You are on page 1of 518










n C





Natural Religion
Containing the



Natural Pbilofopby







from them.




Printed for the Gol den Ball in Cornhill over againft the Rojal Exchange. 1705.




EARL ROXBURGH. of Lord Ker. as claim Honour of Tour Lord/hips Patronage. loun. HE following Treatife may in fome ttte Meafure. faing undertaken in Obedience to lour Commands.. taming . and Caver- Principal Secretary dom of State for the King of Scotland. and con- jw A 3.T O The Right Honourable JOHN. Cefsford. My Lord.

I Jbotid not think r&amp. haw made you f ogreat a Mafter of Reafonwgs of this kind. the Dignity of the Siibjeft. Such . yet did hit the Performance. imworthy of Tour Lordfoips Protection. Thtf Tour LordJJitfs uncommon Advances..**&amp. to talk with you on Philofophical Subjects.Epillle Dedicatory. that I am not capable of offer ing any thing to Tou worthy Tour own Perufal. even in the more abftrufe parts ofGeo- metry. I had with your Lordflrip. when you allow d me the Honour. taimng part ofthofeDifcourfes.

kind. and Conduct m Tour Studies. in the Know of civil Government nor Tour univerfal Learning rendredyou more unfit for an active Life. has not retarded Tour deeplnqutries.Epiftle Dedicatory. that they left it to their Stars to de termine^ which of the two afford them Occa/iort. What . and for Buftneis. It wa&amp. to become Moft ufeful to Mankind. to layfuch Foundations hoth for Know ledge. Such has heen Tour Lord/hip* happy Genius. and doing good to Man ledge . that Tour great Progrefs in the nobler -parts of Philofbphy.s the peculiar Wif- dom of the

in the moft difficult Times. it is becaufe they have not had Occafion to Dtfcourfe with Tou on Subjects of Learn ing.Epiftle Dedicatory. ProvifwnTour Lordflrip has laid inforthefirft. It was Tour LordJJjip s Opithat the Providence of the Almighty Governour of the Univerfe. if others know not as I do. pacity r\ i for /-v^ * Her Ma~t A* Tour Country. had refertfd to this . is an undoubted Proofof Tour Ca the other. I wotfd fay too. for the prefent Reign. ifany thing could he reckorid fo. And the ^tieeiis Choice.

I cannot but look upon Tour Lordflnp a& a fingular BlefTing. as well a$ an Ornament to lour Country. on purlaft this Age. And upon the fame account. by which the Se crets of Nature have been more than in happily unravelfd any former Times. thofe &amp. being prone to Atheifm. have vainlypretended.Epiftle Dedicatory. great Advantages . who from their vithas Practices . . and that Greatnefs and Honefty receive A 4 addl* true Knowledge. who are a Living Exerriple/Zw/- and Probity go Hand in Hand. pofe. to expofe the Folly ofa cor rupt Generation of Men. the Oracles of Reafon to be on their

) jnom J Si May Tour Jjwd { ^\ happy in your Adminiftration. Tour Modefty.?r Tem per.Epiftle Dedicatory. / J/iall choofe to tranfgrcfs again ft to the common Rules of Dedica either tions. additional Liifk e from one ano ther. or Fortune. or Breedingy&amp. or which is more valuable. But. hecaiife I would not offend Tour Lordrip s darling Vertue. that Probity and Candor that foincs in all Tou fay or pfy tie Place of a juft Enco mium. mention. Tour Birth. as the Motives upon which you accepted . andJJyallnot prefume. hut Jliatt only make good Wifljes.

. has fecufd you from mean and nar row Prejudices. as you are to all ftccepted. this fmall Treadle is the only Prefent . May you lye as eafie in your Office. are the only Returns. the World in And your Temper. May your In tegrity -protect you from unjuft Malice . as l&amp. were Juft and Ho nourable. fuccefsful. May your Endeavours for fettling the Peace and Hapfinefs of your Country .Epiftle Dedicatory.e as your Love to it is fmcere. for the many Favours I have received from you and as your noble Mind. I can make your my Lord.

frefent ll)ave to offer you\ of winch however.W ^^ V *^j moft obliged Servant. that no one can Honour you more. than My Lord.! beg your Lord- Jhips Acceptance. andthatyour Lordfiip woiid believe. Lordfliip s Your moft humble. and &quot.Epiftle Dedicatory. CHEYNE. . y ^ti CEO. .

and aflert his juft Right. may be gathered from the Title Page. (bme of them I borrowed from the Works of thofe Learned Men. As for the Ma terials. others had. and the Contents-^ I have alrea dy hinted. becaufe my Subjeft wanted not . for I induftrioufly avoided all Quotations. by a little reflexion on my Sub. to they are infcribed. what gave the Occafion and Rife to them. without their Names. I have made free with their Inventions.e&. the Commands and Converfation of that noble Perfon .. I have had Occafion to be converfant in . If any one think. I give every doing Juftice to Man Liberty to lay in his own Claim. TH whom I E End and Defign and of thefe Difcourfes. wi*.THE PREFACE.

Borclli and Bellini^ that Friend to Mankind^ my conftant good Friend.. Newton s Store. I hope the Goodnefs to pardon they will have me.. That . Archibald fitcairn his Differ tat ions fupply d me the I borrowed but little.The Preface. and his Inven tions have fuch peculiar Marks. not Authorities^ but Demonstration. from thofe* who have written on the fame Subje&s with my felf. Dr. with all the Candor and Regard due to their filer its j without mentioning their Names ^ and a mannerly Liberty in Philofopbical is allow d to ev ry Body. points.. diftinguifli them. as will even in my rude Drefo. For what without particular Innuendo s... having treated their Opinions. on Principles (tho juft and demonftrative) Nature from mine. befides. moft plentifully. yet of a different If I have had the Misfortune^ to differ in fome few Philosophical points^ from fome great and deferving Men.. eoncern d the Animal Oeconomy . Some part of the Matter was furnifhed me from Mr. both to avoid Re and bccaufe they generally went petitions.

I think I may a Treatife on it was wan fay. THE . I have obtain d the end of my Ambition. That thefe Sheets have not many more Faults than they have. and the John 5 Craig^ I^zzmeA Oxford^ Dr.The Preface. I ted^ wifh there ftill. and Dr. Friend of :& to bis Roy Men fufficiently eminent Chrift-Church in the Common.Wealth of Learning y not to want any Paneygrick from me. If I am not over fond of my Subject. is owing to thejudiciqus Corre&ions and Advices of the Reverend and Excellent Mr...ArbuthnonPhyfician al Highnefs. may not be faying fo If my Occaiion of Performance excite others^ of more Leifure and Capacity to do it the Juftice it deferves.

^ . 3 4. I. 12 IP* S . Definition A Pag i of Nature.THE CONTENTS. A Demonftration of the j| ture. 6 firft Law of Na p. That Bodies cannot ofthemfelves either move An or alter the Dire&ion of their Motion^ p.. 9 8. 7 & 4 & 5 feq. Vis inertiae in Bodies. The true Scheme of Nature. p.. The Introduction. p. about 3. can move in a curve of That no Body 9. 6. and of ifs $ $ Laws. 2 the Philofophers . 8 and Demonftration Explication of the 7. 1 1 it felf. ?^ Phyfical Laws. CHAP. $ 5. and uniform Apfea* ranees of Nature. p. Rticle 2. The firft LAW of Nature. p. The Opinions of s it and Nature. p. p. Appearances^ confuted . p. Of the I. Part of this Univerfe. as to the Mate r rial The Phyfical Lam */ Nature.

The 10. $ 15. 25 Ibjd. The T&amp. drawing in Three different Directions a Body in 4quili1 8. p. p. That the Celeftial Bodies. f 04 perpen dicular Stroak. The Conrfe of a Body The Method of compounding. do not move of ibid. p. 13 13. 2$ Rule . That the Influence of an omnipotent er. Mechanifm/razz what isnotfo. when their Direftions wAkp an Angle. That there can be no perpetual Motion to diftinguift A p. brio. 7/6e Proportions of Three Forces. 2O&2I 5 impelled at the fame time. Pow $ The Necejfity of a Vacuum demonftrated. p. in their Orbits. 24 Ibid. themfelves. That neither Motion nor Reft. and refolving with it s De14 monftration. p. p. The Proportion of an Oblique. Contents. monftration. 27 19. 1 6. p. 15 14. or iMpulfe. 28 2Q. II. Tto ^ JEW)/ cannot move in an Orbit perpetit ally. from one Jingle impulfe. 22 17. /?/ p. i. in its Motion. is the only Canfe of the Prefervation of a Body moving. p. with one another.6e Impossibility demovftrated. e. i88c 19 w/V/6 iVV De Nature. I/&/W Law of a perpetual Motion. 13 J 12. is eflential to p. The Second Law of Nature. by two different Forces. that neither of thefe particularly . p. Ibid. Matter.

Ibid. That the Celeftial Bodies. by fome Being p. p. Ibid. tial not a Property effenp. 27. one /ingle Impulfe^ 21. y . 24. 48 & 49 Ibid.3 1. not fufficient^ nor fat if- fatiory. produced and confuted. 41 feq. his Opinion. 33 23. 42 feq. That the Attra&ion or Gravitation of Bo dies upon one another. That the Attraction or Gravitation p. p. Des Cartes his Hypothefis confuted at large from the Arguments adducd by Dr. That the Celeftial Bodies muft be either turnd round^ by a circulating Vortex. to Matter. about the Formation of the Univerfe. & & $25. Gregory. in his Aftronomy. or imprefs d upon Matter. and Do&rine. and the Des Cartes Caufes ofthe Celeftial Motions. 34 feq. 29 move in ibid. p. about the Mechanical Production of Gravitati on. p. 26. Mr. 3 7 feq. Leibnitz s Opinion about theCzuksof the Celeftial Motions. The Hypothefis of other Philofophers. do not their Orbits from one /ingle Impulfe. 30 22. is the only Principle to account for all the Appearances of fuffident Nature. is a Faculty communica ted to. is 47 of Bo dies upon one another.3 2. or retaind in their Orbits by a central attra&ive Force i p. 30. That the Attra&ion or Gravitation of Bo & & dies upon one another . 49 Ibid* intt from Matter. This Hypothefis. $ p.The Contents.

That the Quantity of Earth^ denfcr Fluids producd^ does continually decreafe. accounted for from this The Objections. 7^ & 38 .lt. 55 Ibid.?/ p. and Properties of Air explain d y Air.. The Flux or Reflux of the Sea.The Ibid. and the Conditions the necejjary to conjlitute p. 74 & feq. $36. Water. p. 7/fc Nature and &amp. p. tation being JMpreJs d on Matter^ and the man ner of it s Operation. . 61 $31. the and feq.^ ^ prodigious Velocity. The Nature of Cold. and the Perpetuity thereof. ^ 37. the infinite Vari eties of compounded Fluids may be accounted and feq. Light Body the on Water Ibid. or Gravi Attraction or Gravitation. JF/VA 2r/&amp. 67 Mercury explain d. p.?/ for from this Principle. 50 Sc feq. 56 $29. The Figure of -the Particles p. anfwcred. Appea 30. material Suba or is a T/ta/ 35. 32. 59 and the Nature the? arts. and the manner of p. p. jHW ticles extreamly fmall. p. jlancc. ThcFigure of rances of the Element of Water explain d. The Motion of the Celeftial Bodies. p. 62 Freezing explaind. p. accounted Principle &amp. p. The Nature and Caufcof Fluidity explain W. of the Fluid of Light. 28. agzinji Attraction. 68 How from fo feiv Primitive Fluids as. Fluid of Light is projected from the Sun fixt Star. 72 & feq. Mercury and Light. /Ae covflituent Par*re. 66 the Nature $ $ Properties 33. 69 for. Contents.

p. by Mr. 79 Ibid. Ibid.?/Cohefion 44. 81 What the Primitive are y Ibid. T&tf Bodies. and reflexible. we Nature. The Appearances 99 & feq. The Nature of the Sun and fat Stars. p. p. *# mutually upon one another. exhibit Bodies $42. 96 in accounting for the Appearances of Gravitation. p. Bernoulli s Experiment on Barometrical Tubes relating J 43. That the Quantity of Heat and Light. 0/Opticks. That all Bodies have p. That Light ^w///?/ 0/ Rays differently re- frangible Ibid. in that admirable Treatife at full length. Caufe of ons ef Light. their refraftive 84 Powers p. 78 39. ftwrt 88 Ibid. Ibid. and the Bulk of the Body of the Sun and fixt-StafS. ibid.The Contents. jeft. 82 Colours are. That p. p. A perties down as they are fet . of of Light and Colours the Nature and Pro p. 95 Mr. is & constantly diminishing^ to Light. and Light. Newton. and Solidi- . in the Obibid. and what by the mojl. and in our Seniatioris. &amp. and Original Colours p. What Colours are made by the leaft refrangi What $ ble Light. and RefraftiReflexions The the 40. 41. 89 feq. 86 proportional to their Denfities.?/ quire. from the Principle are not confin d to one Jingle Condition thereof\ but muft alter thefe as the Appearances re &amp. p. Summary. in themfelves. The Caufe why different Co lours. 3&.lt.

4 of Motions p. explain d from the. 114 CHAP. tha t feews beft to An account for the Appearances^/Cohefion. Mechanically froducd. p. general Principle of At p. $ That Matter has no other gnxlity anfoerable to Self-Exiftence. and /hewn to be one the flanenefs of the Cohering Surfaces. p. The Appearances and Caufe of Elafticity. with which this Hypothefis. Mankind in particular. Contents. 113 46. traftion. 104 Ibid. I JL TtaEpicareaa Hypothecs. tewufe Motion ejfential to matter. Of II. coud not have Lccit 3. 3 4. which fam to require dif ferent Conditions of the general Principle of Attraftion. Two different Demonftrations. 5 & 6 . Ibid. about 2 Origin of the TJniverfe. of ral principle of Gravitation. fttppofes Matter end?wd y p.. Condition -of the Caufe thereof* $ p. This Syftem of things. not being ejfential to Matter. 2. p. I and of I/ the \He Introduction. Inquiry into the Condition. 101 the gene 45. if not p.The ty. the Origination of tint World. pag. That there ^arefcveral Degrees of Cohefion obfervable in Bodies .

and in- cwjiftent with meer 9. in- confijlcnt with. 6. p. yet nothing but fluid or/olid Spheres. 9 Body*. The Production ^/Animals above p. Ibid. I? 8. wcer p. Ibid. p. Attraction. coud never have ar if en from one or all ofthefe Properties^ p. Self-Motion. Contents. to be perpetua Mobilia. 1 1 7. All the Celeftial Mechanifm. yet it coud not have producd thisprcfent Sy ftem ofthings. and Jo p. yet farts (confijlcnt to their Nature} coud only move in Lines Parallel. are unaccountable from meer Me chanifm. Allowing Matter a ibid. the Nature of Matter . p. in confident p. Ibid. and unaccountable frotn. Allowing Matter. 17 of Mechanifm. from this Principle of Attraction. Animals dc wonjlratcd. Mechaniim. unaccountable from. 9 7.The 5. p. coud he prodncd. That Solidity or Cohefion. and an oblique Direction. to change it s Dire&ion. it Obliquity of Dirc&ion . 14 or the Gravitation of Bodies one upon another. ^ Ibid.. to one another. 1 6 the Powers 1C. 15 and Terreftial Appearances that have been explain W. and an 5 oblique Direction. is to makp it a free-will d coud produce no Agent. That to afcribe to Matter. Self-Motion. ^ There are federal Appearances in Nature. 7 s Suppofivg Motion ejfential to Mutter. apowcr. and therefore above the Powers of Meibid. Self-Exiftence. .

30 &c feq. of Rational Crea tures above the Powers p. of tive the Senfi- Kingdom. -aStt- That the red Organs. frefcnt Snbfip. p. is above the Powers of ally infinite in Ibid. and therefore the Prodn(iion of Animals. The fpontaneous Motions. of the Origin $f the Univerfe^ p. an life or Defign^ that every thing is ne+ other th}ng y which is an in$ fa Hi It I? . 27 the Icing offowethittg.. Ibid. inconjiftent with above 12. of the p. The Ariftotelian Scheme. are above the Powers of Me chanifm. Several Demonftrations . Ibid. 18 Mechanifhi. of 28 Mechanifm in the Brutes. Mechanifm. Contents. The voluntary Motions. Ibid. Liberty. 1 6. above the Powers of p. and involuntary Mo tions of Animals arc perform d^ p. That from all this TJniverfe^ coud not have been bccaufe its it Eternity of it felf. 37 14. 24 $11. 42 That every thing in this 1)nivcrfc has an end. 36 Freedom and Liberty of Rational Creatures. A Demonstration p. p. in Animals arc Number. How the voluntary. there was a Neccjfity.. injlant. Mechanifm. is formd at the fame and therefore the Production of Animals.The Ibid. That In the Production of Animals. p. Freedom and $ 13. requires^ an Extrinfick Principle for ftence.) of which jkoud have been ^ they conjift. that all the parts (liquid and folid. 40 $15. 29 0/ Mechanifm.

P- 5^ 2 5.The fallible Contents. by . theft Animals have wufl the frft of every Species of . 20. fequently had there had been. Since Motion is not eflential/0 Matter. 1 8. they coud not. That the Celeftial Bodies. they p. 47 That the Quantity of Fluids. is not infinite in his Extent. 44 Eternity fons. from all upon another had al World ^ tertiity. 5 6 Since the material Part of this Univerfe. themfelves. 49 and Bulk. p. in all the Planets has been conftavtly decreasing. That ftnce had ft the Heat. which wiift have eer now. p.have movd from all Eternity. That all p. World been from Eternity. fixt p. $19. 53 Idfled from 21. and conthe World been from all Eternity . the Celeftial Bodies had been all amafs d in the Center of the materi ^22. coud not have been from. and have not been for ever of Mark. do not move in void or emfty Spaces. 17. no Liquids extant in our Syftem at frefent. Jiefiftance to their but fitch as make fome fi Motions . and Light. had the World them qittte deftroyd all Eternity. of the Sun and the Stars all conftantly decreafe. of themfelves for both thefe Reap. Had the World UftedfroM all Eternity.the Attraction of thefe Bodies one the World been. had 51 been all Extingnifoed e er now. and the celeftial Bodies do not move in their fence Orbits by Mechanifm. fome that they have been Created by wife Being. Animals.

p. whett was his Pleafure. That this World 7 1 have been created^ by the mnft Supreme Being. 60 Had the Word lifted from all Eternity. 2. and confequently that whatever is Self-exiftent muft neall the other Perfections ce/arily be God. of the Being of a God. p. p. is a f lain Proof p. by any finite Number\ how f then this World coud not have been from all p. Ibid. 2 5* this than they have attain d. Number ofTears^ how great mall fo ever^ foever. arefo many Demonftrations.The been infinitely big^ 24. 26. the Exiftence of a Deity. A Demonftration that Self-Eixflcnce involves p. 7 2 C H A Of P. 63 the Number of any generated thing on If Globe had either constantly encreafed or de &amp. Introduftion. 7? . 70 ertafed^ in anyfinite Ibid. 68 Eternity. Contents. 73 Arguments of tie preceding Chapter. III. and particularly Mathematicks had arrivd at a greater Degree of Perfection. a 4 3. 76 That the Exiftence of p. Arts and Sciences. That all tlte p. p. of the Exiftence offowe fupreme Power. it of the Deity. That this World has no other Quality fttitable to Self-Exiftence.

That the Spontaneous Motions. does ttot depend A on the Nature of Matter. but alfo their centripetal Irnpulfes.The 4. and confequently the Exiftence of a Deity. are fo God. p. did. did require the Power of an Almighty Being. of right great fes. That the prefent State of things. and ccjjity Principles. 81 telligent Being. quire the Power ^/Omnipotence. nor of Motion. necejjarilj in fers the Exiftence of a Deity. along the Ta gents of their Orbits. Bodies. and consequently. many Proofs of p. a moving Body in it s motion. require a Power above Matter. 6. of irratio nal^ and the voluntary Motions. that. 89 Demonftration. of Ibid. nmft ofnehave been fomtd. The Preservation of the Faculties of Things. 85 Thai: the Exiftence 0j Animals. 87 7. Contents. 84 That not only the Formation and fir ft Itxpulthe in did reLines. by different Laws. neceffarily requires the Pow er.. rangement of the great Bodies of the Univerje. 88 and Being. p. and therefore txitft have been producd by an in p. not only the firji Formation. all the Appearances of which are above the Powers 0/MecbanifilL tie Being of a g* y. but alfo their firft Impulses. of the p. of rational Creatures^ their Freedom and Liberty and Nature . and Ar That 5. anddofkill. it Muft flow from fom Power from thefc. 90 . that the Prefervation. p. which is God. from what they are now govern d. p. 8.

p. p. p. and of their Satellits to our lyloon. The Motions Moon. which have afforded Means fir determining the fame . The Numbers. and Rcfcwblance of the Pla nets. with their Ufes. 95 that represent the Periods. detaonjlrated. Of the Nature. and p. the der. through the univerfal Space. Vicijjltudes of Seafons. in 17. Gravities and giitwtities of Matter. Irregularities of the the Affions ari/ingfrom of the Sun and . in thoje of the Celeftial Bodies. The Analogy. A general View of the Worlds of Creation. from the moft accurate Obfervations . That the Argument f-r the Exijhnce of a Deity. Contents. the Motions of the Bodies in our Pla Celeftidl Range and Or the Diftances and $ netary Syftem. IO2 15.The IO. The Nature of the Sun. 94 II. A $14. is that which produces ^ihe nobleft Ef fects on the Minds of Men p. of this neat and com$a& Syftem of things. 98 & feq. J/jcwing how the Celeftial Bodies are rangd. p. r and Light of the p i?4 t . 103 15. pittance 1xt Stars. from the Wildom and Mdiority of the Creation. 108 JJ 1 6. Reflexion on the Beauty. their Periods and Moti ons. the end of their Creation. Earth. Diftances. to our Earth. p. Order and Simplicity. ^ and a Reprcfintation of the whole Syftem of things. Diameters. 12.

