofyhere ly. Laftly. or Rain according So that its plain. fo many nothing but a violent Motion of the Air^ produced principally by its Rare* fa&ion. than under Ground. than another^ is Wind by the Snns Beams . Without our Atmosphere ^ we fhou d have no more Wind above. A third is.. N 3 Our . more in one Place... which (with the Concur? rence of the Sun ) melt our Snows. they fall down with the Temper of Heat lighter....

they being one of the principal concurrent Caufes toward the Produftion . that vSenfe in Undulations through the Fluid of the Atmofpbere. and r fhte this wou d From r be.. next thing in Order to be considered is. Mountains^ without which it were almoft impoffible to for Animals to fubfift.. that there which it s very plain w as Counftl and Defign in the Contrivance and Produ&ion of our Atwofyhere. and propagated of found. Without our Air we fhoti d not be able to hear the Report of a thoufand Pieces of Ord nance difcharg d at the fmalleft Diftance. The Vegetables grow.^i)tlo(opi)tcal Our Attnofyhere is the Vehicle and Medi um which moftly diftinguifhes us from Fifies^ and the infe Sound is nothing rior fort of InfcBs. ev ry way round. but a Modulation or Percuffion of the Air^ communicated by an impulfe. or : XXIX. from the vibrating fofcorous Body.. all I leave the Reader to judge.. our. we fliou d have nb fuch thing as Langua w hat a comfortlefs ges or Mufick.

by feveand particularly the inge nious Profeffor of Geometry at Oxford^ Mr. fame. whereby they are put in a violent Motion innumerable dif ferent ways. freflieft it makes the the lighteft. Now as thefe Vapours being rais ing upon the Surface of the Sea.of natural Religion. e. in a ral Perfons . 1 83 on of our frefii-water Rivers. Ed. which refting in thofe Places. where the Air is N 4 of .. and fo to little Bubbles of are expanded in larger . It has been fhewn from Calculation . buoy d up by the weightier Atmof* phere) in fuch Quantities. Fire under an Alembick^ by d (the Sun a&a ratifying the /. the Portions rarifies its thereof. to rife firft. and it Water by Particles the Infinu- ation of active among the porous Parts thereof. Diinenfions than they formerly had means become fo are fpecijically and by that and lighter . Year.. as is fufficient to make Streams of Vapours. Halley^ that the Sun raifes Va pours from the Surface of the Sea. fufficient to frefli fupply all the Rivers with Water for that time.

but that afterwards in their Bow els they arc preferv d. form Rivulets. and thus be come heavier than the Air they fwom in. and many of thefe Pvivers . till they at laft hit againft the fides of the more eminent and Moun tainous Places... they are condens d^ fo as to be precipita ted thereby through the Chinks of the Plains.. of the Globe*.. that by the Shock thefe Vapours get in their Courfe from them.184 of equal Gravity with them. and ftony^ afford them a Bafon^ till they are accumulated in fufficient Quantities to break out at the firft Crany ^ whence they defcend into the and feveral of them uniting.. tho there were no . fo that it is evident the great Benefit of thefe Eminences is not. are carried up and down the Atmojphere^ by the Courfe of that Air. and by this Concuffion are condenfed. and then Rivers ^ for doubtlefs our Vapours wou d fall in Rain.. till they be of fufficient quantity to form Rivulets. and fo gleet down the rocky Caverns of thefe Mountains^ whofe inner Parts be ing hollow.. and Dew.... Rocks.

whereas by thefe Mount a ins. for tho there had been Rivers without Mountains^ (which in that cafe is hardly poflible) yet only have run in a ftraight Line. if they had run at all. Globe at wou d over confiderable Places of the once . they are perpetually almoft.of Datura! Eetigton* but then they 1 85 fall no Mountains. they . the Rivers cou d up and down the whereby they enrich. feveral Mouths into the Sea. and fo or wou d be fuck d up in the Ground. the Rivers make innumerable beautiful turnings and wind ings. by the afliftance of the tides . (at leaft a Nights) pouring down in fome particular Places^ and there treafuring up ^ for a conftant Supply to the Rivers.. make the Tranfppr* tations and over Lands more eaCarriage fie and manageable... Another very con fiderable ufe of thefe Hills. make an ttttiverfal Fuddle-.. and water the Soil of feveral different Coun tries in one Courfe. by thefe Eminences. equally.. fatten. and at laft difembogue where in . whereas.. plac d Globe. and Eminen is the Determination of thefe Rivers* ces.

(tho Nature feldom is Luxuriant in diverfity of Caufes) yet without our Mountains we cou d never have Rivers.and Ports y for the they from Harbours convenience of Shiping and Navigation. of us^ that which I (hall prin fential part take notice of . All thefe Advantages we have by our Mountains^ for tho from other Caufes^ we might poflibly be fupply d with frefh Water Springs.. The fewcipally nefs of the original and primary Fluids. The . which are indeed numberkis. is. nor cou d thefe Rivers have 5 fuch delightful turnings. feeing they are a very ef- XXX. without which we cou d ne ver have been. Thus we fee of what Advantage thefe unfightly Mol s (as fome thought them) are to the Accommodations and even Neceffities of living. Next come our Fluids to be confidered. i. nor thofe ufeful falls ^ which gives them an impetuofity that may be improved to fo many delight ful as well as profitable IHes.. in of that vaft Number of compoun refpeft ded ones.

a collection of exceeding fmall.. or Lymphy of all our Mixtures. three of which are but feldom much compounded with others^ fo that it is Safes the parts of folid Bodies floating in this Fluid. that produces all our delight it is that is the Water alone. and of Liquors^ fo frugal is Nature in Principles .. and fo fruitful and various in EfFefts and Com2. had Air been as heavy as Mercuryy it had been altogether ufele(s in refpiratiODJ on the contrary. I do not know xvhat a great part of the World would have done. it had choaked us immediately. Airy Water. vi^.. vaftful and ufeful varieties r l. For the Lewdnefs and Debauch ery . The pofitions. Now not to mention the ma ny ufes of this laft Fluid in Artificers Works.. great Difference be tween the ffecifecJ^ Gravities of our Fluids...of natural 3&eitgicm 1 87 The primary ones are only four. Mercury being about 8000 times heavier than Air.e. in the prefcnt Circumftances of Mankind. Mercury and Light-. and had there not been a Fluid of the fame w eight with Mercury^ i.y heavy Spherules ..

which I am fatisfied are more than two or is three.. in the extreme extreamly beneficial. without this Fluid j for it s certain. wherever any Diftemper arifes from an obftruftion of the Blood the Globules Veflels. cificl^ Now by all this difference of the Spe- Gravity of the Fluids. is.. capillary Veffels. that this Fluid.for no neceffary. thorough Cure cou d be made of em. The univerfal condition of the dire&ion of their Preffure upon the fides of the containing Veffel j for in all Fluids of whatfoever kind or nature^ this is communicated in Lines perpen dicular .lt.. is is principally con* if not abfolutely this thing obftru&ion....?lves. moft wonderful in thefe 3.. fuch as the Particles of Mercury certainly are.88 $f)iioCopi)ical has brought a great ma ery of Mankind. a Remedy is provided for thefe Maladies.j that I fcarce fee a how and not the Serous part cern d.. has fufficient force to take away but a little weighty Sphere. ny Difeafes to that degree of Malignity. But that which Fluids... and to feparate thefe Globules from one another.. wherein themf&amp.

confequently the fides of the containing Veflel preffes the contain d Fluid. Law of Nature. rily revolve upon the Plane till the Dire&ion of its preffnre. can only touch a in a point... as much as the contain d Fluid preffes the fides of the and this preffure of the containing VefFcl fides of the containing Veffel y is direded in the fame right Line with that of the contain d Fluid. and can prefs it in a dire&amp. from the point of Conta& pafs through the Center of the j Sphere juft fo likewife. is which of their fo beautiful and uniform. is Now this Property of Fluids. the nece fary Confequence of the Sphericity conftituent Particles . for fince by the Rea&ion or Repulfe is always equal and contrary to Impulfe or A&ion. feeing a right Sphere.of Natural JSeitsiou.5Hon through that point of Contaft j Dire&ion through the point of Con* do not likewife pals through the Cen taffi^ ter of the Sphere. if a Plane prefs two . in the fame Direftion..lt. but is contrary to it. the Sphere will nccefTa-. 1 8? dtiular to the fides of the containing Veffel. if this Flam. Now third .

plain that all Fluids of fides of ftion perpendicular other hand.. and fince they are fuppos d exceeding fmall.gt. And fo if there be any number of Spheres whatever^ prefs d by a Plane in the fame Dire6Hoa&amp. infinite it is Number of little univcrfally true. fince true... . the Line of this Direction will neceflarily pafs through all their Centers. it is alfo the Dire&ion of the the Spheres upon the Plane. two in the point of Contaft. as alfo fince curve furfaces are compoun ded of an furfaces .fame Dire&ioii. is perpendicular to the fangtnt Plane ... and fince this is the Dire* ftion of the preffure of the Plane upon the Spheres . And on the what nature foeve^ that Fluids by demonftration. preffure of Since alfo the Particles of Fluids v are5jp/?ericaly or nearly approaching thereto. prefs the the containing Veflels in a Dire* thereto. But a Line through the Center of a Sphere from the Spheres. it is do prefs the fides of the in a Direction perpendicular containing Veffcls. the Line of this Dire&ion will neceffarily pafs through both their Centers.

and thofe of Air. XXXI... and Almighty Power of God. Mercury and Light . What a noble reprefentati* on of the Divine Wifdom does our Fluid of Light afford us! how wonderfully are its parts fram d gious velocity and with what a prodi are they feat from the Body of ! . turn d all of different Diameters^ Solidities and Weights from one another .. but all of the fame Diameters y Solidities and Weights We among emfelves. it s certain that the Par ticles of all Fluids are Spherical. have rounded thofe infinite numbers of fmall Particles y whereof Fluids confift ? or cou d any thing but his Wtfdom^ have afiign d them their true dimenfions.. their exal weights and {hall allow him to requird Solidities? continue in his infidelity who can demonftrate by what Laws of Mechanifm^ all the Particles of Water were turn d of the fame Diameter^ Solidity and Weight. Now cou d any thing but the Fingers.of Natural JReitgtou* 19 dicular thereto. or nearly thereto ^ fo that this is now approaching no more Hypothecs but Demonstration.

but fingle Point may no be congregated into a Surface fo finely poliflied. Newton s la Idea of this Fluid : . its fubtility .. and its and Reanother One Ray Violet.. ter is Discoveries prefent us with. muft this be nothing it runs ! but the a6Hon of the Mind.a Indigo. to exprefs tery. no Pore fo fmall as to ex no Stream of it fo greafc..a fifth Tellow^ a fixth Orange. third Blew. . we are not able to comprehend nor ima gine a Number fufficiently fmall. without interfering ev n in the ftraiteft Pailages- in one Word.. a fourth Green .. and uncon ceivable velocity . evYy its Ray endow d with own is Colour ^ different degree of Kefrangibility flexibility. can anyways And then what a beautiful reprefent it do Mr.. and the laft Red. in every Pulfe of an^fr- fome hundred and thirty thoufand Miles ^ what an amazing. as not to fcatter almoft one half of it. millions of different ways..of the Sun clude it ! itsSubtility is almoft beyond imagination. its Rays traverfe through one another. And thefe are the primary and ori ginal . ..

of Natural 3&eligt on. upon their Co Surfaces. from the final! quan of them being refle&ed on..efraj7giand to let others bility and Reflexibility. For the firft degrees of Intenfentfs^ in all the primary Colours ^ feem to arile from fome determin d degrees of den fit y and ^ and the fubfequent degrees from. Rays of one and of one degree of R. 1 93 ginal Colours find from the mixture of thcfc^ all the intermediate ones proceed. according to their different De grees of denfity and thinmfs^ are apt to refleft back upon our Organs. tity of any mcaliire all of them in a luffo* great being So that now it is not Bodies that catcd.. and White from an equable mixture of the whole j Blacl^on thecontrary.. Their prominent little Parts. and tranfmit all thofe of another. and their Colours arife from their Aptitude^ to refleft Rays of one lour.and this one Co Colour. accord are of diffe ing as their prominent parts rent denfities^ or are thicker or thinner.. are coloured. is lefs or more intcnfc. but the Light that falls up on -them. O the .. pafs through their Pores. lour too.

aHng in different quities Circumftances y viz*. Motion.the other different degrees of denfity or thicknefs or thinnefs.. to the Plane of Incidence.. of the Surfaces of Bodies. of the prominent little parts. that Bodies attraft Light in Lines perpendicular to their Sur faces. and that this attraftion is equal in all the Incidences^ and Refractions at equal Diftances from the fame Plane. obferve one of Reflexion likewife ? . the Sines of the Angles of In cidence j are to the Sines of the Angles of Refra&ion in a conftant ratio ^ and both thefe Properties proceed from one. diffoland puting their parts in a vibrating ving. Light a&s upon Bodies by heating.. and the fame Principle .. Law c/z-x.. that all the different Angles of In cidences are refpe&ively equal to the gles An and all the differently Refrangible Rays of Light .. and the rcfte&ed .. as alfo Bodies aft upon Light^ in drawing its parts to them. that in all the obli of the fame Ray. obferves this one Law.. and that in Lines perpendicular to their Surfaces All the dif : ferently reflexible Light.

the Ray muft refleft. together with the degree of attraction in the refrafting Bod}% And as there are neceffarily generates.. different degrees of Attra&ion in Bodies ^ which produce their different degrees oi Elafticity and Cohefion.. and proceed in the Line. that before the Ray arrives at it. the perpendicu lar^ for it s well known y all Mediums have not the fame refra&ive Virtue.. it has already made the Sine of the Angle of Incidence y equal to the Radius .. and not fall upon the refleding Plane at all 5 if it a leffer degree of attraction. then muft of the that its enter the Body Plane. For if the have fuch a force of at- tra&ion. dire& impulfe. Now what a beautiful.of refie&ed Natural 3&eiifjton* 195 Rays are turn d back before they : arrive at the refle&ing Plane reflecting Plane. fo there muft be different degrees of attraction in Mediums ^ fuppos d^ to account for their different Powers y in bringing the reframed Rays nearer to or farther from. uniform.. and fimple Theory of Light is here ? this is fo very ^ like the frugal fimfltcity^ and vet the ma- O 2 infold .

196 ^Jjtlofopljtcai infold variety of Nature. and particularly. But having been pretty copious on this Subjeft already .. Mr. I (hall only (uggeft one very remarkable Inftance of the wonderful Contrivance and Wi dom of Nature... This the Geometers have demon ftra ted.. Now I appeal to .. I might like wife iliew here the Art and Contrivance of Nature. in the propagation of Light.. were there no Democrat/on and Expert ment to confirm the truth of it. vi&amp. that a Ray of Light.lt. through two differently refracting Mediums^ to illumi fing nate a given Point j fpends the leaft time (the redrafting Powers of the feveral Me diums coniidered) quently pofllble. e. in paf- from a luminous Point. pafles^ and confebut through / . very ele gantly Page 40 and 41. Hugens in his Treatife of Light. when the Ray one and the fame Medium. Ray paffes from a luminous fled upon a given Point. to reflior- takes the way poflible.. that one would be afoioft tempted to believe it true. in the produ&ion of the Cohefwn of Bodies.z. teft it when a Point..

that nothing certain can be determined about thefe Inner Regions. if be not an Infbnce of Conn\d and Dcfigny is not this like the Methods of Pru dence and Wtfdom^ which will not fpend more time on a thing .of jaattttai Religion. will never be convinc d. than in hot Weather y but that might proceed from (bme of the other more narrow out lets of this Baft/is being ftopt ^ by the Froft and the Vapours that the Sun raifes thence. and our accounts of this matter. Some have con cluded that there muft of Neceffity be a Central heat. to the Reader. becaufe they faw that Springs run fafter in Froft and Snow. than juft what is neceflary to do the Bufinefsj which will not go about.. XXXII. but take the fhorteftCourfe r poflible 5 fign d? that will bring it to the Place deHe that can refift fuch pregnant and powerful Inftances of Divine Wifdom. to fhew the wonders in the Bowels of our but our Difcoveries are fo few. O 3 within .... Earth. this 1 97 how incredulous focver. fo lame. Others have thought that being kept in.. I fliou d next proceed.

and from a different Law. to whirl within the Bow els of the Earth..gt. One might as probably expect a different turn and figure of internal Orbs . yet it s after another manner.98 within 0!)tloCopi&amp.. there diffonce.. count for the Effe&s and Vertues ral others to ac of the Metals^ Minerals ^nd rious and of many other Fofftls^ Bodies... to make a feeble turn it this or the other way above Ground. a large Sphere. pi .caI this outer Cruft of Earth for muft be a rable D ifcontinuity^ . If the Earth were an univerfal Magnet ( as it s commonly but erroneoufly believ d) then the parts might follow the Nature of But tho it attracts Bodies. after a certain moving manner. that a Sphere (hou d be made. different from the Loadftonc as &amp.gt.. but I am of Opinion the Caufes of this variation is to be fought in the Magnet it felf 5 and not in fo remote and fo far fetch d a Caufe - for feems pretty odd . fome confidequite round.. well as the Loadftone does. as the whole. and that there was fucceeding this. to account for the variation of the Magnet .

(hou d be fo ruinous as this Suppofition wou d make that Planet to be. Laftly. but: this is not a proper Place for thefe things. and at an equal diftance from the Body of the Planet . and that of the Annulns of Sa turn. may be defign d for the Habitation of fome fort of Animals. whereupon by the figure and llze of its parts in regard of Bodies attra&ed.. the one be ing exteriour the other interiour.. becaufe this Ring appears to be regular and uniform./ of its dire&ion might be accounted for . for the analogy between thefe inter nal Orbs. I cannot think it As holds. that is fall n in upon the Body of the Planet.. fcarcely probable that which like ours. befides. this and th0 cwr^/tf. the one a whole Sphere. I believe Hypothecs may be form d.. allthefe Hypotbefes have not that fimplicity . it is thefe Planets . and of Nature and artfulnefs. of an equal breadth quite round. that the Works O 4 Truth .of ^aturai Beligtotu 1 99 an of their Brother the Magnet. the other a King only Neither can I think that this Annulns can : be fome remains of the Ruins of a Cruft.

attra&lion^ to plain. If it be true that all the Bodies of the Univerfe attract one another. and I have fuggefted before.fM)ilofopl)icai Truth carry along with them. and fo the Satelhts of Jupiter and Saturn.. Now this Anvnhis may pofllbly lerve fome fach purpoie as this^ fince it ... and revolves with a greater.and the greater number of the Satellits of Sa turn^ than Jupiterj feems to favour this ConicSure. the Confequent of this Attra&wn.. were defign d to attraft. Thus raiie it s our Moon was defign d to and regular Winde^ and to difturb the Motions of our Earih^ for our TfefeJ^ Purpofes that poffibly we may.. or may never 5 come to difeover. or diforder the Motions of their refpe&ive Planets-. then it s very plain that when ever a lefTer Body (however figur d) attends the Motions of. that that lefier Body is defign d by it s is that produce fome effeft. that the Multi tude of the Satelltts of thefe Planets may ferve in their vaft diftance from the Suny to hinder their Fluids ( by frequent and various Difturbance) from free7ing. the Fluids.

Minerals. and Vulcano s. to look over. and the Bowels of the Earth. we haue all our natural Salts .. by that we have frefli depth. and Colours.. pro^ ceed from fome Motion and Mixture of different Particles within the Body of the Earth. all our Metals with all their Varieties . which fhews it has not been compounded thefe Laws. . in any considerable moft Places diftant from the Sea its Water at we have from and Minerals.of it Natural Religion* moves differently from the Body it fel But all thefe are but Conjectures on both It s cer fides j and as fuch I leave em. it is likewife certain that its Strata are not of fuch Gravities as a regular fubfidence according to the Laws of Gravi tation of Bodies. If any one had but occafion. for the Accom*. which do us fo great and manifold Services.. Bowels. beautiful Figures. and Stones^ which . It s likewife certain . modations of Life. Ores. and the fubfervience of Medicine from the depths of the Sea. tain that Earthquakes. wou d require.. which is of fo much ufe. the variety.. . of Shells.