19. Contents. in refpeft of their Denfities. p. and Tails. Some more .The j 8. From which fuits the whole Syftem beft. in an infini over or under. &quot. that of Gra vitation. by a Raj from p. of all the Celeftial Bodies. p. 128 refpett of Ibid. 118 the Demonftration Wifdom Beauty. in their Diftances from the Sun. when portion. 135 ?bid. 123 their ufe A Ibid. Ibid. the conftant Proportion. 135 particular Refle&ions. which woucl not ty of others. in all their Affe^ions. 129 Ibid. and their widle Diftances. p.From the conftant Proportion. p. producing the conftant Motions of all the Celeftial Bodies. From the Velocity of the Planets Motions. viz. p. of and Meliority. of cj J their Atmofphere. p. From the pitching npon that Proportion. the Sun. their being in a conftant regular Pro in a fettled uniform Order. 126 the Diftances of the Planets from the Sun. hatie fitted the whole Syftem fo well. upon the Meliority of the Frame and Conftitution of the Celeftial conftant. 127 Ibid. of this our Planetary Syftem. between the and the Area s defcrib d. uncertain and in* From $ 20. p. with a Conje&ure of The Nature of their +J * $ and dejign. between the Times of the Periodical Revolutions. the Laws of the Caufe and Magnitude Motions * . From Times Ibid. they might have been irregular. 125 the fame Principle. and one Condition thereof. the Comets. From p.

the dreadful Conferences of her not having been. the Difadvnntages of any one perpetual Seafon. The Vfe and mals and p. or offewer than ty V&amp. the Vfelejjnefs of more Moons. ADewenftrationofthe Motion Mo p.The Celeftial Bodies. the Stability of the Sun. p. about the Vfe and tion of Day and Night proceeds: the fatal In conveniences of a perpetttal Daj. 144 23. 138 the Earth. 24. with the Annual Revolution of the Earth about the Sun. p.e f the enjoy. the beautiful the fixt Stars. the Vfe and Necejfi Seajons of the Tear. to the Animals and Vegetables of the Earth. The Vfe and Neceffity of the Moon. $ p. The Wtfdom of the Combination of the Di urnal dotation. the Caufe and Neeejfity thereof. Ibid. p. Ibid. 133 Necejfity of the Sun. The incredible Contents. the Nccejjity and p. the other Night. or Night. of the Magnitudes of $21. 161 . or of one half of the Tears being Day. TheWifdomof the Earth. 140 Reafon thereof. 152 25. of and 22. to Ani Vegetables. the Necejfity and Vfe of her Revo lution about her own Axe. whence the Alterna Some farther Conjectures Deftgn of the Comets. 136 Number. p. Diverfity. the tniferable State of thofe who are deprivd of his Influence . his tion about hw Axe. 1 50 the Contrivance ofour Globe. immenfe

p. many Advantages $28. the Adnice The wonderful Wtfdom. and drying our Marines. 189 The and Sim wonderful Beauty. in the wantoftheSeafons of the Tear . of 27. and Beauty of our Fluids. 169 places which want ft. and of a greater Degree of Heat and Warmth in thofe it mo p. Ibid. for the fupport of our Clouds. with great Diver/ity of theuniverjal Condition of their Preflure. of our Atmofphere. of the Law of their Preflure. 31. to the Ecliptick. p. p. 156. Diftance of juftment of Planets the from the Sun. for failing Vapours. * tains^ that they are an indifpenfible Condition of our frejh Rivers. p. and a Demonftration a priori of the Figure of their constituent Particles. 164 $25. and the Caufes offertility. 186 The Caufe and Necejjity. Subtilty. extent. 155. p. 163. ihe Viift Ufe. for our Ships. plicity of Idea . and give \m thefe beautiful Turnings and Windings. The Dejign and Advantages of our Moun . on the Sides of the Containing Vejjels. the fewncfs of the Original ones.The Contents. p. The Nature of Vegetation. of the prefent Obliquity of the Equator. the and the nolle fluid of Light. it s Necejjity for Life and Vegetation. the Inconveni ences of a Coincidence of the Equator and Eclip tick. and Rain and frejh Water. 176 29. The great Advantages. Necejjity. the the and the Earth. 173 reft of and The Nature. which r/idkgs \m fat* ten and enrich fo many Countries in one Courfc. and the their fpecifokGravities. 182 $30.

p. 203 34. The true and Mechanical Account ofMufcular Motion from demonstrative Principles . prefent us with. whereby mofl of the difpaird of Appearances of the Animal Oeconomy. 207 The Stru&ttre and TJfe of the Lungs. Caufe of of all the bhiids in the Httwan Eody^ the Strtilfttre of the Vejftls. with a general Rule hoiv . eftheufe of Saturn s Annulus. 221 The the Mechanical Motions $ 38.The Contents.5. and 34. Of the Animal Oeconomy. 191 Nature of the in ternal Parts of the Earth. Efficiency of 33. p. and A $ Animal Appearances^ p. Laws^ and Mechanifm of Secretion in general . 197 of the inthe the Hypothefis of Philofophers. Idea Mr. and of their feveral Coats. 204 &: feq. The Structure of the Glands. the Opinions of others about the manner thereof confuted. 214 J 37. the p. the Courfe of the Aliment till it is mixd with to account for the the Blood. general View of p. as 3. commonly receivd^ with an Account of a new and a more considerable ufe of them. and The manner Caufe of Digestion . 202 the Animal Oeconomy. qre naturally and moft eafily ex Secretions in plain d* p. and of his and JupiterV Satellits. and an Account of the more particular humane Bodies^ p. the Mamter of their Operation. Some Conjectures about p. the Nature. Nzwtoris latter Difcoveries of itsNatttrCi $32.

the noble and amazing Fabrick. in the Order and Dijpofition of the Mufcles. proportionating to the labours. . and the the Expenfes of Animal Spirit s. general Reflections upon Wtfdom and Contrivance of the Animal Strufture. 235 Some 42. 249 $ 44. from what it $ the great and wife this and end necejfity of Diverfity. 228 the Some 40. and of the Nerves. in their Mothers Belly. in the Strufture. the noble Fabrick of the Heart. Vifion. Articulations. $ Bodies about us. and Strength of the Bones. 240 43. of the Backbone. and the true manner general of the Generation all and Vegetables Animals and Production of the Nature and Manner of dentonftrated. the Nceffity the Nature and Manner of and Advantages becomes after they are born . p. furprifing Infiances ofWifdow. of Nature in the Fabrick of the Eye. Animals. 254 noble the The Author Geometry of 45.The how from Contents. and the wonderful Strength all this Senfe to the the Bones have in proportion to their Weight^ p. with Nutrition. we are obliged to undergo. 233 41. p. with the manner and Organs of Feeling. the Difference of the Texture of this Organ in. Ivfiances of great Wifdom and Meliority. 2 23 The and wanner Nature of Senfation in 39. Mufcular Fibres the Direttion of the $ $ how they operate. The admirable Structure of the Brain. p. p. p. and the admirably wife Adjustment of ofthefe Coats to kpow. . The wonderful Contrivance of the Skin and Skarfskin . p.

p. p. wonderful of Ears. Know 2 ledge 2. Of ledge. 276 CHAP. pag.. and the Inconveniences of a different Stru&ure from the prefent. things. 260 The Contrivance the 46. i JL it is Ibid. 272 79. Contents. with fowe Reflexions on t/js Eyes of other Animals. That Magnitude. IV. That there are fome which p. impojflble for us to attain a perfett Of. and wife Contrivance of the Organs of fome irrational Creatures. with the wife Adjuftment thereof for the true Magnitudes diftinguiflring of ObjeQs. the Nature of Finkenefs and InfiniteHumane Know ne&j and the Limits of I/ I A H Introduftion. the great *Ufe and Neceffity with the manner and Mechanifm 0/ Hearing. 5 . or Quantity in the Abftraft is that of which we have the juft eft Notion. of this . p..The Vifion. and the nice Ad- juftment \ofthis Senfe to the Motions of Bodies about us. Some Reflexions on the Fabrick. p. with the Conclusion of this Chapter.^ and about which we make the exalfcft Reafovivgs^ with the Reafon.

and with an Ad]un& imply nothing but the De* p. That Quantity // infinitely divi/ib le. p. \6 grees of the Properties of things. fuppofing fome created Beings endow d with fame Properties infiuite in their Degrees^ provided thefe Pro as mceffarily imply others that perties be not fnch^ dcftroj the Nature of a Creature. 9 the Extenfion of the TJniverje is That 7. or that the univsrfal Space is Bonndlefs.The 3. Ibid. mujl be&f0r ever. no is in there That Ibid. Contents. p. That Infinitenefs implies no Contradiction . infinite. II have Duration That ibid. one re and that finite is a midle proportion al^ between iniinitely many fnch finites and an infinitely fmall fart of that finite. That thereby two Kinds of lative. p. the other ablblute. and a the one from the dijiinguifl) A Dcfcription of finite and Mark other whereby to p. 15 That Finitenefs and Infinitenefs in themselves hardy without an Adjunft^ are incomplcat Ideas.18 . 1 3 . in it s Import or Signification^ p. and from thence a the manner of the Genefain$ R. 6 are the d Numbers Pictures That mojt 5. tftintf and Representations of Quantities. 8 6. p. p. with the manner of the Generation of fmall or great Numbers from one givn. J 4. 5 Infinites. abfiirdity. and mnjt be for ever. $ infinite. p.eprefentation of nation of an infinite Number + which confifts in $ a perpetuated Addition or Subftradtion.

Differences. 38 p. gV ^15. That it is ivtpojfible ever for us to under-? jiand or comprehend. and offinding different ones. An their p. The fame illuftrat&d in fever al 9. The Method of an infinite number finding of different Geometrical Progrejfions . Contents.tre A fmall Parts are all unequal . p. wit ha Method offinding the mfrmtelyfaall equal part offilch. 22 ii. with a Method of find ing an infinitely fmall equal part. 29 of this Arithmetick tnfiveral Problems ^/^/Arithmetical Proportionals^ Infinites. avfwered and clear d. and the Number of the $ p. 20 IQ. portion continued. The Divi/ion of Infinites into thofe whofe &amp. Several Difficulties that might be brought thefe Inferences . Sum s. about Quantities going on in a Geometrical Pro Terms. 16 infinitely new Aritfametick of Illtijiration $12. 44 . and the number of their Terms. n. Ibid. p. and thofe whofe infinitely fmall Parts are all equal. the po/iiive Nature and Properties of Infinites. p.tinft whofe f 1 p.. oi p. That Finites and Infinites Difparata and Natures and of quite different Properties. o ^ The in Geometrical Pro* 14. Th$ fame illujirated in the Quadratures of Exterior Hyperboloids. fame illitftrated grejjions afcending. rvhofe Sums may be equal. p. of owe Por tions of the Area / ofthefe figures. *$&amp. their Svms^ Ratio s SUMS may be equal. go 13.

an to A Method an inter Space. equal any givn finite 4t This Arithmetick illuflrated in fever at Problems about infinitely fmall Quantities . tal of Paraboloids. 0/ Cen p* 50 above the Compreheto/ion of Creatures . which ought to quiet our Minds. Contents. in our Difficulties about feveral Subje8s y both in Philofophy Religion.The 1 6. mmaHd to cut offfrom infinite Space p. in their pojitive Nature. and particularly in thofe about the Angles 1 8. p* and 53 t HE . and affirmative Properties are equally . That Infinites of all Kinds. Space. 17.

nothing a more Subject of Difics courfe than Nature and however life has made few that The Notions about them agree in their Reafon of which feems to be. and thefe common yet. CHAR Of the *PhyJical L A w s 9 I and the Vni- form Appearances 0/ NA Tu R E. there are : Words B : roof a .THE Philofophical Principles F o NATURAL RELIGION. ^TP^HERE is A Law. and fo far removed from the Knowledge of familiar. that thefe Terms imply Notions fo compounded.

By Almighty of of an Number infinite God.moft Men. Words in their utmoft extent it will be enough to the Senfe I to prefent purpofe. that there are fcarce any that Ideas that diftindtly conceive all the encer their . I mean. the II. for not only the great Bodies of this Univerfe. not infinite Macbin of the Un tyerfe. as . confiding letter Macbins. were created by a different Law from what they are now governed. By the jufted by Weight Perfect and Wife Production of Laws of Nature. happen in the na But here we are to between the Laws of Creation diftinguifh and thofe of Nature. I underftand this vaft. every one of which is adand Meafure. thofe Laws of Motion by which natural Bodies are goVern d in all their A&ions upon one ano ther. give to them in the fol fhall my apply lowing Diicourfe. Simple I Compofition tend to fectle (hall not pre the Signification of thefe . if Nature. and which they inviolably obferve in all the Changes that tural State of things. but the inferiour Macbins thereof.

nor any Plaftick according to Scaliger. nor any Subfian* tial Forms according to Ariftotle. which neither had Foun dation nor Exigence in Nature But who-* : ever will give thernfelves the leaft trouble to confider the Matter. When the Pbilofopbers cou d not account for the appearances of Nature. they attributed thefe unaccountable Effects to unintelligible Beings of their own fliall afterwards be is more fully ex- plain d. will plainly fee. Thele are Allegorical their to conceal pofe meer Terms coined on pur- Author s Ignorance. keep up their Credit with the choughtlefs and credulous part of Man kind. That there no fuch thing as an Univerfal Soul animating this vaft Syftem according to Plato. that they really meant nothing by thofe ama- B ^ zing . nor any Hylanbic Principle ac cording to Henry More. nor any Omnifcient Radical Heat according to Hip Virtue pocrates. III. they were fo far from owning any want of Know that to ledge. is evident from the following Confiderations $ i.

Thefe norance. Beings are derogatory from the Wifdom and Power of the Au thor of Nature. the Changes in the material pan of this Syftem are brought about.zing Terms. as in fliown. fome meafure (hall be afterwards 4. The Ap pearances themfelves. and lefs be by more intelli indirect Principles accounted may for. The Scheme of Nature which feems agreeable to the Wifdom of its Author. this who doubtlels can govern Macbin he cou d create. and according to which. is (fuppofing the Syftem of the Umverje already created ) that he has fettled mod Laws. Laftly. and laid down Rules. than employing thefe fubfervient Divinities. . to falve which they were gible contrived. Thefe very Beings will with Powers and Fa not (ewe the defign of their Creation. but to difguife their own Ig ^. Natural Bodies are govern d in their A&ions upon one another. by more di* iet and eafie Methods. IV. 3. con formable to which. unlefs we endow em culties above the Dignity of fuch fecondary Agents.

and which of chemfelves naturally a&ing. one Part communicates its Mo tion to another. fuch as are all Animal Agents . This Great Ma- of the Univerfe. is On B 5 the contrary. and as the Parts are kept together) will go on in the fame conftant tenour of Motion. them in their and Operations. which of it felf as d by fome external Force . ( long naturally. and are particularly determin d by the Configuration of the feI (hall veral Pieces of which it confifts. the Movements of this Clock-Work de unlefs difturb pend upon thofe General Rules. my principal Defign to demonftrate his continued . they never tranfgrefs whilft God Almighty preferves Faculties chin in the leaft degree. nor do I in the leaft degree exclude the Government of God Al mighty in this World. may in fome degree be liken d to a finifli d Piece of ClockWork. that have a Power of Free-Willy nor even of thofe that have Self-Motion. according to which. noc here confider the A&ions of Beings.about which all Bodies inviolably obfer ve. form d upon Geometrick Principles.

and infer fuch Conclufions Laws from em ing feme courfes. as 1 find mod neceflfary for clea- parts of the following Dif- LAW . Befides this.6 iMjflofoplncal continued Providence from evident Princi and to convince the World. that he not only has the Springs of this Great Machin. and of its feveral Parts in his own ples. he has referv d fall to Pieces. but that continual Influence and Sup the whole Movement would (oon port. Hand. to himfelf the thefe Power of Difpenfing with Laws. when he pleates. nor cou row a Compafs as I have propofed to my all the particular felf. I fliall here only fet down the Gene ral of Nature switch virtually include thefe others. It is not ray Defign here to ex plain of the Laws of Motion* and of Bodies upon one ano A&ions d it be well done in fo nar ther. and without his is the firft Mover . V.

by fome outward imprefs d Vio all e. Law is (hew how inviolably this obferv d by natural Agents. there B 4 were . that State i. we To need only confider it never has been obferv d that any Body did of it felf. differently dire&ed Vio VI. or of moving for a ftraic Line. bring from Reft to Motion. it felf of it felf altered ics Courfe. brought it felf to Reft j Nor that ever any Body in Motion. Bodies at reft and of themfelves for ever continue in reft. 7 LAW ward lence I ALL in Bodies perfevere in the fame State of reft. but that where ever fuch Changes happened. unlefs forc d out of will naturally.of Natural Religion. unlefs they are ftop d by fome or turn d out of their oppofite Force. ftrait Courfe by forne lence. unlefs fome external Caufe put em in Mo And all Bodies in motion will na tion move forwards for ever in the fame turally : Line. nor that ever any Body in Motion.

they muft continue io. late the are certain Projtftils wou d for ever move on. A Top wou the Air. on which they move. which by it felf can never alter its State. or the Ruggednefs of the Plane. did not the Air. in the fame right Line. s . d never ceafe to turn round did not gradually impair its Motion. the put em in Motion. ftop or did not fome Body their Motion $ with a different Direction alter their Courfe. Natural Bodies confifl of a Mafs of Mat ter. and if Bodies are once at reft. by their Cohefion. all Things wou d run into Confufion. unleis fome new Force if in Motion. changed their places of themfelves. whofe parts. their own Gravity. nor wou d there be any certain Laws to regu We Motions of the Univerfe. lame Energy will continue cm in Motion and drive cm forwards in the fame DireP dions.8 If Bodies were always evident Caulcs. hinder one anothers re&ilinear Motions.

as is required to put it in Motion. irs Motion. and docs no leis Refift a change from Reft . this Refiequal Changes Body in ftance will operate as powerfully to keep a Body in Motion as to keep it at Reft. and confequently of it felf. orDirefor to change its Direction. is the dion fame thing as to move of it felf another Matter then of it felf is fo far in way. it can never change its State of Reft. Newton VII. Force to ftop a Motion. that it is no more inclined to the one than to the other. whereby Bodies refift to the utmoft of their their Power. either of Reft. is And this Refi- always equal in the fame Body. tQ . Motion. and e contra 5 And therefore fince the fame Body equally refifts the contrary of its State.of Moreover. very well exprefles by the vis inertia. or ftance is Direction. which Mr. there is in Matter an unadive Principle. proportional to and the in different Bodies quantity is of Matter as There required much they contain. any change or alteration of State. whatever it be. different to Motion or Reft.

the Veflel its really the any fuch tinue it in its State ean t immediately communicate . This vis inerti* is no where more con (picuous than in the fudden Motion of a to Liquor upon a Horizontal Plane. if the Veflel equal be fuddenly ftop d. the Liquor continues its Motion and dailies over the fides of the Coreflary .IP Motion. but endeavouring to con of Reft. at firft the Liquor feems to move with a Dire&ion contrary to that of the Veflel full of Veflel. than from Motion to Reft. the it. Motion of the Veflel communicated to and begins to move with a velocity to that of the Veflel. not that there is Motion imprefs d upon that the vis inertia Liquor. Motion to the Liquor in its State But the Liquor perfeveres of Reft whiift the Veflel makes forward and fo feems to move a contrary But when once the Liquor has way.

2. Hence i. and of Ail Motion it felf move in a Curve Line. . it is evident that of themfelves. Body. IX. that no Body put in Motion will naturally. that Courfe that if it it is fettled in it . no Particle of Matter. nor with a Power to alter the Courfe in which is is it nieerly paffive and muft for put. can never can t move of felf. it alter its Courfe of ic felf when in Motion. and indeed. nor any Combination e* no of Particles. or of themfelves alter the Dire&ion of their Motion . but . K Corollary &quot. for to alter its Courfe of it felf is only to move of it felf after a particular manner. can either move V1H. Matter is not endowed with Self motion.of Natural Religion* Corollary i . ever of it felf continue in that State and it. is naturally forward in the fame ftrait Line with the Direction of the moving Force . Hence it is Evident.

and confequendy the right Lines. 4.but what ever moves in a Curve Line muft in every Point alter and therefore naturally of it can its Direction. . ( I Hence neither Motion nor Reft mean not one of era particularly ) is XI.Lints re but are kept in by fome attractive Force. X. which are Curve. which if once fufpended they wou d for ever run out in turning into themfelves. cfferuial to Matter. Corollary attractive Force. Matter is indiffe rent . of thefe Great Bodies in their Orbits lutely Motions do abfo- depend upon this whencefoever itarifes. i. Corollary 3. their SatelKts Comets do not naturally and of themfelves ( of this and the their tho at firft put in Motion ) move in repetitive Orbits. fel^ no body move in a Curve Line. e. Hence the great Bodies Univerfe the TUneis.

rent as to either of thefe

docs as


refift its

and being chang d from

Reft to Motion,






And as chang d from Motion to Reft. any Force will imprint fome degree of Motion on a quiefcent Body, fo the fame de gree of Force impreiVd at the fame time with a contrary Dite&ion, will bring ic
to Reft again, but ic is not to the neceflfary emg of Matter; that it be in Reft or



for Matter




Matter in

which ever of

thefe States





Since then

it is




Matter to be either in Reft or
that the
in Reft or in

Motion, prefervation of a
(after the firft





docs abfolutely depend Almighty Cod as its Caufe, no part of




move it


nor when put



Motion abfolutely tion, its being nor does depend upon
therefore the

effendal to

prefervation of this

and Motion muft


muft depend upon fome other Caufe , but there is no other Caule but affignable,
Omnipotent Caufe of the preiervation of the Being and Faculties of all natural Now this Corollary does in no Agents.



with the preceding


as perhaps Law, the



think, for by that inability in Matter (arifing vis inerti* ) to change its State of

fome may

Motion, Reft, or Dire&ion is declared, whereas by this Corollary, the immediate Caufe of this vis iwrtiA is referr d to, vi%.
Influence of the

though by this State of Motion, Reft and Direction, yet this vis is not effential to Matter, but a pofitive

Divine Power, for Bodies perfevere in their

Faculty implanted therein by the Au thor of Nature, as (hall be afterwards

more fully



Hence the

Neceffity of a


cuum, or fpace diftind from Matter, is for fince by their clearly demonftrablej

vis inerti*)




to the turned

of of

Power, any Change or Alteration their State, whether of Motion or R eft.


fince the Refiftance in the larae


always equal, or the fame, and in dif ferent Bodies is proportionable to the And Quantity of Matter they contain.
fince confequently,

two Bodies con

of Matter, taining equal Quantities

moving with equal

Celerities in

Dire&ions, impinge directly will one another, certainly both reft upon or flop at the Point of their Concourfc, as alfo fince it is demonftrable, that two Bodies moving contrary wife with equal

fo that they

and both refting

at their


Bodies containing equal of are Quantities Matter, equally fkavy,

ing, are equally lows, that two




neceflaiily fol

and therefore were there no Vacuities in Bodies, two Spheres of equal Diameters,
Chould contain equal Quantities of Mat ter, and confequently be equally Heavy,

equal Diameters, one of Gold, another of Wood, fhou d have

two Spheres





ffinlofopfnra I p^nciptcs

the fame fpecifick Gravities, which being contrary to Experience, there is a NeceP

of admitting Vacuities in the latter Sphere to anfwcr the Difference of their










Changes made TpHE Motions of Bodies



arc al

ways proportional
Force, and

to the imprefs d moving are produced in the lame Di-

rc&ion with that of the moving Force. Effe&s are alway proportionable to their adequate Caufes, and if any Degree of Force produce any Degree of Motion,
a double Degree of the fame Force will produce a double Degree of Motion, and



and fo on

rnuft proceed in ftion with that of the moving Force, fince from this only the Motion arifcs ; and be-


and this the fame Dire;

caufc by the former


Bodies in





of them-

of Natural ftettgion*
themfelves, fo that unlcfs


fome new Force alter its Courfc, it muft proceed in the fame Dire&ion with that of the moving Force. And if the Body was before in Motion, the Motion ariiing from this imprds d Force, if in the fame Diredion, docs fo much increafe the former Motion if ic

has a contrary Dire&ion, ic deftroys a to that part of the fofmer Motion, equal which is imprefs d j when ic has a Dire<5tion


to that of che former





added to

or fubltradkd from

the former

Motion, according as the from a Compofition of arifing



decermin d,


evident, that in the prefent Conithution of things, there
ic is



can be no perpetual Motion,






mean an


Communication of the fame degree of Motion from one part of Matter to another in a Circle, noc as Bodies put in Motion C do




for ever continue in the fame, but in fo far as they are refifted or other d




ftop by Circulation of the fame

quantity of Motion, fo that it perpetu ally return undiminifli d upon the firft Mo

For by this Law, the Motion produc d is but proportionable to the genera

ting Force,



Motions on



being performed in a refifting Fluid, vl^. the Air., a confiderable quantity of the



Communication, it is and medium, confequently of Motion impofiible the fame Quantity fliou d return undiminifhed upon the firft which is neceflary toward a per Mover Moreover, the Nature petual Motion.

muft be fpenc

in the

of Material


fuch, that there avoiding a greater or lefler degree






though the Machin be form d to the exacted Principles of

no Geometry and Mechanicks, there being nor exa6l fmoothne(s in perfect congruity Nature ; the manner of the Cohefion of
Bodies, and the fmall proportion the folid Matter bears to the vacuities in em ; and the






Nature of the conftituentParcicles of Bodies,
not admitting the fame. Befidcs, how very finiflied Mechanick Per imperfedl our moft




very ordinary Micro/cope

will eafily difcover




muft very confiderably diminifii the com municated Force, fo that it is impoffible there fhou d be a perpetual Motion, unlefs the communicated Force were fo much
than the Generating Force, as to recompence the dimunition made therein

by ail thefe Caufes, fo that the imprefs d Motion may return undirninifh d to the But that being contrary to firft Mover. this Law, it is clear that the Motion muft continually deacafe, till it at laft flop, and consequently there can be no perpetual Motion in the prefent State of Things.



-$jfiM Lecn (d





E PULSE TJ always J^L






A&ion, or the Action of two

Bodies upon one another is always equal, buc with a contrary Dirc&ion, *, e. The

fame Force with which one Body


upon another, by that other





but thefe Forces are im-

d with contrary Directions.

or draws another, is as much prcls d or drawn by that other ; a Stone with his Finger, the if one prelfes


If a Horfc Stone preflcs his Finger again. draw forward a Stone by a Rope, the Stone does equally draw back the Horfc



Rope being

both ways one ftrike an Anvil with a Hammer, Anvil ftrikes the Hammer with equa The Steel draws the Magnet a Force.

equally diftcnded a6b upon both equally, li


as the


Magnet does the Steel, as by making both iwim in water




Barge to Land by a Rope, the Bank pulls the Barge as much as the Barge does the Bank j and in the defcent
in pulling a

of heavy Bodies, the Stone
Earth as



as the Earth does the Stone

the Earth gravitates toward the Stone, i. e. as much as the Scone does toward the




Motions produced by

both thefe Gravitations, are equal in both, only the Scone is altogether inconfiderable, and in refpeft of the Bulk of the Earth,


the Velocity of the Earth s toward the Stone is inconfiderable,

refped of the Stone s Motion toward the Earth ; and therefore the Motion of the
Earth toward the Stone



in ail


Adions of Bodies,

Body aft on another, and change its Motion any manner of way, that other will make the fame Change in the Moa
tion of this

a contrary Direftion, fo that by thefe Actions there are made equal Changes, not of the Veloci ties but of the Motion, for the

Body with


made on

the Velocities in contrary Dire-





a reciprocal proportion to


are in

the Bodies.







Body A, be impend by
in the Direction


different Forces,

with the Velocity 3/j

another ia

the Direction \AC, with the Velocity ?vr? make to /fC, as A/ to compleac







the Diagonal

of which is A 2). The Compoficion of both thefe Forces will make the Bodydefcribe the Diagonal At), and in the lame lime as it would have defcribed either of

the the Sides; for becaule the Force, whqfe vx










V elocity

but it cannot be found in S D and C 2). the Force. C proceeding to will reach C V in the Corollary ^. and their aeccffary Confecjuetices. to will not ia the leaft hinder or deftroy the Velocity in the other Force. and Velocity be iraprefs therefore in the end of this time it muft be found fomewhere in ner. A/. and confequently. XVIII. a&amp. whether the Force. in like is man whofe Velocity as M y in the Direction Jlfc^ parallel to CD.5ts fB D. whofc d or T&amp. locity in the end of the fame ads 2). a&amp. k rnuft be fomewhere in CD. it in the Direction A C. From thefe Laws. all the Rules of Bodies C 4 . whofe Ve is or not. but at the Pome 2) therefore. by which it tends to the LineS D&amp. whether the Force. and therefore will not hinder the Velo city in the other Force in and the Body fame time. Wherefore the Body will reach !BD in the fame time. &r.of Velocity parallel is Natural &eltgt om N.

as the Geometers have ftiewn.Bodies afcending or defcending in verti cal Lines. the Method of compounding and refolving Directions Morions any given may be drawn. From the in preceding Corollary. may be deduced. as A C be imprefs d upon the lique Body E in C. fuch as A*B and D. for into any ob and S 2). C D. the direct Force AT&amp. the Competition of of any oblique ones. Force A may be refoved into the two Forces . let an ob Force. for Example. at the Point C ere&amp. to that of the fame Force coming with a perpendicular Direction to move the fame Body .gt.5t a per and from A let fall a per pendicular CD. as alfo ones.. fuch as A lique the ratio of an Force to move a oblique Body. and another upon pendicular upon then by the former Corollary. the Rules of the Congreffes and Reflections of two Bodies. as alfo the Refolution of the dired Force. as alfo. the C .

of ^attmrt ffcty&fim* Forces AT&amp.B to and A& as A C. AC. but con tinues . AE. to B the lar s fame Force coming with a perpendicu &amp.B has any Energy to move the wherefore the oblique Force as Body A C is fi. From the fame preceding Corollary. The fame is true of the Energy of an oblique Stroke upon the Body to that of the fame ftriking perpendi. of which only A&amp. 11* or as the fine of the Angle of Incidence Al$ to the ^ Radius if it follows that drawn by the impelled or three different Forces in three a Body A be different Directions ^B. fo that Body yields to none of em.

So likewife pollent d:ions A C. AT) reprefent the Force by which the Body ^is impell d from A to !B.equiKbrio y thefc three Powers Lines ter are to one another as three right parallel to minated by their drawn their Directions. $). ailing in the Dire- A two Forces acting in the Dire(5lions . as AT) impelling from to A to T) is equi E. two is as AT) to AC.finttes in &amp. and AE or CD. and If mutual Concourfes. to which the other impelling from A to D. refpeftivcly. then will the fame AT) reprefent it is the contrary equal Force. whereby impell d from A to But by the former Corollary a Force.

and being equipollent to the Force A&iflg in the Dire6tions A 2). as ^C.5ting Dirc&ion. thefe three Forces fhall be to one another as AD. and in the adting in the Diequipollent to the a&amp. any appea rance concradidt thele Laws. AE. three Laws do if comprehend e. 2nd from A to D. that AT&amp. have nothing to do to (how any thing is Immtchanical. AC. q. and tually the Rules of Me- confequcatly. Body be ailing in the Direction or to AD. fo vir that ic is plain. AE to ^X&amp. therefore the Forces ic&ions Force this AC and AE. from A to to the will be didrts fi ? ^ C. ^ D Force afting according to the Direction AD. it is not to be Me So then in outchanically accounted for. as this feveral Geometers have exprefly fliown thefe all -. we . d. or not future Inquiries. AD are to y Force urg d by three different equi pollent Powers in the Directions JB. if a CD refpective- ly. as CD is. or their neceflfary Confequences. AE. and the Foundation fingle Propolition is of all the Mechanicks.

Corollary 3. (fuppofing the for thefl^ftfais always the fame) by mer but every Orbit is equivalent to a Polygon of an infinite Number of An Corollary j gles. Body moving in this (Polygon. Orbit. muft decreafc at every Angle in proportion to the Sine of the Angle of Incidence. and the Body will be Corollary at reft. and confequently the Degree of Mo tion and Velocity arifing from one fingle Impulfc. and fo muft at laft be quite fpent. ^ XIX. but clearly to evince. . that it of thefe Laws or their contradi& then fincc the Angles of this ^Polygon are Ob the Degree of the Motion of the lique.5ts fome Corollaries. with can t move conftancly the fame Degree of Motion from one finIf it move in an gle imprefs d Force.not according to the eftablifh d Laws of Nature . Hence it follows that a in Body an Orbit. let a Polygon be inicrib d in it. muft continually decreafe by a Body s moving in an Orbit.

and if fo. the firft Mover . XX. and do conftantly move . Corollary y. that it may return upon gated in an Orbit. their We fee thefe Bodies do continue Motions without any fenfiblc Alte rations. that the mis and their Satellits. but are kept kept in by iome other Powers. the Comets and the it is &amp. evident. it muft conti nually decreafe. Hence there can be no perpe tual Motion arifing from one fingle Imfor this Motion muft be propa pulfe. that thefe Bodies do perfeyere in their Motions.Pla~ XXL Hence other Celeftial Bodies their *0rbits do not move in (tho we fliou d fiippofe em folid ) by the Force of one fingle impulie. which they cou d never do if they mov d only by the Force of one fingle and at laft flop. Let us then Enquire how it comes about.of ffiatwai aaeitgtotu Corollary 4..

that can happen but one of thele two ways. (c\d z Vortex) which carries em about. Either by the Force of forne Celeftial fluid. both ^iv. of Motion. vi%.4a equal Degree its own proper Center.move round in the fame Trails. Globule*. and that theie Parts being made round by produce ITJ * fuch inteftine Mptions. or by fome Retentive Central Force em from tuning out in yvhich hinders when they are 0rgit Lines. of Different . Fluid i fo as to constitute as alfo that feveral Golleitions of thele Parts. and feperat- ng themfelves. the Fingers of him Motion by this once put in who frani d marvellous Machin of a World. were endow d with a Motion About as common different Points (at equal Diftances) Centers. fo as to compofe dif ferent Cortices. with out making the leaft Deviation j now. XXIL Celeftial In order tp- account for the Appearances. into ip r each endowed little jecjual Parts. Des Cartes fuppofes fylatter of this Univerfe to have beea ividcd ie by Almighty God.

farily wou d lylatiq Globules 6f that fujppofesdrivep -fowir. and feeing there Element than wou d was be uiqnp tp of fill this firft fiifficieat the Vacuities between the he be Globules of the fccond Element. and being there amafe d in the Center of very. Fileings Globules driven and ficond fmall the that as alfo Rafpings of thele Points of the Angular calls the M^ter of his ways. Sun being thus fram Sphere wou d in tex produce a Body Jike the Sun .out fome Parts of through the Vacuities of the which conftitute fecond Element.d 1 remaining part wou d Center t% 1^ by the Circular Motion^ of the(e which did for that rqa%i bules. Places which are efpecially at thcfe the^r^ diftan^ from its Poles. Element violently many different did make up the Matter of his firjt . it much by as receiving by .tick y Vnd this wQu d be able tq carry rouiid witli 1C . from it . r^ 5 Gl&amp.of which he Element . and ntoviqg abo its own Axe with the Motion of i.h of the Matter of the fartex.thefp foles z% loics about the Ecdif&^ its throw .

it chefe Globules the greateft a leis and that fo of neceffity thefe Globules t that are nearcft the Center of the Sun would which are nearcft. it happen that any of thefe Sun-like Bodies in the Centers of the feveral Cortices fliou d be fo incruftated and weakened. and it wou d for ever be car being fixt there. be for without either approaching from the Sw. with Velocity. or receding and fo become a Planet. we may imagine Suppofing this true then. of which was : . to. leaft. till it met with Globules of the fame Solidity. and there Now (hou d fore recede from the Center. then defcend toward the Snn. have a greater centifrugal Force. they wou d by reafon of their Velocity. or lefs capable of Motion than the Globules. as to be carried about in the Cortex of the true Sun 9 if it were of lefs Solidity. towards the it wou d extremity of the Solar Fortex. ried about by the Motion of the fortex. our Syftem to have been at firft divided into feveral Vortices in the Center. and the remoter with were they greater or equal. and capable of the fame Degree of Motion with it.

except away by the biggefl fome few that were from one Fortex Comets. that are neareft it. fpherical of thefe jj? lome and finiOi their Periods fooriei* than thofe that are thefe ^lamts ^ecaii fe more remote. which is 3)es Cartes s Reaforij why the Moon fliows always the fame Face to us. ic appears that the Tlanets that are neareft the Sun. and the Rodies fwirhing o therein. is fomewhat more folid than the other.and ihac their move about own ^xes.Bodies before. which is the reafhn why the nets next the Sun. that are &amp. Element. fwaliow d up by others. becaufe that Hemt/pkere oppofice to the Sun and Earth.Pla- remoter. thrown of to another. and yolving . As that is alfo that the Matter of the firfl which makes up the Body * of. more powerful . moves with greater Velocity the Farts of theFo/tex.. ftroyed and till at lafi they were all de- carried Solar Fortex. tivm thole. the Sun. lucid.- of ffiafttral JMtgfon* Body.was a lucid. ic- they Were Sun like. D XXUL . and that were being gradually incrufhted. are lead folid. in right Lines and became Hence.

Now not to mention the many Defeats in the Mechanical Produ 1 ction of this immaginary Syfttm^ Appearances it fhall only take Notice (as Dr.34 XXIII. and every Particle wou d be adted by a Motion compounded. Gregory has) of the known . It is produced by the Re volution of a Sphere^ about a giv n dxis. and fome fore there . will prefs upon the exterior thereby perpetually part of their communicate and Motion to chem&amp. many fuch Vortices as there are one Vortex wou d neceflarily run into ano* ther. in infirittum. tho we fliou d allow the Author all that he wou d have granted. i.. they Parts. if nothing did hinder and feeing there muft be fixt Stars. of the Motions of all the Central Spheres. certain that a Vortex Wou d be as propagated it . Celeftial contra- dils and the Abfurdities wou d follow. Parts of the Vortices fwifter than that 2. which is abfurd and contrary to that Conftancy and Limitation obfervable in the Celeftial pearances. And. Ap the is Since the Motion of the neareft the Center of more

\jvill be continually loiing Tome part of their Motion which never being reftored. if a Portex run out in infinitum. each Tlanet f$ is of the lame Denfity with the parts of the fartex in which it (wims. or the larger the Bafon be which contains the and is governed by the fame Laws of Motion. dcfcribe a perfect Circle. then a Body carry d round by it.between thefe folid Bounds. folid did hinder fomething the and it. therefore. only concreted parts of the Vortex : the times of the periodical Motion. thefc pares muft gradually move flower. wou d certainly from the Center. are as the Cubes of the Diftances and confcquently the Pla nets cannot be carry d about by a Fortex. whereas the Squares of Times of the periodical Motions of the Planets. 4. laft the Motion cording 5. carry d about by a Cortex are in duplicat proportion of the Diftances from the Center . of Bodies. till at &amp. to this fJypothefa. in refpeft of th Orbit ^ of unlefs D . Ac quite deftroy d. greater Diftance there were. and is as it New were.of fore thefe interior parts of the Vortex.

Bounds. for that of Mercury is greater than that of Saturn. which contradids Experience. carry d about with it. it wou d follow that the Ophelia of all die Planets (een from the Sun. the contrary of which is true. nearefl: wou d this Orbit approach to a e.fity in a Vortex A Body of the fame den- wou d neceflarily defcribe a Circle to tral whole Plane.3 6 of the Body carry d about in it. but this too is fame contrary to Likewife the Matter of the Obfervation. Moreover. fince the Pla nets in this neceflarily move in Orbits nearly fimilar to that of the fides Vortex wou d of the containing Bafon. wou d be perpendicular j but there . fter in their Perihelia. than Channel i. the Sww. The Excentricity of the Planets j. would be lefs than that of thole more remote. 5. as of Vortex ( every Fluid ) when bound fixt wou d up within ftrak move fafter . the nearer Circle. . be directed towards the Stars . muft neceflarily when enlarg d in a wider the Planets muft move fa* than in their ^pbelia. the Axis of the cen Body which produces the Circulation of the Fluid. e.

if the Solar fortex rnov d round with Force fufficient to carry thefe vaft Bodies of the Planets along with their ir. This Hjpotheps is fonoewhat altered and mended by the famous Mr. for of themielves cl wou they XXlV. but (bmecimes at righc Angles with the Plane of the Ecliptick. Suns Axis is perpendicu their Orbits. and makes it agree more exadly to the Rules of Gemetry. Motions without any perfevere change. they defcribe equal Areas by a Radius from the Sun in equal times. He firft of ail (hows.efcribe a Curve-Line. that all Bodies which in a Fluid d. iometimes the Courfe of thefe Comets metrically oppofite to that of the Sun in is Dia they . The Comets have not only oblique. are mov d by the Fluid. all which is impoflible. and nothing but the Fluid concurs to turn them out of their D 3 way: . they enter into the Cortex of the Sun. Laftly. defcnbe right Lines.of Natural Beligtotu there is not one Planet to the Plane of the whole Orbic lar. Ltibnit^ he accomodates it better to the Celeftial Appearances.

&amp. (paracentrical Motion of accefs to.Planets Now this the the muft of circulate fo as to produce which cannot in- be done otherwife. that every Tlanet is about by a Motion compounded of carry d two other Motions. which will neceffarily make the (Planet in what fafteft. and a reciprocal of the Arches or Lengths of proportion the . He v/&amp. defcribe equal Areas Times . proportional to the Fluid that carries necelfity effect. or recefs from their the Sun. the Hannonical Circulation of the carrying Fluid. ever part of Vortex in equal it is. for thele Areas are in a their ^adii compounded proportion of or Diftances from the Sun.. The (planets ddcribe Areas by a G(adiw from times. than by fuppofing numerable conccncrical Oibs ot exceeding thinnefs to make up the Cortex. and the way. viz^ thofe Orbs that are neareft the Sun circulate and the Veloci ties of the Circulations are every where re to the Diftances of ciprocally proportional the refpe6tive Orbs from the Sun. every one of which has its own proper way of Cir 8 f^Dttofbpitfcal l^nciples next fhows.

or the Gravitation D 4 of . and the Vortex this Law of Circulation of he calls is Harmomcal. V/^&amp. we muft find out a that Law for the Paracentrical Motion. arifes from an Impulfe communi . which no other Law of a Circulating Fluid. the Circulating Fluid. which in this cafe will make a proportion of equality. The Paracentrical others. fince the (planets move in Elliptick Orbits.of Natural aaeltgtom 39 the Circulations. The Excujfory Impreffion of the Circulating Fluid. and by a Ra from the Sun defcribe equal drea s in equal Times. Motion compounded of two the Excujfory Impreffion of the Harmonica! Circulation. but the Harmonical Cir culation can Account whereby all Bodies moving in a Curve y endeavour to recede Center from the by the Tangent^ and the Attraction of the Sun or the Gravitation of the Tlanet toward it and this Lelbnlt^ is of Opi nion. in one cated by Now of whofe dius foci the Sun is. wou d throw off the Planet from the Center by the Wherefore the Tangent. may make the Orbits Elliptick. Attraction of the Sun.

inefficient for tlicle Reafons..this Head. nor is there any thing in the Mo tions . it. .40 of the to fflantt* towards cienc to deftroy this muft be fuffiEffect and befides. But even is CeldVui Motions as Account of the undoubtedly faHeand this i . XXV. feme of them very oblique. well as the . iometimes at right Angles with the Zodiakj and fometimes the Courfcs of thefe Comets are quite contrary to that of the fplanttsi Now the Comets deicribing about j^j the Sun Anas^ rnoft be carry proportional to the times. metS) The Co- was formerly fa id. unlefs Attration or Gravitation be recipro cally as the Squares of the Diflances from the F@cus r which is the Sum of Leibnitz^s Dq&rine upon . d about by a Harmonically as circulating Fluid. have their Orbits.. about. nay.PlamtSj and thus we fiiou d have Cortices contrary 2. is not only unreafonable^ but Suppoiicion cable to the uniform Simplicity of dilagit Nature . make them move in Elliptick which cannot be brought this Orbits.& This to Cortices) which is very abiurd.