But when they come to a Plant . or Ani mal^ they are perfe&ly at a lofs. to give fome faint and imperfcft kind of Explication of the Celeftial Ap from their Principles. . on the Head am about. tho how pearances. or of a are like the peice 5 their Schemes tjien . Inftances But of Counfel and have fo many other I things to fugged that I muft content rals. wretched their accounts of this Matter are^ we have in fome meafure already fliewn.... Des Cartes s Ditciples 5 may perhaps un dertake. they can produce nothing coherent. This were a very large and copious Field. my felf with Gene fo long up on the inanimate part of this Syfleme of now to confider the Animal things. and I wou d afford very demonftrative Contrivance.. I come Kingdom that noble and manifeft Repre* . XXXIII.202 $l)tiofopDtcai \vhich Induflry has colle&ed^ he cou d not but admire the manifold Wifdom of the Author of Nature. Having dwelt Dentation of the fower and Wifdom of the One of Democritus or Author of Nature.

as I did in the Ccleflial fome general Scheme. follow.. that nothing is efFefts - fufficient for. an exaft and exquifite Knowledge.. an infinite Wisdom. I (hall here. but a Being abfolutely per- fe&. divided^ by the Saliva. in the Laws of Geometry and Nature. The Fibres. to fbme wife Defign. being grofsly the and foftened by Teeth. that For ev ry has neither Form.. is fo exadly adapted. an odd inconfiftent Mixture of things. part of thefe. and which once acquainted fully underftood I (hall being . give lhall confine my Speculations. of the Animal Fabric]^ and economy and Philofophy.. by the Conftri&ion of its Meat | XXXIV. the reft will ca- begin with the proceis of the Aliment and the Circulation of the Blood. thrUft into thfc Stomach j . that they clearly argue. ev ry thing is fo fitted. as being the moft perfcft^ are with. to its own proper ufe and -thefe Ufes ^re fo manifeft and evident. to the H//- mane we fily Structure..of the cafual concourse of Atoms. is through the Gullet. nor Beauty.

to be thruft parts are A&ion of their Spiral .. by the perpetual Motion of the Coats of the Stomach. aone another. out of the Body. mate parts are broken^ Coheiions diffolv d. are the narrow of the fqueez d into Orifices la&eal Veffels^ which open into thefe inwhence in {lender Chanels they teflines^ are carried into the Glands tery. of the Mefen* receiving firft a foe thin Lymph frpm the . Inteflins 5 thruft into the it is irri entry into which. where being fwell d and. gated with the Bile and Siveetbread-juice r the one to fweeten.Stomach . the other to dilute the Chyle^ by the vermicular Motion of the Inteftins (arifing from the alternate and Longitiidinar of the Midriff and the Fibres) the preffnre the lower Belly the groffer Mufcles of deriv d downward. while the finer.. farther ibftned by the Sncciis of its Glands^ and the Liquors taken in... its and their inti this And by preffure of the at its fides of the Stomach upon it is the contained Aliment. fhe Mufcles of the gainft Midriff and Abdomen employed in refpiration.

it afcends into the Thorax 5 and about the Heart fometimes dividing. and in its from thence Ca&amp. and fcours its containing Veiled which from the Mefenterie\Glands unite in larger Channels^ and pafs dire&ly into the common which is nion of Veflels Receptacle of the Chyle ^ a Bafon. it opens into that Veffel..of Batumi Bciifiiotn 205 the LpmpbaticJ^ Du&s which dilutes this Chylom fluid. con- . it immediately unites again. re ceives the Blood from them.gt. which in its Relaxation or Diajlole. The Veins (in a continued Channel with the the Blood from the Ex Arteries.. which Circulation is thus perform d.lt.&amp. and Lymphatic^ in one Dud. form d for it by the Uthefe La&eal.) entry into the right Ear of the Heart. and all uniting in two large Veflels 5 whofe fides diverge. and creeping along the Gul to the left Subclavian it let^ paffes on Vein 5 where in one or two Mouths. and there mixes with the Blood. and circulates with it..*) bring tremities of the Body. form the Vena Afcendens and Dewhich two likewife join at their fcendcns.va..

Syftole. an uninterrupted Channel.conftri&ion or right Ventricle. drives . from the Arteries into the Veins ^ and from thefe to thofe^ and in this Circulation .. duly perform d^ Life and Health confift. XXXV. then open to receive it j by \vho(e conftri&ion. it is difcharged in to the left Ventricle then likewife dilated. . by the Vena Pul~ monalis. and is carried into the left Awri cle of the Heart. through the Arteria Pulmonaltt j into in the Lungs whence it is receiv d. which are nothing but the re turning Arteries ^ and thus the Blood is carried about in a perpetual Circle. forms the defcending Trunk. and thefe dividing into innumerable leffer Channels. by whofe contra&ion it is pulhed into the Aorta.. the reft turning down again. where leaving fome of its Particles proper for their ufe j the reft is fent into the Veins. dy. carry the Blood to the feveral parts of the Bo upwards.. which bending a little fends forth the Cervical and AxiUary Ar teries. thrufts it into the Rcrnidlon it : which is then its ftate of which when contra&ed.

fince Nature .. whole laft Bran ches muft be Cylindrical. As it is XXXV. This Stru&ure is evident. And therefore the fame is reafonably to be concluded of all the Glands . the La&eals. in its windings.of Natural Religion. the Tefticles. fnch as the Inteftins with their Secretory Duds. of equal Diameters. that all the Expences of living are furnifhed. and that all the Secretions of what kind foever are thefe Secret ions. Now made by the afllftance nothing folding. has been faid. fo is it likewife evident from thence^that it is only from plain from what is only the Blood. and fo fwell to become vifible. of is of the Glands. are derived. and a Gland but the Convolution or various the Evanefcent Artery . fometimes run into a common Bafon. that it that is recruited by the Chyle. and fome of the Conglobat Glands .. fends out feveral little Du&s. in all the larger and more confpicuous Glands. the Blood.. and may be feen in all the reft if they happen to be obftru&ed. which fometimes unite in one common Pore . This Cylindrical Artery .

Nature is conftant and uniform in her fimilar Afi- &ions. Arteries^ to that owing. Particles this of a Diameter... i The different Dia~ meter of the Orifice of thefe Secretory Du&amp. thefe Motions. that all Fluids the containing Veffel^ prefs the fides of and that in a direction perpendicular to it is thefe fides and this is evident in the fince it is. Now . and produces milar Inftruments.&amp. greater.. and is - 5 then . whereby 2. are excluded.gt. It is likewife evident that the Blood is urg d for ward by the Force of the Heart. is Now when s tho the fo. puL of the fation prefigure. of the longitudinal Motion is yet it is not in the proportion of this Ve for this prejjure is always fomewhat locity even. which this Du& for makes. with the Trunk of the Artery The different Angle9 already demonftrated. Effeb by the Nature of the Secretions themfelves depend upon thefe three things. greater than that of DU&. fo that the Motion of Secretion muft be compoun is this pnlfation ded of both Velocity. when the Fluid is at reft. this lateral preffure..5b.lt.

both 5 compound Proportion of whence it is evident that if two in a of equal Diameters D but of une* qual fpecificl^ Gravities^ arrive with the fame Velocity ^ at an Orifice capable of ad mitting either of em. nothing elfe being in this Fluid to produce this preffure. and in a Fluid urg d by a Longitudinal Di re&ion.ev n admitting their Diameters^ and Figures.. of the feparated Fluid muft be Homogeneous to perform the uniform Fun&ions of Life. For it is not to be doubted.. different and of different Denfides^ and Cohefions&amp. to the Specifick Gravity of the Fluid. that the Blood is zHetrogeneous Fluid^ and contains parts fities different Specificl\ Gravities. then in proportion.gt. yet they will not both pafs 5 becaufe their Motion of Dire* So that this Diverfity in Skion is different Particles : the Angles ^ thefe Secretory Duch make with the Trunl^ of the Artery.. 3.of natural Religion. feems altogether the poillble Diverneceflary to account for of fecern d Fluids . to be the fame. The different Velocities\ with which the P . as the Blood is in the Arteries y this lateral preffure.

Cockburn has very juftly reafoned) the Dtaweters of the Particles of The Gall and Semen ^ to be as i ^ .. why fome Animals are of a foft loofe Texture. feparable Texture firmer... there is no po ilble Reafon can be afngn d.. different Velocity of the Blood.) Diameters of the Secretory Du&s. the . it is certainly that which is of greateft Moment in this Affair of Secretion^ yet is impoflible to account.10 the Blood Secretory made in arrives.. and why one part of the Body is of a tender. Du&s^ at the Orifices of thefe for fince the Secretions are form of a Fluid. as the Blood is. For fuppofe^ (as my worthy and lear ned Friend Dr. loofe. And tho* fices the Diverfity of the Diameters of thefe Du&s.. muft be in the fame Proportions. of the Kidneys^ Liv-er and Tefticles. at the Orzof the feparatory Duds. but this . and Union of folid Parts. for the ftmilathe fecern d Fluids from fo Hetero* rity of geneons a Fluid. and more clofe Cohefion. Now tho upon this iuppofition of only different Diameters^ . eafily others of an harder. 3 *Urin.from this alone.

which carries a fuitable Portion of the Blood.. So that upon fuppofition of only different Diame ters^ it is impoffible to account. lefs than being by fuppofition.. The Blood being brought by P a the . view of the Nature and Manner of Secre tion s^ the particular ones may be underflood. Nutrition is perform d by a Secretory DU&. the Diameters of the Particles of thefe Fluids. muft be the termination of a Secretory DU&. for the Homogeneity or fimilarity of the feccrnecl Liquors for all the Particles of whatever : kind. fo that ev ry point in the Body.of Datura! JMujion* the Particles of Gall and Semen cannot be feparated in the Kidficys . of the Diameter of the Excretory that Du&s of this the Tie/tides. to every part to be nouriflied. that are lefs than the Diameter 6f the Secretory DU&. through which a proper part of the Blood is brought.. arifmg from the terminating Artery. muft be indifferently But from this general feparated there... yet the Parti cles of Vrine and Gall may be feparated by the Excretory Dufts of the Tefticles.

lt. which are the beginning of the Nerves..&amp. arifing from thefe in* finitely many little Glands of the Cineri* lions part of the Brain... they are only the Secretory Du&s of thefe little Glands. and by the fame Mechanifmy the Blood circulates through the Ar teries . and the Secretory Pores of the repositories of the Animal Spi rits . the Capillary &amp.the Arteries to the Brain parts .?#.gt. in thefe Glands. the finer.. of thefe Arteries by innumerable volttiicns^ form innumerable little Glands^ of which it s C^rf/r^/part confifts. Thefe Nerves are Bundles of fine fmall Pipes. which Glands in the Brain r their original . yet by reafon of the many convo lutions form to which they are TLxcretories^ And the ilendernefs of their Mnfcular Coats ? the Arteries. and terminating in all the points of the Body j fb that properly . are feparated^ and log d in the (lender fmall Tubes of the Medullary parts. ^aW Particles of the Blood. O of the Evanescent exceeding . they are hollow but extreamly fmall^ fo that tho* the Spirits move in them after the fame manner. and more fubtile.

I eft ides ? the other and Conglomerate Conglobat Glands of the Body. and when thefe Tubes are quite full of this nervous Fluid. the Animal is a6Hvc and watchful. fo that it is needlcfs ^ to infift on thefe. when they are near empty it is languid and dro wfie for this Fluid is the 5 principal concurrent in Mufcular Motion.. this very much abated however flow Motion keeps em very near full. the Blood is brought to the Kidneys^ and is there freed of its Se* rnm^ by their little Glands^ and is receiv d into the fmall Excretory Dufts of thefe Glands^ to be carried into the Pelvis and . P 3 XXXVI.. the Blood. Much after the fame manner ^ are their proper Fluids feparated from the Blood in the Liver and Sweetbread. thence by proper Tubes into the Bladder. the Veloci ty of their Motion. and the immediate Organ of Senfat ion..of Natural Heltgtom exceeding fmallnefs of their Cavities y and their diftance from the Heart .. is in refpeft of that of . By the Motion of the Heart y through the E- mulgent Branches. .

4 $i)iiofopijtcai Lungs are compos d of an infinite number of little Lobes.. this Air ifufhes in through the Pipes of the Tnacbea into thefe and blows -ern up. Vehicles y is the fetus whereby they fhnd of thefe little ereft upon the Trunks Wind-pipes^ and give a free paffage to the Blood through thefe Vcffcls^ ipread upon their fidesJ. Now before brought to Light. thefe Velie flat upon one another 5 and by fales their freffure upon the Blood Veffels 5 hin der its progrefs through them . upon the fides of thefe Vefides . fo that they (when blown up) as may be confidered fo many fine Tubes ending in little hollow Spheres . the Blood Veflels in a fine Net-worl^ are fpread. And wlien by the weight of the Thorax^ and the . form d infinity g XXXVI.fetu s enjoys the benefit of the Air3 by its weight and elaftick^ Force. The by the Coats of the fmall Branches of the Trachea . Each Lobe confifts of an of fmall fpherical Vefides. of different Figures. and Magnitudes ^ hut fo join d as to leave but fmall Vacuities between *em. but as foon as this .

. through. from one another..of natural A&ion of the Mufcles thereof. fti cfy thefe Veficles preffing againft one another. feveral Salts ^ K&went a of a thick confidence . and Aliment) and thefe red Globule s.. the Trachea in Expiration. feparate the Globules of the Blood^ which had Pvoorn and Liberty* to unite in the wider Channels of the this Veins j and by reparation of thefe Globules of the Blood. on the Blood Veflcls fpread thereon. and the ela- Fluid a&ing upon the fides of them. It is un doubted Matter of Faft and obfcmtion 5 that the Blood confifts of a Lymph ^ which is the common Vehicle. renders it more capable to circulate ^ in the more narrow fels. and Midriff\ thisdttjtzcl* Fluid is thruft out of the Vejides. ind confequenrly. paflages of the Capillary Vefif I be not very much mifta- ken.. of P 4 which . (which is probably the unform d part of the Chyle . with thoi e of the Abdomen. and that is to form thefe Globules of which clafticl^ the Blood principally confifb. But. there isftill a more confiderable ufe of this natural Fun&ion behind.

. but the Lungs. j Place in the Body. can the Afford tbis elafticl^Plmd and this may be * . as in obftru&ions . they may bubles. Now certain. and that Acids do ahially de{troy their Figures . and be all recovered and recruited again.6 ^Dilofophirai are we now fpeaking but fometimes they are of different Colours. blown from the viicid it is part of the Chyle ^ more fubtile by the force of fome Now no Elaftic^ Aura. And fince it s cer tain that they are not folid Particles 5 both by ocular infpeftion and touch. yet wherefore it is of neceflity. Blew and Purple ^ thefe any body may difcover with an ordinary Mzcrofcope. and coagulate thefe Globules be little highly probable. that thefe Glo bules muft be form d fomewhefle in the Body from the Chyle. that thefe Globules may be or may be all burft.. as alfo from their Colour. in the capillary Veflels. it s exhaufted^ as in violent Hemorrhages.. as White. and by the neceflity they are under to change their Figures into oblong Spheriods .

may through thefe Vefides. which are why immediately ro the Heart. is fent from the right Ven part of the fafeft courfe of the Heart to the Lungs. a finer Elafticl^ Fluid.. to the Blood Veflels.. by that vaft Force u(ed in Expira in thruft be the fides of tion. brought into the returning part pf the Blood. in all the fubcile fe&s commonly afcrib d to the other. Veins 5 the Chyle enters into the and thefe too only ... For fince in our grofs Eliment of Air. it feems to me all part in the Body.. get through but in theLfl/Tgj. and is fpread upon the fides of the Vejicles there tricle of .. which is the principal Agent. yet this finer Fluid.. there is conftantjuft returning ly loged. tho* the groffer Eliment cannot. to be fent into the Lungs..of the reafon Natural Religion. this fubtile E/^/V^ Fluid beyond doubt. and feeing thefe Blood Globules muft be gene rated fomewhere^ and fince there is no can be fqueez d with fufficient JForce^ to fides the of the Blood Veffels. that thefe Globules are form d there after this manner : The vifccws Chyle being by the fhorteft and poflible.

whereby the circulation is rend red conftant and uniform. in the Aft freffure the Blood Veffels..gt.ick. For fliou d thefe Globules be all .form d again. is forc d into the wfcow part of the Chyle. they are new. $pofopi)tcai of Ex being fqueez a piration. it is preferv d in its figure in all the various Motions of the compound Fluid of the Blood and if it little bubles fhou d be happen that thefe moft certainly are by a biirft^ (as they j thoufand Caufes) when ever they come to theLtfflg. which is runing by in the Serwt. this lit tle bulk is broken off from t\\ePorey and carried along the Artery y and the Cohefwtt of the parts of the Shell of this biiblc^ being than the force from without. and by its ferfendmilar it upon the fides of that Cavity forms^ produces a fmall little buble^ of a certain magnitude. whereby greater the thin Serum ads upon it. through Pore^ continued through the Veftcle of the Lungs y and the fide of &amp. and th. in little fine Tubes.nefs of SWl^ from whence it has its Colour.r.8 of.. and by the force of the fucceeding Fluid. this fine Fluid d.

. and the manner of the Operation of Medicines vanifli. but various in the effecfo thence But it being both foreign to ari- my d Peilgn. J7 ples^ flag. and Vinegar. there muft oneceffity arifc Obftru&ion in all the Capillary Ar The manner of the little Produfiion of thefe ftick^Flmd. ciple. and unfit for the Limits I have prefcrib . when view d... many of the dcfpair d of Appea rances^ in t\\^ Animal Oeconomy^ may be made eatie. a general teries. but with an ordinary Microjcope. And this makes it look the more like truthj Nature being frugal in her Princi T t 4^7.. into litJ But from this one Prin tie Shells of Oil. in the forc d Blood by the Elathrough the fides of the Vefides } and Blood Veflels in the Ltivgs^fo obvious^that I fliall infift no farther upon it^ fince ev ry body may fee an inftance of the fame Nature.. in mixing Oil with Vinegar. to be but an appears nothing infinity of fuch like little bubhs^ form d by the im* niiftlon of the Air.of all natural Eelt sicn. and a thoufand Difficulties about the Gaufes of Difeafcs. the Subftance of which Mixture . 2 1 9 deftroyed. bubles.

are hard and Sphere-. the latter to let in (upon . and are call d Membranous Fibres-. of the preceding Chapter . the Fibrils of the one are di which are always inferted into fome folid as to thofe of the Bel places of the Body . foft and part in the compared.. each Fibre confifb of ly of the Mufcles. have hin XIII. form d of thofe of the other. inftance reft but in one Particular. ted is A Mufcle. enter an Artery. Vein and Nerve.$i)tiofopi)ical __ prefcribM to my Corollaries thence felf. into thofe orbi cular Cells. to another Gccafion. to deduce I fhall all the arifing. an infinite number of little Fibrils. ty d tranfverfe fmall Threads y together by which go from Fibre to Fibre .. vided into innumerable little orbicular two concave Segments of a Cells.. folid^ thefe make the Head and Tail. only a bundle of Fibres. is only the flefhypart lax} the tendinous. the firft and fecond. to bring and carryback the Blood. of which all fame Plane run parallel-. and leave the as I XXXVII. the fleihy of the Mufcles is fpongious...

This is undoubtedly the true manner of mufcu lar Motion. and confifts fo leave the imprifoned Elaftic^ Aura. and fo move that Organ to which one of the tendons is fixt. And ned which wou d contra& the length of the whole Fibre. and agreeable to the learned : Mr.of jfratttrai Belision. the Globules of the Blood may be a&ually broken.. into the orbicular Cells of mufcular Fibres. And upon an immiflion of this Liquid of the Nerves. by which means. thefe little daick^ Cells of the Fibres muft of neceffity their thereby Longi tudinal Diameters. from Cell to Cell ftrait- be blown up. own proper Juice. 22 1 (upon any Impreffion communicated to its very proba ble from its Acid tafte 5 that this nervous Juice.. are now a&ual But I fliall Theory^ and Matter of Fah have an occafion of fpeaking of thefe after wards . to efcape. Now it s it) of Particles which are pointed and fit to break the Shells of the Globules of the Blood. John Head.. Bernoulli s DoSrine on all this And metrical Theorems he the Geo confequently^ has difcovered a- bout mufcular Motion.

For the Mo tion of the Joints and Limbs the Bones which are the Pillars of the Body.. The very evident demonftration of the true Caufe of mnfcular Motion . and Animal Spi rits are in fufficient plenty.. of ing to the Manner the Articulation. are carried back by the Veins to the Lungs. fo long as the Blood Globules. which is the reafon that muscular Motion is fb conftantly and uniformly perform d. Only now. The broken Shells of thefe cxplam Globules. and the one Extremity of the Mufcle..that dra\vn toward the fixt Extremity. that is to move beyond its Articulation. . are ar ticulated one into another . to be new-form d. and their Na ture being thus determin d^ a priori is a Xvards. which has been long thought uncapable of being d. Thus the Motions of all the . is faftned to fome folid part. and the other to the Bone . accord and Determination.place of theProduftion of thefe Globules. the length of the Mufcle being fliortned. muft be So . the moveable Bone..