. Befides. be anfwer d. and confequently the (planets cannot be carried about by an Harmonically circulating Fluid. but in a Circular reciprocally . but is interrupted. and in an Harmonical Circula tion. and is reaches only from Mercury s (Perihelium to his dpfaliuin. as the Spaces directly. as this very Hypotbefis. which is introduced to account for them. and be at Venus s ^Perihelium. and not a Duplicate Proportion of the Diftances from the Center or the Qfydii. the Velocities are as the Q^adi i recipro cally. In the Times are equable Motion. and there breaks off. the periodical Times of the Planets are in Sefquiplicate Proportion. and therefore the periodical Times of a Fluid circulating Harmonic ally ^ are in the Now Duplicate Proportion of the tytdii. and reaches gins again to her dpbtliuM) and is there again inter rupted. al ways and the Ve locities Motion. the Spaces in one Revolution are as the ^adii.explain.of ^atwai fteugfon* fb 4* difficult tions of the Heavenly Bodies to . 3. that this To this ic may Harmmcal not continued from Mer Circulation cury to Saturn.

pals through all thefe Chafins and Interftices. fome Tbilofoin their Orbits. circulating Harmonically according to uniform Law.4* rupted. the Comet t moving forward in the Zodiack. move in the fame manner. as if they were carried by a Fluid. Be fides. or by fome gravitating Power in them towards him. and notwithstanding. and fo on through the whole Syftem of the (Planets : But what a ghaftly and unfightly kind of Deformity there wou may d happen on thisSuppofition^every one eafily fee. which is the fame thing. chat the Celeftial Bodies do not revolve by the Ic XXVI. neither do their fome Appearan ces fliew the kaft Sufpicion of thefe Inter ruptions. ing Power of the great Bodies of the Univerfe towards one another. they tnuft by fome dttra&ive Power in the Sun. . being thus prov d. means of any be kept circulating Fluid. this is not like the unform and fimpleMeafures of Nature. fincc it rauft be mutual by the This Gravitating or Attract third Law. fophers endeavour Mechanically to account for.

It is Bodies gravitating towards a Poinc . which is leaft refilled by the inter- pofition of other Bodies. 4? from the Adion of a Subtile Matter. but allo the Planets gravitate towards the Sun. and acquiring there by a Power of receding from the Center. to account for 1 .ofjl^atutal fteiftfon* for. which violently whirling round the Sun the Earth and the reft of the in general. Planets in particular. there be three Objections againft all two or the poffible Ac counts of Gravity in particular. not only Bodies within the Sphere of the Earth s Activity are impell d towards it. impels the Body according to the Direction of that part of this Subalc in right Fluid. impels Bodies towards that Center abouc which the ftrongeft Circulation is made . or being driven with an immenfe Velocity Lines according to all poffible Dire&ions. but without entering into the particular manner of the Explication of Gravitation do according to this Scheme. And thus. or Gravi tation in from che Circulation of a general Subtile Matter. firft impoffible from the Part of this Hypotbefis. for the .

of Matter. which is harder to conceive than Gravity That Matter which is the it fclf. is Matter being to be fuppos d of every where in realon the fame uniform Nature. Ii is ihipoflible to explain Motion of this fubtile fluid comes. Bodies from the ImGravity which Abfurd of a Fluid can only gravitate in pro and not accor portion to their Surfaces. and its Gravity to be always proportional to the Quantity of its (olid Mais.44 the Motion quaqua verjutnm a great Circle of the Sphere. 4. or elie we vity.. there muft be conceived ano ther fubtiie fluid Moving after fome cer tain manner to produce the Motion of of that Flaid. which is alledged to (alve is a Contraction to this Nature. which ding to their. muft admit its Motion without any Caufe. Difficulty. no luch thing being either concdveable or poifiblc. which is the Caufe of Gra and fo on in inflnitum. or by whole Motion whence the Circular it is produced in all the poffible Mechani cal muft be without Explications thereof. Caufe of Gravity. 2. 3.Quantity pulfe is .

be to one another (Safes wouM thrir as their Surfaces. Accounts. e. primitive confticuent Cy that can account for ail can poffibly the varieties of Colours^ t fee how Taftes and Smells^ and other fenfiblc (Dua lities of Bodies. finee the Surfaces of the original Particles of Bodies are this is as their folid Contents. which arife from the Diveifities of the Texture and of their Figure conftituent Parts. a Yet the fo very . But that which in my all overthrows inch Mechanical Opinion... be alfo as their Solidities/ /. the (ubtile Fluid Quantities of Matter they contain. and hard ^Po/lulate^ to require Bodies be diveriified. And tho this Quantity of Matter. their I only ic by Lengths of linders. Solidities. their by fuppofing Bodies of Cylinders of to confift originally fmall fta/es^ for infinitely thele Cylinders on fuch aSnppofition.e. the Gravities of Bodies. Difficulty may be rernov d. being nothing. . which by the Addon of this wou d are as their Surfaces._ is of Natural Bcligion* 5 4* all for we find contraray to Experience Bodies gravitate in proportion to their i.

feems evident from the Na has explained ture of Light. is that. fcveral different Conditions of thisUniverfai Law of Gravitation. neccffarily to be fuppos d. Newton it from certain Experiment $ and there are other Appearances in Nature. which cannot be Mechanically explained. to Gravitation.Accounts. and Caufes the inflexions of be afterwards fhown. That there are different Conditions of the Univerfal Law of Gravitation. and ac cording to different Laws. to move after different Manners. there niuft of neceffity be fupof this pos d various and different Syftetns fubtile . Light. without fuppofing different Syftems of this Fluid. nor fcem like will nei the Limitations and Simplicity of Nature. 5. There feems to be neceffary to ward ces of a full Explication of the Appearan Nature. that fecm to Conditions different from that require the the Motions of the Cewhich governs Bodies. as fhail leftial account Mechanically for thefe different Conditions of the General Law of Now. as Mr. which ther accord eafily together. however artfully contriv d.

evident. this whole more Naturally and Simply to be accounted for from Principles now to be laid down.of Natural 3&eiig?atu fubcile Fluid. not as yec known how many and how different thde Syftems muft be fuppos d to account for all the various Conditions of this General Law. is not to be Mechanically accounted for. Affair is Corollary XXVII. that the Attraction or Gravi tation of Bodies toward one another. that may hereafter bedifcovered neceflary to explain the various Appearan ces of Nature. that the Planets cannot continue their their Orbits. it From what has been faid appears. and fince it has been likewife fliown. it is a Principle no ways effencial to . Laftly. 47 which looks a is little efpecially if weconfider. Motions in without the Suppofition of it is fuch an Attraction or Gravitation. that this mud nex d to Matter by the Creator be a Principle an* of the World . that odd. 6.

48 to Matter. and univerfally all the other are tural Effe&s of Material Na per- form d by the another. Contact. it is not a Refult from the Nature of Matter. and therefore Attraction or Gra vitation cannot be effential to it .lt. be caufe the Matter is communi efficacy of by immediate. and can no more tend to. Matter is entirely paffive in its Nature. fes as far as the Limits ( if any luch there are) of the Univerie. we fmell. becaufe the Light reflected from thence ftrikes immediately upon our Orcated a&amp.5t . Befidcs. or . by the firft Law of Nature and it5 Co him rollaries. becaufe parts of the odorous Body touch the Nerves of our Noftrils. gans of Vifion. by the firft Law of Nature. no kind of Motion is eiTential to Matter. and after And Dr. as Mr. things raeer Impulfe of one this Body on any Meand paf- whereas Power of Gravita tion adts at all Uiftances without dmm or Inftrument to convey it. fince it is the Source and the 6rigin of the Celeftial Motions.Newton. Gregory has demonstrated. and it can for we fee at a diftance by no means an Obje&.

or draw other Bodies then it it 4? can move of fuppofing this Gravitation of the parts of Matter toward one ano ther deftroy d. and the other effential On Attibutcs of Matter are always the fame* all which Accounts. it s plain that this is Univerfal Force of Gravitation the ef- kt by which the Operations of Material Agents are And this Power ofGrwitapreferv d. E reafon . whereas impenetra or any other of the effential Proper of Matter continues with it. More over. thn d on Matter. is one being thus imprefs of the Divine Tower and Virtue . but this Property increafcs and diminiflhes reciprocally as the Squares of the Diftances diminifh or increafe.of Natural Religion. where as impenetrability. and having refpeft only to other Parts which icattrads . it being a Relative one. ev n when indivifible* bility ties it becomes Laftly $ That can is not be eflential to Matter which inten ded or remitted. yet ftill Matter wou d be felfj like wile the fame extended folid Subftance. it could not be (aid ro have this Property. if there were but one indivifible Part of Matter in being.

yet its not being effential to Matter. is the reafon why it ought not to be reckoned among thofe Laws which arife from the particular Texture. That they cannot accounted for. can arife from. and were there upon no . for there is no othis ther Mechanical Caufe conceivable. nor arifing from its Nature. this Principle of the Gravitation of Bodies one another. fuch as mod of the Laws of Nature or Motion are.?o rcafon of the Diftinftion between the Laws of Creation and Nature^ For tho the Ener gy of the Impreffion does ftill laft. that chanically cannot be Me Priciple accounted for. It is indeed in my Opinion certain. this in admitting of the Univerfal Law of the Principle Gravitation of Bodies upon one another are. Figure and Difpofition of Bodies. The Chief Difficulties that 1 can find have ftrakned Learned Men. but the Mo tion of fome fubtile Fluid. conceive how this i. Principle can be Mechanically and they think it Unphilofophical to admit any Principle in the Explication of the Ap of Nature which can t be thus acpearances acounred for.

which is the Caufe of Gravitation to be unaccountable without a FirflCaufe. why may we not rather ad- E ^ mit . which is the Caufe of Gravity. 5 1 Argument of Motion of a plications againft all poffible Ex Gravitation arifing from the fubtilc Fluid.of no other ^attttal BeWgion. fubtile Fluid. Nor Omnipotent Caufe of the Unherje . are upon this Suppofition. for it s certain that Nature is uniform and confident with it felf. j has any Body ever pretended to other Caule affign any of the Motion of this fubtile Fluid. but this one. vi%* that thereby thefe Parts of Matter which are the Caufe of. But ev n the admiffion of fuch an Hypotbefis removes us but one Seep further from Immechanical Prin for the Caufe of the Motion of this ciples. deititute of Gravity I fiiou d think it fufficient to prejudice any inquifinve Man againft fucli Explications . and fines we rnuft of Neceffity admit the Motion of this fubtile Fluid. with which (lie had endow d all the reft. but the is it felf Immecbanical. and wou d not deprive one part of Matter of (o Cardinal a Property. or produce Gravi tation.

. A&ivity. that the Earth draws to its Center all Bo dies within of it. to which the fccond is There has never been any not both . fame Syftem of Natural Pbilofopby the offered to World as fome Populates not yet. we muft allow whether it be to be Mechanically ac its - counted for or not y anc fince it is not to be accounted for from Mechanical Princi ples.mic is this Property the to have Firft Cau/e imprefs d this in Matter. for we daily fee. is no harder than any of thefe but fince it is Matter of Fad: and Demonftration. . the Impreffion of Rectilinear Motions. which no Man has pretended to account for from Principles of Mecbanifm 5 and the Impreffion of an attractive Faculty &amp. that Matter is in poffeflion of this Quality .Poftulate upon Matter. are the Exiftence of Matter. the firft Suppofition is burthen d with feverai Additional ones. and the prefervation of the Faculties of Natural Agents. fince that this Difficulty in and that befides. that does require that are not to be accounted for Mechanically j the feweft any one pre tends to.

is Conception of this how it can a& Quality in Mat at a Diftance with out any Medium to convey this A&amp.of Natural Religion. 55 as I think. it but we know the Nature in might ftumble man The Communication of a Body in of Motion from one after it is part of Matter to another. we muft of neceflhy refer it to the Power and Influence of the Firft Caufe of all things.5tion. are things not eafily to be explained. as ef neceflity it muft. Now. are not to be accounted for. Motion when we arc Souls and capable to explain how our our Bodies aft mutually up on one another . tffyflettion. we may come ble to conceive how Matter a6h to be aat a Di- E 3 ftance . Another Difficulty ingenious Men have in the ter. and yet there is no denying that fuch things really are. and yet we muft admit them. ner of Thinking and one. were there no other Difficulty this of the like Philofophy but of fymembring and Senfation. and ev n the firft Production of Matter and Motion. the Continuation removed from the impellent Body. I have demon ft rated. judicious Perfons .lt. 2. pies.

54 ftance wichout it is is any Medium . but till then. it and Influences to one will fuffice fuch. who throughly underftands the Matter. that fuch a Qua lity it is d in Matter. how this Syftem of Faculties things was produced. and ^Powerful Beivg to have made this. and honeft Man. and nicate their what way they commu A&amp. will offer to explain by Rules of Mecbanifm. . World.5tions another fent .(hown. and that actually lodg the Caufe of all the Great and Uni No wife form Appearances of Nature. and from thefe to account for future Obfervations and Ap if we admit: an Infinitely Wife pearances . fufficient to from the Pre- Appearances to inveftigate the Powers and Forces of Nature. there will be lictle Difficulty in al lowing him to have imprcfs d on Matter what property he pleas d. of Material Organs are preferv d. there are much greater and harder Difficulties in the Mechanical Explication of the Nature of to belurmounted^ as (hall be afterthings XXVlll vvifds &quot. whence nor how the they aroie. and if we will not admit of fuch a Being.

) and in fuch a manner. and their periodical Revolutions will be in a defcribes fefquiplicate ftances. the Force of the Attraction or Gra vitation of one part toward divers others.* equal Areas in equal Times . (their Diftances from the Sun y and their Recti in the Motions being once adjufted by Author of Nature. is as the Quantity of Matter they contain By the Virtue and Efficacy of this Law. and that at the fame Diftance. and the moft general Conditions of this Law are. linear th&amp. proportion of their middle Di By Virtue of the fame Law. that every part Law great and primary by the Author of Na is of every Body attrads or toward every part of every other Body. that the Force by which one part attradts another in different Diftances from it. gravitates : the Planets mud perpetually move they meet with tick Orbits. imprinted ture upon all the Bodies of this Univerfe.of Natural &eligtom The 55 XXVIII. that a Line drawn from the Sun to them. is reciprocally as the Squares of thofe Diftances. if no in Ellip* refiftancc Spaces in which they move. and E 4 of .

the Sun. not only attra&s the ]But becaufe Planets and Comets. as alfo thefe the Sun. the Moon will for ever turn round the Earth. it is plain that by the Force of this Attraction of the Sun and Moon. and their Orbics will be (bmewhat irregular. and the Sattellits of Saturn and Jupiter round them . well apply d. becaufe the remoter parts of the Wa* tcr . the Water that lyes dirc&ly under them will be rais d above its ordi nary Level. As alfo the Comets will in very oblong Elliptick Orbits defcribe about the Sun equal Area s in equal times.5 6 ^Dilofopt)fcai of thcfe Conditions. Newton and after him Dr. becaufe She is fo near to us 5 and this one attract Confideration. but Jikewife the Planets one another.- wlfe fince a great part of this our Globe is covered over with Water. Gregory has fhown Like. will account for all the Irregularities hitherto obferv d in the Celeftial Appearances. which will like wife happen if they are directly in the oppofite part of out Globe. differ from exad Ettipjes which will be more fenfible in the Motions of the Moon. as the Earth doth round the Sun. as Mr.

this Globe will by reafon of the oblate fpherodical Figure of the Earth arifing from its diurnal Rotation about its Axis. and the Motions produc d in the Waters by the attraction of theietwo Luminaries cm t be obferv d and none but this will exa&ly anfwer any one. one Prin will account for all the great and conciple ftant Appearances of Nature. tho not exactly thither neither. much iefs them all. By this Gravitation. its Bodies on prefs towards Center. and full greateft.of Natural &eW0t om will be lefs 57 attracted than the nearer. but their Forces at make up new and a compound Motion. And were not our Terreftrial fee this fiology ( Thus we &amp. their De clinations from the JEquator. and the various Latitudes of Places. which is a demonftration of its Truth.Py- more complicated than the Celeftial by reafon of the multiplicity of different Attractions proceeding from the many dif ferent Bodies that furround any particular one) . and leaft at thefe eflfe&s are vari- oufly limited by the different Diftances of theft Luminaries from the Earth. which Moon is the Quadratures.

lt. in accounting for the more minute. as in a great many we actually are.Plawts jconfequently. Bodies are attracted fince we feel that Terreftrul by the Earth. that A6tion and Reaction arc mutual and equal.$8 one ) we fhould doubtlefs fee the Extent of this Principle. fince the Center of the A&ion. it is plain that every part of Matter attracts every other part. as alfo the Secondary Planets tend to* ward the Primary ones as the Center of their . Add to thele of this Attraction Action and the Primary Read ion &amp. and that the Gravitation &amp.5is. by which the are kept in their Orbits. is of the fame Nature with that by which heavy Bodies tend toward the Center of the Earth. and by which the Moon turns round the Earth.Planets is mutual. and fince gravitate towards the Sun. that we are certain by the Effe&amp. and lefs conftant appearan ces on this our Globe. and fince we know by the fecond Law of and that the Force ( as all other Virtues proround in a Sphere ) is recipro* pogated of the pittances from cally as the Squares In Qiort.

and fince the Decreafe and Increafc of this Gravitation is of the fame Nature with that of our TerGravity.of Natural Betfgfon* their 59 Motions. and firft of all. and the reftial Sun and Moan thofe of our Earth. Gene d the Laws Laws of Nature. and deduced fuch Conferences from em as we found neceffary to pkar fome Parts XXIX. and mutually gravitate upon one Sun. Having thus in the ral. plain it is they all.Phy- Ufe of fivlogy. Planets another. or the cafie flipping of iome Parts upon others unmov d . and hinted next proceed to folve the the great &amp. fince likewife the Sun di fturbs the Motion of that Moon. this Principle in the Celeftial let us fome of the mtiR Univerfal of our Terreftial Phenomena . with out carrying along with em the reft. let us enquire into the Nature andCaufe of Fluidity^which ieems to confift in theMo&Vtfjr of fome principally parts. their Satellits. eftabliJh of the following Difconrfes j having like wife fhown the Neceflity of admitting the Univerfal Celeftial Law of Gravitation to A pperances.

and fubjeded to the Univerfal Law of Gravitation. that no Eye. That their and firm. yet very fmall neceflarily take i. Parts be extremely little.0pofop!ncai mov d. fo very fmall&amp. tudes fo that they may touch only in a muft be exaftly fmooth and po3. Parts. one Particle may eaand for this End. i. perceive able to difcover the Figures of Bodies their we have been fwim- but no one as yet has been ing in Fluids. at leaft. They lifli d. not mov d of (olid Bodies. able to diftinguifli the Figures or Magni of the conftituent Parts of Liquors. fily flip upon another. whereby each Particle of the Fluid attracts another. and Fluids in thefe four Conditions. be able to Magnitude. go after the manner folid All the Bodies in the Uni- verfe are Originally compounded of muft tho not indivifible. and by contequence. e. That their Figures be fpberical r ot at leaft fperiodical or approaching to one of thefe. that the Force thereof may eafily Fluids exceed . but their Gravity muft be fuch. 2. however a/lifted. whence that cohcfion in the Parts of the fineft natural proceeds .

(mooth. The Particles of natural Fluids muft be firnilar. which tear afunder the Parts of (olid Bodies. all the general Appearances may of be eafily accounted XXX. of equal quently of Solidity. exceed the Force of their Cohefion and we Fluids. lar Figure which own their Fluidity to the Force of the. ceflarily require the Conditions in their Parts juft now affign d. thefe general Sup- pofitions. of a Fluid. and of the fame .of here Natural &eligton . generated and thofe that are naturally fuch. which have between fome . porous. and confe- they may equal fpecifick Gravities. uniform Nature from for. 4. fpherical Parof picks equal Diameters. Water feems to confift hard. of equal Diameter*. fmall. there be are to diftinguifli between thefe by the Force of the Fire. whereas appear in the Form the Appearances of natural Fluids do neParticles of Fire. that be Homogeneous. of attributing any particu ing no neceffity to the Parts of the firft Kind. and keep em in a and thereby make *em perpetual Agitation. and equal fpeci em Gravities.

when the XXXI. their Fridions in Hiding upon one another is rendered the their Hardnefs is the reafon leatl poffible $ why Water Air lodg d in is it. let Water pafs through it.61 ^pflofoppfcai f&tftt tuples fome Spaces fo large. and Gold will by much preffure. for Wa nineteen times lighter than Gold. as to be pervious on all Sides. and nineteen times rarer than confequently Gold . Water has above forty times more Pores than folid accounts not only for the different between Water and other Specifick Gravity Parts ) Fluids. Their Smoothncfs. incompreffible. fuch as Mercury. and ranged in fuch a manner. and fo may be more Pores than (olid fuppofed to have Parts. that a meafure of Water contains at leaft forty times ter is more Pores than Parts. but alfo is why it more eafily concreted into a folid Form than . and by confequence. by both which. their Sphericity keeps em from touching one another in more Points than one. makes em flip cafily upon one another. cles The ( Porofiy of the Parti- of Water Cubical which is fo great. is exhaufted.

viz^ the fmall Points of the Salts getting into the Pores of the Particles of Water. are thin double wed d. which is the reafbn why they fwim in Water when they are rais d once. we but more eminently fbme. Obfen&amp. that the of fome Salts. much we know. from Mr. . to proceed and Fr Salin fee that all from fome . prodigioufly encreafe the Effe&s and Force of Cold. tho they be fpecifically heavier. ftance floating in the Air Salts. that they arc like the Effects of Free of Cold. whereby thefe Salts are fufpendsd in the Water. before they fhoot Figures into Mattes. g Particles.ations inform us. mix d with Ice. which have abundance of Sur faces in refpeft of their Solidity. menlions both Microfcopial Boyle s Hiftory Freezing increafes the Dtof Solid and Fluid Bodies. But this Effed may be more juftly attributed to the fame Caufe that is prefent- be fhown to be the Catife of ly to Freezing. we fee all Salin Bo dies produce a Rigidity and Stiffnefs in the Parts of Bodies to which apply feem Natural aaeltgiotu Cold 6$ Sub- than other Fluids are.

( and by (Looting into thofc Chryftah as we fee the Particles of artificial Salts do. make em cohere. and by its A&ion. The Dimenfions of freez d Bodies are encreas d by the Infinuations of the(e Cbryftal Wedges in their Pores. diflblves In Summer the Heat of the Sun the faim Particles into a Fluid. by the Figure of thefe Cbryftals.em in a perpetual Motion.. fo that they cannot flioot into a (olid are not able to Wedge. Liquor is exposed the Air) which by both their Extremities when the to the Pores of infinuating themfelves into the Particles of Water. thefe Cbryftals are obferv d to have the Form of are a double Wedge. infinuate themlelves in their Pores 5 for as I have before faid. and fix em in a (olid Form. keeps &quot. whofe Extremities . which in Freezing. and the Particles of congeal d Water are kept at fome diftance from one ano ther.pljiiofoptjical pzinciplcs Water. and confequently produce the Appearances of Cold upon Bo dies 5 but in Winter they are lefs difturb dj and more at liberty to approach one ano ther. breaks off their (lender Points.

of Natural Betigfom but pointed and flender. its 6} Middle broader and larger. and in the Inter ft ices form d gures. thefe Globules can to touch. there are many little folumes of Air included at feveral Diftances. are kept ac Diftances from one another. Specifically lighter cles this. fo that when the Extremities have infinuated themlelves into the Pores of two watery Particles. and fo larger both enlarge the Dimenfions. of the watery Particles. by rcafon of the Largenefs of the Middle of thcfe Chryftals. and not come fo thefc Particles in Freezing. both in the Pores of the watery Particles. and thus the Spaces between thcfe fpherical Parti become larger and wider than before. and leffen the fpecifick Gravity of Water thus con- F geal d . than greater they were when in a fluid Form. Now Form by fpherical Fi the Insinuation of thefe by their the Volumes of Air are driv n out Chryftals. which thereby have a greater Force to expand themfelves than when difperfed. which is one Reafon why Ice becomes But befides than Water. and many of em uniting Volumes.

how Hence we may guels at Water impregnated with Salts. . a connumber of thefe Particles are necetfarily required. to produce which. or Metallick Subftances. which are not eafily diflblv d into t^eir component Parts again . that the Quantity this our Globe does daily decieafe. Gems. Vegetable. Mineral. ic is of fbrne part thereof being every Day turn d into Animal.66 geal d into Ice. or keep em afunder from one another. for (eparate a few Particles of. the Parts of thefe Mixtures becoming a Ce ment to the Particles of Water. and they are no mote fiderable fluid. Corollary Hence Water on plain. any Fluid. em into thcfe change different Subftances. which are not eafily diffolvible. the manner. Earths or Sulphurs. and other Fojfils. and fatten them to a folid Body. may form itfelf into Me tals. or getting into their Pores. Minerals.

none of the Rays of Light whatever be the Caufe pafs . Light being Material. of Reflexion and Refradion. but rather not pafs through the Vacuicies formed by bicular Figures. fphcrical or for fince Mercury in fpberoidicat Particles. it s their Or plain. muft either make or find a Pa pake.of jBaftirai ffielfct otu 67 Mercury feems to confift of exceeding fmall.fmooth. for the(e Interftices are as the bules. ic is plain. that their Diame ters are not much greater than thofc of tlie Particles of Light. their fliorteft Diameters muft not be much greater much a greater . that Light does through the Subftance of the conftituent Particles of Fluids. that the Diameters of the Corpufcles of Mercury muft not be feeing Light and than thofc of Light $ and if theie Corpufcles be Spheriodical or Oval. Cubes ot the Diameters of the Glo are by vvhofe meeting they form d. folid. fince likewiie it is probable. if the Particles of Mercury be fphedcal. ever fo (mall Quantities is abfolutely o- XXXH. and lets fagc through every refracting Medium. and fince. cannot pafs through thefe Interftices.

beyond all other Fluids. and this is the Rea. Spheres. and the extreme minutenefs of its Particles for the eafy afcent of Fire. their Accounts as alfo for Airs being compreffible. the Particles of Light fon may freely pa(s. above other fifts. or Figures moft refembling them. through which another Matter freely pafles. their be ing (piral Accounts for the elafticity of Air $ being fpherical Particles which gives free Paffage to any Heterogeneous Matter. Fluids.68 greater than the Diameters of the Parades of Light. The So of the Particles whereof Mercury conlidity and the fmalnefs of the Interftices they leave between them. through Spires contorted the Interftices of which. when comprefs d. This Account . form them (elves into Sfberiodf. the (olid Subftance Spires of the being very fmall in propor tion to the Spaces they take up. why it is fo light. to form Paflages for it. it hew when becaufc comprcfs d fpiral retains its fluidity. accounts for that won derful Gravity of Mercury. Mercury by confift XXX1IL Air fecms to of into fmall Spheres.

as proportional to Mr. all the Appearances of Air may thence be accounted for. fome. But there is another more genuine. may haps. greater that of the Light.. as of of and fhown$ XXXIV.of Natural aaeltgton* Account of the properties 6? per- of Air. by far the leaft of all. of . is for upon its this Hypot hefo they will compofe an Elaftick cles Tag. with a Force reciprocally proportio nal to the Diftances betwixt their Centers. 3 The Diameters of the Parti- Mr feem and Water greater than thofe the Diameter* of the Particles to be Vater. Newton has demonftrated . pleafe which to me feems the if Air ticles. 3)enjity ( |V0/&amp.. z j. W*~ ter3 Air. and of Par- F tides . Mercury and Light . of thcfe Primitive Fluids viz. which I (hall examin hereafter ) feem to be com (hall be afterwards pounded. then thofe of Mercury . Other Fluids ( befides that of the Light. whofe Compreffion. be fuppos d to confift of fmali Par which endeavour to recede from one another.for. 01. under which Name I com prehend all that which paffes under the Name of jEtherial or Subtile Matttr.

which mixes with the Fluid . Cdteris Taribus. and fuch like Ingredients. mated. ) the Liquor will differ proportionably to the Difference of the Firmnefs or Softnefs dient .7/o tides of Salts. and the may in the Figure of the parts of the Ingredient. the Fluid will differ proportionably to the Difference of the fpecifick . Suppofing all other things alike. would ver or Brafs. efpecially the ^Primitive Fluid. will make a different Liquor from the fame Lymph. Earths. mix d with Globules of Flefli or Blood of a lefs Diameter. the Figure. (efpeci ally the Fluid. and the Varieties of fuch mixt Fluids general be thus eftii. make a different Fluid Globules from Mercury mix d with All of Sil other things being fuppos d the fame. thus Water or Lymph mix d with Globules of Flefh or Blood of a greater Diameter. and the Dia meters of the mixing Ingredient being the fame. of the Parts of the mixing Ingre thus Mercury mix d with Globules of Diamond. the mixt Fluids will differ proportionally to the Magnitude of the parts of the folid Body. 5. Sulphurs. ^.

(whereas the we have hitherto only fuppos d Solids fyberical) all mixing make an Liquors. the Diffe rence of the fpecifick Gravities being here 4.of ffiatutai aaeiigiom cifick r\ Gravities of the Particles mixing Ingredients $ and Mercury will make a different Liquor from that of Mercury and Lead. Mercury fpherical Magnets. infinitely infinite which will Variety of mixt F 4 XXXV. not only all thefe may ther. the Liquor will differ according to the different Degrees of the folid Parts the Cohefion of among themfelves $ thus. All other things only confidered. . little mix d with little make a different mixt with And thefe Spheres of Lead or Iron. Now. will mixture from that of Mercury. feem to be the Trimogenial Differences of mixt Fluids . be differently combined with one ano and with the four Primitive Fluids. of the thus a mixture of Gold being fuppos d the fame. but alfo the Figures of the folid Parts in the mixture may be infinitely diversified.

and is not propagated in an Inftant. as is plain from Mr.. the Angle of Refle xion is always equal to the Angle of Inci dence . may congregated or fcattered rower. any be within a nar . evident from reflecting Specula. proand a determined to time requires gteffive.XXXV. may be and tlie Determination of its Mo tion ierves the changed like other Bodies. $tpme/s Reafonings upon the Eclipfes of the Satellits of Jupiter. as other Fluids are ftopt in their Courfes of folid by the wn Oppofition Body. That material Subftance. or re2. It is From thefe Confiderations. and 4. fccms to be evident i. and it obfame Law in its Reflexions that other Bodies do. by the Interpofition of an opake Efody. go from one place to another. vi%. It may be ftopt fifted in its Paffage from one place to ano ther. reflefted. It refiadting Burning-Glafles. ( which are confirm d by the Qbfervations of other jftronorners ) whereby he demonftrates that Light requires about Minutes to come from the Sun to us. through a larger It is as Space.

5ts lefs. continue when their paufe is removed j the of Light are yearly irpprifon d in Fruits. the parts of Light with various Original Colours. which effects. It more or a&amp.Prifm fome are ^ed % and fome Green. 5. Parts. 8. according to the Nature of the Medium.of dence. by communicating a certain Degree of Motion to them. Natural &cltgtotu It 7? may be put out of it^Courfc 6. It may be confined and (hut up in de- termin d Spaces like other Fluids. and all upon upoti other the Organs of Animals. and may be fcen by a applied to the Hole of a darkened Room through which the Sun Now all thefe arc the Properties of fhiaes. areeqdow d Laftly. others fellow. their in component . as other fluid Snbftance? do. Bodies . &amp. parts Plants. as we fee by the Spirits. others Blue. by leparating lee. and putting them Motiori all thefe Effe&s we daily 7. by ftriking upon them with a detertriin d The of the Sun will warm and heac The Light other (olid arid fluid Bodies. as Mr. and warm Juices they afford. through which it pafles. Newton has demonftrated. and other Vegetables.



Bodies and can belong to nothing but MacSubftances.

are extremely

That the

Particles of


or frnall,

we may con

clude from thence, that they pafs through almoil: all Bodies that are pervious, fuch as
Chr)flats j Claffes, feveral Gems, and almoft all Fluids but Mercury, and that it freely


where no other Fluid, how thin foecan enter, and yet, no eye, however
has been able todifcover or diftinr


But guifh the parts of the groffeft Fluid. what moft of all demonftrates their fmalthat Light may be propagated from innumerable different Luminous Bodies, with

out any confiderable oppofition to one ano ther ; Suppofe a Plate of Mettal (having
at the top the fmalleft Hole can be made ) were erected perpendicularly upon a Horizon
tal (plane,

were fet innumera ble luminous Objects of about the fame at an ordinary Diheight with the Plate,

and about


from it, the Light proceeding from every one of thofe Objects, will be pi opaga


fmall Hole, without interfe



This will appear by applying a dark

the Object, in a ftraight Lineagainft


Light of this Body will through the Hole be receiv d upon the it is dark Body ; impoffible that fo many different Streams of Light cou d be

minous Body,

for the


transmitted through fo fmall a Hole, were not the Particles of Light extremely fmalL


to this, that

were not the



Light extremely



more than a Million of times

fwifter than a Cannon Bullet, continuing in its as fliall be greateft Velocity, prefently d peirce all kinds of fofliown ) they



Bodies with almoft as great Facility as











innumerable dif ferent Spheres of Light within our Hori%on, may he propagated from their feveral



find that

luminous Centers 5 without interfering. How many Millions of Candles and Flambeaux

may we

fending out their Tides of Light, without clafhing upon one ano ther, which argues both the Smallnefs of



^fniofoptncai 0?i nctpies

the Parts of Light, and the Largenefs of the void Interfaces between the Particles of

Air and other Bodies.



extremely fwift the
gather from

Particles of Light are,

we may

the foremcntioned Experiment of

Mr. fy-

whereby he demonftrates, that the Streams oiLigkt pafs from thtSun to out Earth iq about ten Minutes ; and Hugens in his Cof*


has prov d, that a Bullet conti in the Velocity with which it leaves

the F/J Percur/a being the fame in both, the Velocities will be reciprocally as the times, i. e. the Velocity of Light will


the Mufle of the Cannon, wou d require twenty five Years to pafs from us to the Sun

to that of a Cannon-Bullet, perfiftin^in
greatcft fwiftnefs, as






to ten Minutes, or as 131 4700 to one fVoxime, fo that the Velocity, with which the

Light pafs, will be more than ^ Milliqn of times fwifter than a CannonBullet. Moreover, the Diftance betwixt
Particles of


Sun and



at Leaft


zooo Diameters

of natural



of the Earth, but allowing it to be only runs a thoufand i coco Diameters, the


Diameters in a Minute, or fixteen and half

Diameters of the Earth in a Second, or that is more than beating of an Artery,
1 1


Taf/t;, fince the

Diameter of the

Earth contains 2865 French Leagues , and
Toifes, accor every League contains Buc ding to the Numbers of Mr, <Pkard.


Sound goes but about


Toi/es in a Se

cond, wherefore Light is abouc fix hundred thoufand times more Swift than Sound. Likewife fince the Earth s middle Diameter

7846 Miles, 5000 Feet and

each of which contains

Light goes in a Se

cond or in a pulfc of an Artery, fixteen and a half; Diameten of the Earth, it is plain, that in every Second ic runs at leaft a hun dred and thirty thoufand Miles, which is a prodigious and almoft an incredible Space But the extraordinary in fo (hort a time. Effe&s of Light and Heat feem to require all this 5 we fee how powerfully it ads ( being congregated ) upon the moft com{olid Bodies, and w.c never perceive


any diminution of
an abatement of

Force arifing from



The Sun and

feem to be huge, denfe Bodies ( like the Earth or Planets ) heated to an extraordi nary Degree, and their Heat probably may be preferv d by the greatnefs of their Bo dies, and the mutual Adlion and Re aftion between their Parts and the Light, which they emit, and their Parts are kept from fuming away by their fixity, and alfo by vaft Weight and Denfity of the Atmoffberes incumbent upon them, and power fully compfeffing them, and condenfing the Vapours and Exhalations which arife from them : The Light feems to be emit ted from them by the vibrating Motion of
their Parts,
after the

manner we

fee Iron,

heated to fuch a Degree, as to be into Fufion, by the juft going vibrating Motion of its Parts, fend forth with Force


and Violence, copious Streams of liquid Fire all around $ Great Bodies prefcrve their Heat longeft, and that perhaps in propor
tion to their Diameters.





of ffiatural





probable, that the Comet which ap-

1680. by approaching to the Sun in its&erikelium, accjuir d fuch a Degree of Heat, as to be 50000 Years a cooling,



whence we may fing the Sun and

guefs, fixt Scars



Colk&ions of denfe and

be only Matter like

the Planets, heated to a very intenfe
gree, they





Millions of Years

without lofing any confiderable part of their Heat, dftronowers have obferv d a clofe, compa<5t and large dtmofpbcre abouc
the Sun, and there is np doubt to be made, that its Body is of the fame Nature with

the other material Parts of this Univerfe, excepting what Alterations its vehement


Stars are




highly probable,

that the

Sun and

only Planets,





i. e.


upon one another,


upon-ZJg&r, in emitting refledting, refraft-

ing and bending


Rays, and Light upon in heating them, and putting their

Parts in a vibrating Motion, wherein Heat confifts, according to Mr. Newton s Difcovcrics.

we fuppofe

that Bodies aft


Light, by attracting cular to their Surfaces,


Lines perpendi



Mediumi diftinguiflied by Parallel

Lines, and that a Ray in its Paffage out of the one through the other, is urged per pendicularly towards either Plane, by any Force, which at given Diftances from the Plane, is of given Quantities , then what

ever Inclinations the

Rays have to

the Plane

the Sign of the Angle of Inci dence of every Ray confidered apart, fhall



have tb the Sign of the Angle of (fyfraftion a conftant ratio j this Mr. Newton has deitionftrated, both in his (principia, pag. 117.




in his Opticks y pag. 57.




the Velocity




be greater


than afterwards

be refle&ed, and the Angle of Incidence (hall always be equal to the Angle of ^flexion ^ and fince it is Matter of Experiment and Obfervation, that the Signs of the Angle*



and tyfrattion in


Rays of

of $atetai meifsfotu
whatever Nature, obferve a conftant and that the Angles of Deflexion and




it is


on the o-

hand true, that the Rays of Light are thus urg d by the ^ffrafting Media, and their Velocity thus abated by reflecting ic fo that is ones, evident, fyfraftion and from one and the fame <%efleiion proceed

Princiciple, ailing differently

in different


Mr. Newton has demon: and convincing Experi ftrated from plain ments, that the Light of the Sun confifts of Rays differently refrangible and reflexible^nd
that thofe




differently reflexible, that

are differently Thefe Rays refrangible. that are all alike refrangible, he calls the Light

of them Simple and Homogeneal, and thofe that are fome more refrangible than others, he calls their JL/g/^Compound Mdf&terogeneal\

the greater or
is their





Difpofition to

of be tutn d more

out of



way, in like Incidences fame Medium ; and their greater or is their xibility Difpofition to bc reG turn d

turn d back
Surface they

more or


eafily into


fame Medium from any


upon whofe
out of the


Rarer Medium into the Denfer is made (b, that the Angle of tifyfraftion is lefs than the Angle of Incidence, and on the contrary. The Colours of Uomogeneal Light are thefe, Vwlet, Indico, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and

Thefe Colours





their Difpofition to reflect this or that fort

of Rays more copioufly than the reft ^ and in the Rays of Light they are their Difpo
fition to


this or that



the Organs of Vifion, and in them, they are Senfations of thofe Motions under the Forms

of Colours







Colours, are

and that make Violet, the moft, and the

as they ap refrangible, of thefe Extremes in the Or proach either der fet down, that is, Orange is Ieaft renext to Red, and Yellow next frangible,



to Orange, and (o on.

All the Colours

of the Univerfe which are made by Light, are either the Colours of Homogeneal Lights,

of ^attttai

compounded of

a Mixture of thofc



produced by a due Mixture


all the ^Primary

Colours of Homogeneal

and Blackne(s by a Suffocation, of Light ; and all Grey or Non-refexibilfiy Colours, betwixt Black and White, may be compounded of all the ^Primary Co the Pri lours mixt in a due Proportion mary Colours of Homogeneal Light are un changeable in their Nature, and no De nor Refractions will change any of flexions thefe into another ; whereas by the due Mixture of coloured Bodies, Colours may be produc d by Compoficion, which Qiall be like to the Colours of Homogeneal Light, but not as to the immutability of Colour ; for that may be chang d according to the Colour of the Light by which they are


Suns Light confided but of one fort of Rays, there wou d be but one Colour in the whole World, ancl

io that




be impoffible to produce any new Colour by Reflexions or Refraltions,- for all

wou d

Variety of Colours depends Compofition of Light.






whofe Parts are fmall and fubtile. which being contrary to Ex* perience. Newton has fhown by feveral dies. . that the Caufe of im Deflexion is not the Diftancej pinging of Light on the folid and impervi ous Parts of Bodies. if Light were reflected by impinging upon the folid Parts of Glafs j it wou d be fcatter d as much by the moft polifh d Glafs. Experiments of Rays paffing by the Edges of as by the rougheft.84 ^ XL. and that this Action is ftrongeft at the ieaft he has demonftrated likewife.berkal y and all toge ther to compofe one Surface*. For (not to repeat thofe which he has brought in great plenty ) fince Glais can be no other ways polifh d than by grating and (cratching it by Subftances. yet not fo fmall as to be come truly plain mff&amp. The Rays of Light which fall upon Bodies and are reflected or refracted. that they are incurvated by the Aftion thefe of Bodies as they pafs by them. begin to bend before they arrive at the Bo Mr. fo that the Scratches and of its Surface become too fmall Frettings other Arguments to be vifible.

Superfice greater or leffer refracting Power. for when Power various Cir- Light goes out of Glafs into Air as as it can obliquely poffibly if its ftill be Incidence then more made do. the ^flexion is ftronger or as the a hath weaker. thofe Surfaces of tranfparenc Bodies which have the greateft re/rafting upon the Ray. becomes too let any of the Rays go through. Power. for in the confine Superficies interceding two of Air and Sal. Light in the j reflect the greateft Quantity it is of for by Experiment found. and refraft Light by one and the fame varioufly exercifed in cumftances . which is evenly diffused over all its Surface. after the manner hinted Bodies reflect 37. it becomes totally re/Jetted. for then its refraCtive Power.Gem tis G in the ftronger than 3 con- . oblique .of ffiatutai aaettgt on* perience. but by fome Power of the Body. that tranfparent Mediums. it 83 is evident that the Reflexion of a Ray is not effe&ed by one fingle Point of the reflecting Body. or the Force of its Attraction ftrong to Befides that. by which it ads upon the Ray without immediate ContaCt.

that conftitute Clouds or Mifts. is becaufe all their Parts are of an equal Denfity . oily Particles.86 confine of Air and Water ^ and in the confine of Air Cryftal. thereby . pellucid Mediums have no fenfible Reflexion. Mediums different from botK thefe between the Parts of hard Bodies. excepting fo far as they partake more and or lefs of iulphurous. but at their external Superficies. ftill and common ftronger Glafs or and ftronger in the confine of Air and Diamond. and perhaps. Now Deflexions are perficies produced in the Su which intercede thefe Mediums of different Denfities. as Water between the tinging Particles wherewith any Li quor is impregnated. there are many Spa ces either empty or Me repienifh d with diums of other Dcnfides. and Opacity arifes from the mul titude of ^efleBions produced in the internal Parts of Bodies: XLI. and the Reafon why uniform. Air between the aque ous Globules. Between the Parts of opake and coloured Bodies. All Bodies feem to have their Powers proportional to their Denrefraflive ficies.

into Fire them is : and Flame . . Sulphurs al moft that the Aftion between upon Light Light and Bodies is mutual. in the Proportion of theSVgTK which meafure the t^efrattion of upon Bodies. fince it s from the Aftion of Bodies on Light. thac this refraffive Power does ari(e . by refttttd the Action of the refrafted and G 4 Light. Newton has found by Obfervation on almoft all tranfparent Bodies. to turn all a&amp. together with a Calculation founded the Suppofition. fince all Bodies very probable. fo fince mutual. refratt and reflett grow hotteft in the Light moft ftrongSummer Heat. which is certainly true. this that Light is fwifter in Bodies than in vacuo. phurs.of Natural aaeUgtom 87 thereby have their refra&ive Power made more or lefs . that the denfeft Bodies which ly. is evident from Adion and this Confideration.5ls Light congregated by a Burningmolt upon fulphurous Bodies. that this refraBive in Bodies does moftly partake more or lefs Power of Sul find. as by Chymical dnalyfes we And as Glafs. and it s depend upon the (ulphurous Parts with which they abound.

or Horn by being (crap d. by filling their with Fluids of equal. as may be feen by viewing fmali Bodies with a and confequently. reflect Rays of one Colour. and if this Plate were flit into Threads^ or broken che into Fragments of the fame thicknefs with . are Light.a8 ^pofoppical The Bodies that reflect Light. thofe whofc Pores are fill d with Mediums of an unequal Denfity with that of the refrafting Medium itfclf. they muft T4icrofape&amp. be rendered diffidently opake. the moft tranfparent Subftances may by eva cuating their according to their feveral Sizes. or feparating their Parts. or almoft equal Pores Den- with their Parts. and tranfmit thofe of aqother. XLIL The haft Tans of almoft all Natural Bodies are tranfparent. as Salts or wet Paper dried. Glafs by being pulveris d. as Paper dip d in Water or Oyl $ and on the contrary. upon the fame Ground that thin Plates reflect or tranfmit thofe Rays j for a thin Plate of an even thicknefs appears all over of the fame Colour. and Bodies become more fides tranfparent.

and this is the Foundation of the various Colours of all Natural Bodies.of Natural Beltgton. and there fore the fmall Parts ing tranfparent. that thin Plates or Bubbles refletted Rays of one Colour and tra/mitted thofe of another. muft be denfer than the Medium. of Natural Bodies be muft upon the fame Grounds reflect or tranfmit the feveral (ores of Rays. and the fmall the Parts of all Na tural Bodies being like fo many Fragments Plate. according to their (everal thicknefs or thinnefs. there is no Reafcn why every Thread or Fragment fhould not keep its Co lour. their muft on Colours. why a heap of thofe Threads or Fragments flhould not conftitute a Ma(s or Powder of the fame Co it lour which the Plate exhibited before was broken of a hibit . 89 the Plate. Newton found by Obfervation. and confequently. Co lours gible and the moft (Refran Rays being the leaft refrangible Pw . which pervades their Interfticesj and as there is a conftant Relation between fyfrangibility. ftolet . fame Grounds ex Now Mr. But of Bodies on which their Colours the parts depend.