But the Membranous Coats. The Fibres of this Mujcle. meerly by their own Elaflicity^ being ftretch d firft by ex ternal . which are Cavities for receiving or holding the as it comes from the feveral Ve Blood. ad af manner already explaki d.. like other Mufcles.. iblid parts form XXX VIII.of the ^atutal of the Body are perFluids of the more d. all obfervable that thcMufcu/ar Fibres of the Coats ter the of the Veflcls. or is to be driven to different Places. Now confifting of feveral Orders of flefliy FibreSj of different Dire&ions^ it has two little Ears and as many Ventricles. fels. a Mufck.. a& by the Longitudinal Diameters of its Mujcular Cells being fliortnedy and fo by the win ding and fpiral Dire&ion of its feveral Orders of Fibres^ the Cavities of the Ears and Ventricles are leflcn it is And d or conftring d. Fibres of the The Body are principally propelFd^ by the Adion of the Heart. and the elaflicl^ Force of the the Heart is containing Veffels.

. branes are Thus the fides of all Mem bent or prefs d outward by fome but reftore emfelves by their own natural Elafticity 5 whereas when ever a Coat confifts of Fibres of whatever kind. bring known. the third. that this Coat a&s as a Mufcle for Na ture does nothing in vain.is more capable of a&ing by its own Elafticity. So that the Nature of the Coats.ternal Violence. when a conti nued Membranous^ Tendinous one. Ration or Nutrition.. and wou d ne ver have diftinguifh d a Coat into Fibres^ but for Mufcular A&ioo. it is a fure Indication . together with the Range and Di- liquely re&ion of thefe Fibres^ it is eafie to know the manner of their operating upon the included Fluid. the outermoft Membranous^ the fecond flefliy and Mufcular^ turning ob from the uppermoft end of the Oe- is fophagus to the Stomach . The Stomach has . excepting thofe for Senincluded Fluid. The Coats of the Gullet are three. tendinous and mufcular^ of white {lender Fibres diverfely interwoven.. and of their conftituent Fibres^ of the Channels.

. flender Pipes j wherein the Animal Spirits are treafur d up for the Expcnfes of Motion and Senfation-^ they arife from the Glands of the cineritious part of the Brain... ad jacentParts^and particularly the Organs of four of the Senfes the reft in a large bun dle^ are let down by the Cavity of the Q. and ferve the dy . the fecond is of two Orders of Muscular Fibres^ Longitudinal and Spiral.. Vertebra. The G///^ con- of three Coats. and are terminated in all the points of the Bo faidj are a ten pairdefcend immediately through proper Holes of the Skull.. of ftraight - and fift circular Fibres 5 the fourth Membra nous from the Peritoneum. of white Carpettendinous Fibres ftan* the next Coat. the innermoft is of the fame nature with that of the innermoft of the Stomach . The Nerves y as I have before bundle of fine. the third is common and mem branous 3 arifing likewife from the Peri toneum. . fmall.of Natural Beligion* the innermoft (liort is *2 5 has four Goats^ like. ding perpendicular upon which is nervous and extreamly fenfible j the third isfleflry and Mufcular.

oi the fttu6hire general account their Aftions upon the in- clofed Fluid underftood. according to the bignefs of the The third is a cloie tranfparent Membrane very ftrong and compaft. which is thefe other Coats made up of feveraly?r^ta of Spiral Mufcnlar Fibres^ Artery. From this of the Vcffels. gainft the than thofe of the converging Arteries.. for the nourishment of and for the Mnjcnlar A&ion of the intermediate one. the fhort erefted Fibres ferve for the at eallly may be trition of the Aliment.$i)ilofopi)icai idnnaples Vertebra. the fame Coats with the Arteries . . becaufe of the IcfTcr force of the Blood afides of the diverging Veins . The Arteries have three Coats^ the outermoft is a fine of Nerves^ Web and Blood Veffels.. and for firaitning the the Cavity of the Guts and Stomach . wou d tear the The Veins have only the Mujcular Spiral Fibres are thinner. and at fit Places are fent forth to a&uate the feveral inferiour parts of the Body. .. to keep in the Blood which otherwife upon the dilatation of the Artery ^ Mnfotlar Fibres afundcr.

up or down to its length. through the uninterrupted Channels of ^ the . Thus the Blood being puflit by the contrafiion of the Heart diftends their Coats atill into the Arteries. in a dirc&ion parallel this by encrcafing Diameter . and the included -Fluid. the force of the natural of the Membranous Elafticity Coat . and fo encreafing or leflening it in breadth. and fo brings the Mufcular Fibres into Aginning to at the &amp. the Longitudinal ones to move the Veffel.. long their whole length. leflening the other. among the Originating Nerves in the Brain.. And both thefe Forces a&ing at once. which make but ferve to propagate gently the included Fluid. be equal to the force of this Impulfe then that Elafticity of aft. ? after the propell the Blood in a continued Stream.of natural few turns oblique Fibres. the tranfvcrfe the Spiral ones by fqucezing it it in length tranfverfely.5Hon manner already explain d.. e. dimenfion and thereby /. this Coat be feme time the ner vous Juice is {queex d out from the Nerves by this dilatation of the finall Arteries.lt.

gt. upon the Or gans of Senle the Impulfe communicated -. flrikcs on the -tympanum ^ which mo . Thus in Vifwn... by thefe fubtile parts of Bodies^ fifly is difpoted . XXXIX. firikes the filaments of the Optici\ Nerves which con In Hear vey this Impulfe to the Brain. in its diverfe Modifications. tranfmitted to the Nerves. is the Veins and Arteries. Organs upon the through them appropriated and contriv d them for fuch a Senfe^ and to the Brain. paffage through the Meatus Anditorius.$!}ticibpi)ifal the irnpulfe of the Heart. and thereby an Impulfe modi reflected fied after a certain manner. ing. And call d a Pulje or Puljat/on of the Ar~ All Senfation is perform d by the immediate A&ion of the finer and more fluid parts of Bodies. is that which when feltj lery.. .. and congregated upon the Retina. the Sound after- ving . through thcL/g/j/ from the Surfaces of Bodies. in the lame mdnner it was rcflcfted from the Body. is tranfmitrcd through the HUMOWS of the D Eye. propagated only by the Membranous Coat.&amp.

Animal. the Effluvia and more fubtile parts of Bodies. and no Difpofition or Arrangment of either. I have demonftrated the Me chanical produ&ion of Animals. had the common Air afted upon them. Tajlittg. after wou d have been. to be im~ there is no poifible and unconceivable thing in an Animal but an infinity of bran ching and winding Channels ^ and their contain d Fluids.. can produce an . In Smelling. the Auditory Nerves there^ the fame manner they are mov d. feveral ways diversified. all for beyond doubt . fince all the parts m lift be form d together. and Touching . aft immediately upon the Nerves themfelves. 3 . ration is Gene it is nothing but Accretion. and they communi cate this A6Hon to the Brain So that in fome manner. and they the inclofed Air of the Labyrinth . Q. with the Advantage of a better qualified and gentler Impulfe than they cou d have had otherwife. that all Generation is from a preceding little Animal lodged in the Male.of jsatnvai Religion ving the Bones of the Barrel. all Sensation is nothing but : Touching.

if they did not move in the wou Channels of thefe fmall Animals.. mal. cv ry Generation of an Ani and that thefe Animals themfelves are all confpicuous in Male Seeds ^ it is plain that they muft have been all created at once:. iince itisabfurd God Almighty \z in confin d to a new Creation. we find fame little bubles. tho doubtlefs the Velocity of their Motions is perfectly accommodated to the fmallnefs of their dcrncfs of their Bul^ and parts. which can never reach to that wonderful Number.230 or together. and Difpofition of parts. d corrupt and deftroy their contain It s ing Veffels. an^Chyle in the Veffels^ nimal confifts to think of. Blood Globules ^ may be form d out of the and one kind of Li quor may be feparated from another^ out of the Blood in the Glands^ and thefe are all the Produftions an Animal is capable of. and lodg d in the Loyns of the Ori ginal pairs of all the Species of Animals. Now. Like wife the Fluids. the flen- folid and fince thefe . evident then that they muft circulate after a manner proper to etnfelves.

. with Branches and Leaves duly folded up. to the next Period of their Lives are cer bear the Light and the Air. are that the Eggs of Animals only an Vie* rns for a little Animal ^ furniilied with .. We We Q. be carried off in the foft and tender Fluid of the Stolen . pcrfe&Jy form d.. move. is not improbable they in may fome lurk fomewhere the Male. fuitedto this Degree of Growth and Perfection. thefc Fluids cannot Wherefore it . till they arrive to *// *. where they are fitted with Accommodations. by the Force of Juices rais d by Heat. in know the (lender Tubes of the Plant. and involv d in Membranes^ or furrounded with Walls proper to defend them in this ten der Eftate. from external Injuries j and that Vegetation is only the unfolding and extending of thefe Branches and Leaves. without fome infenfible Evacuations and Secretions^ this Lofs muft be repaired fome way or other. tain that the Seeds of Plants arc nothing but little Plants... to be afterwards log d in the Female . 4 proper .of natural Religion. in till they be fitted to proper Place.

3^ |M)itofop!)itai proper Food. Injuries and fenc d from external and we know likewife that all the Effeds of incubation^ isfupplying a fit to make degree of Heat and Warmth the congeal d Fluids flow. are . it were fufficient to perfuade any one. and the more noble Animals .. Now were that all there no other Argument. But this.. with thefe already men tioned . who confiders the fimplicity and uniformity of Nature in all her Works.. and the fure^ that all breaking of the Membranes that folded em up by the Augmentation of thefe parts ^ the feveral Figures and Shapes they put on. but the Analogy between the manner of the Generation and transformations of thefe lower. produce the fame very Effe&s with that of the Females. We the feveral Transformations of InfeSis and other Animals^ is nothing but the Expansion of their parts. is owing to the feveral Mem branes they are involv d in. and more eafily pafs into the nourishing Channels of the included Animalcul^ and the Heat of the Sun or of our Culinary Fires^ when duly adjuftcd.

and were once all actually in the Loyns of our firft Parent. for fince even Mechanifm^ affifted by fome kind of Art and Contrivance^ does fo miferably blunder in the Undertakings of . tions. that we are all deriv d from one Seed. how fimple. how wifely our (everal parts are fitted for their Ufes. and yet how fuffi- cient.how juftly our Fluids are contriv d and difpos d. XL. are. Mo It i$ impoffible duly to confider thefe things without being rapt into admiration of the infinite Wisdom of the Divine ArclnteB and contemning the arrogant Pretences of the World and Animal Wright s y and much more the Productions of Chance or juftling Atoms .. theCaufes of all thofe various the Animal performs. From Stm&ure of the this parts. general view of the and of the manner how the Animal Fun&ions are perform d evVy body may fee how wonderfully we are made..of j$atttrai Heiigtott* 25 3 tioned put it beyond all doubt. and have been ever fince / grow^ ing to our pretent Eftate. to make thefe uninterrupted Circulations wherein Life confifts .

from that.. Put . and form d fo all things both ani juftly and exaftly^ mate ^nd inanimate^ muft needs bt. that the moft exaft and nice Performances of Art^ come fo far fhort of the dead Organs of Animals^ or the inani mate Productions ot Nature^ that a weak Eye may difcover the vaft Difference. and he that indnd Majj with Wisdom mnfl and he that contriv d hitnfclf ^tnd^rftand^ fo wonderfully and wifely. and he thai made the Ear mufl himjelf hear. with all their skill and cunning. make but an ItifeSl or a Plant y with the fame Faculties and Qua we ihou d begin lities that Nature does But they are fo far to hearken to em. Cou d any of our pie and mechanical Undertakers .34 0!)ilofoptical of this Nature (as we may fee in all the Schemes of the Projectors upon t\\ck Heads) we may be afliired blind Chance and JHWble cou d never produce fo beautiful fimuniform Effects. Wherefore of unavoidable Neceflity^ He that for id the Eye waft him felf fee.

. is Scales^ lefs. The Skin with its parts is what offers itfelf firft moft.is thicker in one part of the Body than another ^ between thefe Scales the Excretory Du&s or lye of the Miliary Glands of the true Skin open. Number a prodigious of fuch Glands muft there be on ! Now what the Surface of the whole Body Into ev ry one of thefe Glands an Artery^ Vein and Nerve do enter ^ fo that we may guefs how prodigious the Number of Organs in from thefe that are vifible to the Eye afliftcd with an ordinary Micrvfcope. skin being upper. 500 fuchDtifts may lye. Thefe Glands fecern an Animal Body muft be.. Lervenhoecl^ reckons that about one Cuticular Scale. and that a Grain of Sand will cover 250 of thefe one Grain of Sand will cover 125000 Orifices of thefe Ex Scales^ fo that cretory Dufts. . g XLI.of atural 3&eltsiom *35 But I proceed to make fome reflexions upon the particular Inftances of Council and Wisdom in the Animal Fabrick... according as it.The Scarf d of feveral Lays of fmall compos which cover one another more or thicker.

gt.. Skin is thinner and fofter. is composed Scales of which the Scarfskjn a Hair is . to convey the Impulfe more immediately for the Senfe receiv Nerves to the Brain. that fince San&oriu* obfervcs ^ through a of Fluid them fifteen Ounce weight Next under the Hours. to the Surding their Secretory which there face^of the Scarfskin^ upon Lines. in And paffes 24 in skin arc the Papilla fyramidales. cous Subftance.36 ^i)i!ofopt)tcat cern the Sweat and intenfible Perfpiration. fyramidalcs //&amp. -Scarf they are the finite like wile in Number- Extremities of the Nerves of the 5%. and in each interfeftion In the Summer the planted... to moiften thefe Fap/U* and then under this the M/- Glands thcmfelves are placed.. and thefe interare many by parallel fefted others.. in Winter more and hard. by reafon of the heat coinpaft The and cold of thefe different Seafons. of NecefTity they muft be many .^ . d About and ferve of Feeling. along the other VeiTels make thefe the Nerves and all cover d over with a miia fine Web. protru Dufts up.

and to be the Organ of the Senfe of muffing and Feel Now what can be more wonderfully ing. contriv d than this exterior part... then the Inter Pap ill vals c had been without any Senfe of Feel and fo might have been deflroy d ing. and the Miliary Glands from being difordered. and to skreen them from exter rhe Skin it fclf is nal Injuries defign d to to hinder Obje&s from wrap up the whole Body.of is Natural Iteiigiotn a 37 defign d to fence the Orifices of the 5Vthe Mtliary Glands and cretory Dufts of ^ making too pain ful and cxquifite an Impreffion on the Nerves.. to receive the Impreflions of external Obje&s. to the danger of the whole and thefe Intervals had not been freed from the noxious parts^ which are here thrown out of the Body but by their infinite by thefe Glands ev N timber. without our Knowledge. to fiiftain and to keep the Papilla Fyrawidales in their Places. ry point and Atom of the ABod is taken care of But that . if the Tyranridaks or the Miliary Glands had been few and large..

. and might have J O been torn away or confum d. Whereas by this nice adjuftment of the Senfe of feding to the Impulfes and A&ions of Bodies round us. the touch of a Feather. to hinder . we can live in indolence from the Difturbance of the and AHeffluvia. or of the Wing of a Fly.yet moft wonderful . had made us cry out. we had loft fome of the moft exquifite Plcafures of Life. A6Hons and Impulfes of the Bodies among which we live. we fliou d not have dar d to have approach d our Cloaths or our Beds^ in t . without our Knowledge or Concern. our tendereft parts had been as infenfible as our Hairs or Nails. For had our Senfe of Feeling & fliort. or in more callous than it is. is the ap: proportioning this Senfe of Feeling^ to the which is r been ten or twenty times as exquilite as it d have been in perpe is. ons of little Bodies that are ncceflarily in Motion and we feel fenfibly enough. we had it liv d and had been as perpetual Mifery. many times duller. then we fliou tual Torment.. ev ry Hair had been a Dag ger.

. drying and hardning. grows upon it. do arife from the preffitrc of touching Bodies upon the Mouths of the Superficial Veffels at different times. and guard the Organs of this Senfe from being violated. and fo a caUoiijvefs quently . And univerfally indeed in all Animals whatfoever. for it is as it is more or lels ufed highly probable.. and the Skin becomes the thicker. by which forae drops of a vifcid Fluid is that the Scales which forc d out. which is a notable Inftance of Council and Defign in the formation of thefe Parts.. which there becomes a irnall and therefore the oftner the Mouths of thefe VeiTels are preis d upon^ or the oftner we life thefe Organs of touching. is rendred more exquifite and or more dull and imperceptible. And it is worth noticeing. compofe the Scarfsk^n.of Natural ffietgtotu hinder us from hazarding the Ruin of our Fabrick. this Senfe is adapted to the Circumftances wherein they live. And confethe more moderately we ufe the . Scale. the more of thefe Seal s are form d. that thisSenfc of Feeling fcnfiblc..

Having already fliewn the wonderful yet fimple ftru&ure of the have little more to add upon Mufcles..the Pleafures of Senfe (the moft exquifite of which lie in that of Feeling) the more lively and fenfible they are life ^ and the more immoderately we the full lefs r they are fo . Situati has fomething that fpeaks its Defign and Council. either in on or Insertion.. yet feeing Borelli has written a whole Book to fhew this. they are not kept from Excefles that way. fince we fee where there is both Sin and Nature-. Figure. prefent Punifliment. w ife Contrivance of the Author of for thefe Pleafures. fo diftra&ed is the moft part of Mankind. that they wou d certainly deftroy themfelves. I For tho ev ry fingle Mitfcle. of which there are about 446 in a Hu mane Body. to that learned . that Head. were to tranfcribe it. which is a wonder- were it otherwife. or to write a whole Syfteme I fliall refer of Myologie. my Reader for his full Satisfaftion in this Affair. and to inftance in all the Particulars. XLII..

they might not rife in bending thofd . and and going confequently unfit for grafping their * together difturb d to avoid this^ the Infinitely wife An*tbor of Nature. and that ev And n there.... is admirable* We of Life 5 thefe Mufclcs were to be ftrong and large. he has (lit fome^ that other s might this is through then! undifturb d^ fuch a wonderful Inftance of WiC pafs R dom . {hall Then only fuggeft a few Inthe maiiner of the Dif- of the Fingers and poiition of the Muftles know that for the Toes. has plac d them at a conft derable diftance from thefe Organs. learned and furpriflng 24 Book De motit malinm. now had they been fituatcd neat Or about thefe Parts.. i . that they might be fufficient for the various 5 and forceable Motions of thefe Organs . the Arm or Leg. and ftances.of ^attttai BeWgion. they wou d have aL ufes Motions^ and made thefe Places foft and fpungy. up and fill Places with their Bodies or Tendons he has ty d them to the Bones by Annn* lar Ligaments ^ and alfb that one TLendoit might not be interrupted in its Courfe by another.

may be to 4. derful wife Contrivance Now what a won and compendium of . Bernoulli in that Curious Meditation &quot. Mr.. Weight four times as great r as when they Globules j in are but as 5.about Mufcular Motion. Lipfirf 1 printed in the ^ ASla 694 . It is very obfervable that in Mnjcular Motion the Expenfe of Animal Spirits^ is not in Pro portion to the Labour the Animal is at. that none can pafs it over without Admiration. than the ele vated Weights j for fuppofing the Animal Spirits expended. has demonftrated that the Expenfes of Animal Spirits^ are in a much lefs Proportion. So that when t\\e Animal Spirits are but as $ to 8 r the Weight fuftain d by em fhall be as i lifted.$i)ilofopt)tcai dom and Defign . the like or the other Propor tions of the Animal Spirits-^ efpecially. in burfting the Blood the veficnlar Cells of the then a Mtifcnlar Fibres^ to be as 8. a. the And Difference becomes moft fcnffble between thefe Animal Spirits and the fuftain d weights^ when thcfc Spirits are expended in greateft Qtiantities.

and we fee the wife Author of Nature. and without which. unaftive.. and our Blood circulates. What a ftrange variety R a tions . and No\v dull. by which we have that Livelinefs and Agility. that no Expenfes fliou d be made therein that cou d be avoi ded.of Natural Urttcjtom of Nature is this ? Here in great Labour.. not reduc d to the necefllty of having is Man who twice or four times as much Vi&uals. and agreeable to the Neceflities of Life. the Animal Spirits which are the Subftance.by which all the Pleafures of Life are reliflied.... we that the Spirits are the moft precious things in all the Animal Body. as one that is under no neceffity to work... by all know which we move. that aftuates all our Enjoyments.. a Subftance.. has taken wonderful Care. or rather.... we live.. are fav d as much as is poflible . /. fo neceflary and ufcful was to be fav d by all means poflible. the very ElTence of the Blood. and all Sensation perform d... we are languid. and thoughtlefs. of Mo3. io that a is obliged to hard Labour. this. that Chearfulnefs and Tran quillity. e.