Mr.%eflelion y and others in Fits of Thofe whofe who deeafie Tranfmtffion. Newton $ for it is impoffible to feparate the Parts of this Work from one another without Difadvantage to them. ac cording to the feveral thickneffes of thefe Plates or Bubbles : and the Reafon why the Surfaces of ail thick and tranfparent Bo Light incident on dies refled part of the them. the Circumftances reflected. without lofing fomething . is. foe full Satisfadion in this wonderful Ap of Nature. muft go to that late pearance written by admirable Treatifc of Oftic fo&amp. and refrad or tranfmit the reft. that fome Rays at their Incidence are in Fits of eafie &amp.ffitinnples and thofe of intermediate Colours ha ving proportionally intermediate Degrees fo there is a conftant Re of fyfrangibility . in like the intergreateft thicknefles 5 and rnediateColoursat intermediate thicknefles j the Red at and lours there are ieveral Orders of thofe Co more or le(s intenfe and vivid. or to fum them up in a lefs room . being at lead thicknefles of any Plate or lation between Violet Colour and (%eflexibility.

That this Fluid of Light e3. this Light to cm in Lines perpendicular to their or having their in a fmalleft Parts ftrong vibrating put Mo emitted from them. and moves after the fame man ner other Fluids only with a much them do&amp. has now manifefted to the World to what furprizing ments duly Heights. and that this Light puts the parts of the(e Bodies in a vibrating tion wherein Heats confift. 2. Newton s and Difcoveries. even vulgar Experi ed in managed and carefully examin In the fuch Hands may advance it. the Sun think we may fafely conclude i. by powerful ribratwni of their fmall eft Parts. That Bodies draw greater Velocity. That fixt Stars are but Planets or Earths vehemently heated. That far great Perfon having before flhown how Numbers and Geometry would go in Natural tpbilofopby. from Mr. is That Light thefe mitted from thefe vibrating luminous Bo dies a certain time in from requires paffing to us. 5. tion.of thing Nw and Ufeful. I general. That the Mo Motion of Light is fwiftcr in Bodies than in . 4.

That the Vibration of the fmaller Parts of Bodies produced by to the A&ion of Light. e. but when it is in the conit . in its That the Ray cidence whole Courfe of ^flexion and In defcribes a Curve. becaufe that Force of Attrain its which accelerates its Motion Incidence . by reafon of the 6. muft of Neceffity retard its & vacuo. reflefted. is the Caufe of their Light. by reafon of after its this Attraction. when brought a certain Degree of Strength. when any Ray the is in that part of thefe Vibrations that has the fame Dire&ion with eafily that of Ray. rent Direction thereof. in 8. ed than broken. muft be of fuch a determin d Force to produce a diftinft That thefe Vibrations produced Bodies by the Action of their Motion confpires with Light. when that of the Rays of Light. i.5iion Mo diffe tion in its (fyflexion. breaks through a reSubftance. juft as we fee the Vibrations produc d in the Air by tremu lous and fonorous Bodies. or is rather bend 7. and and (lower its being than in Incidence.

vi%. 1 That cerreflefi of Bodies to 5. and that the refractive Power of Bodies is principally owing to the cranfmicted totally that are of the fame Sulphurs with for fince all which they abound A&ion is mutual. it is eafily refle&ed. is 10.Glafs ads moft upon Sulphurs. are 9. That tffyfle\ion caused dies. &amp. 11. That of their own Na ture diverfly Refrangible and ^flexible. by and happens only Mediums of is the different Denficies of in Superficies Bo that intercede different Dcnfities. and that this diverficy in both arifes from the fame Principle. That the For or refratt Light are very nearly proportional to the Denfities of the fame Bodies. ces Sulphurs ought to 1 2. pedes its Motion. aft moft upon Light. the Action of Bodies upon Light. tarn . and fince k& afting differently in dif the Rays of Light ferent Circumftances.9$ which im contrary part of the Vibration. Light congregated by a Burning. and fo every Ray is difpos d alternately to be eafily reflected or eafily That Light through Mediums only uniform Denfity.


Colours are


the primitive upon thefe Degrees.

d to luch Degrees of or ^flexibility, and that all and original Colours depend


That White con-

an equal Mixture of all the primi tive Colours, and Black in a Suffocation of all the Rays of Light, which is the Reafon why ftlacfo burn more eafily than other Colours and other not primi







Mixture That the Colours of Na

from a


Bodies depend upon the different Denficy of their fmall Parts, and thereby

Light of one Colour and tranfmit that of others. 1 6. That



of Rays make Vibrations of feveral which according to their bigbignefles, nefles excite Senfations of feveral Colours much after the fame manner, that the Vibra
leveral forts

of the Air according to their feveral bignefles excite Senfations of feveral Sounds.




lours arife

Harmony and Difcord of Co from the Proportions of the Vi*
as the

propagated through the Fibres of the

Optick Nerves into the Brain,



Natural fteHgton*


and Difcordof Sounds arifes from the Air. Proportions of the Vibratms of the

From what

has been faid of the Nature

of the Sun, and


ic is

evident that

the Quantity of Heat and Light in the Sun does daily decreafe 5 like other vehemently

hot Bodies


muft gradually cool


as alfo,


Rays Body upon all the Planets within its Syltem, which do not return, both its Bulk and Heat muft be diEwiffion



Millions of

perpetually, quite round



It is

Heat in Metals and Minerals, may be owing to the imprifoned Rays in em $ the Production of Animals in the ordinary way, require sa cer tain Degree of Warmth, which proceeds from his Influence. SomeBodies do ftifle and
fuffocate the

not improbable that all the the juices of Vegetables,

Light, fo as that they are never, or not duly reflected Sul again. phurous Bodies form little Cells by the

Rays of

Action of the Rays of Heat and Light to *& retain



cm, and from

the Ingenious


riment of the accurate and


fpbere and all

d Mr. John are informed, that our Atmothe Bodies on our Globe are

faturated at all times with Rays of Light which never return again to their Fountain,

becaufe as has been

Chown in the former


Bodies do attract, and confequently
thcfe Rays.
fhall here



(for he try d the fame Ex periment after different manners) the Inge

one of the Ways

nious Author prefcribes, which by my Or der was repeated here at London. They are
related in the id,

Volume of Mr.Fontanelles
Qtyyalle for the Year

Memoirs of



7 co.

We fuck d thro*

a very clean


of about 50 Inches in Length, open ac both ends, very well cleanled Mercury, till it came to the top, then nimbly ftriking off the upper Surface of the Mercury, which had been ioii d by che Air, and hindred the Effect in former Tryals, we nicely and the upper end with a proper quickly clo& d Cement fo th^t no Air cou d get in, then fu~
fpending the


that the Mercury



of Natural &ettgfon*


and darkening




Light could get


perceived that at

every Vibration, Flafhes of Light appear d in the Vacuity at the upper End, which enlightened
all the

Room, which as Mr.


happened thus that Film of Dirt, wherewith the Air foils the upper Surface of the Mercury, and which hinders the Paflage of the Particles of Light in or
noulli reafons,

being removed 5 in the Vibrations of the Tube, the Mercury afcenddinary

ing in

oblique Situation, lubfides again in its Perpendicular one, and thereby leaves behind it a Vacuity, to fill which, the Par


of Light, being the only Body that

can get

rufhes in, from the Mercury and through the Glafs, in great Quantities, and fo produces thefe Flafhes ; which (hows
that the Subftance of




it s

Now fincc


be not

certain, that Bodies



Rays of .Light, and do retain em fo, that they can never return to the Fountain
of Light again of Ligb{ both

it s






Bright Luminary,







fixt Stars

muft be

continually decreafing : However, it s alfo certain, that this Decreafe is very inconfi-

derable in any ftiort time, though
fure there



(ome, and our not being fenfible of this Decreafe, is only an Argu ment of the exceeding Smalnefs of the We find fome odorife Particles of Light,
rous Bodies,

fend out Steams



Years, without fenfibly diminishing either their Bulk or Weight, which argues the

Smalnefs of the Parts of thefe Steams. But the Particles of Light muft be extremely
fmall, fince the


for fo

many Ages


been conftantly emitting Oceans of Rays, without any fenfible Diminution : But this
can furprife no Body, who confiders that Matter is infinitely divifible 5 for it is poffible

to affign in Numbers, a Quantity, whereof a Body as big as the Sun may

conftantly, for any finite Number of Years emit Oceans, and yet the Sum of em all,


not be greater than a cubical Inch, or even a Grain of Sand.


that the



have already obferv d, general Condition, of the

Univerfal Law of Gravitation in Bodies,was, that at the fame Diftance from the Center

of the attracting Force, Bodies did gravi tate in proportion to their Solidity, and at
different Diftances, reciprocally as the Squares

of thofe Diftances but this Condition is not fo general, as altogether to exclude






know how




diverfify d, in

the different

what Lines, Bodies in their Motions or A&ions upon one ano ther defcribe, or what the Effeds of thefe Motions and Actions are and then to in* veftigate what Conditions of the Univer al Law of Gravitation, will make Bodies
to obferve

defcribe thele Lines, or produce thefe Effedts. Thus if any of the (primary or Se
condary Planets, did delcribe perfect Circles. or about the Sun, or a


Planet plac d in the Center, the Condi tion of the Hnhtrfal Law in thefe, would be, that the attractive Force at different Di

from the Center, would be

as thefe







they defcribed a

by fuppofing

the attractive Force


infinite Diftance,


or an Hyperbola, by the Centripetal into a Centrifugal


then the Condition of the Univerfal wou d be, that the Force were al

and the fame at all Diftances, 1 1. Mr, Newton has demonftrated,



find, as has

been infinuated in

the preceding Sections,

That the Rays of

Light in paffing through different Media, do tend perpendicularly, to either the Plane of Incidence or ti^eflexion, fo that the Force

of Attraction

always the fame 5 at equal Diftances from the fame Plane. We lee that the Parts of Air, fhun or fly from one another, inftead of tending to one another ;

fo that in accounting for the Appearances of Nature from the Unherfal Law of Gravitation,


are not


d to one fingle ConK>

dition, but


have recourfe

others as

(he Nature and Ncccilicy, of the Appearan ces (eem to require ; for the whole Diffi culty of (philo/opby, teems to lie in invefti-

gating the Powers and Forces of Nature,




from the Appearances of the Motions given, and then from thele Powers to account for




The obvious Appearances of
very fmooth

Bodies are thus,

well poliflh d, plain Bodies, put together, will firmly cohere even in an exhaufted
Receiver, which fliows evidently that their Coke fan is owing, neither to the Gravity, nor

any other Property of the Air; all faline, cryftalline, and moft mineral Bodies, break in very fmooth and plain, or at lead congruent Surfaces , and univcrfally almoft all hard and very compact Bodies, break wkh Surfaces, which immediately upon the which is Separation, appear whitiflj,

an Evidence, that though the Surfaces be very fmall, yet they are very fmooth and polifh d, for only innumerable little polifh

d Surfaces, are fit to reflect plentifully kinds of Rays, whereby white Co

lours are produced. ces of cohering Bodies,

Now thele Appearan

naturally lead us



one necelTary Condition
the plainnds,or at leaft












fecms neceffary to exclude any Fluid from lying between cohering Bodies, for theie Bodies cannot be laid to cohere^ or be con
tinued, betwixt whofe cohering Surfaces, in all its Points a Fluid may infinuate itfelf,


of the cohe plairmefs and fmcothnels more Points come ring Surfaces, will make into Cotttaftj than when they are rough



For whatever Caufe Coheif



fuppofe that


to a 61


ftrongly at the Contatt, the Points of the cohering Bodies come
Colxfion in Curve


into Contatt, the firmer the


and though cxal Congruity

Surfaces, will bring as many Points into Contact, as plain Surfaces will, yet Curvlty not being the fimpleft, nor mo(t expedi

of producing this Effect, nei ther agreeable to Nature, (who always her Effects the fliorteft brings about all and eaiieft way ) in feems evident, that
the plairmek and imoothnefs of Surfaces, is one Condition of Cohe/ion, and that thofc


Atoms that are terminated with plain Sur

of ^atutai &eU0f on*
faces, will ( ctteris faribus



produce Bodies

This will appear firmeft Cobefion. more evident from the contrary Quality in the conftituent Particles of Fluids. For we
have fhown before, Condition of Fluidity,
Surfaces, of the

of the

one neccffary

the Curvity of the



Fluids, in


whereby their Cobefion is very fraall, of the Cobe/ion of thofe Particles and are terminated with plain Surfaces,

Gravity always exceeds the Force of their Cobefion, fo that from both thefe
Gaufes, they eafily flip and move one upon /* another. that fome then may fuppofe


of the Primary Atoms, of which Bodies are conftituted, are terminated with plain Sur


all fides,

which will produce Bo

of the firmeft Cobefion, others are part ly terminated with plain, and partly with curve Surfaces, which will produce Bodies
of a
others again are intirely terminated with curve Surfaces, which will produce Fluids, and between thefe inCobefion


tirely plain,



curve, there are

infinite Combinations,

of plain and curVeSut-




whereby all the Pares of Matter. On the Center A. and cannot be feparated buc by a Force fupericur. to feparate ftill them. let us then enquire what Condition of the Unfterfal Law.faces which will account for all the vari ous Degrees of Cobefion in Bodies.P be a (Particle of Matter. let a Circle be defcribed. them from being e^fily feparated when join d. XLV. that cohering Bo a determin d Force. in refpeft of their Now in can be deriv d from nothing Nature. to that by which they one another. will not hinder them from being feparated. and at ihe Difhnce AD. bring nefs and in the Surfaces of cohering yet this moft Points into Contact. as this it were. endeavour to embrace one another. and &amp. by any Force how fmall foever j and dies fiiice we require are certain. to whofe Plane at^. but that Univer* fal Law of Attraction. will moft fitly anfwer the Appearances of Coatcradt he fan. attracted by . there wants to hinder a Cement. But though this fmoothplainncls. will Bodies. let !P A be perpendicular.

5)0. right Line & by all the Particles of this Circle. and at F draw F/ pa rallel to AT).?.lt. of fuch a length as may reprefent the Force whereby. (P^. from ? to any any Point in the Radius of the Cir in the cle draw !P Ay take . Li^. and let Lt^I be the Curve which the Point 2^ thus constantly circumftantiated Generats 5 Mr.of Natural 3Reltgtotu Condition of the Univerfal Newton has demonftrated. in any &amp. &amp. the Particle attracts the E Body &amp.PF = VE.Prop. L .

(hall OTHILM .P r tion of the Curve will be. that the Force whereby Af&amp.P. Matkemat.P/j&quot.OTJ1 r ^ 1 Wl v /r| . y= x&quot. t n . we then &amp. F be call d the whole you have Iffot tte Area 0& therefore i. and let F^ ? or the Force whereby the Point E attracts the be reciprocally as any Power ( fuppofe n) of F then the Equa- Body &amp.Phil. =H .gt. r AHIL let &amp. = i x a- whofe And if for x you fubfticute !P ^. upon the Q^adim is &amp. and F^.lt. .lt.~ x you fubfticute you have putting m.P attrads the Corpufcte multiplied as the upon the Kftarace A &amp. j .lt.P JLM =^=~^^ PH. &amp. &amp.

then the of the attracting Circle being Attraftim e. (the Curve being the vulgar tratting K If 4HIL=o x ^ = n and VA = oo i vanifhing. or the Di~ ftance between the Corpufcle and the atTlane &amp.P A = o. 107 m x &amp.P AH1L will be in and Jf being nothing. i.) then the Arch X& ti\s Area. when the is y attratting Plane plac d at ot the Hyperbola. with its AD the Cow- Afympiote is . the i.H ( whole Center . will coincide wich the dfymptote $0. and &amp.~ consequently the the Cor- iM of the Circle upon pufcle = m t x If M = i.of Natural Bcligion. in which Cafe. &amp. than that in the former Cafe. -f- &amp.PJ = o. where ?i in = If n = o 2 and (P /4 ~ oo .PD = &amp.^tttlofopitfcal T. let &amp. when -V A o. and conx ftcjuently the Attraction &A it AfilL iu the Attraction of the Circle &quot./cfe upon the Gw2!_ x AHIL is &amp. And hence appears that .y - + 2L If 7i Cff.P A AT& a. is greater i. and whofe Radius t= oo ) will coincide with is .gt.. then the Infinite. multi ply *d into it more than Infinite from whence that the Force of the Atraflion appears this (the which Exprcffion fliall be after meaning wards explained ) and therefore the Attra ction will be $A x AHIL = o ..PA quently AL i and HI will coincide. and i. ami &amp. there the 4*4 AHIL will be -nothing.^ and confe- x /4HIL =00 x o = therefore and V A = If n ^H be = 4 x And then f H called &amp. = i. AHIL will be oi more f/.cc x = i.P^ /&amp.

PA=--o y thmAHIL but will be more than infinite. AH1L o in Force of the Attraction confequently the when PJ both Cafes. the Attraction will oo for of be greater than when !P A two Produds.of Natural Religion* in this vi^ becaufc (P A = a . AHlLici this third in Cafe will be greater than the fecond and Cafe. then as former =&amp.P in that Cafe was the fame both when was equal to o and to oo . = greater Multiplicand. when (P traCtion. vi^ i. for the reafon o is mentioned. the Attraction A m = ? and &amp. If ?i J = 2 and & where n = i. for the Attraction & the Attraction.- when (P A oo I and a the which has the . if (P i op A o. as a greater than infinite is to infi nite. that ^is to a. will be greater than in the in this Cafe now fecond Cafe. fo that if A denote A=o .P being cail djf. having the fame Multiplicator. that is the greater. ly AH If A = a. contrary to what happened in the firft Cafe.

If m = and PA =00. that the Force of the AttraEtkn of the Plane up thefe Calculations it is From on the Corpu/ck) when the Diftancc is no Cor thing. evident. greater than AHIL in the fecond. and the increafes when thus the Powers of the Diftance n increafe^ . If the Attraction will be m = 3 and PA =a i } then the At. and and confequently 00 X0 = 1. AHIL will be equal to nothing. the Force of the circular &amp. and at any affignable Diftance of the Corpufcle eafily in be upon computed the Corpufcle P. then as be 3 fore. is Multiplicator in both. pufcle when come into or the Plane a common AHIL in this Cafe. may from the Plane. tf 6 After this manner.Plane Attraction of the any affignable cafe of the Powers of the Diftance P* (fi traBion will be equal to ~H 2* (Id J? 4- i 1 45 + 3Z 5 rt Hi%0r.

to where the Difference one Cafe and in the other. the Force of the Attraction and PA =o. is this to Now : apply theCobefion of Bo dies It s certain that the firft Condition (vi^. fo fmall. when the Bodies are in Contaft. . or when n is a greater Number. and fo in others between n yet greater. much lefs propor than when n=. when the Towers of the Diftances are high. than when and fo in others higher. it s clear from upon greater.of ffiatmal &eltgtotu thus when n == 2. I. than when they are lower. thus at the Diftances. is when the AttraBion reciprocally as the Diftance between the attracting Bodies. as does not anlwer the Appear ances . when in = 3. that the Force of the Attraction of the Plane the Corpufcle. and when they are at fome Diftance from one another^in is this cafe. As alfo. the Force of the Attraction tionally. and is P A o.) cannot obtain in the Cohefon of Bodies 5 for the Difference between the Force. or x. fame n than finite is when is lefs. H = i thefe Calculations. at the fame finite Diftan- ces decreafes fafter ? or at a greater rate.

in it to the cohering Bodies. In the fecond Condition of the Univerfal Law of Gravitationfoiz^whcn the Force is re of the Diftance. than when cohere. they are at ever fo fmall a finite Diftance from one another. that the Force is whereby Bodies when they come to immediate Contatt. between Bodiesat immediate Contaft^nd of the fame. J3ut not fufficient to account for this Difference obfervable in the if manner of the Cohefion of Bodies. at fome deterthat min d would Law.) the Difference of the Force ofCohefion.ances . upon the Surface of our Globe. the proportion of the decreafe of this Force. get in between the Surfaces of Bo they are at any Diftance. greater than the Diameters of the confticuent Parti dies cles will be very difficult to make fuch Experiments. very much greater. for we find. ciprocally as the Squares at fome Diftance from one another^is greater than in the former Cafe . the Condition of the Univerfal it any which furround Bodies. fame. But were poffible to gather by Experiment. Diftances give from one another. becaufe the Fluids But when .

Ho w- very evident. deftroy whereby Bodies cohere . is too fmali to be diftinguifh d by our howfoever everthisbe. of the plainnefs Surfaces of cohering Bodies . may be explained from this &amp. and of^ir. and that the Particles of 4ir y endea vour to recede from one another. altogether infenfible at any Diftances from one another. and fo by the efficacy preffures. and a Diftance equal to the Diameters of fuch jfubtil Fluids.Prin* cipleof Gravitation. that all the Appearances of the manner of the Cohefion of Bodies. together with that other of the already mentioned. removed at almoft an infenfible Diftance from one another. they render the efficacy of the Force of Attraction where of the Force thus the Particles of by Bodies cohere. it is affifted. in between the Sur Light. greater than are the Diameters of the Particles of thefe Fluids . and feeing one atight and Bodies aft mutually upon nother. get faces of Bodies. for if all Bodies cohere after one and the fame manner.of cles Natural their lateral of chcfc Fluids. then of Gra* one Condition of this Uniyerfal Lw I vition .

vitation will fervc$ if fomc Bodies attraA one another after one as to be vifible as afro &amp. find the Convex fide exceedingly ftretch d.- firft Bendings. being thus it is no hard matter to undcrftand (cxplain d. fures. which feems to arife from the Elafticity. traftm. bending elaflick Bodies. in fo much. is fufficient variety in this Univerfal Law all thefe Diverfities for account fo that it s to evident that from thefe Principles. Cahejton in general XLVL fame of fmooth and plain Sur faces. to account for the different Degrees of Firmnels.fide. tho* opt fo large. or in the become vifible which no doubt were K/&quot. others aftw another (and thefe Diverfitics to fome may feetn not improbable. there before. and of fome one or more of the mention d Conditions of the General Law of AtPrinciples. Cohefan in all pofGble Cafes may be explained. that by frequent and long con tinued Bendings. Solidity and there Cohejton obfervable in Bodies ) then. there In we in the out. we fc the .

5tion tain. as to move upon a common of the Congruent fquares as an /frcw . ftrike againft one ano ther. attracts by fbme one or other of the Con ditions of the General Law of duration. when two elaflick Globes. or its Parts forcibly d together. are join d together. feparated if thelc Planes were if the by zfarallel Motion. that two very fmooth and plain (quare Surfaces. fo that each Particle in thefc Planes. mightily contracted. the^irtraftive Force wou d immediately bring thefe Planes and together again. that no forein Fluid I a . fo as to run prefs into Folds or lefler Convexities. only the Convex fides. chat the external Force which thus fe- Force ( paraced theft Planes. Diftance were fo fmall. were fo another. fide feparated. to hinder their A&amp. or Balls.of jftatutal ffieiigtom the Concave fide.fide : the fame thing fuppofe. are turn d in towards let us their Centers . if thcfe Planes. the matter being thus.and that no forein Fluid endowed with a disjoining fuch as Air and Light arc ) cou d init is cer : terpofe. ceafingtoaft. on the in. by any external Force.

) fuppofe. as to manner they provided they be not feparated. if the feparating Force ceas d. changing their Figures.eafily gathered from the Condition of the Law of Attralkn y and the Diftance of thefe Planes being given. fo far. the attracting Force would a6t and bring em together a- gain .Fluid could get in to hinder their Adtion. feparated by a parallel or a circular Motion about an Axis y or by a - Motion both after thefe. fome manner compounded of ( for it is no matter after what are disjoined. another after fome one gr other Condicion of the Universal Law 5 being feparated by a forein Force ? they muft (when that Force ceales) . Now all Elaftick Bodies in their Actions upon one muft of another. whereby thefe Particles If we then attraff one another. and that they attratt one plain and fmooch. and in both Cafes. admit any forein deftroy the effi Fluid to enter. with a Force which may be. the Surfaces of the Parts of Elafiick Bodies. which may cacy of the Force. neceffity have fome of their Parts in theie Adtions.

may the Elafticity of Ten dinous Bodies. be explained. but it is not my ob- Bufinefs here. in their un bending. toward bending Forces. and hitherto down pearances. there arc as great Varieties in this as in Cobefon. (which is to be eftimated from the Diftance. If Elaftick Bodies ferv d one conftant (Proportion. I fhall not may therefore trouble the Reader. the only (principles thefe intricate. to determin the Condition of the Univerfal Law by which their Particles attradt their one another . but per haps fome think. Upon the fame &amp. ) and fo will produce all being the Appearances of Elaftick Bodies. to defcend into all the par ticular Circumftances. may be accounted I .lt.of natural Beltgton* fes) join i i \? together again with a certain degree of Force. and Condition of the Unherfal Law given.Principles. but fhall content laid my fclf to have upon which dejpair d o for. in this place with the particular Gonfcquences. from particular Conditions of the General Law of Attrattion. ic were eafie from thence.

fome of the reft will naturally of thefe Diicourfes. for which this Chapter was defign d only as a Lemma : Befides that. from the fame Principles. come into the Subje& CHAP. but that thefe already explain d are moft of rances what I (hall makt ufe of in the following Treacife.ii 8 I ffpofopfflcal 0?mcipltg would proceed to the reft of the Appea of Nature which lam fatisfy d can be accounted for. .



. whether he fprang from fome times the Earth dropt from the Clouds y when he began^ or if ever there was a B time or . to fee T is a little furprifing Men contending and wran^_ gling about the Origin of their ieveral Families. and yet fcarce any Bo dy give Himfelf the trouble once ferioufly to confider or enquire how Man at firft became to be. CHAP.THE Pbilofophical O F Principles Natural Religion. this Origination of World 3 and of Mankind in particular. Of the II.

and yet very many now a days don t fcruple to own themfelves the Children of the Earth. the firft is of thofe of the Epicurean Se&.^I)i!ofopi)icai time ries when he was not . and that thefe Particles mo &amp. No Body can well bear to have their Anceftors affronted.. nor their Pedi gree dcfpifcd. or the Off- ipring of blind Fate and Chance. without troubling our Heads who made it. II. We are pains d we and our own immedi ate Parents have not been for ever . I fhall not think my Pains ill beftow d once in my Life to have cxamin d how this prefent ftate of things became at firft to be. very There are three general Opini ons about this matter. but few of us go farther^ we take this World as we find it. or whether it was~#We or eafily fatisfy not. Whate ver others may do. tho thefe Enqui s be far more worthy a wife Man than thofe infignificant Contefts. that holds that an iwmenfe Void^ and an Infinity of different hard and ly figur d.. extreamly Matter have for infrangible Particles of ever been .S ving .

with out any Caufe. over But pafs this Head... how juftly we (hall now examine. as B 2 not .of natural JReiigion. to which to a very high pitch we find none of its other qualities anfwerable. Scheme fuppofes Mat ter to have for ever been of it felf.. after innumerable ren counters^ did at laft fettle in this beautiful Order of things we now behold. 3 in a dire&ion oblique ving of emfelves to one another.which is a very liberal Firft this Compliment to fuch an unadive inaiii- mate Mafs^ to make it independent for its Being and uncapable of being deftroy* ed (both which Self-exiftence neceffarily implies) tis to raife it of Dignity. Time and Space it s true may have for ever been but that is becaufe they to a may have fome relation Being endow d with all other fuitable j Dualities but Matter feems to be too igno ble a Being to arrogate fuch high Endow we ments. This is the Scheme upon which fome build their and upon the account of which fome of our Moderns think emfelves fuh* Hopes j til Philosophers 5 III.

. hard. this motion did proceed fuppos d there is nothing bcfide unadive Matter it felf to produce it. We never bring it fclf into Motion. No . Whatever can be fuppos d to fince it is put Matter in Motion. have prov d XL of the preceding Chap ter ^ that Motion is no more effential to Matter than Reft. that of it felf it can IV.. if in Motion.. and with the fame eafe. But I d gladly know whence .not eiTential to the Bufinefs in Hand... it wou d for ever move on. be fuppofed to have dire&ed the feveral parts / . and. e. it is poilible to form have this prefent ftate of things. and in and their oblique Direfrangible Particles^ Si/on to one another. may at the {ame time. that wou d for ever continue in the ftate it it is put in. Let us confider how out of thefc few Principles of an ttdwenfe Void^ an infinity of very fnjall. it would continue fo for ever. if it was from all Eternity at reft. thereof to the Places they are to have produc d this frejent now in ^ ftate of things.

tradiftion implies no cona Sphere in a vacuity fhou d B be .. who fees any part thereof at reftfor what is effential to any thing. is from hence. 5 can think Motion effential to Matter. : are only alternately to and the ter from moving very (lowly mination of the Motion.. and thofe of great Name too. or the at reft. for the fpace if is as the Velocity fmall y and the Velocity be very the fpace it moves through is fo Kkewife And that thofe Bodies which-&quot. Philosophers^ have afferted that no part of Matter ever was nor can be at abfoltite reft... that No Body But fome thing can never be without it. and may be divided in mfiiritnm as well as other tities^ Quan and a Body may be moving any fi nite time. For. that the* it may be ve that nothing in this Univerfe is a&ually at abfolutc reft.of j^aturai 3Seii0iott. feem to be Obflacle. but that every thing is in fome degree of Motion ^ yet that abfolute Reft in Bodies clear is not it iiripoflible. To ry this I true.. fay they. anfwcr. that .. Motion is a Quantity. and yet never (enfibly change its relative Place .

that determines it to this Dire&ion rather than to any other of the infinite Variety.fM)ilofapl}fcai be d by two other equal Spheres with equal Forces and contrary Dire&ions.. in the faculties of natural tbicgs. and that is -from the infinite poffible Vane-? ties of its Dire&ions laying afide the confederation of all other Bodies j or. pot .. fhou d rnoYe rather in this than in any other of the klfinite number of Dire&ions. And it cannot poffibly move in more than one of em at once^ and therefore it will of itfelf move in none of em. e.which are felt move at all. There is another Argu efiential ment which to me feems very conclufive againft Motions being effential to Matter.. it will not of it and confequentFor ly Motion is not effential to Matter. i. no Reafon can poflibly be aflign d why it prefs . fiippoa Body moving in ^acuo^ it muft move fing Now what is it in one certain Dire&ion. from which preffure the intermediate Sphere wou d be at abjolnte Reft wherefore if it is not abfurd a Body {hou d be at abfolute d be it is Motion fliou impoffible Reft ^ to Matter.

there can be no Choice made at all.of Natural Religion. and therefore they added. in innumc- . From all which it is that allowing the plain. yet nothing wou d follow but r an eternal wandering in Lines parallel to one another^ without any other cifeft. as has been prov d. and to alledgc that they are ca pable of refolving what way they w ill go. and no Reafon to determine any one way. The Contrivers of this Scheme faw wifely enough^ that granting thefe Atoms to be felf-moving. poffible and their Atoms.. not endow d with Free-will. But allowing Matter to be . felf* I wou d know exiftent and felf-Moving whence came this obliquity of Direction y this is to afcribe Will and Choice to thefe Particles.. and there being nothing elfe to produce it. where there is an infinite variety of Choice.. that thefe Parti cles moved with different oblique Dire&ions to one anotherby which means they wou d meet and juftle and B 4 refleft.. yet nothing cou d be produc d Abettors of this Philofophy their Void for want of Motion. V. it not being effect ial to Matter..

. . e. they muft all move in -parallel Lines ^ and confequently they cou d never meet in order to We now produce any regular Effe&. if the Mo tion of thefe Atoms arifes from emfelves^ they muft all follow the fame Dire&ions^ i. to iiippofe this World already as to fuppofe thefe Particles this endow cl with tion. do not find that Matter or Bodies can alter their Directions. obliquely dire&ed Mo* the Caufe of the one being no lefs accountable from their Principles than the other. But does not every Body fee that it is as eafie and as intelligible in Being...8 innumerable different ways. they have mov they lifted. Why do they not fo ftill? Since (according to their own fuppofition) their Na nothing has happen d to alter or the manner of their Motions ever ture^ fince. and all Motions produc d by the fame adequat fame DiCaufe have the re&ions and confequently. and yet according to the Opinion of thefe for infinite as Men d Ages by -pa ft. We fee all Motions nowperform d in the fame dire&ion with that of the mo ving Force.

others to another. yet tis ftill inconceivable how they r fhou d produce a World. they w ou d produce a fluid Sphere^ their rectilinear Motions turning into circular ones ..ving. is r : to fay thefe Atoms were intelligent free Beings..of /Ince it is atural 3&eitgton* altogether .. and fo nothing but one great fo^ lid Sphere cou d be produc d if they happen d to unite after their Meeting. and if they again reffe&cd from one another. upon any other ac count but the Direction of the imprefs d Force. or otherwife wander on in right Lines as before And to make fome con verge to one point. for that wou d be making em all converge to a point. this Scheme is altoge VI.) felf-mo&amp. For thefe Atoms cou d not move all with the fame degree of Obliquity to one another. unaccountable in why Matter iliou d move one Direction rather than another. and obliquely di- re&ed. which cou d chufe the courfe they wou d .. thefe Atoms to be ^ji Jelf-exijlent. But and all that s alleged on this Head by the Favourers of ther precariotts.

and if flop when and where they pleas d. only thofe whole Directions converge to a point. differently fituated^ obtaining all poffible varieties of Obliquity. is.o $t)tiDCopi)ical in. tho* they move and probably juftle and inter As I have juft fere all imaginable ways. wou d go We have a very powerful Proof of the infufficiency of thefe Atoms. they . The truth of the Rea mat Bodies were fclf-moving^ they cou d move what way they pleas d. I leave the der to confider. by the interpofition of the furfaces of refle&ing Bodies thing. e. cou d meet to pro duce any real Body^ and ev n the Body which wou d be produc d woti d only be faid.. now So that out of all their Motions. only Spheres of different Mag nitudes cou d be form d.. tho endow d with their obliquity of Dire- Rays which as was before prov d are very fmall parts of Matter. which how fmall a part this is of the infinite variety of a fpherical one... Bodies in ter this Univerfe.. /. Stion to produce any in the of the Sun.and yet thefe pro duce no regular Syftems of Bodies.

For unlefs we defcend to Particulars.. d they wou d be free-will Elective Agents. . what way^ and by what Laws it may be done. Generals are always to be fufpe&ed 5 a Contradi&ion may be difcovcred in the particular Explications of an Appearance that was not taken notice of in the the general Scheme^ as indeed it happens in every individual Inftarice of prefent Subjeft hitherto attempted. unlefs particular Motions. allowing thefe Atoms to bzfelf-exiftentjfelf-moving and obliquely dire&ed. 5 the principal Bodies of this tlni- were fram d.of natural Religion. I (hall not ask of thofe who defend this Scheme^ a particu lar this&quot. VII.and tis as 5 probable (till contrary be evinc d^ in fome Particulars at leaft) it may not be fo. be {hewn by what Directions and Refleit &ions verfe . To (hew a thing po fible to be done. we are never certain it can be fo. yet I wou d gladly know how from thence this Univerfe cou d be fram d It is not enough to fay barely thefe Atoms thus difpos flate d wou d at laft fettle into this of things. we muft tell how. Again .

any one Animal or Vegetable was produced. We all know how wretchedly Des Cartes (the ableft Patron that ever this Opinion had) has blunder d on thefe Heads.lar account of the Mecbamfm of every in dividual Appearance in our Syft erne D for But it any one that indeed were endlefs. and yet to be fully fatisfy d of the truth qf this Hypotbefis^ a Man muft underftand t}ie particular Mechanifm of the whole of things. and his Followers have It is furnot mended the matter much. V1I. or from what mechanick Principles the tell Planets defcribe Elliptic^ Orbits. can by what Laws of Mechanifrn... can the moft contemptible of the Celeftial #//../ or Terrejtrial Bodies cou d be produc d . .. and of every individual Syftem Appearance. how any reafonable Man prifing to think cpu d believe this Vtriverfe to have been produc d by Matter and Motion j when as yet no Man that ever liv d.. I {hall for the fake of thefe allow their whole Scheme to be true. from thefe tell by what MecbaPrinciples alone.

without any other cement but their catching hold of one another. Thefe Atoms are fuppofed in frangible. The only tolerable account Particles is of from Cohefzon their branched in fuch like hard folid Particles refle&ing from one another. at leaft not fo but that the leaft Motion will disjoin em again. It is impoffible to conceive how innumera ble hard and compared Atoms in Now Figure. can never poflibly lay hold of one another. in or der to produce folid Bodies.. fwimming an immenfe Abyfs cou d ever come to co here fo as to produce fuch hard Bodies as Diamonds and fome other Mineral Subfiances are.of Natural ffieiigion* VII... but like chain d they wou d .this mutual embracing might keep em from being eafily torn be ftill movable Work y and cou d never produce the appearance of Firmnefs affunder. cxtreamly compared and hard of Matter muft (as indeed the leaft parts neceflarily be) which compa&idnefs and hardnefi is a demonftration that nothing cou d be produc d by em^ fince being fb they cou d never come to cohere.

There are feveral Appearances absolutely unaccountable from the Laws of Mechanifm. obliquely dire&ed. and to meet according to any Laws of Mechanifm. will . yet they cou d only produce loofe heaps of Atoms . fome few of the moft confiderable tors of this . or fuch movable ones that are al together unlike the folid Bodies we now So that to account for the probehold. iaid And what is here of Cohefion and Solidity . the Abet Opinion want a Principle for Both Solidity or Cohefion and Elafticity which are owing to no eflential Property of Matter.... Self- moving.14 Firmnefs and Solidity. maybe likewife fhewn of Elafticity. It were endlefs to allege all the Inftances that might be brought on this Head. befides their Matter and Motion. VIII. and confequently thefe cou d never be produc d by Matter and Motion alone 5 or any Combinations of them. du&ion of this prefent ftate of things. And thus allow to be ing thefe Atoms Self-exiftent. as is (hewn in the two laft Se&ions of the preceding Chapter.

for if any with the Laws of Mechamfa^ then it is cou d have been impofllble this Syfteme produc d by the concourfe of Atoms. and which is the Caufe of all the beautiful Appearan ces of Nature owes its Origin to fomething different from Matter and Motion.of Natural one be inconfiftent will fuffice.. IX. and therefore this Syftem of things cou d ture or 5 not arife from thence. nor can arife from the Figure^Tex* Motions of its Parts. is that great Law In to which fubjeft.. Not only Gravitation or that implanted Principle whereby Bodies tend towards one another. is above the Powers of .. all the Bodies of this Univerfe are VZK. but is im^lan-* ted therein by fome Power fuperiour to that of Matter j whence it is evident that one of the primary Attributes of Matter is independent of the Laws of Mecbanifw. That of Gravitation. That aftive Principle which animates as it were the dead Mafs of Bodies. The firft I (hall inftance in. the former Chapter I have endeavour d to fhew that this Property is not cffential to Matter.

. e.. All the Fb/fofophers that ever were. altogether unaccountable from the Laws of Mechanifm. Newton.. planted . they might Matter had been felf-moving) have for (if ever ftray d in right Lines.6 $i)itofopi)tcai all of Matter. i. that they fliould approach to and remove from a determin d point at different Sea- and that uniformly and conftant is ly. All the At- tempts of others before Mr. that they (hould conftantly revolve in Orbits. But from this im fons. all the and ferrejinal Appea Celeftial rances are likewife above the Powers and Laws of Matter and Motion. to explain the regular and confront Appearan c ces of Nature^ were moft of em Ungeometrical^ and all of em fo inconfiftent or it was as hard to allow unintelligible.but. cou d never from the meer Laws ofMechaniJM explain how the Planets came to move in Elliptic!^ Orbits. that as to conceive the their Poftulata thing which they pretended to account for from them. but the Effe&s and Appea rances that neceflarily depend thereupon. as has been (hewn in the former Chapter.

nervous Juices are both deriv d from the Blood.. r. The Produftion of Animals altogether inconfiftent with the Mecbaniftrt..of Natural 3Ed!0tom ail 17 the planted Principle of Gravitation. The Motion of the Heart is caus d by the nervous Juices mixing with the Blood in the Mujcular And thcfe part thereof. and is thence re turn d by the Veins into the right Ventri cle thence by the Arteria Yulmonalvs unto the Lungs ^ from the Lungs by the Vena j fulmonalvs to the right Ventricle again. Phenomena are accounted for^ and that to the greateft nicety we are capable of So that not only this Unidiftinguifhing. verfe cou d not have been produc d by the there is Laws of Mechanifa. X. but fingle Appearance fcarce a that can thence ade is quately be accounted for. Laws of fqueez d by the force of the Heart from the left Yen* is The Blood tricle^ through the Arteries unto the Ex^ tremities of the Body. the Motion of the Heart by the Texture of their C containing Vc fck . and forc d into the Mufcnlar part of the Heart.

a Circle to move the constantly return in I iliou d then think their Scheme Machin : Ibmewhat is fcafible. But. and a Gland with . fince the firft dernonftrably impoffible. By an Organ mean a diftinft independent part of a Machin :Thus a Wheel and all its parts is an Organ of a Watchj if I may fpeak fo. are Organs in if number a&ually indefinite I not infinite. Here now the Heart is the Caufe of the Motion of the Blood in the Arteries. fo that the fame Water fhou d . and perhaps by the pulfation of the Arteries upon the Nerves in the Brain. the latter muft 2. a Perpetuum Mobile^ which by what was faid in the preceding Chap ter is contrary to the Laws of Mecbamfm. and the Motion of the Blood in the Arteries the Nerves... In all Animals there be fo hkewife. is urging their Juices through the Caufe of the Motion of the Heart. e.8 ^iiofopijicat fcls. which is a plain Circulation of Mechanical Powers i.. If an Epicurean Philofopber cou d contrive a Water Machin that the Water fliou d move the Machia^ and the Machin the Water .

2 and . Jfceitgiotu its 19 Origin an in an Animal Organ Extremity thefe Organs or independent Now Body. which is evident both from the Nature of Senfation and Nutrition. it will not follow that the Organs which convey ttiisSenfation are infinitely many^fince they be only the continuation of fome few Organs through different parts. is its or a Canal from are infinitely parts in the Animal. that one this perhaps it may Organ may convey Sensation through feveral places. if every point of the Veflels and Mufcles of the Animal Bo the is Anfwer dy be fenfible. But may all obvious. leaft Now there is not the folid part of the Veffels imaginable or Mufcles but is fenfible r and therefore the Organs in Animals that convey this Senfation. To be obje&ed. and confcquently tho ev ry minute part of the Body be fenfible.. then the Organs which convey the Senfation are C infinitely fmall.of with all to its natural parts. many. Senjation is per- form d by the mediation of an Organ arithe Brain and continued through fing from the part affe&ed.. are infinite in Number.