al ways in fome part of the parallelogram form d by the outer fides of our Feet. the Center of Gravity being pofed as naturally to keep their Heads creft. and if at any time we chance to rhrow this Line without that Space. by which means we are kept from tum bling. and Rreaft. have all tjieir in the Surface of the Watery there is a Bladder . the various Motions of our Head. and fo be in hazard of our Arms.. ftrongeft Mufcks upon their Breafts. whereby they are kept in the fitteft Pofture for fwiming or fo difflying. by a Line drawn from it to the Center of the Earth .^44 tions are our Organs capable of? There is no poffible one.. Thofe Animals that are defign d for flying or fwiming on the Surface of to us that we want. and two Lines drawn by our Toes and Heels. the Center of Gravity is fodifpos d. immediately bring it back within that Space. as to fall. and falling. that might be ufeful and how wonderis the whole Machin adjufted ? For iully our erc& Motion. And in thofe Animals that live with the Water..

than the Fluid they fwirn in. by the Comprefllon or Expanfion of this Bladder... Birds moft and Fowls that fleep^ refting on one Foot to eafe the other. But this Bladder is commonly of Air. to render them Specifically lighter or heavier.. and fb fink. as renders em in an /Equilibrium without any Pain. d with Air.. that fo the Center of R 3 the . naturally lay their Heads linger their Wings. which being cut out. or as they pals to a Specifically lighter or heavier Element j for by taking in more Air. live and they commonly alter their Equilibrium. fuch to wit. they become lighter than they were. which is under fome Degree of Condenfation. with that kind of Fluid they in.of Bladder Natural ^elision.. either fwims on the Surface or finks to the Bottom. and by let and fo neceffarily emerge ting out fome. they become heavier. the Fifli ever after. by which they let out and take in the Air. and fb fink fill or emerge as their Occafions prompt them. whofe Orifice isendow d with a Mttfcular Sphintier. from the preffure of the full Mufcular fides thereof.

may grafp the Branch more ftrongly. are fo ftraitned as to admit only what is fufficient to repair their De All the considerably thick Bones cays. that their Claws by the Gravity of their Body. XLIIL The Bones compared of hard Fibres. without any Mufcnlar Contra&ion. are either hollow or and both fpongious^ forts contain an oleaginotft Subftance. which upon the compleat growth of thefe Bones. incline a little backwards...... a thoufand fiich Inftances^ relating to this Head alone of confift Mufcular Motion. ty d together by Tranfverfe ones. prc- ferv d . after the manner of the Mnfdes ^ they are nourifhed by Blood Veflels which enter their Subftance at feveral Pla ces.the Gravity of their whole Body. Thefe are wonderful Inftances of Divine Wisdom and Providence ^ but thofe who pleafe to will confult that noble Work of Borellfs.. may fall upon the Foot they ftand on^and the Animal be preferv d from overturning j and thofe Fowls that deep fo on the fmall Branches of Trees. find to their Satisfaction.

. Thereby the Arti ftronger^ for had they been leffer. that in all the Revolution of the is kept at the fame diftan-ce of the Sevridiaweter of the Tubercle from the Center thereof.. whereby . The Tendon of Motion-. e. There are fevcral and ter R various . By the largenefs of thefe TftJfirr&r^ it comes to pafs.. in the Articulati*OHS of the Shoulder and Knee efpecially. And 2. and thereby grow brittle... JaeiiQton. no other Contrivance pofllble. 247 which by the Heat of the Body. but this cou d be obuiiVd. is exhal d through the po rous Subftance of thefe Bones y to fupple and anoint their Fibres. more than a Semicircle which by... is capable of moving round. the Cen joint. that they dry not. or equal to the middle.. and Purpofes: For culations are i.of fefv natural Veficks. and that for very wife Ends call d the Periofteuw. the Arm and Leg. /. is considerably bigger at the Extremities than at the middle. All the Bones are cpver d with a very fenfible membrane din little each large Bone. our Limbs had been in hazard of being dif- made jointed upon ev ry Occaiion..

might not re quire tpo great an Expenfe of Spirits. as was reconcileable with a fufficient degree of Strength.&amp. for he has made em light. as the Thigh-Bone with the Ifchium^ others are by way of Charnal. by evacuating their middle Subftance. by which the Bone can move equally any way .. and that the mechanical Ma~ chin might not become a Burthen to now the wife Author of themfelves N&amp. to move them. as the Radius with the *Vlna^ a third are only ty d to gether by intervening Cartilages 5 as the Vertebra of the Back.. ought to have been as light. snoft convenient that might be. wonderfully ted for the Motions of the feveral fit Mem ber^ one is like Ball and Sockgt. . Now all thefe dif ferent Articulations are from the Neceffi- or Motion of thefe ty of the Situation The Bones in order to be the i$ones. and yet they are thaji if th?y ha4 (iranger by very far.348 ^t)ofopl)icai various manners of Articulations of the Bones into one another. has wonderfully provided for this.lt.. cpmpos d ..gt..*~ ture. that the Inftruments of Motion.

or the firfi is twice as ftrong as the fecond. of which the Center of tlv* Articulation the Fulcrum. equal lengths. the Quils of their Feathers and their Bones are^ and this wonderful wife End. how light and yet how ftrong. as their Diameters fo that a hollow Bone of ^ double are -. the Tendons are the Ropes. There is a wonderful. Connexion. two Bones of and of equal Number of that of is to the Strength of the other. or overcome any Rcfiftence. the Strength of the one Fibres -. to a clofe one of the fajiie Num ber of Fibres.lt. cou d no othcrways be obtain d but by this Contrivance... and exactly nice Geometry ufed by Nature in the Figure. BoreUi hath fhewn that thefe Bones are fo many Ve&es. and move a- ny weight.* of the Mttfcles elevate. is as 2 to i..of Natural Religion* folid Cylinder. ^nd pf their Cover the . it is wonderful.. Order^ and Motions of thefe fiUars of the Body. This is moft confpicuous in thofe Animals that are form d to fly .. by which the Vires Moti~ is v&amp. compos d one has demonftrated. Diameter.

but have gone forward like a Poft or a Pillar.. which made lends Nerves to all the Inferiour part of the Body. had of one entire Bone.. whole wou d not have been pli- for the various Poftures to put our felves in. muft have it been all a large Angle upon their innermoft edges. and then Then. then the Articu lations of thefe Bones in bending our Backs. without Articnlations ^ we cou d not have ftoop d or turn d.. i. it were alone a fufficient work. the wife Contrivances3 and prudent adaptati ons of thefe admirable Machines for the I (hall inftance benefit of the whole. what can be more wonderfully contriv d than the Backbone.the Muftles-.. to {hew all the Necejfities. had it been compos d of a few Bones only. only in two or three proceed.. had bcei* perpetual hazard of being depriv d of the Inftruments of their Motions^ befides that the able. have If it had we . and fo the Spinal Marrow. Particulars. had been in hazard of being bruis d at ail quently in every ftooping j and confethe inferiour Parts.

is bent after the manner of the Catenarian Curve. the Ar* ticulations might have been cafily disjoin ted. we had not been capable of thefe Varieties of Motk ons that we now are. that curity of runs down its Cavity . and brings the of firmnefs . from being thruft backwards or forwards.. *5 * of various Bones without inter d have had no vening Catilages. if each Vertebra had had its own proper Cartilage.. we fhou more Benefit by it. keeping the middle. or had thefe Articulations been after the manner of fome others of the Bones.of corififted natural Beligion. than if it had been entire without Articulations. ty d by the Back for the Se common Cartilage. that Medullary Subftance. to hurt the Spiral . of the Body is the for by thefe beft that can be imagined as it Hulk many and what a plain fmall Articulations upon {bmeand fmooth Surfaces. the oblique greateft degree Proceffes of each Superiour and Inferiour Vertebra. the Contrivance of were. this So that we fee. by which it obtains that Curvature that is fafeft for the included Marrow.

it cou*d not have giv n a more pregnant Indicati on thereof. the Ribs fhou d wou d have mov d upwards and forwards^ than backwards. Certainly.. if infinite Wifdom were fuppos d to have fram d this part.. thefe Proceffes force the Ribs to move upwards.. might have all man ner of pofllble Motions j but the Vint and Cub it us is join d by way of Cbarnal.which cou d not dilate^ were there no Tranfaerfe or they otherwife difpos d. had not the been fo plac d as they . End.2 Wlofopl)icai Befides Spinal Marrow. As I have obferv d be? fome Bones are articulated after the manner of Ball and Socket as the Humerus with the Scapula and that for this wife fore. Tranfaerfe Proceffes are. that the that Arm .. to keep the intermediate Vertebra from being thruft backward or forward. then there fon why have been no more reain Inspiration . Proceffes . . Now can there be a more manifeft In* fiance of Council and Contrivance than this. and fo lift upthe-StowiM**. whence the dilatation of the Thorax proceeds. 2. But as they are now contriv d.

Nature in thefe Motions lofes no Benefit in the feveral Parts. becaufe thereby in grafping or fqueezing. Thus we fee. for that Articulation of the Shoul der. thefe points of the Fingers which are at the Articulations^ cou d only come into contact cou d not be conveni Proportion to the middle with the Body fqueex d ^ and fo the Aftion cou d not be uniform. there was a hazard of bringing the direction of the A&ion of the Tendons of thofe Mufcles . the Hand by the greater Strength in this Joint. that it could have by another of the fame kind in this other Articulation j and we fliou d have loft the Benefit of fiich it.. that can con. takes off the Neceffity of another having all the Motions. 3. ently fo large in of thefe Bones as they are in others. Be- caufe the Tubercles of the Bones of the Fingers and Toes. here .of ^atutai ffieligiotn a53 that this Articulation might be the more for had it been after the former ftrong. and by this fmalnefs of thefe Tubercles. manner^ we fhou d have had no Benefit thereby.. fift with the good of the whole.

about which at fome diftance from the Center of the Articulation .. or very near the Center of Motion whereby this A&ion wou d have been quite. by a thick Wall of hard Bone. The fame Artifice is us d in the Knee.which contract the Finger and Toes.. fcnc d from external Injuries. which the Wit of Men cou d not have thought d them. to ferve as fo the Tendons many pafs. the dire&ion of the whereby Motion of thefe Ten remov d always at the fame diftance from the Center of Motion.... had they not obferv dons. by means of the P at ella thefe are wife and noble Ends. or almoft deftroy d. of.. are ^ XLIV. how carefully and ftrongly is that principal Organ of the Body. to prevent this Inconvenience. quite through. Pullies. Now clcs. and two very clofe and compact Membranes? What an infinite Multi- . How wonderfully is the Brain contriv d. the Ojja Sefamoidota (call d fo from their Refem- blance to the Grains of Sefawntn) are plac d at the Articulations of thefe Bones. of the Articulation.

and fo occafion a ft agna tion and extravasation of the Blood in the Brain. or any greater Quantity thereof than ordinary . a hundred of which do not exceed one fingle Hair? How commodioufly are the Nerves. are in the Cortical and of begining Nerves in the Mepart. Channel.. at Arteries enter ^ for if do not they did... dullar Part.of Datura! 3&eit giott* ^$5 Multitude of Glands.. And it jin..a Bony able. Thcfe Veins alia do not run along by the fides of the Arteries ia the Braio. d down very remark that the Veins the fame Holes the pafs out. their dilatation and pitlfatzou wou d cornprefs the Veins againft the bony fides of their Paflage. then upon any violent Motion of the Blood.. log d in the Arte ries . that ferve for four of the Senfes y and all the parts of the Su per/our Regions 3 feat out the ihorteft and fafeft ways through proper Holes in the Head? And thole that ferve the Infericarry is our Regions of the Body. as they do . to the dcfhu&ion of the whole which by thcfe different Entries hlachin and Exits of thefc VciTels is prevented.

for the more eafie a cent of the refluent Blood in the Cava . for the Arteries here.do through all the reft of the Body. and with what a Force does it fqueeze out the Blood into the Arteries . How are its varioufly vmfcttlar and effe&ual for its end. Boretti reckons it equal to the force of 3000 Pound weight^ Blood. its point to ward the left fide. the left the . pa and that 350 Pound weight of (es through the Heart ev ry Hour. ... for thereby like a reclining inverted SiAuricle becomes lower that! pbon... into the Mufcles of involuntary Motioi^ which wou d have been hindfed if the Veins had always gone along with the Ar teries for thefe Veins wou d have receiv d the impulfe of the Arteries^ and thereby in fome Meafare kept it from the Nerves. Next how ftrongly is the Heart built. Judgment for the difpos d ! Fibres arranged. which is alfb another wife Contrivance of Nature ^ were by their dilata* tion to prefs out the Juice from the Nerves. and with what are its Columns and Furrows clofer is Contra&ion of turn d a little its Ventricles .

that opens into the Vena Pulmonalis.of the right. fame the in from that of the In the Heart of adult Perfons. by and Situation of Contrivance prudent And ev n the Figure of the the Valvs. w hich r runs from the Tmnl^ of theAorta. upon the equal prefjureof the Blood on all Hands^ and the Rcfiftance of the fides of the Vet (els. juft oppofite Y&tW) to the Mouth of the Cava afcendens^ there is a Hole from the Cava. 257 All the Auricles and Ventricles have Valvs . and iscall d the Foramen Ovak^ there is likewife a Paflage. Valvs themfelves. is feveral different for wife is Ends and Purpofes. in this which is moft wonderful the different Stnt&nre of the Heart in the Fatus . Batumi EcitQion. Now the Blood which is receiv d by the Placenta from S the .. to the Trunk of Arteria Pulmonalk. is which Inconvenience this entirely prevented. which wou d to the Ruin of the Animal . But that Affair. in the Places. whereby the Blood has a in its true courfe forward y but paflage the fame wayis hindred from returning frequently happen..

fo that the Blood that comes from the Cava afcendenf. Blood that comes from the Super iour Parts of the Body. which throws it . from which it is fent to the Cava.. from whence the communicating Canal. in the FoetiM cou be- d not go through the Lnngs^ their Veficles by their coHipreffure upon the Blood Veffels. to be difpers d over the Body. it is imme diately carried into the Aorta. cle. pa-ffes only through the left Ventri is The reafon of which caufe the Blood Paffages. which carries it to the left Ventricle of the Heart. by which it is fqueez d into the Aor The ta. is diverted by the Ifthmns of file Cava from the for amen Ovale.into the Arteria Ptilmonaltf. and falls into the right Ventricle. by pafles only through the right Ventricle../ obftrudHng that Courfe^ neither indeed. to the Tntnl^of theother^by the Cava it is thrown through t\\eforamen Ovalejnto the VenaPultnonali*. is by the umbilical Veins car ried into the Port a.. by a Canal which goes ftraight from the Trnnk^ of the one. whilft that which comes from the Defcendens.the Mother. did .

after the manner already explained. And through the Lungs fo finding a free Paffage it runs no more . and by the current in the /Wmonary Vein. but when ceiv d.of Natural 2Mi0tom 25 9 did the Blood need to pafs through the nouriftied from Lungs.lt. is fuflicient for. the Valve of the foramen 0* vale is {hut fo.. by the diftenfion of the Lungs. before and after its Birth This is a plain Indication of fore-knowledgej and of fuch an one as no thing but Omnifcence. by : the communicating Canal And fo that dries up.. that the Blood can no more pafs that way from the Cava. in her Lungs .xtw being the Mother. it all comes into the Air . that neceffities ! S a can . whofe Fluids had already rethe Advantages they cou d reap from the Air. the F&amp. for the different how of the Foetus . And this is certainly one of the moft con vincing Proofs of Defign and Conafel.. Now wifely are thefe different Channels for the Blood contriv d. and is no longer nouriflied from the Blood of the Mo is taken off from ther j this preflttre the Blood Veffels .

nor be forewarn d of approaching Danger. What Animals cou d not provide themfelves with Food. diffe and different Circumftances adjufted^ Periods of their Lives. cou d not guard againffc it^ without the Benefit of Light. by the wife Author of Nature rent Provifions are made.. without Houfe or Habitation^ and .. for to provide for an Event. and confequently.can pofllbly be wifh d for . for it s evident. by fome intelligent Being. But this is not the only Inftance of a Precaution. the animated part of this Syftcm^ wou d be but fo many PupfetSj tofs d up and down by Chance and Organ ^ Fortune. for thefe various a noble piece of Get?metry is manifefted in the Fabric^ of the Eye.. and fore-deffgn d. feeing. all the feveral Steps of the growth and Vegetationfioth of Animals and Plantsy have been forefeen. and the Provifion defign d. and the manner of Vifion ! Without this XLV. that in the natural Courfe of things. that the thing was forefeen. muft happen a long time after^ is an infallible evidence.

and Colours of re Diftantes. and u- on the bottom of the Eye. State wou d it be. andfubtile Fluid. for feems impoflible that Light fhou d reprefent Obje&s to us^ at fo it 83 .) Motions^ yea mote Bodies ? How wonderfully muft the feveral Coats and Humours of* this little Ball be difpos d. they feem of fuch a Nature as fcarcely to allow any other Method. and depriv d of all the Pleafures and Con What a mifcrable veniences of Life. to tranfmit through them : that fine. Thefe things are not only contriv d and fram d nited with fo great Wifdom and Skill y as not to admit of a better j but to any one who attentively confiders them. than that the Particles of Matter fhou d be (b fram d^ as by their means to {hew us the Shapes^ Portions. to be confined to per petual Darknefs. what can be more amazing. which is emit ted from luminous Bodies. and refle&ed from the Surfaces of Opake ones .of Natural Religion. and never to behold the chearful Light ? the Mifery of fuch a Life is beyond Exprefllon and Conception And on the other Hand.

hath little !&quot. -. that upon any toucli 3 the Tears might be fqueez d from the la chrymal Glands. it is thick. than the reft of the Globe of the Eye. as to It is of obftruft very little of the Light./- is . fhou d be equally fitted for that end. and fmooth. The fecond Sclerotica. from the Qbjeft upon the Eye.. it is compos d of fix Coats and three Humours.fo vaft a diftance. d the ConjunQiva^ and jnakes the white of the Eye. And it feems impoflible that any other Compofition of the Eye. it lies under the Glands which feparate a black Liquor.. which the internal fide thereof (which Sclerotic a. Opake behind . where it makes the third Coat call d the Cornea^ from its Refemblance to a piece of Transparent Horn^ it has a greater con vexity. but by the trartfmifll- on of fome fine Fluid. but Tranfparent before . firil Coat is call r The fourth Coat is the Choroides it . confifts of feveral Lamintf^ w hich are pourifli d by fo fmall Blood Veflels. an exquifite Senfe. The the Globe of the Eye is fpherical-. hard. to wafli and clean it.

.) The the which is nothing but the Circum it is ference of the P tip illa compos d of circular and ftraight Fibres.of is ^atumi Belfgion. otherwife of a whitjih Colour) for dring the re$e$cd Light from difturbing the Pi&ures of Gbje&sthis Coat has a fifth is Hole before. to let in more the more diftinft.the Retina backwad^ or the Axe of the Eye lengthned. at the approach. according to the ftrength or weakfor when the rtefs of the Light. the ftraight Fibres dilate it. of too near Objefts. Circumference which rifes the Ligawemum forepart of the Eye is by whichthe d outward. to contrafl: or dilate. The fixth Coat is the Kttina^ which covers like a Net the bottom -of the}^ it is only a fine expanfion^ of the ^Fibres of the QpNerve $ upon this -Coat.Vifion.. for the infide of the TiJvea from joins the Choroides^ Ciliare. Light is 5 too ftro ng^ the Circular Fibres contraft the Papilla. which is called the fupilla^ for admitting the Light... apd.. its On Rays.. IJvea. th^ Pifturcs of 84 prefs . that their Force hurt not the Eye ^ and when it is weak.

is The fecond . reChryjlalline quifite to receive the diftinft impreflion of The Optick. upon its back part^ is the F^etina fpread. the in^ midle point of any Objcfr. calFd the Aqueous^ under the Cornea . And confequently y had the Center of the Optick Nerves coincided.. and thinner third is than the ChryftaUine^ it gives a Spherical Figure to the Eye. it is thicker than the Aqueous . in fo much that it will not freeze in the greateft Froft. the ChryftaUine^ next the convex on both fides^ and refembles a double convex Lens ^ it is co vered with a fine Coat y call d Aranea. Nerves are inferted Objefts. with that of the Retina. Aqueow it is The the glaffy Humour. it is The it lies is fir ft Humour immediately thin and liquid^ and of a fpirituous Nature.of Obje&s are fram d. had been vifible . which it keepeth at a diftance from the Humour. as Monfieur Mariotte has fhewn by Experiment. infide in the of the Optil^Axes^ whereby the middle point of ev ry Objeft is diftinftly feen^ for the Center of the Reti na is infenfible.

The Cornea . are the Caufe of Vifion. from the Eye of any dead Animal. with that the the Obje&&amp.. isforefra&ed (by the Cornea and ChriftaUineHumour principally) as to meet again upon the Retina. vifible in the other j fliou for it is impoflible. and there to paint in the fame Order and Proportion.. of Room .but by this lateral Infertion of thefe Nerves.gt. the Figures of external Obje&s painted upon its infide) and thefe Piftures propagated by Motion^ along the Oftic^ Now Nerves. we fliall fee through it. dent by the Image thereof. d fall on the infide of Rays both Eyes at the fame time. The light which comes from the feveral points of Obje&s. for looking then upon the back part of the Retina. what can be more admirable than this ftru&ure of the Eye . becomes vifible . which covers the backfide of the Retina.. (as taking off that part of the is evi Dura Mater. ev ry part contribu ting fomething toward its Perfe&ion. and then placing the Eye a darkened in a fit Hole. the point of the Objeft which is invifible in the one Eye.

when Obje&s are too near ..vea*. and fo confound the Obje&. according to the De grees glajjy of the Strength of the light.. the Hairs of the . the Images are painted upon a Skin.break the dire$ Rays that .lt.a contract or dilate the Pupilla. the Fibres of the IJve. and few of em loft on the The A*U&amp. that the whole Objc& may be diftin&ly view d...Cormais more convex than any other part of the Eye. that the Rays that pafs through it may not be reflected back again upon the Retiaa.. eafily changes oblique Figure. produc d by the of the Opticl^ Nerves. queouf its Humour being either thin. by which all the Rays are ga thered..Eyebrows. to Mufcles protrude. eafie black..he Ligamentum or both the the Bulb of the Eye. when t. for the Expanfion more conveyance of th? Impreflion The Choroides is tinl:ur d to the Brain. The Humour keeps the Retina at a due diftance from the Chryjlallin. to pafs through the Pupilla. The OpticI^ Nerves are inferted on the infide of the dxes of the Eye. render it oblong. Ciliare contra&s.

that they hart not the fight thofe on the Eyelids defend it from filth and light Bo dies that fwim in the Air^ the continual Motion of ty j Eyelids the Cornea^ elfe it it is moiflen and fweep woit d dry or grow dir .. funk in a Hole. to keep it from more pow erful Injuries.of natural . The feveral refraftive Vir tues of the Coats and Humours^ ferve to correft the Errors arifing from the diffe rent Refrangibilities of the Rays of Light. wall d with a ftrong Bone. thence arifing. and fo cou d not guard our felves from the Dangers. between two Obje&s is meafurcd. however one Eye were plac d^ we cou d not diftinfily perceive them that fhou d be fituated toward the fides of our Body.. Befidcs we cou d not diftingtiilh the diftance of Ob)efi:s by one Eyc^ for our two Eyes are like two the different Stations in Longimelryy the diftance by affiftarice of which. when one Eye accidentally rendred ufelefs^ we enjoy the Bleflings of this fo neccflary . Our Eyes are double^ to (ccure both fides from Danger ^ becaufe if the Objects were near. As aL is fo..

coming In thofe Animals that Water.. and that becaufe of the different refraKve Air. the greateft Diame ter going tranfverfly from fide to fide . through ga ther their Food from the Ground the Pupill is Oval or Elliptical. Figure of the ChryftaUin Humour of Fifties^ is a nearer to a Sphere.neceffary a Senfe. and thofe that feek their . in thofe that feek their Food on higher Pla^ ces 5 its greateft Diameter goes from the top of the Head towards the Feet perpen different Figures be to the different neing wonderfully fitted dicularly. have no Motions of their Neck. in the fame diftance. by the Benefit of the It is obfervable that the other.. for that Vertue of Water from convexity which wou d unite the Rays of Light coming through Air 3 \vill not unite the fame fo perfe&ly at a point. thefe ceffities two of thefe Animals. than that great deal of Land Animals .. and living which fend in the Piftures of Objefts around them . for oCreatures that by their ther reafons. have a Clufter of Semifpberical Eyeballs all Thofe Figure.

which Varieties over concur to demonftrate that Objeds at a due Diftance.. have their Retina coloured white .of Natural ^Religion* the dark.gt. or (keeping the Retina at the fame Diftance from that Humor) had it confifted of two Segments of a lefs or greater Sphere^ the Vifion had been indiftinft or none at all .gt. the Laws of remov d that had the Retina been pricks farther &amp.. whofe Organs are found they fhou d have been fb nicely fram d in all the infinite pofllble &amp. or brought nearer the Chriflallin Humor. Now all we know from from. are of the iame real Magnitude our Eyes reprefent them. and under y as to reprefent Objefts at a due Diftance of their true and real Magnitudes. and this we are certain of by our other Senfes. which refleds the light and enables them to fee beft in the leaft their ifi Food light j thefe are wonderful and furprizing Inftances.. or had the Di ftance . of Forefeght and Connfel in that Being that fram d thefe Organs but that which to me fair^ is is moft furprizing in this A that in rational Creatures.

we cou part of them at once. any thing confiderad have feen but a very fmall bly. but by . had our Eyes magnified Obje&s.. we had feen Obje&s ev n at a due Diftance.270 ftance been fitted exa&ly in the Focus of the Chriftattin.. bcfides that thus we fhou d not have difcovered the true Magnitude of Obje&s ^ which wou d have had a thou fand fatal Confequences. either bigger or lefs than the Truth. and hindered us from taking in any other Objeft} in a covered all Word. which we cou d not have difcovered..... which wou d have expos d us to a thoufand dangerous Miftakes^ for Example. but had it confifted of of Segments of Spheres^ leis or greater^ than thofe of our Chriftallin Humour^ that are at prefent. wou d have ftancc 3 and we our View. or the Atom that we now fcarce take Notice of. and twenty dange rous things might have been in our ways. the Precipice that perhaps was not many Feet from us^ might have appear d at Ibme Paces Di- have tumbled down^ ere we were aware.

. we coti d have feen them but faintly and iridiftin&ly all mi nute Bodies wou d have vanifhed. Can there then be a more pregnant and convincing Evidence of the Being of an infinitely wife Power ^ who out of the infinite pofllble Varieties. than thofe ofReptils.. and we might have been deftroy d by thofe which we thought at a difbnce.as not to acknowledge the Bounty and Wifdom of the Au. there are Infinities of different Ways. likewife. and then ev ry little Particle. thor . fo that our Promuft have been flower greffive Motions. wou d have been able to have damn d up.of by a great deal of Pains .. the Blefllngs of his Eye Sight^ whofe Mind is fo deprav d. of difadvantagious Fabricks of this Organ^ has fingled out that only one. our Eyes might have poffibly been form d 5 none of which cou d have brought with it^ the Advantages the prefent Strufture does. . In one Word. that was beft . and obftru&ed our ObSight ^ and had our Eyes diminiflhed jeb confiderably.. he certainly deferves not to enjoy ..

and purifie our particular Modifications) wou d : Atmofyhere ^ by drawing it in we fitted to live. yet neceflary Ufes our Vapours are fupported. in Feeling a general one. is perform CircH* by it Sounds are convey d to our . fhou d ferve us for fo ma By it ny different.the ravijbing and aftonijbing Stru&ure of this noble Organ. XLVI. to be there form d into Snow or Rain. and what can be more wonderful than that the fame Medium of Air. of which the reft are only without which be our Lives very Comfortless. its and our Blood lations . this of It is by Means Senfe. and buoy d up to the higher Regions . we enjoy the Benefits of Converfation ^ and the Pleafurcs of Mnjick^ and by it we are forewarned of thofe Dangers. our Eyes cannot inform us of. it s which fail our Ships. according to the Exigences of different Climates^ by Motion our Winds are produc d.. Hearing is the next Senfe in Dignity to Seeing^ (for I reckon his thor of Nature.

or any hurtful thing. i. a thin Membrane^ like a Drum. the Mouth. riming firft downward . Paflage refembline m it T . the Head of Circle. The Meatus Andit or his ^ which is a contorted Paflage for the out ward Air. that have no Communi cation with the Air. In Bony Barrel there are fevcral Holes. one of which opens. coming in by the outward Ear. behinds the Palate of this and receives Air to fupply thefe Cavities. Next to the Barrel^ is the Labyrinth. 273 Ears.. and the Os orbicular?. here upward. from corroding the Tynrpa?ntt& y which is a fecond principal Part of the internal Ear.of Natural Bciigioti. which hinders Infe&s. and other Mcns Thoughts to our Minds. ftretch d upon a It is behind which is the Barrel^ in the Cavity of which there are four little Bones call d the Hammer^ the Anwily the Stirrup.. and then are many Glands y which feparate a vifcid glutinous Matter. which ends in the VejiibuhtM y and is follow d by the Cochlea^ which is a a Snail s Shell.. The Internal Parts of the Ear are thefe.

in the Labyrinth and Cochlea fo that as the ex-r . to ftrike the in-* ternal Air after the fame manner.atus Andit or ms or to the . are thereby mov d and as the Drum is ftruck by the external Air. on which beating. Waves in a Circle round it) thefe are gathered by the Concha. and carried through the Me. the four little Bones that are in the Barrel. . after the fame manner is the internal Air mov d by thefe little Bones and this internal Air. raifes in the Water. or ex ternal Ear... makes $ anlmprdlion upon the Auditory Nerves. mov fo the. Now when any Sound is propagated in Undula the tions. to hinder d. and all Apparatus feeins intended. excites thefe undulations in it. after the manner any heavy Body thrown into a (landing Lake. Tywpanuni Drum. thus mov d. through the Air (the Sonorous Body ftriking the Ambient. tcrnal Air ftrikesthe Druwfo does it move the Bones in the Barrel. Air by many repea ted Vibrations.. and as k is accordingly is the Impreflion inade upon the Auditory Nerves..2/4 it Auditory Nerves terminate.

for we find that too fudden^ and violent a Noife.. and fometimes to diforder them fo^ as to Now how wife deprive us of this Seuje. for the Conveniences of Life Had it been more exquifite.. the buzzing of a Flie^ or the Noife of our own Breath. deprived of all the Fleafures and ! Advantages thence arifing : fcl that it s e- vident our . T 3 .of Natural ffidigiotn the Sound from coming -with too great Violence upon theib Nerves. we fhou d have been in proportion thereto.Noife had been capable of difhirbing us. Fabrick of this Organ be demonftrated of the fes. which for Brevities fake I mult now omit. ly is this neceffary and plcafant Senfe eontriv d.Hearing^ is nicely adjufted to the Gonvcmencies and Neceilkies of Life^ which is a of Deftgn in the plain Inftance the fame might two remaining Sen. Wou d have pirc d our Ears like a Peal of Thunder. is ftill able to difturb thefe (lender Tubes. then every little &quot. and the Morion of every little Atom wou d have rob d us of Reft and had this Senje been any thing confiderably more dull.

not only in the Veins the Lymfhaticks. all thefe Valves^ opening toward the term of the Natural Motion. and obfervable that this laft Channel always goes up the left fide.. of thefe Fluids... Valves. in their Courfe. and with others..... as before.and that for all unite again in this w ife End r .$M)ttofopl)icai all have before obferv d.. at any fmall Diftance from the Trunks. It is likewife remarkable. Thefe Valves are but in vifible. that all the Branches of the Arteries which go off. by which their Fluids are per mitted to go forward. that ... when any fmall Artery is obftru&ed or cut. do one Trun^ whofe Branches communicate with one another. that by the Pulfation of the great Artery. but hindered from returning back. upon which it immediately the Chyle may be propell d upward. but fhuting by the Preflure of the Blood in a contrary Direction. the La&eals and it is DuStus Thoracicus-. and thereby obftrufting that backward Motion. the Blood may . lyes. that the Canals except the Arteries have I XLVII.

to the primary Branches of the Ar and doubtlefs the odds is teries . has Nature been in the Stru&ure of the gal How Veins ! . whereby it appears the Diameter of the Aorta^ does not bear a greater Pro portion.. Ke/ll. to the Parts communicating below the Ob- which muft have otherwife been depriv d of Nourifiiment. before demonftrated in the Blood require different to fecern the ^ different Fluids in thefe Glands minution of the Velocity is the Proportions Dr...than ^ to 7 : fru.of Natural ^Religion* the 277 may be brought by Branches. (to whofe of the Ac Trunk. Di* evident from : this curate Compendium y Anatwiy of Human Bodies I have always had recourfe where my Memory fail d me) has giv n us all the Branches of the Arteries to the ateat . and by which as was . or its Entry into the Aorta^ becaufe it is of thefc extreme Ar teries the Glands are form d them the fccretions Velocities are made. ftru&ion. greater in the fmaller Branches.. . The Velo in the extreme Arteries city of the Blood is confiderably lefs. than that of the fame at the Heart..

perpeud/cnlar backward. not omit here the wonderful Contrivance feveral of Nature in the Pofition of the the Vterns j the Parts of the Ftfns in in the iirlt part of the time Skyll whereof and of its Geftdtioti being Very thin. than thofe of Walls is in lefs. which when the Blood prdfles back. it s Gravity afting laterally to the as in thofe . are are tornits fill d. Bcfides. for their widening Channels. and foftop Pailage. Now thcfc Valves were ufelefs in other Veins.$fttlofopi)ical of the Blood.. I can to fpeak of the containing Veffels. Veins.. large . Veins ! for becaufe of the lefs Preffure proportion the Arteries. againft the fides of thefe wi the thicknefs of their dening Channels. Occafion to the Blood to pufh back give no and not ward. Branches of thefe linall the Horizon communicate with one another. which flick to their Sides like fo many Thimbles. that only thofe Veins that nin perpendicular to the Hori-j^off. but the foreward Motion of the pres d bv Blood. are endowed with Valves.&quot. that the for the fame ends and purpofes and having now Occafion Arteries did -.

and fo to put a Clofe to this Chapter. but about the time of its Delivery the Skull and hardens^ the Limbs and Members ft retch out. though I have at a few of thofe Inpointed only ftances that we the Animal Fabrick and Oe~ conowy affords.. it in a Direction that upward.of natural Beiigiom only Membranous. in the Formation of thefe Organs and parts. diffidently to wit that are wonderfully wade. Counfel and Forefight.. has .. I now come to make a few general Obfervations under one Head. the Thorax and Abdo men with the Limbs are fo dispos d as to make Fluid the Head always emerge out of the or at leaft preferves it is ftill it lies in. but I haften to thickens... XLVIIL Having I think made out that great Truth. and fo the Head becomes the heavieft place in the Body whereby it tumbles over.already fwell d to a far greater Bulk . a Cloib.. with its Face to toward it s Mothers Belly. and acquires that Pofture which is fitteft for its Deli Thefe are fignal Inftances of very.

that are of moft life. and Minerals..gt.. that thofe Animals.280 Bulk than I at firft defign d it. whereas the IV tridge ty &amp. and Climates. and Hares. and is are found in moft Places.. than Foxes or Lyons-. as the Woodcol^ and the Dove. the Infitiency of the Cawe!. Corn is the Produft of all Soils. which is but fcurvy Meat. and are of Food.. and are more produftive of their kind than others. and Advantage to us. while other more curious and nice Plants will only thrive in their proper Soils: Thus Hens^ Gecfe. Thus Iron is found almoft every where. fo long employ docility ed in War. and the Pheafatit hath fifteen or twen and thofe which lay fewer. and Turtles are more produHve than Crows or Jackdaws.. than the fitnefs of ev ry Crea ture for the ufe we make of him ? The of the Elephant. lay oftner. and Conies. It is very remarkable. two Eggs. are fuch as will grow almoft in every Soil and Climate.. Plants. but one. nioft value for for . What is more admirable. and the Alka and fome lays but other Sea Fowls. thus a Crane.

. fince their (lownefs allows them time to dwell as Snails and Moles longer on an Objeft. as Fifits and other Inhabitants of the watery Element. it being ufclefs to fuch. b* caufe thefe Teeth render more Stomachs both Jaws. whofe Breath * Foam. Sd alfo. and ev n Excrements are fwcet. the Cleannefs. Beauty^ Strength. have no very quick fight. thefe other \Vou d beufelelk. have brisker Eyes^ and a more as Hawkj and quick piercing fight ^ Hares. Thofe Animals alfo. when the cumftances of the Animal wou d haverendred ern Fo ? Thus thoFe Animals that are (low of their Nature... Expcnce of Organs. and there by fo well fitted for our life frugally and Service ! How ufelefs has Nature avoided any Cir-. and Swiftnefs of the Horfe.of Natural SRtltgien* for travelling in the parch ferts^ d and dry De- the gentlenefs of the Sheep. thofe Animals which have Teeth on have but one Stomach.. but thefe that are enclow d \vith a quicker Motion.. tl iifelefs . that have no Ears have no Organs for making a noife with^ becaufe \vanting Ears...

asinBeafts. Counsel ^ and Meliority in the Contrivance arid Fabrick of the feveral Animals . have three Stomachs to fupply the want of thefe Teeth.^i)ilofopi)icai ufelefs and thofe Animals that have no upper Teeth or none at all. and confequcntly can have no has not fo great Ute for much dexterity^ well q. fiiap d nor eafily applicable a Hand..be prevaiKd upon by thofe behind* THE .. Bat tho. may be gathered by any one who will cpnfult the V/ritings of natu ral Hiftorians. thcPattch^ the Read and the Feck. and in all granivorous Birds. the Crop. the Echinus and the Gi^^ard. has a better and more eafiiy manage able Hand ^ whereas a Mortice that has littie .. partiqn to his Body than any other w* mal. Thefe. and a thoufand fuch Inftances of Wisdom . who numbered all our a and appointed them out their feyeral Ends and Uies v I am afraid will flpt. the God who rules in the King Earth.Brains.fe who I will not be canvinc d by the Inftances that there is have brought doms of parrs. A Man which has a bigger Brain in prq.

in vain we Struggle. are as really bounded and circumour Bodies and chat it is as imis . we perceive nothing. for us to extend poffible Faculties. TT 1 T as JL fcrib d.5t If we drive to enlarge it. CHAP. the Eyes of our Underftanding are capable of but a limited aperture^ and of receiving but a bounded Obje&amp. Of Suture ) of Finltenefs and and the Limits of Human \. our Intellectual as it is determined Limits. in vain things. but Darknefs and Confufion : We may (boner Aaa be able to accem- .lt. attain to are fome we Labour. that we all our Endeavour.. that our Minds and Capacities. for us to add a Cubit to our beyond their Stature . beyond all Difpute. There can never by a perfect Comprehenfion of. the IV. r .

and not .and comprehend. as it dent from hence. are both the fimpleft. Magnitude or Quantity in the Abthat of is which we have the clearis eft Apprehenfions. how fome Exiftence notwichftanding. II. and where he muft be contented to be ignorant. we are forced it becomes a Wile Man to diftinguifh between what he can really underftand. whofc things can be. Preju dices which generally give the for Byafs. the Proper have ties of Lines. leaft compounded. that almoft all jufteft and evi Men. in a Circle of a Foot Diameter. Figures and Numbers. and have the lead Influence on our Paffions. that the Notions and Ideas* of : rhefe things.accommodate a Line of ten Feet. and moft diftindt. to our Reaionings 5 and yet all this. The Reaion agreed in their Conclufions ot which is. who have apply d themfelvcs diligently to difcover. to allow 5 and fince it is fo. in a proper Method. our Minds can never concei^ Interefts. than be able to con ceive.

all. indefinite. both whole Ex finite right An itremities arc determin cl or given. infinite An which is both ways a Line with no Extremity at i. or a that right Line. that. III. . one of whofe Ex definite right Line. there is a Non pita ultra. We may ties. beyond which all is palpable Darknefs. and profound Ob- fome things.of Natural aHeUgfom nor our Imaginations form an Idea of an unlimited or boundlcfs Quantity. but $ i. We may call finite. Thus an equilateral Triangle. tremities is not the other given. but ftill there arc which we can never at tain. e. that Bounds or Limits are given is or that j whofe which bounded on all poffibie (ides infinite chac which is bounded or limited no way thus a Line is that. cotnpreheads a a a . a right Line with but one Extremity. e. . as to be able to reach Heights that may feem furprifing to thofe that do not apply themfelves to fuch Matters . to fcurity. indeed improve either of thefe Facul by Study and Induftry fo far. Circle of a given fide A or Radius.

that neither can be defin d by us. all poffible Degrees of Finites. ( if one may be finite &amp.gt.gt. we muft I tome Mark or Rule. is more than this. to diftinguifli is have the one none. [cribe fpeak any not. rather And feeing before we can is.4 but of an hends a given or finite 4re a fide or Radius. telling its effential we are forced to it is de- by than what it it. that infinite always than any -finite Quantity. from the other. . makes a an infinite fide or Radius. of a given Solid . how great greater loever 5 for whatever Quantity always ex ceeds. from its /?o- Jitive Properties. there certain. nor apprehended. fince we great foever. by Attributes. infinite Area y asalfo or Sphere. but of fide or Radius. muft how can have no Notion of any real Quantity but with the Degrees thereFinite and Infinite ot IV. be Infinite. equilateral /zw&amp. think. an nt/wil* Solid. thing diftindtly a bout the Na what ture ofFiniteneJ* or Jnfinitenefs. in al- low d an to fpeak fo) an Cone.e But ^ecaufe it Infinitenefsis of that Nature.

is tho infinitely Little. Quantity. %- re/ped: another Quantity. Thus their Motions of the is the Centri petal Force. The other Alfoiute. whole Angles of . how refped: of foever : great in any thus finite the Space contained between the Jfymptote of fome Hjperlokids . of one In* or infinitely lathe. lin d dngky is infinite in refped of the cir And there are ocular Angle of Contatt ther Curves in infinitum.. finite at a Diftance finite from it. of an infinite A a a 3 . than circular ones. or this infinitely Grcat^ in refped of that. which is infinite. in infinitely Orbits. in in felves. each of and of themof right of which. finits. yet infinitely Great. CwtaEi are as in infinitely Lefs. which only great Quantities in Infinite . infinitely Lefs : thefe there are Gradations in infinitum. refped: Thus any thofe infinitely Lefs. is in* in refped of the finite Space. and a Line par olid thereto. of the projeflile Force. ^Planets. fmall *Porlions of in refped: is infinitely Little. There is are two ICinds . we the fliall afterwards demonftrate.of IV.

as alfo. Numbers. infinite an Number were thing. in or Space refpeft is of the place of Body. or Smaller. in refped of other in Greater. and confequemly the] would be fo likewife of infinite ones. is affignable j Bu feeing fuch a impoffible. comprehended between the the Curve. Infinitely Small . or^fprefentatkns. and become the fame may be quently will then finitely Great. to an infinitely fmall Part there fo is finite of.lt. we muf confide . may be a Relative finitely of an infinitely infinitely Great one. alfo Small ones. is to finite. diftinft (Pitturet. are the moft fimpl&amp. is infinite. as infinitely Great. for if an in fmali Quantity. Thus the ExpanAfymptote and of the Univerfe. as finite to an infinitely fmall Part thereof. correlatives. to an infinitely fmall Part of this infinitely fmall one. fo is that. o\ Quantities. in refpedl true of infinitely Lefs. ^ and finite V. of infinitely And what is (aid great Quantities. and infinitely Small. and therefore Univerfally.infinite fion Length. and confeinfinitely infinitely Great.

eafily obtained. fo many times. Thus. i. not actually. we (hall have the Progreffion.of any finite determined Number. join d together. we (hall at laft have a Number greater than any finite one. a a$ by perpetual Subtra&ion. i. e. may may be more by fome one or more Mul Like wife. is a Mul equivalent to tiplication of fuch a Number. infinitum. confider thus frame our Notions of infinitely how great unity otfmall Numbers . we can never actually go thro thefe infinite Additi e. to an infinite Number of Uni or other finite Numbers. becauie But Virtually. is increased or diminifh d. and go on in and or diminifliing in incrcafing. of fuch a Number. if we add we fhall have as great perpetually to icfelf. And becaufe a conftant Addition. Aaa from any finite 4 . by fuch ano ther Number. of a determined Number. ons . or the Repreientation of -the Nature. how finite great foever . we fhall have an in* Number. therefore what be had by a perpetual Addition. a* Number as we defire. and if we con finite tinue thus adding in infinitum. whofe Sum at laft would be equal ties. tiplications.

i. finite upon given Numbers-. fo by fiich a Subtraction per petuated in infinitum. fmaller then any finite Number. therefore. finite not that thefe Operations. we flhould obtain a Number. VI. may be alfo had by Divifion. here it is to be obferv d. fb many times as the Divifor implies. in any time.8 finite Number how Great unites. how fmall foever. . loever. e. whatever Cafe by Subtra But ction. can a&ually compleat or exhibit the infinite Numbtr re But that thefe continued in infiniquired. if (uch a thing were to be obtain d. of one or more we fliall at laft obtain a re finite mainder. lies in the infinitely perpetuated arithmetical Operations. equal to any Number. how fmall foever. that the whole may be obtained in this Force of this manner of generating an infi nitely great or fmall Number. tum. would at laft exhibit them. an infinitely is fmall Number. And becaufe Divifion only a perpetual Subtra&ion of fuch ^Number.

if any finite an infinite Number. it may be again added to itielf. at leaftic implies no Congain. it may be ftill i mulciply d or another Number and To it by im plies . in nerating an infinitely great or (mall Number &amp. or Quantity may be once added to itfelf. which may reprefent any infinitely great or fmall Quantity whatfoevcr . you may do it atiply and again. tradition. Number greater Number. and a would make you can mul a Number by itfelf. in being added ta and the Sum of all itfelf. in infinitum^ third time. thefe. (as fome have thought) is evident from both the ways juft now mentioned. implies no Contradi- fhould be again. and again. and if a finite Number. That infinitenefs implies no Cqpits Import or Significarion. e. of ge tradi&ion. itiliouldbefomultiply d^ and after an affignabie N^m^roffuch MultiAgain. 6tion it and confequently it implies no Comradiition it fhould go on conftantly. how great foeverj a than i. for whatfoever has once been.of $atut ai Religion* Vf. plications^ itfelf.gt.

Likewife it s certain that between any two given Terms an Infinite Number.gt. equal to Unity . it fliould be ftill the Produft of going on in Multiplying all which Multiplications. Quantities. of Geometrical mean Proportionals. and the Sum of all which Products. infinite Number of mean whole Proportionals Proportionals in the ratio of a to i. thus be twixt ~ and o the Sum of an infinite we Num ber of to is i mean (Proportionals. the Parts there and an &amp. e. then any finite. which depend upon thefe Sup- positions. would make a Number . i. .io plies jtMnlofopiiiral no Contradiction. affignablc. and univerfally betwixt -and o. the whole abjlraEl Geometry .one. the depends upon and fmall gveat. can imply no Contradiction. at the rate fince the of 2 is and Sum can imply no Con* tradition . Sum is and the mean themfelves. greater ver. and the Truth s difcover d by poffibility of infinitely Methods. are ~ 5 ~ ? 5^c - Befides. how great foe- Number. infinite an fince can affign their Sum .

for every Limit is boundlefs. Univerfe from hence. . for in Extenfion. there muft be ftill further Extenfion . and whereever our Imagination may place the Limits of the Extenfion y of the Univerfe. in thofe that are throughly ac with this Science. will convince us. fame yet a little further Reflection. But that its hfinitcnefiy involves no Import or Signification. the end of one Part of it . to allow of any pofitions. of the ble for. Inftances arc quainted needlcfs. from the Limiting Poinc. there muft be Extenfion beyond thefe Li mits. that whereever we flop. i Contradiction in . fince whoever does underftand this. arc confirmed $ Hefitation. the other backward. need not be told VII. of allowing is evident from the neceffity both Extenfion and Duration to be boundbe infinitely Divifilefs. two Diftances in the one going forward. thefe things. and Quantity to That the Extenfion. is evident is the termination of right Line.of by other which have other Foundations and they are too well fupported.

is the Product of the fide of of a finite the Cube multiply d. equal Sphere. nite Let us then fiippofe the whole fi to the Exttnfion of the Univt rfe.2 it. into the Cube ^oot of -| of the parts & ratio of the^^w to the Grcumi ference. as is well known . to it. equal fide. . and the Radius of a Sphere equal to this Cube. may be found equal to any finite Content whatfoever. and fo it go on without Bounds or Limits. may be found Moreover. is ffiijtiofoplncal the beginning of another. if the muft Extenfeon of the Univerfe is then a Sphere of a finite Dia finite only. for a Cube meter.

finite Extenfanhow Exttenfon. As to Duration. by which there will an extended Diftance re between the Circumference of the Sphere and the Tangent in all their Points ex cepting one. Sphere. of every main. and muft be without an end. be the Circle ADFE-.of Natural Religion. may be drawn. yet time or Duration muft have for ever been 5 there is an abfolute nccefiity. tenjioH without this Circle. will only touch the Sphere in the Point A. that there muft be Ex. fince a plane paffing through this Tangent. for whether thisUniverfe had a beginning or not. and fince this is true. the reft falling without it whence it s evident. of admitting fome real Being to have been for ever. . is ic s evident the Extenfan of the Univcrfe finite greater than it any is 2. it s certain from the Elements of Euclid. of which only the Point A falls upon the from Circle. evident^ tharit both has been without a beginning. great foever. that to any gi ven Point At a Tangent A C. let this Sphere be cut by a plane through its Center. and the Se&ion. or che Sphere by the Sedion of which it is generated . 1 5 whofe QfaJiiM is A ft.

and fince fome real thing muft for ever exift. Duration muft be infinite both a farte ante.& poft. for we cannot fuppofe a time. has been for ever . The infinite Divifibi5. as the Schools fpeak. yet rime could not be faid not to exift. when time was not. destroying itfelf. wherefore Time or Duration. the is fo and demon there incom- menfurability . from the that from were plain.have already demonftrated. fo many different Principles.lt. therefore the Duration of this thing muft for ever be . as I ly the Duration of this Being. is the common one. the very Suppofition. Befides.lt. nothing actually exifting.Philofopby we go upon. and muft be infinite. and confequentever. fo that it s evident. is. in the preceding Chapters . &amp. lity were there of Quantity it ftrated upon moft perfect and unavoidable Proof of. whatever Scheme of &amp. needlefs to dwell it.

gt. Aft Z&amp..lt. 5(A/w are Similar.gt. fmalifoever divi how fliall T p. let men/urability of fufd Quantities. any . whofe Diagonal is !B theft is the fide 2.lt. that ding the fide AT) into Parts equal. y^D to tht Diagonal &amp.lt.. as i: V from whence it s plain.BD.I(m ^ 2. CD be a Square. i yet to ftill or &amp.Pp &amp.of Bdigion.gt. Since the 7H- 4H/w is ^D. as be to Mm. thatfhould have to (P/&amp. fo that impoflible before an adual infinite Divifion of the fide A to find a Part in D&amp.

and / Mcalures of the Affections of Things thj is an abftrafl jfenw.gt. in being further divided. to find a part Tp in the fide AT). or they do not fignifie really Beings. divided in capable of is and confcquently AD. involve and Conception. but the Modes. yet !B ftill on. that taken a certain finite. ever fo fmall Parts. or even infinite Nunber of times. it is abbefore an adtual infinite folutely impoflible Divifion. or frattions have to one another. involves any Contradiction in their Import or VIII. but like all oiher till JdjuhBsj. fignifying finitenefi unboundednefe of the Property. Things in themlelves. were T&amp. or Qua lity of a real Being. I e. Signification. and that from all which. Finitude and infinitude. it s very evident. infirittum j that neither Great. does not imply a real Idea. fliould equal if DS exactly. nor infinitely infinitely Small.any fuch Proportion as either Integers. nothing in their Import but the Degrees of the Properties of Things . it is to fame Subfttntive j thus jjoyn d in finite .

that there no I there fhould be fuch. are of things. and endlefs Duration.of Natural Beltgtom finite JKjiotffledge. . of the firft. tion of a proper Subject (brine Perfons have thought that Infinitmfs was a contra dictory Term. that nothing could be capa ble of having Infinity afcribed to it. that there no Creature. may be which may have no B b b . any one Property. but Infi intelligible Properties nity is till its a vague and undetermined Notion. \? or infinite Wi/dom. fince there infinites I of feveral Kinds.. is and tho I am of Opinion. they thought muft neceffabe io in ieveral others. endowed with yen cerabfurdity. but upon immediately it muft belong to thefirft Be fo could not ing. irs prehend thereof becaule they could not com Extent. and belong to a Crea ture. unli mited Exttnfton. I have fhewn in the two falfity infinite becaufe whatever was in former Seffions. which deftroylily cd the Nature of a created The Being. Import is determined by the Addi . or paint an Image their Imaginations j others have thought. that 5 any Quality. infinite in is Degree tain it is.

may have infinite Length. as Extenfion does no way . perty. . the infinite Degree of that Property. implies the infinite implies the infinite . but unlimited at the o- ther. does not at all alter the former Cafe. imply Thought. lidity all does Impenetrability. either finite all or infinite : Wherefore there is no Impoffibility . but when a finite Degree of any one Property. nor Motion. nor im ply any Degree of that other. j . may be boundlefs. and Breadth.8 no Relation another : nor Dependance upon one Thus a Line may be limited at to. or the mundan Space. and have neither Knowledge. Knowledge and when a finite Degree of any one Pro a finite Degree of another. one Extremity. does not at imply any Degree of another. but thus alfo a finite Thicknefs or Profundity the Extenfion of the Univerfe. may be eternal. a Parallelogram but of a may be of an infinite a Solid finite Breadth. and Length. and yet have no other real Property and Time. fome do not at imply others. nor Wifdom fome Proper as So ties involve fome others neceffarily. or Du~ ration.

and yet be fince infinite in its Knowledge implies neither nor Reflexion. infinite Duration. a created Extenfion. they are only the Modes and 0Vcumftances of other things. that a created Being in their Oiould be endowed with fome Qualities Degree.dce. tho per* B bb 2 haps endow d . which quire alters the Cafe . fdf. which other fuitable Qualities.. nor compleat SubS/&amp. fecond Chapter Time and no real things.gt. may be the Immenjiiy and Eternity is of that firft with all great Being. but in effect. Being. for the neceffary Exiftence of a from as I thing other Qualities. I do not here deand eternal tcmine 5 whether Extenfion. for eternal Dura tion implies no other poficive Quality. provided thefe do not imply others which deftroy the Eflence of a Creature And this Univeife may be infinite -.of bility. unit to have been from all lefs we fuppofe Eternity of tt felf.are fiftences. Natural ffiel&totu or Abfurdity. nor any of the Extenfion Properties of fpiritual Beings. implies many have fhewn in the laft Article of the it . As alfo this World may have been from all Eternity^ and yet have been created.

infinite boundlefs. different Nature. there may lead one to think fo there is no to be endowed with fome Qualities. only kind are capable of Addition. exhauftible ? infinite inexhauftible.20 ^pofoptncai $?inctplcs be abundance of Reaion to .which do not neceflarily in maintain. infinite in their Degrees. IX. that deftroy the Being of a Creature. or Subtraftion thefe and that finite can nei nor fubftra6fced from w/zthat are of the fame things . haps. finite conceivable. which by finite Multiplications. no/* nite Addition norMultiplication of fimtesj&n produce an Proportion infinite.not has finite to infinite any for thefe only have a aflignable Proportion. infinite incomprchenfible. they have few or no common Qualities. is. Finite* and or things of a quite Light and Sound^Coloun &ndMufick. that finite $ is no part of infinite. that Abfurdity in admitting Creatures all I volve thofe others. can mutually exceed one another from whence it is evident. to one another. ther be niteJiQi added to. are Difparata.Extmfion and thought. like Infinites ones finite finite $ and very many quite contrary is bounded.

the other is to be neglefted. becaule no Number. nor pare of the one. wherefore in the can drithmetick of the one. in the dritbmetkk of the Squares of infinite Quantities . in that of the Cubes. 3 But in Bbb . is to be thrown away. as no parts of the thing we fearch for. The fame little is true. ib likewife not zddfidites to. of a higher Rank. nor fubtradt infinites. &amp.lt.5tion. of any infinitely great or Quantity. for when the Proportion between any kinds of infinites. all infinites are to be thrown away. the other. and the Squares. as that between finite^ infinite*. and fo in the higer Powers. the lower to be rejeacdj in the Aritbmetick of the higher kind j thus the Root. fo like- wife in the Aritkmtick of finite*. of is fquare An infinite Quantity. ( mtdy Small) ?n infinite of the lowert kind and a then in the Arithmetick of fuch either infinitely Great or infi* is the fame. becaufe no finite Number make an infinite^ nor any finite part of an infinite make a finite. in refpeft of thofe of a lower.of you cannot add Cows to Horfes. can make you can em from offinftef.as no parts of the Qjt&fitum .

fo we can neither exhauft the Con tents . both our Ima pacities.5lors. by finite Ca fuch as ours are.gtfjiiofopitfcai $tfncfpies in infinitely fmall Quantities. nor form a Notion of Infinity our Me mories and our difcurfive Faculties. mited. of Addition and Subtraction of thele Quantities. I the latter. and therefore is no mean in Arithmetical Operations. be- caufe no finite Multiplication of Part of that. the laft is always to be rejected in the Arithmetical Operations of the firft. ginations and Apprehenfions are finite. by reafon that the Produdt of the of two Fractions.lt. The pofitive Nature of Infinites.gt. we can neither frame a Picture to ourfelves. wherethan lefs to ob ever the Proportion of infinite finite tains. X. this can produce the former. nor run over the Parts of Infinites^ word. or cffcntiaJ . isabfolutely incomprehenfible. is always Multiplication of the But either Fa&amp. by none of the Faculties. the contrary obtains. nor any of the Operations of the Mind. fo&amp. arc li . can we in a attain to the pofitive Properties.

the pofidve Na ture of infinite Quantities. Numbers all finite ( the moft adequate Pictures of Apprehenfion. as we well do now finite ones . of their Nature. in to give us a furniconceiving things. come diftinftly to conceive as the greatcft finite Numbers. as our Minds enlarge. fo that they are very &amp. Bbb 4 far . as we now do the leaft. at the and Capacities. is the laft thing we attain to. that the natural Enlargement of our Minds. as eailly.gt. and our Undcrftandings open. to the natural of our Minds. and us with variety of Objects j but adds Vigor.of ffiatutal Beligfon* tial & 3 Attributes of in Infinites. flies little and that is all that Study and Application does. we might per haps. We fee for Ex- emplc ftinft lities. but we know very commonly. and that a di(Quantities ) of their pofidve Qua Relations. came at hft to be infinite. when we are Children. ends . or Force. we then fliould conceive. and if our Capacities did conftantly enlarge and encreafe. cility with much if Fa and our CompnlMnfions. we are capable to advance. time of our Maturity Facility.

we fliotiid diftinguifli Number of which. Parts fuch as Unity. Pro* +1 +3+4 +5i &c.. and that is their relative Nature. $J)Sofbpj)fcai . which we can attain to. to improve that Part of infinites. it For is the more diftind Appre Infinites hending. that infinites have to one aCapacities. con* infinite Now thefe may be ei unequal. the relations of neceflary to one ano the Parts. i t. i._. ther all and that in a regular. Quantity of equal Parts. for it s certain. fuch as greffion. the Proportion that n has to XL ther. fuch has to an infinite Quantity of equal infinite \&amp. with any probability of Succefs. Since then thus is. fince it is abfolutely impoffible for us to ftretch our beyond their prefcrib d Limits.-. an flitutes the infinite. fince we can never comprehend the pofitive Nature of Infinites. nother.. i4 .&quot. we muft be contented.. io as to it be able to conceive. -. ______. for all the Proportions that finite* have.gt.. far from arriving to that Strength. an as n. or the finite Relations of infinites to one another. the pofitive Nature of Infinites.. .

grefiion aicending or defcending from or the Parts may have no in- of which the infinite Number. or any other Powers of Natural - Num Numbers. laftly. let 2. i + f y alto let 2 QO 4..2 4. fake.o &c. infinite. conftkures the infinite. regular Progreffion : all thefe Varieties may happen in the Parts. where the Pares that at laft con&itute. i. infinitum j for Diftinftion nify finitt oo an infinite Number ( reprefenc or figof Unities or /#- I would be underflood always. &c. &c in may be e- in infini- +z 4. the infinite. an infinite Number. this I here declare once in general^ for fo for all) or oo turn i = 4. or z 4- i -^ i -}- . C0fej. when I do not exprefs its in fmall finitely Parts. or as the Roots of fucb Powers. who(e Parts infinitum are 2. i at laft con- ftitutes or reprefents the i quai. of which. or they may go on in any Geometrical Profinite. in infinitum. are as Natural bers ? or thefe Parts may be as che&fftirif. ininfinior QQ 2 ovoo x ^ in fignify er an infinite Number. Or the Parts. as turn.&c. and CXD a Numinfinite of indetermin d equal Parts 5 then | will m .

. having firft reduc d to thole. From ther. Addition. + + oo oo 3 likewife oo x oo Infinite or the Cube of an oo * is Number and fo of Unites. oo 3 4. = oo J oo ^ + ^ = 00 . which is i. oo e. oo = oo a -}- 20Q K) = .or the infinitely fmall part of an infinity of Unities.-^^^ the Ninth. whole infinitely fmall cjual : with one ano with Infinites.16 ^DflofopDfcal Wnctptes will be equal to*. may be Infinites all Infinites Parts are e- thus. Number of Unities. and infinite the indefinite Power of an forth. 004 oo z . i? r= \j^j z and ^= \J*J a. 5. this and the whole dritbmetkk of and of Finites deduced . alfo oo x oo = oo i * is an infinite i Number x of oo or V+ &*c. IDO+OO 2 5 = oo 2 4-2^=oo. S C H Article L I U M.

=:00? let 004 ^ then oo ? -^.oo 104 17J * 024=007^. 5 . 00x5 oox oo^oo 1 and o * 00^x00^=00 ^ +1. Let be than n by any finite oo Quantity. oo x 4 -J-oo 3 oo a. 00 ^ 5 _7zz:oo ^00^ _400^=:^_^00^. 4^004 aO ? C0^~. oo 4 x ooe = 4eoo 3004x400^= = oo 6. oo oo ^ x 4.. izoo . MultipKcatton. then Subtraction. 007 ^ 3.006?! GOJ 004^=00 2. . z 3 -|- oo 4-x Z 4. ^oo 3 00=003.00 = 00 1 . co i or oc 700 _ 5 oo = 1 oo -a /? 900? 500^= 400 x *. co * -|- oo = OQ lefs n and ob * -}- oo *~&quot. f = oo &quot. oo P~^ oo ? .Batumi aaelfgton* 2 = oo 4. oo 5 -f oo 00 z ~ oo . = oo ]. 1 4X.

&amp. ~ oo or oo ~. 00- ^ Thofe who are ever fo little acquainted with the Speeious Arichmetick.&quot. 2- oo P * I *&quot.* J 5* k OO ^gr = 59/ 4-1* oo i* ft C3 Fractions. f ^ oo ^ oof JtHt -2 ^ J 5 ^7 5^5- . QO * =* f ~ &amp. Now to illuftrate this Ariihne- in Tome few Problems let the firft be th^c of the Sum of an arithmetical Trogrefto j from having the firft Term in y y = a* . will cafily Underftand the Truth and Realbn of theie Operations. 5 * ct ^ = oo 2 ry&quot. XII.28 fiivifon. ^=OO P ^53 ^.lt. Q ^ X OO a P M f O^f e ? -.!? ~l ^ 00 /I ? &quot. O 4. tick.gt.&quot. oo 2* f 7 = &quot.5 | + co A = co ~ A ^oo ep .

= d. giventhe Difference of two Quantities equal to e.. all i . the fame for pens the = o and ^ = oo &c. i Exemple. Sum i of a whofc or firft i Series. hap or oo ) if ^ (^ f a or oo ^ . o 5 &c.gt.lt. of natural Term is d.i or an Infinite Number of U- nities. be ( if I ginning at a. If ^ ==oo. in infinitum =^ 4 i oo i x oo i = ( by the Pvules of . which as is greateft. then y = #* -f- v e -\- TT&quot. of ^9 Dif ic ference. when uncertain &amp.x&amp. and the i Numbers. and Roping at M/zwte may be allowed to (peak fo) vi%.and v ( = o} then j-== ~l^^i^ ^. laft is cxs ^ 4. 4- 4. infinitum) is e- qual to ~\ or the natural Numbers.gt. is u* ^atnral fttUgfon* and the Common theiaft = &amp. by the Rules of Addition ) And the infinitely (null equal Part of fuch a t Sum. } Lee \si fignify.

) or &quot.gt.^=^0 = i f then &amp.= oo 5. or Five is the infinitely fmall equal part of fuch a tical Sum of Arithme 01. given. where a be put to a equal finite Quantity. or the Sum of all the poffible Arithmetical mean Proportio nals. is equal to an infi nite Number mean * of Five s. for Example. between i ^ and o. infinitely Rules of Addition) fmall and the ^ ^ = co ( or oo i ) equal part of fuch a bum. if 0.the infinitely is fmall equal infinite part of fuch a Sum..gt. t Suppofe * + ** Proportionals. f. if (by . for Exemple. we fuppos d. d ootfj V = = oo = oo /?. had been then had been equal to IfJii^.. thus if in^f might be in an Arithmetical Progreflion.= -&quot. i =: ~ . t henj=^-. if a 0. (by. = Difference.the. Number of halves.Multiplication. v = and* = oo i. If inftead equal to an of the common the Number of Terms &amp.. fhould have their Sum .

= ( by to 5 the Rules ofDivifons i. oo * r s and confequently / * ) = cor^oo/ .lt. the laft o. let r co s be as z then a Geometrical at oo Series continued. fmall equal of fuch a Progrcffion is 2. = ^~= part oo 2..o be oo .. to 1 3 for Example. If r be as 2 to then i ^-^ 2.of ( Natural meltgtom 5 and the by the Rules of Addition) fmall infinitely equal Part of fuch a Sum. ~ 31 ^ XIH. be at 0. . if it be required to find the infinitely fmall equal part of fuch Prothat let part be called * the greffions. ginning at fuch a on ing CO OO OO i and ending rate. continued. In let a Geometrical the firft Term be Progreffion call d a y s the &amp. the la ft &amp. .I(atio and if their the Sum s y.. - and go -Ji 7 -]- 7 + s ? &c vi%. f i. If rto .gt./ . firft Term * of the Terms r to sy r * * * then J where y r s = &amp. y be comes -^y.lt. And universally. or tht in finitely u/que ad a. the Series oo m wputum.

the firft be and firft the laft nothing. and of the &amp.i^. equivalent to find the tifytio of the required. Geometrical Progreffion. whofe firft given Quantity. e. y ~ If ~^. if and confequent*. and of the $(atio of the Terms. be and the and gteffion. continu Terms of a ally defcending. the firft Term of the Series. be t . if the firft Term of the Se ries. as the it alfo if the thelaft finite y firft = ~ x be nothing. then jp 7^- =~ finite. = J i. and : rt . of fuch fmall equal parts If it bt to 2. then x = $. an infinite is Number. ^. r ly = if of the Terms be the fame.gt. as i to then * 00 00 for = i.^ laft nothing. then OQ = -- -. Example. to find the infinitely ftmll equal part of the Sum of fuch a Profinite. equal .-iH ii^rh f . and r to *.gV r to If tffytio i i^DaofopDicai be as | to i. be required. may have Term its Sum being a at laft. and fo in other Cafe. and confequent) ly * = ( by the Rules ofDivifan -^-~^ s .

W^. and of the (Ratio of the Terms. then in that Cafe. the Sum of fuch a Procollecting C c c grcffion. begining at different Quantities. ^TY r * a . r to T fuppofed.-. for Exemple. fuppofe the firft Term of fuch a Progreflion ~ .-i 4- 8 j becaufe both their to 2. for the Term of the Series. Sums an are at laft equal And thus s Infinite Number of different Series may be found. begining ac a different given Quantity. both their Sums mufl at laft be equal. i to ~ then a = -}- f f ~ f r^ 4 5. + r* as r -~^. the 3{atio Sum of the Terms. and going on in a different ^atw. different fl^f/Vj. and put the fecond and then Term of the *I(atio unknown. . and going on in whole Sums. D z Progreffion. laft all equal lefs . be a^ and therefore the Geometrical i continually defcending. a Quantity firft than the Sum. may be at for if you pur. a to i . and confecjuently if .of Natural fttUgtott* equal to the 33 of another Progre/fion. j.

to the of either of the two preceding which were equal to 2. & of cwo Terms. and ~. = ^ . that ks Denominator. and having ~ to j.^._ 01 . begining at different Quan tities. . wherefore.14 to ^I)tiofc|)!)ical equal to the Quantity given. 9 fo thatnow 3 fuch to find an infinite Number of Geometrical Progteffions. but to form an improper Fraction (as it s calTd) whofe Numerator being any Number fuch. Term i of the Q(ajf tio^ i/i the Sfnw it felf is. for to find & Series begirjing at its Q(atio were required ~. for 9 2. then Progreffions._ . + - i - infimtum. their Sums fhould be equal j you it greffio^make which all will find the unknown Term Excmple. * confiftins. confequently 5 the firft Term of the Smes^nd of the ^at\o } = being and the fecond ^-. which Series (hould be equal. rrr *7 . i. r Sum -^-=: (in s this Cafe) * rAb^fesss v 3 - 9 9 17 f := a. and going on in different tifytioSy We have no more to do. if it of the Series {ought .- .

% Ccc . for then per forming the iDmf/Joif. wfiwtum. part.gt. thus. Numbers. Again . fhall be fliewn. join d by the Sign us Value may be equal to 2 . continued the firft finite. in equal parts be ~ 4.= -^ equal afterwards all 9~5 15 65 Reafon why all thefe &n&tj confiding of at laft Terms to io different are one another. Let 00 . ~. laft thctifytio of Terms : i to j. according to the Arithmetick of Cojjick Quantities. the the . of a Progreffion infinite r then x or the infinitely fmall Sum of (uch a Progrcfequal part of the lion. Ihall be (by the Method ufcd in the preceding Article ) the firft Term be /. for Exemple. Suppofe the Geometrical laft Term&quot.let the fitft + \ + f &c m * &amp. $ we fhall have the 7 4 Series s fought ]0 &quot.of ffiatutal aaeltgtom or ? 5 . XIV. of the Sum this infinitely equal fmall of the Progreffion Hull the be | Or Progreffion reduc fliall d to ics equivalent.

you if &amp. be equal to an ^ infinite Number of in infinitum. infinite. to an infinite Number of equal parts. fhall be or the Progreffion it felf. three s +3 4-3 +?&amp. finite may Number have Term of its tf^atio its Sum equal to Unity an in- fuch as 4. =a. going in any affignable Progreffion. and infinite j thus if to the Progreffion. &c. the the laft c* 5 the of the Terms i. fliali 3. and s ifd 4 ^^ ^. and having tffytio firft ries the laft Unity. then5=|.*~ 5 then 5= By fuch may have an infinite Multiple or to any other on Submultiple. be i. of the Sum of fuch a Progreffion. and ending at oo .firft Term be * .. which begining firft at Unity..lt. to ~. of any given equal parts. we may Quantity. means.gt. And thus reduce any Geometrical Pro begining at a finite greffion afcending. If it be defied to find a Geometrical Pro greffion. gining at and ending at oo and going on . the infinitely fmall equal part. ~. Term ot its Term of the Se . and having the alfo. begining at the Unity.

infinitum + -f 4 you fliould be triple of this. and having qual to the the firft Term of the Quarto. begining infinity of at different tits all ~= and having different 3^ Let r *a* equal to one another. Unities. whofe Sum you will had it you would have a fliould be equal to an If &ritt. firfl you may thus find luch a Series. &c. poffibly be unfaerfall)) And you may find a Geome* tried Series begining at any given Quan lefs than the fecond Term of the ^atio 9 tity. I fay.of Natural met&totu on -|- 37 1 in the ^(atio of i to 2. a then s and r = ~ Ccc = ^Vo . cTerm of the Series. having its Sum in any given proportion to any other Geometrical Progreffion and affigned 5 confecjuently you may s. vi^. in have a Progrefllon. = oo 2. find an Geometrical Series finite Quantities. infinite con finite fiding of of Terms can. infinite Sum Number of whofe oo . i 8 -f- would 16. then is 5 = -^-^ = ~ Number obcainU fo that no fuch an Geometrical Progreflion.

you may have Progreflions. in are the fixt point computed from the ^xe A1H.H(atto. 4K^.lt. A. and making the firft Term of the Series begin with the firft Term of the &amp. infinitely all different Geometrical whofe Sums may be equal.F.gt.fo that fuppofing one of the Terms of the afTum d at pleafure. you may find gratia the other . let 336 . Huofc H T 5 sr Let there be a Curve dlfciffes 2&amp.

gt. .lt. i infinitum&amp. then ( becaufe 71 D^~~~^ AGLFGf^l x = y~~~ m where ~ | be &quot. If the Indefinite Area required. (b that (mall equal part. that the fpace adjacent. ~ 1 .of ffiatutal aaelfgiom 39 = then tiires. Unity. * 9$ J and the Area AftC DELI^ will W be equal to** i = i i i i = + + + i i i i + 1+5 &c.gt.^nd I j~ i. n n 1 is that i ^re&amp. e and the Equation of the be ) = -^^ Area by the common Methods of Quadra* the indefinite &amp. Now if n i then the Equation of the Curve will be y =3 i .*/ = Crt&amp. x.* becomes in =~ fo ^r 1 4it + + + i^&c. is the continued infinitely in infinitum. IE be i.e* AiBCDELfi^ indefinite will be :*!_ and will the be . . of the Area of the ^polhnian Hyperbola. that evident. to c c 4 C .gt. t ac Cafe) as alfo it becomes i _TI.

and t 3 if it be continued only till its Q(atio of the Terms ly be oo to 2.BEFH the Space i = __ a z i . r and fo the interminated Space. n 2. A CD Lf^. or oo 2. = ~ =^i =2.B .lt.lt. this Space would be double of Space. would be equal to an as alfo infinite Number of two s. contained between the CurVe and its Afymptote. Hyfcrbolick when becaufe &amp. Afymptotes of the Apollonian infinite $ and the whole Space on both If n = A/ywptotes 2. i. in this Hyperloloid. fince the infinite its fmall equal part. Now this firft is is a Geometrical Prois greffion. becomes I. or ( computing only to the Area * where 4- 1 6.lt. whofe Term laft i i. &amp. by the preceding Arti will be x cle. and the Apollonian And y = i like wile. the Area oo 2 &amp. * .?c.40 to both the is Hyperbola.

and the i.= (by the Seftim f + f + f + | O^c. =~. upon i that Suppofition.gt. of the Terms i -i.of Natural -I.lt. A1ET&amp.1 4 J &c. ) .Crc.) only by the pre ceding . . when n the laft Term = i. 5 equal to oo | =| +| +| +| 3 &amp.C= ifx= = + + + + Term of the Series then the Space w4 n n M j^ infi laft whofe nitely fmall equal part ( fuppofing the oo i. equal Progreffion were only Infinite or eo If i. and if ABEFH and the &amp.&c. oo z.o Bcligion&amp. = So whole Jfymptotical Space of 2 the Hyperbola whofe Equation is jf x i.1 4. 1 3 And Univerfally.2 upon fupthat the = pofition that the greateft Term of its un* i. and to laft o. = + j +i + ^ ^w hoi eAfymptotick Space of this is Hyperfoloid. Sum of the Terms ^ = i.. whofc firft Term fl^if/0 1. then the ^r^ and 5 n= = ^= preceding 1 x= AlEDC + 5 + j + i7.gt. and jf=i a i only op the ^re^ is i.6rc. or z to the therefore by the is preceding Article.lt. would be oo 2 4. 4 is i 2 4.

is is ~-^ to oo this Series J[- ^ equal ~ = ^ + -~ confequently if &amp.B = ?i AI= 4 4 w . thus the Area of the Apollonian Hyperbolaj confifts of an infinite Number ot Unities. thofe Geometers meant by the Area s of thefe Hyperbolc ids. i. i -f- +w+n + ? upon fuch a Suppofi* Hence it appears in fome part. of an infinite Num ber .lt. ( putting - A &amp. what tion. fo that the whole Space. ^ == oo they confifted. whei^thc laft Term of the -Series was only oo . whofe 7 Equation. the Area of the Hyperbola. comprehended between thefe Curves^ in infinitum. ^-^j-. in certain Ratio s to one another.gt. atid -f ~-^ &rc and = i i . * is jfx = f. ) is equal to. had the equal parts of which rc. . which might be.ceding Seftion. which in their Language were call d plufquam Infinite or more than infinite. of fuch exterior Hyperbololds. that iome of thefe HyferMick Spaces. and both Ajymptotes. then the the Sum of which is ^ n ~~ .

x of an infinite infinite Number of ~ j but here the Num ber of equal parts. that fhall with the AJymptote If it AftCDEL only oo fymptote. Let the Multiple or Sub. as fliall be afterwards (hewn. to find the Equation of a Hyperboloid. let the given quation be y ^. be y = x~*. for the whole Space in this. to exhauft thq whole Area of the Afymptotick Space. of which the Area of this Curve confifts. confifts. 4. of two s $ whofe Equation s is 3 i &amp. be required. $ fo that though the Parts be the Sum muft be more. as every Body knows lefs.ber 4? of ffiamcal aaeltgton* the Area of the Hyperbola. muft be much greater than the infinite Number of two the former of which equal parts. A the given infinite Space. i Suppoiing the laft Term . is greater than the whole in either of the other two. be a. let the Hyperbola. and confequencly the given . multiple required. for Exetjiple.gt. then it s plain that muft be equal to fl and confequencly H- 7 . Expreffion of the given which contains with the AC.

to fave the trouble of Animadverfiom ( if it be poffible ) I fliall here obviate fome Objections.gt. the Sums cannot be equal the fame Objection parts are . thcnw~ a and fo the Equation a -part of the infinite Space = will be y = ^ it may i be = ~ z 3 ~~ . it is infinitum impoffible. and yec &amp. afcending. and j felf = + +3 + ? ? 4-?&amp. whofe Terms have begin different at different and which given Quantities. to an infinite Number of equal parts. that of an Arithmeticaly or Geometrical Progreffion. fome of thefe Inferences. may appear a little odd. in to OQ or o. their . i -j-i J|-i -j. to fome People. for fince all the fuppos d to be unequal. becaufe. the Sums fhould be equal. and perhaps falfe. takes place in Geometrical Progreffions. aor fcending defcending to oo or o . that might be made againft them . If it be objeft- ed. whofe equal parts i triple r of this. or defcending.i -j-i^ Space and let ic be required to find another infinite = infinite Space.lt.44 given Cfrc. &c in infinitum* Now.%atios. and i .

lt. how are i the Series +1 + 3+4+5+6. there of two s. whofe Sums may actually below an infinite Number of Uni infinite. equal to continued till equal to &amp. i. to oo .lt.lt. us Confider. continued the Terms be Sum oo i of 1+1+4 + 8. of is an infinite Number folltt . j]. have no fuch Proportion. Since are unequal.lt. . How 5 1 + 1+4-1-8 + 16. for Exemple.&amp. as above an infinite Number of Unities. the parts of the firft and the parts two Equations of the third. of three s.of Natural their fyttio afrcligt om Sums fuppos d equal. continued i fhould l be j_ss + ssj_2_LS2^ ~ i ^ a * c.&c. as Well as above Exemple. lee fuppos d to have. continued to oo fliould be equal to 2 till +2 + 2+2 + ber of O*c. i. it 5 for ties.&c. or in a given to one another .rc. equal to o &amp. as their Sums arc In Anfwer to thefe. of i +1 +~+ all continued to oo . Num How the continued to jfliould be but the third part of the Sum &amp. the Number of the Terms become 001. that there an infinite Num ber of Series s. &amp.lt.&c.

lt. nued to oo be may be equal to 2 till + * *H * firft 4.2 r i + 2 i are actually i Infinite. there .gt.. may be the Sum of another infinite Series parts be all infinite 5 equal tho 1 their unequal. vi%* as i i 4. = + + J 4.gt. ^c. all whofeSums above is &amp. be infinite. of one thirds of one In fourths. the one a thus for &*c. O*c. .^ &c.lt.*&amp. all the Number of Se ries equal to oo i.5- infinite Quantity and therefore to Sum of minjwite Series. in fc&amp. i. Exemconti i-j-2-j~4-}~S-{-i6. infirittunt . and fo forth fo below oo i there and oo i -4. infinitum. Greater.ffrpofopfrtcal fours. and (b \ on. oo z z 3 0&quot. tho* Number of parts in both.c. there are an iw/zwrt of halv s.^f. becaufe the . they may be different infinits. for all which infinite- are real infinite Quantities an Number. becaufe. the other a Leis ple. and both have an the yet Number of parts. below an infinite Number Number of Unities. and oo 5 = + V+ ? -f 5. conunued pares. of makes the air finite Quantities whatfoever. * j &amp. 6^c. 1 -[- 1 j e^r.

z. than the Number of Terms But 5 . greateft t &amp. it v = oo 11 becomes than oo the ^. of na at . Progreffion continu the fytio of the Terras r. in firft Series. and fo quickly arrives ac oo i. more particu in the fecond Serai.gt. Now is certain that infinitely oo theLogarithm of lefs. in the fecond for let the Number of Terms of a ed. not therefore the Number of Terms.bf jgafttral meligiom n&amp. and a is t ~^. whereas the fecond on at the goes fame equable Rate. in the Arithmetical Progreflion at i and tural Numbers. fo that there is not fo encreafes faft ? great a as Number of ^ Terms in the firft Series.. be. . the and cheleaft a. only. i .$ 4? and always doubles the preceding Term. therefore i + 14-5+4+5 &c. larly. = where r = . is con- fiderably left.gt. into the Sum of the Terms . becaufe both the laft. continued to oo =: and the -. begining bccaufe the Sum of ending equal all fuch is to the half of the Rectangle of the greaccft. Geometrical in this Cafe. Sum of the . then r V ar f .

ufque ad is double of all the 1 Term preceding + 3 Terms.the Terms is oo . vi^ + z -f 4 + is i dent. with all the preceding. or oo i . there equal to the Sum of all the foregoing Terms. is infinite. to oo in the^dft oof i to 3. is equal to ao i oo i _ = . that the Series i continued to eo i. i 15 and confcquently the and of all the preceding Terms. vable. is Sum of the is laft. ufque ad oo . it is evi Term here is equal to the Sum + i. becaufe every 9-1-17 &c. K^. oo + ^ oo i = ( by the Rules of Addition ) \ . then as for the Geometri in cal Progreffion i Afcending infinitum. and therefore the laft. and fince the laft Term fore oo _ i fuppos d i. in like manner in the Geometrical from i Progreffion continually afcending. therefore the Sum of all the Terms except the laft. every of all the former 8 &c. + ) ( by the Rules of Addition to oo z. i + 3 o . is greater. than +2 + 4+8 i -]- +9 3 . where it is obfertrc. and becaufe the laft Term is oo i .

*. after a fewer firft.%atio. begining at i i. +1 +4 + 8. /. Terms in the than in the fecond the fecond di- verging fafter. j n the n -f n\ times. is by the Rules of Addition oo ) to Laftly. viz. and at a greater Rate than the firft. the Geometrical Progreffion and going on continually to oo &amp. therefore the Sum of Crc. continued to GO i. and confccjucntiy the Sum of all oo 4 and + ~ = - univerfaily. i isi=I Every Term Sum of all the preceding.. arrives at oo i /ooner. as for the two. the -}- of i to n. &-c. and of all the ( 00 1 w = ~i i -[ preceding. if the Series be i 4-4 16 643 &c. be- there are more . caufe firft.of ffiatutai meltstotu + 9+27. and becaufe the laft is oo i. _ i -[- n -f n* all preceding. continued to oo j. then i is of all the Sum every Term triple of the preceding Terms. continued to oo & Odd and . is --^confequently the Sum of the the _ . Number of Terms than ihe bo likewife. Series s tsrc. an a laft.lt.

50 and the i +1 + p+ of as has firft &amp. were equal to the which is abfurd.gt. in the on ^TT&quot. taking AB= i to the Infcri- bed fquare) yet the Area of the Infinitely is no more than B A FG long Tarallehgram i _p i -|- i ^it i from whence the jfrCt continued in infinitum. and confequently the Number of Terms in the firft. ~!&amp. but the Denominator of the firft is much greater. To . it is evident that Number Terms in the firft. 7 Log. that the Hyperbolick i . Area ( fee the following Figure ) is found -]. is t = ^-^ Log.&r. is fewer than in the fecond. Number of Terms It is much lefs. a r* which fecond in the Log. becomes ^-^. both which have the fame Numerators.i -J-^c con equal to i -jtinued till the Number of Terms be infi 1 4FDCB and ( may be objected.lt. nite. than the in the fecond. for the much Number of Terms been fliewn. than that of the fe cond. and 2. would feem to follow that Space ^FPCS..

let A^ To = GL (fee 2 .of Natural ic ffieugtotu To thefe. Diftance. e. than J*G with^S. and whofc Length is oo a ) (or the Diftance between A and the Concurfe of FC with Aft) is greater. is not the lame in both. whofe Breadth is i.gt. becaufe that Number. chat tho each of to an infinite Number of Unities. Concurfe of with Aft.. Not only but a Pwallelo- gram. is becaufe (kho* both FCand FG meet at sn in both. and the Diftance between A and ft ( the FD =&amp. be greater than (hall have C^c. than the Hyperbolick Area. d. i ? and H-i-l-i greater crc.\(l may be al~ oo low d to (peak fo) then b will FG = /&amp. yec the Spaces are not equal. a. is oo c fi x . yet) F C meets fooner with Aft. infinite fuppofing the Diftance between A and B oo a and Aft) (the Concurfe of . make this yet more Ddd plain. i. c = oo AFG=\-iri i/ x 1 5 where than and therefore fo. AFGftt? AFDCft. And i = AFDCft^ + + + i confequently i we i+i. this is be equal anfwered. with Aft. is not the fame infinite and the reafon why that infinite Number.gt.

and . when GL infinite is o. exprefles the Nature of an this infinity you have x = ~ of Hyperboloids. and Al be i. Let n be an =1E n Number. and (hall have a ) longer Orthan the former. of two Curves y x* AG . 3 jx GL. for i . which GL 5 3 in refped of the fame Abfcifs i Exemple. than the point ^ : L the fecond (yx in ) wheg you and take AG the fame therefore the greater you the it will before the fuppofe w. from i. vi%. the longer will the ordinate be. = ( of which the former gives GL =~ y x == the other GL = 3 ~~} v^J^ that which has w 5 ?i = 2. j both LED But they all meet with AC. longer Curve meet with the Afymptote AC. then y = oc~ . integer preceding Figures ) be call d x. be.= -^- flhews. that the greater you fuppofe n to be.e. G L.5* ( ^pofopptcai the fee KiLy. which has i confequently the point i) fliall L in the to firft (yx*=: i approach nearer in ^C. at an Diftancc from A.

lt. Ordinate conftantly which is the proper ty of the Parallelogram fhews that all the ACXGL. z = .5t of the is for the Unity the the Came in both. meet with the dfymptote /L. AC^ before .of Natural and therefore thefe infinite Diftances AC muft be different according to the different Values of of n . .of thefe Hyperboloids y x whofe Concurfe with the Afymftote A Cy we ftiall denote by oo a and y x i we fiiall dewhofe Concurfe with 3 . i is the becaufc y x ^ Equation for the = infinite Parallelogram^ it may be reckoned Thefe things the Hyperboloids. meet with it as alfo infinitely produced. AC&amp.gt. duly confidered will remove all the Diffi culties arifeing in the different Expreffions. in infinite Parallelogram^ refpe&amp. and confequcntly of i any two . only the d d Number of D Terms . among of the Hyperbolick Spaces. note by 09 ^ I a fay that 3 iis lefs than -v/&amp. which n ByferMtidt y x = i . = b. n Suppofe rr = oo in then GL = K * ^O 1 *^CX5 f GL. is which Cafe the i.gt.

of the Hyperbntoidj whofe Equation z is j/x = i confifts. (where n is an in infinitum teger Number. why for Exemple. and yet.z -J. ^-\-^-\-^J^ ^-\-^) &c.2 + i + 2. the thefe )aft are than the greater firft. (if of Terms than the of thefe laft. And Area of the whofe Equation is yof == f.*x z. for Exemjplej^. if we ap has been already faid to this Cafe. ply what for it s certain that the Number greater firft. may likewife feem odd. the equal parts of which the Areas of the dfywftotical Space. be equal to oo ^ ? the Number . muft be Number of Terms in the we fuppofe that theie equal parts exhauft the whole Areas t ) for if the Number of Terms in the firft. of the in others bormAj (hould be leis.) Areas of yet its certain.54 Terms all in all of them lefs is different.. But the Difficulty will raniQi. and in of them. in than the Number of Terms It the infinite (parallelogram. &c. the equal parts of which the Area of the Afymptotical Space.. whofe equal parts are 2 -f. in fhould be m/tfH mto.

and greateft Number) Ib by thefe means an infinite Number of the this Suppofition. then e muft be greater than a. which expreffes the 4/ymptotical Spaces of its AlEDC. in their at oo i .gt. pie. than others. on the Suppofition. equal Parts in is of theft thedfymptotical Space of thefe the Difcovery. (chofe. tr where 2 ^ be or the Ground of . that all thefe Series s flop at oo i and go no further.c. thus equal parts which Dd d 4 i + . Tv^. Hyperbohids. infinitum. they muft be all fuppos d. an equal Number of in Times* Now fome of em. obtained upon cannot be equal to the iw^i^Number of un conftitute the Area . diverging finite n is the fafter.of ffiatutal ^Religion* 5 y Number of Terms w i in the others. -j- flop.n* J- n* -}-n* n\ &c. ni whofe . the Invention infinitely fmM part ^-^ depends up . for Exerru all Series in -f- n -J. equal parts are J JL e&amp. equal parrs. whereas to give the true Hyperboltck Spaces. that the Invention. to go on. jI u yfer -f K j n i equal to oo e. in the that they i unequal Progreffions. But the Truth of the Matter is. where arrive at QQ t fooner.

is greater i -f + + 3 than that of the firft.56 4. and 1. as they fliould do. whereas the febut | + \ +& +~. cho in the time.gt. but the reafon of this divcrfity is. 1 rea of the Curve i + 4+8 5 1 6&amp. whereas the parts are lefs fecond Area is greater than the firft .^. whofe Equation = I .7 *9. becaufe the fe cond Area firft. is equal to the Ais yx&quot. &c.equal to -f 9 the ^red of the Curve whofe Equation is jy x E= i .have the leaft infinitely mean when fmall equal parts. from the Number of Terms . they make the greateft Area j an equal infinite Number of parts are taken. and as the Area of this laft.gt.&c. is taken from its ar the And oo i without confideration of the . fo that the Quicknefs unequal part. riving at or Slownefs thereof. which cond i is &amp.&c. arrives fooner at oo i .which diverge tafteft. than the former .s. + i + + 1 -h 2. If it werepoffiblc to find the fmall infinitely equal parts. reduced to equal parts. but the 2. than the nitely Denomination of the infi fmall equal part.of the l Spaces. firft fo are the parts refpe- dively is .

oftheO^w. have the Relation of one another . for thefe equal parts. or as r p+ . at leaft. of thefe J/jmptotical Spaces to one another. but which them all. can be exprels d. ever to arrive at a compleat Comprehenfion. f as to j . but to thefe Spaces to me. do not at all extend to the whole to an Alfcifs. in it s pofitive Nature. but one of thefe two. even of the Relative Natures of thefe infinite Spaces. which I have uied to reprefent in fome manner their Re* lations. to n+ n l . Infinite equal in the Relati is ons. then thefe i Spaces i fliall be one another. are equally unintelli to find the Expo whofe fuppofe/?. of the other n. then we Qiould infallibly. f n both p i i which Expreffions. Spaces. fuppofe the Exponent of the AbJclfs of the one be /?. . J.of Natural Beligfon* given 57 or oo a . with- Terms being = oo i out knowing what the Logarithm of an infi nite Quantity is. I know no way. Space veil Qtytio. it feems impoffible. gible nent. but if we defire (hall be in a gi fuppofe i to m y to .

double = = = +4+8^16. equally dithe Series. which fhall Jfymptotical Space. ftant the fecond Term for Exemple. Term both. and p then /? =~ _= -i. and the the of the Terms of the afcend refpedively in the Powers of thefe Numbers. = 2. is from the begining of comes equal. = ~. is -2. i.f then -^ n . which happens.iftt .to the other . in the firft is 2. w=== where 5. and the Spaces are (puting isj^l x i) i ^-2 of the Cwwe. become firft than the fame after the firft Terms of in num- bred from the begining. = 7. in the reft fecond. be thefe Cafes. that the Equation have its infinite of that whofe Expreffion is y x *. if /&amp.and n = 2. is fon why is this laft Space the double of the of the lat greater firft.and this in always an affignable Term. becaufe thofe Terms the ter in remoter.. i. and if Exponent Power ..gt. m =2.

From the fixt Point the Indefinite right Line ^.Power of i and | be required that fhall make them 2 both the fame 2** Number 2 w then _ L and = 5&quot. and = z^H!the s . the Parallelogram A FG B would con* x \ tain an w/witfe Space = oo =. is . or own flfyof fo the rf/ymptottcal Space of the dppolhman Hyperbola multiple. Term. ^ A draw draw infini- at ereft a y perpendicular AF i. ^ = Log. were produced turn. and fo on then ~ Multiple^ or Submuhiple which (hews that no of the Jfymptotkal the Jppollonian Hyperbola^ can be Space of found but it felf.lt.- that as its Unity. fb that it muft be the firft and lowed infinite Space its . 5. F in 3n indefinite Parallel to It is evident.B. from n i ? which gives the beginning. that if AB. is Cube ) O*c. its own Multiple and Sub- XVI. which renders in other Cafes 3 If both equal. ^ x ^F. and from A&amp. own Square. FG. It . and Leg.

gt. reprefented ABC DP given call by any finite Number. of fignify the Logarithm then the Equation of the Curve (hall be x.It is required to fiad the (hall Nature of a Cun&amp.C. let this finite Number called y. x.e y FX&amp. or equal to a finite Space. finite equal to Aft. x^/x-^x* where putting x =? and confequenly /x . contain an interminated Space. be d a y the ordinate E D be /x the Abfclfs E A.gt. multiply d into any Number whatfoever. and the Area i. and l let y= x^7~ equal to lx- for Exemple^ ^ let a be 4 then the Equation becomes y is = X-* /x. which with the Afymftote A.

let the Num ber to which we would have the intermi- nated Space equal be a. becomes affum 4. AfcEFG I is x = dfymptotical and given calling i^the^r^is i. alfo 9. the Exponent of the Curve fliall be fought + n=-^r.) and let 6fi be produced i. preceding Article .i the infinitum^ The fame may general Equation for the whole j&amp. the and fubftra6ting Unity (nzto Square A ft El) from the ^ra* thus found.4.-~? Space j.gt. which. let a 3 . = 9 A F x AF Area + theruhat Space is 9 ~AF\* be obtained. we fhall have the remaining Area I E FG a. If a 9. for the whole o. = we have d. and confequently intermediate . from the Hyperbolical Curves ( fee the Figure of the let A&amp. then = = ^^4.lt. cuts the Axe (becaufe the Curve continued.i) = 4 . and ktm=:a i .B=Al be i.) this Area = AFC. for Exemple. and = ~n.

&c. Al/dfs with the Radius AC ks AD Equation is = x7 =r. that involve Quantities Great. may be equal to any finite Space. to the Axe AH y let the Curve.gt.? evident that different two interminated Areas of Curves may be whofe found. infinitely to fmall Quantities.**- =. of the Circle which may have at the ftrtex A the fame De AlE. i/i from which fubftra&ing Unity (= have the the interminated Space 76 IE EG is = +f + two + Hcncc k H&amp.gt.g.\x defcribed. gree .. 9 4 c r Sum or Difference of + 4=13 XVII.=4=1 + we * + f6 4. let us now apply the fame. in ibme few Problems.A*BG be defcribed.lt. C&amp. the Areais.lt.B &amp. for in the and 9 former Solution. let a Semicircle and let it be required to find the Radius r.- infinitely metical Operations of relative Infinites. whofe Qrdinate its being y m ji x. from the fixe Point A. Having illuftrated the Ant\&amp.

AF. will be Equation z i r x ^.z. x t j the an&amp.e JF = i= Equation of the then I and cauft. coincide.of 6 ^G. with the Curve defcrib d whofe Tangent to the Vertex is 4 or Let C.lt. tnuft likewife coincide beis . But if A and C the Circle fuppos d to have thcfe Points . be the next Point in the Axe to and fo AC (hall become infinity fmall /= equal to the Fluxion of the Abfclfi x \ and then the of the Circle. = C. gree of Curvature.

no GVcfe can fall. for in that Cafe x is x fmall in refpeft of i. and i to be fuppos d o. or between the Tangmt AF? and the ^ . and =^Il= JL + 2 but in this cafe finite # is infinity fmall in refpeft is of any a quantity. Cm r then = JClldlJi-= oo. and lo to be thrown away and Circle. ture. 1 + * a So 2 ifm= i.64 Points at the Vertex Curve. great at the Vertex. I - is infinitly Radius AD is infinitly fmall. when is a Wherefore the flowing Quantity. in refpedt of the Curvature of the GVc/e.X yW &quot. If to one half of its Latns rettum.e. The 3(adiiMo[ that has the fame degree of Curva is with the Apollonian Parabola. the Cn* r becomes * 2 Parabola. or infinitly fmall. is ortheC#minfinitly fwiof fuch Cr^w ^@G. equal j? m l9 then r x . ^ 2 * == o. For in that Cafe . If m ti r. r becomes ~ i. and confequently common with the other 2 %r* # = xw y - =x!j^l = 2.

And fmall.. Exemples. = ^ = ^-=o. = ^ then r &amp. 2 v. Wo. =- ^3 the E e .gt. X ~7 oo . tex y equal fo the Curvature of fuch Curves. and fo the Curve A*B will fall within the GVcfe ^/. there be whofe Equation* are^ = x&quot. becomes Negative^and i in the fecond Term. If m 2 . If m = then r ==Jr!i if = 3 r = two Curves* = &quot. and j&amp. being fuppos d infinity to ~ r becomes ao. reciprocally proportional to the G(adiu4 of the Circle which couches the Curve at that Vertex) in refpeft of the Curvature of a Circle. at their Ver* is = fmall (for in the Curvature at the Vertex infinitly all is fuch Cafes. ^r -. or the Circle will cut the Curve.of $atttrai Cafe the Exponent of i in the fitftTerm of the Value of r.gt. Let let m be any Number^ iwf^ger or fraftion.

. I dull only fubjoin this General Reflexion upon the whole Difcourfe. of the be infinitely Greater or preceding.lt. y and - m be an or a fraction the &amp. than Curvature of the immediatly following. the to one another. qually . XVIII.Hadiuis of their Curvatures at the will be. And infinitly firft therefore the Curvature of the Kind of Curves.lt. But&amp. is infinitly great.-.gt. may ries s Smaller. integer.gt. v/^&amp. 2 is A: 5:^ 2 :: &amp. or 772 1 . fmall.2fy- dwj of the Curvature fzrtrt in the firft Cwm.gt. that Infinites of all Kinds. in refpeft of as x to i. of the Exponents of fuch Curves. as to their are epofitive Nature. is w- of the in refpeft of the Radius Curvature in the fecond .gt. Relations of Having Infinites thus explain d. in refpcd of that And thus infinities s of Se of the fecond. of which the Curvature. may be found. for in that Cafe /y little.. cal Point if ^~ : A&amp. nothing. : .66 the ^po(bp!)i(cai &amp. or o to i.

as being without our Sphere. arc and fuch are fe- veral . their eflen- and pofmve Proprieties are equally be yond our reach. all ftuck into the fame Concave Sphere. it is the fame thing as to us. God Almighty having given us Capacities. we ought to pafs over all thofe in which Infinity is concern d. is involved. and hope for Succefs. whether they be firnp\y tial infinite. this Reflexion may where the pofitive Nature neceflary to be underftood $ of Infinites. there we may la bour. as the fixt Stars feem to our Eyes. if not infinitely different Diftances from us. and pofirive Qualities. And ture therefore in our Inquiries about the Na and Proprieties of things. but where ever Infinity in its absolute Nature. and be of u(e to us. and not belonging to our Province nity is : where Fi- only concerned. about the Difficulties in the arifing conception of thofe things. or infinitely infinite. as it were. in quieting our Minds. but to leave the Matter as we find it . there we have nothing to do.of qually Natural fteuston* 67 above our Ccniprehenfion. tho they be an various. adequate for fuch ^e/erches .

both of Philofophy and God Almighty cannot be fup- workContradi&ions. and by confequence.Veral Subjects. and fo ic for him to make us unis impoffible even derftand the pofitive Nature and Qualities poscl to of Infinites. we muft partake of the efTential Natures of (uch. and if we be Creatures. nor be difquieted at what he can never JF I * I & . impoffible he fhould obtain. Religion. be of finite Capacities and Faculties. And no it s wife Man will at tempt what help..

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