Nutrition by an Organ.and if infinitely fmall they muft be infi-.. ev ry aflignable part of thefe Canals muft be the termination of forne Decretory Duft feparating a fluid fit to encreafe their Dimenfions or repair their Loflcs and thefe fecretory Chanels again muft have others to encreafe their bulk or repair their Lofles. may de cay and be impaired. Again. nitely many. and f on in infinitum.. . and fince there is no part of the Body that may not be encreas d or diminifli d (as is evident from the Cure of Wounds in all Places through which the neceffary part of the Fluids of the Body can pafs) it is plain that cv ry individual point of the Ani mal Body is the termination of an Organ through which the Nutrition may be con vey d. feeing their Extremities in or the Brain conftitute a finite Snferfcies^ fill a finite Space : For a finite number of in fmall parts can never make a finite finitely is perform d Quantity. through which the Supply is convey d to the Place to be nourifh d. Moreover feeing even the Canals themfelves do encreafe in bulk.

the greater Number of fine (lender . the Brain is a numberlefs Congeries of infinitely fmall Tubes woven into feveral Figures ^ the Nerves are bundles of fmall cylindrical Pipes .. and each Fi bre of an incredible Number of little F/bound together and divided into brils. that the fiinfinitum..ffieligion* Add to all thefc. and the Litngs and Liver are but Heaps of little Bladders upon which the Blood Veflels are fpr cad in Net-work or of little Glands among which thcfe Veflels are difpcrfcd. The Mufcles themfelves confift of a Number of Fibres. In one Word. all the for7 lid parts of the Body are nothing but C 3 cither .. thofe capillary Pipes are difcovered j and thefe parts which were formerly reckon d Parenchywatous are dles or heaps now found to be of exceedingly fmall bun Tubes or Threads. neft Glaffes difcover nothing in the feveral parts of the Veilels and Mufcles but and the better the Canals Microf copes are. little Cells or the Glands are no Veficles^ thing but a clew of little {lender Pipes diverfly rolled or folded together .

. and confequent^ the ly when the complications are infinite Machin . Machines ^ Laws of Motion. and or all the Membranes are Membranons Coats of the Veflels. is is beyond difpute. In Artificial the more complicated and compounded the Contrivance of the Parts is^ the grea ter the difficulty is in adjufting them 5 and the difficulty encreafes in the fameproporti- on the complications do. or (lender Bundles ty d together by others fiirrounding em^ or going from one Threads .. nothing but thefe Threads wrought toge ther into thin Skins. in Fibre to another^ or fpread out into thin Membranes: For the Bones are nothing but fuch Bundles. feingitconftkutesafinite Quantity... made of Organs in Number really infinite.. ridiculous is it to imagine a thing fo wonderfully made cou d be the or of the blind Eflfeft of meer Chance..0?tnciples either very fine exceeding (mall Tubes for the conveyance of fome fluid. For thefe Organs become at laft infinitely imall j and fo their Sum muft be infinitely which that every Animal all From it Now how many.

Allowing have been produc d by the cafual concourfe of Atoms ^ why do not thefe very fame Caufes continually operate. and therefore the Produ&ion of an Animal is altogether imAnimals might mechanical. fince fuch a thing how fuch we might But was never feen nor pre tended. No Body now-a-days thing of as that underftands any Nature or Philofophy can fo much imagine that any Animal how abject foever can be produc d by an equivocal Ge- C neratiofi . begin to hearken to their Pretences. it s very arrogant in them to think People fhou d believe the Matter without any Reafon upon their meer Word.. 3. r nay^ if they wou d but tell us (without runing upon Contradiftions ) a Machin might be produc d .. and why do we not fee the fame Effe&s in our Days (fince the Caufes continue the fame) that w ere beheld in former Times ? If any of the Philofophers fliou d fhew us fuch an Appearance .of Natural lleltgioit. 23 Machin is the altogether above Power of this is Mechanic!^. and quite impracticable by the Laws of Matter and Motion: But exa&ly the prefent Cafe.

Befidcs.. know very well that there is the . in the Generation an Animal. there is a neceffity that the Heady Heart^ Nerves. Air.. the Heart cannot be fent from move...24 |M)ttoCopt)ical neration Male in two or without the conjun6Hon of and Female Parents. than a thing is of ma of king itfelf. Veins and Arterie? fhqu d be form d at the fame time. going fame perpetual round which are no more capable of producing thewonderful Fabrick of another Animal. fill the Liquors of different Natures. in the fame or 5 different Individuals. till and it be fit to be trufted with the Light. capable of receiving the Benefit of the We in the nothing Animal Machin^ but an infinity ot d with branching and winding Canals.. who have confidered And very few the Matter but own that ev ry Animal proceeds from a preexiftent Ammakid. tinlefs Animal Spirits. and that the Parents conduce nothing but a convenient Habita tion and fuitable Nourifhments to it. which can never be done by the Motion of any for as hath fluid what way foever mov d been juft now faid.

it 25 Animal the j be cannot deriv d into the Spirits Heart unlefs the Blood be fqueez d by the Heart through the Arteries into the Brain. But this is altogether impoflible. the Arteries Veins and Nerves muft be all form d at the fame time^ if the Ani mal is Mechanically produc d. It is Penance to their fluids. Philosophers To obferve how in every ftep they contrad id .. doing read the wretched Accounts of the wifeft and moft learned on this Head.. try able to form the Idea of the Generation of an Animal. again confider that all that one Animal can conduce to ward the Generation of another is by the force of fome Liquors through fome Ca and if from this Power he be nals.of the ^amrai aaeitgton. So that it is evident that the Head and Head through the Nerves into Heart. for no Motion of any fluid or fluids howfoever difpofed can form all thefe at the fame inftant. And we know all of the internal Mechanical Ali ens of Animals are perform d by the force Let any one confider the of Canals and other Infinity Organical in an and parts Animal.

it is too hard a Probleme to be folv d from For (b few data as Matter and Motion. all the reft of this vifible World might have .the thought ful parts of Mankind wou d be eafily temp */ JL ted to believe.tradi& the known Laws of Motion j and indeed the manner after which they wou d have generated is as much above the Power and beyond the Laws of Mechanism as the true em and genuin Manner and Me thod of their Produ&ion is... e. And cou d it be once prov d either by Demonftratton or by Matter of Fa& that a Plant or an Ani mal cou d be produc d by Meckanifat^ i. and furnifh us with the fame Obje&ions .. Nature. for they are indeed only Animals of a lower Rank.. the meaner i. tho Plants and fily fatisfy all the vegetable Kingdom be liable to the fame Difficulties.or the Laws of Motion. it is evident that an Animal cannot be produc d mechanically. be once folv d by indeed cou d this one of the Philosophers we fhou d be eaany J d of the reft... that fince the better part was produc d by Mechanifm. e. From all thefe Considerations.

We (hewn that neither Spon taneous (nor indeed any) Motion is eilen* tial to Matter.The Spontaneous Mo*ionsof the fenpart of this Syfteme is an eternal contradiftion to the Laws of Mechanijw. the Arrow in that given it by the Bowftring. ^XI.of ^atutai Religion.. and the Hand of the Dialplate in that given it by the Wheels. we There are many other Ar guments which I can produce to prove the fame Propofition which the Language I write in will not permit fitive me to fet forth. it is a Matter of the greateft Confequence that have demonftratcd... 27 So that have been form d the fame way. the in the direHon of the Club or of the it is Body of the Piece out of which (hot. But all Senfitivc Animals have a Self-moti0/r. and that neceflarily and conftantly if notforc d out of the fame by fome foreign Violence. This have fufficiently our Senfes Ball goes may on daily inform us of. it is determin d to one direftion (while in Motion) which it can no more alter than move of itfelf. that neither Animals nor Vegetables can be produced Mechanically. .

move through all the points of the Compafs. The Docility and Segacity of fome Animals demonftrate the contrary. . as their Occafions require. ibme of clinations prompt em. d as that of the meerly precarious... or In It s true. and fome BruteAnimals fhew more Indications of it than fome of the Race of Mankind on whom But this is and may be deny d as eafily as it is they beftow it. Befides.can turn and wind. What more evident Proofs thefe of a Spontaneous Motion cou d poor Creatures give than they do.. Modern are as neceflarily determin Dial-plate. forward our Philosophers have afierted. tions a priori I have juft now brought to evince the contrary.. that the Brute-Creation are only pieces of Clock-work and that all their Motions . go back and 0#. con Befides the Demonftrafidently alleg d. the Obfervation and Experience of all Mankind contradi&s it.. if they were d to be endow d with it ? No really fuppos thing but a fenfation in our felves of the Principle of their A&ions cou d create clearer Evidences of & Spontaneous Motion.

The Voluntary Motions of Ra tional Creatures are altogether unaccoun table from the Laws of Mechanism.. Wherefore finCe the fenfitive World is endow d with fpontancons Motions. XII. it is evident this Univerfe cou d not have been produc d Mechanically.the Mufcles are Bundles of Fibres. we fliou d produce the fmaL part of their A6tions and Paffions.of Natural ffieligton* 19 Befides^ it is altogether impoffible to ac count for the far greater part of their A$ions and Motions from Mechanifm^ as we have in the preceding Propofitions {hewn at large. and fince this is far beyond and above the Powers of Matter. every one of thefe Fibres confifts of a prodigious Num ber of lefler Fibres or Fibrils which are fo many very (lender elaftick Canals bound about . And we fliou d be ftrangely furpriz d if by any combination of ma terial left Organs.. MuC cular Motion is perform d much after fuch a manner as this. which being clofely compared at both ends make their two Tendons^ each of which is inferted into fome one fixt part of the Body or other.

. with the other Excretories of the Body.. Vein.z its Blood^ produces a rarefaction (the manner how... the lat ter to carry thither likewife id . and their Longi Veficul* tudinal Diameters (from Knot to ftraitned. of the Glanditlous Subftance cretory Dufts of the Brain. the two firft to bring and carry back the Blood..* with the Veficul&amp... I (hall forbear at prefent to determine) whereby thefe are diftended.30 ^Dtloiopi)icai about by fmall tranfwerfe parallell Threads which divide thefe hollow Fibrils into fo many elaftick Cyftes or VeficnU^ as Gut were ty d at equal diftances. for avoiding Difpiites.. Wherefore fince the nervous Juice is form d out of the Blood. and Nerve enter. which mixing in the proper flu. and fince the Nerves are very fmall Arterial this Juice of the whole The Nerves are the/Jr- . which are nothing but fmall (lender flips of the Arteries for deriving an appropriated Juice from the Blood.. if a Into every one of thefe Veftcul^ ^ an Artery. Knot) and fo the length Mufcle fhortned. and confequently are much of the fame Nature.

cles of involuntary Motion. fuch as the Heart... ( ing abated either by the many circumvo lutions of the Artery in the Gland. of Blood. or by the rewith in the {lender fiftence the Juice meets Pipe of the Nerve it felf. tis impoflible that any of thefe fels Juices fhou d ffognat in their longer than till they be filPd. the Lungs. and all the Juices of the Body be allow d to be deriv d from it.) If the circula tion of the Blood be admitted . which is the Origin of the Nerve. that it moves Velocity be abundantly more flow. this nervous Juice is conftantly deriv d by a Mechanical In the Heart..of Juice muft ries 3 Natural move in thefe Nerves after the in the fame manner the Blood does only with its Arte this difference. Now in the MuC.. they and the influence of the nervous full . its Ve And therefore the nervous Juice in Channels is propell d after the fame manner and by the fame Mechanifm the Blood is urg d forward in the Arteries. while the Auricles are are diftended. the Stomach and Guts.. Necefllty... and the mufcular Coats of the Veffels.

. till the Blood be deriv d into the Aorta^ and the Impediment from this diftenfion to the influx of the nervous Juice be taken off. the Auricles Neceffity they the diftenfion of the firft permitting the influence of the nervous and fo on the other Juice into the lattery hand. After the fame manner are the mu^ cular . and fo the Ventricles come into Con- tra&ion ^ which hinders the Blood from runing any more into the Ventricles from the/^#~ ricks ^ and then the Auricles are again filPd : andVentricles being as it were Antagonifts to one another . fo as that while thefe are diftended thofe are contra&ed. by a Mechanical a& alternately.32 $l)ilofoptical nervous Juices into their Mufcles thereby ftop d j but when once this Blood begins to flow into the Ventricles the refiftence . from the diftenfion of the Auricles to the influx of the nervous Juice is taken oftj and fo it flows into the mufcular Subftance of the Auricles and thereby they arifing are contra&ed^ while the Ventricles are di* ftended. and the influx of the nervous Juice into their Mufcles is thereby ftop d. And thus.

and fb the influence of the nervous Juice cular Coats into their Mulcular Coat is hundred but when the Blood conceiv d deriv d the impetus it has into the Veins.. and dilates the concurring ones are at freedom to and to diftend the Cavity of the till ad . which diftends them.of Natural ^elsgion. and of the Coats of the other Veffels containing Liquors deriv d from the Blood^ alternate for by the conly contra&ed and dilated traHon of the Heart the Blood is thrown into the Arteries. and fo the Mufcles of the diafragm and the other ficles thereof.. and the Mulcular Coats of the Arteries then a& 5 the Mem branous by their Elaflicity concurring. 33 of the Blood Veiiels. the preffure of the fides of the Brcaft for -thefe j become too ftrong bir/d oppofite comtheir dilating Caufes D and then by own .. this im is by pediment is taken off. and the Nerves that aft in this funftion is taken off. In the Lungs theGravity of the dtmofphere forces the Air into the fmall orbicular Vethe Breaft- Cavity of whereby the preffure of its Sides upon them. thorax.

. when Spiral ones are relax d by the preffure the a&ing Fibres upon the Emiflaries the Nerves of the relax d ones. and fo of of on the other Hand. the Tranfverfe and Guts. own So likewife in the Stomach and the Longitudinal Mufcular Fibres are in ASkion. we can bend and un bend em as we will. when thofe are relax d thefe are in aftion^ and univerfally in al$ the involuntary Motions there is a Mecha nical Neceftlty for the derivation of the nervous Juices into the Mufcles employed But in voluntary Mo^in thefe Motions. There is no Mecha nical Caufe imaginable to force this ner vous Juice into the Mufcles of voluntary Motion. Contradiction to their Nature and there- fore voluntary Motion is quite contrary to the Laws of Mecbaniftn : we can move our Hands and Feet how and when we pleafe in an Inftant. tions there neither is nor can be any fuch Mechanical Neceffity ^ it being a plain .34 Gravity and the elaftick force of the Ribs they fall down and comprefs the Lungs and (hut np the Emifiaries of the Nerves.

as is plain from this hence. .. And the only Conception we can form of vo luntary Motions. And rily.. skilful is that the Mind like a upon that Nerve Mufician which conveys animal Spirits to the Mufele to be contra&ed. Juice be that curing the Nerves that ferve any Mtif^ cle.. and no Motion can follow unlefs deriv d. tho all other things continue the fame.of Natural J&eiigiott Motion. s indeed were it Mechanical^ it cou d not be Voluntary j for what ever a&s conftantly and neceiMechanically farily^ and fo can never aft volunta a&amp. which it cou natural Power. and adds a greater force than the natural to the nervous Juice. ftrikes whereby it opens its Paffage into the Veficles of which the Mufcular Fibres cond pot have done by its fifi. But this A&ion of the Mind or Will upoi) thefe Animal Spirits being altogether unaccountable from the Laws of Motion. it is plain that volun tary Motion is altogether iwmecbdnic#I..5b . yet no Motion will

they have in their Power to forbear it or to do the contrary ^ they can rife or fit flill^ or backward forward to fliew their go ^ Freedow. Some Men indeed deny have any Free-will at all j but thefe need only examine their own Conferences to be convinc d of their miftake^ they will find that even when their Reafon wou d determine em to do fuch a thing. it in in moft. their . (which determine their Actions) are indeed violent. than they now have.. but they have. they can choofe the time and Place the Degrees and Circumftances we own of It d free. but thefe which are commonly call d voluntary Aftions^ are as much free as the nature of things will permit them. The Paflions of Mankind all thefe Aftioiis that are call s true fotne . or fclves is which we find in our altogether inconfiftent with Methat chauijm. of our natural AHons are neceffary. I wou d glad ly know what greater Indications of free dom they cou d wiflv to have. That Freedom and Liberty of refiifinpr o choof Ins. Their Power being limited.3 6 ^l)i!cfopl}icai XIII.

is free and has a Pow er of election the only Indications he couVl give of this and not the other.their Power to fufpend for of them j iatisfy ing are not neceffarily determin d toward their Satisfa&ion . are by doing the contrary. for the Aftion of neceffary Agents can only be fufpended by a Mira the fome time which fhe ws they Let us fuppofe that Man in a pcrfeft ftate of Health. giving all : thefe Indications ^ to fliew our Freedom we have it in our Power to hurt or even deftroy our felvcs tho there be the beft Reafons in the World to hinder from fo doing. when without this interpofition d wou Mechanically operate. in two or more of the fame all Circumftances alike. or by making an Ele&ion among many things^ when there is no imaginable Rea&n to determine him more to one than another. where there are weighty and folid Reafons for doing fuch a thing . they Now it s certain that we are capable of cle. we can take out the .. or to be able to fufpend the effeft of na tural A6Hons. things in us D Tho .

Now abfurd to think that Nature fhou d determine any natural FunSlion to be per form d regularly and conftantly the fame way. and that by Mechanical Laws.... and tho mechanically and it it is d in our Power uniformly. we have no Freedom.38 ^t)tlofopi)tcat Refpiration be Tho reckoned an involuntary certainly perform A&ion. if we are ne- cefTarily and determin d in all our A&ions. and this feems tp.. for if we are determin d ever fo imperceptibly fity it is . On if the other Hand. and at the fame time determine this Fnn&ion to be irregularly and uncertainly fufpen- one of the moft evident Indications of Freedom that can pofllbly be defired.eHon can have no Place . yet in thi Infbnce that Ob. it is abfolately . yet we have to keep in our Breaths and to fufpend the efficacy of this natural Fun$wn for fome time. it is by the Necef- of Nature we are determin d. For tho in other Cafes it may be alledg d that it is the fubtil and imperceptible man ner after which we are determin d that makes any of our Adions feem free.

mean By things altogether alike. 8. 5.of /Batutai lutely impoffible we fhou d in all make any ECircumftances it Je&ion among things alike . can only be from the things themlelves with out us. we cou d ne ver I make an Ele&ion among things alto gether al&e. Thus bers.. that do not concern the Effence of that Species of Coin. the things without us are in ftances alike.. two Farthings are altogether alike. The fame thing happens ija the Anfwers to all thefe Problem* 4 D . tho they may differ in fbme fmall Circumftances 3.. are and 2. i. 6. and if it equally even were propos d to afiign aa Num Num even or odd Number.. equally odd 4. for if we are determined. 7. there are infinitely many which are equally fuch. bers. for all things within us are upon this to be fuppos d to move Hypothefis uniformly and Mechanically.. And therefore were we not free. Thus. fuch as are alike as to all the Cir cumftances neceflary to conftitute them the things requir d. Now where all Circutn- we can never be determin d to any one of them by themfelves. 9.

40 Problems which are affigning fuch Problems .. Having I think fufficiently Jflipoflibility (hewn the Inconfiftency and of . Virtue and Vice. XIV. Now if moft cer is Rational Creatures be tainly they are. And that is that with. And therefore fuch things as thefe are only pitch d upon by But the energy of our Wills or Freedom. it. Tuftice and Jlnjaftice are only bare Words. no Arguments will make a Man confefs he feels.. but there K one Argument which will always have weight with the wifer and better ^ a thing a reflex } part of Mankind. as this Freedom a plain downright Contradi&ion to Mechantfnt. Now Liberty is and is only to be found by ion on our felves and our A&ions . for Mechanifrn produces all its Eftefts ne- ceffarily.. if he be obftinately refolv d not to confefs felt.out Free. there is nothing in their any Nature that can pofllbly determine us 5 and in d indetermind^ one of the Anfwers to call the Conditions of the Problem only being had refpeft to. free.will.

I come to the of the Epicurean Scheme. which in few Words tells us very pofitively. fo as we now behold it j any Changes that have happen d therein^ have proceeded from the Laws of Mechanifm that now obtain in the World. That the World was from all Eternity as we now behold it. and be! it ieving to have been for ever of itfelf without any . but falfly afcrib d to Ariftothj not as its firft Broacker but as its But tho Ariftotle held the ableft Patron. This Scheme confifts principally of thefe two i. that this prefer) t fbte of things has been from all Eternity of itand that felf.. firft part of it. has been for ever in the ftate a. That this World Parts. yet he did not think it was fo of it jelf\ and there is a very great Difference betwixt f allowing this prefent Syftem of the Univerfe to have been created from all Eter nity by an Omnipotent Caufe. independent of any other Caufe..of ^amrai Religion. This Opinion is commonly. fecond Opinion about the Origination of the Univerfe. we now behold it.. That it has been fo for ever of itfeli. viz..

Produftion it about the manner of its but if he fhou d fee or learn requir d fome Foreign Ajjrfiance to keep . ^ XV.any Difcourfe following not to difpute againft any Schewe of thofe who admit the Exiftence is Caufe. have been ftom the prefent from hence 3 that Principle for its Eternity condition it now it all of is. Clock$&ork&amp.. that this prefent ftate of things cou d not have been from all Eternity^ neither of it felf. That this Univerfe cou d never .. is in evident requires an extrmficl( fubfifting in its prefent fliou My Defign in the of a Deity^ I intend only to fhew. nor without the frequent and particular interposition of a Divine fower^ and to make it plain that naturally and of itfelf it tends to Diffolution^ Tho in the mean time. If one d fee a Piece of pointing out the Divifions of time exa&ly and regularly^ he might have fome that Difficulties . it is not to be doubted but that that Almighty Power which cou d create can prethis beautiful Syflem of things ferve it in being as long as He pleafes.&amp.

he wou cou d not have been from all Eternity of itfelf in the ftate he then beheld it.which quite extrinfickjto none of its Powers or Properties. and diftinft from Matter and all its Faculties.. And this Power is no thing elfe but that univerfal Law of Gra felves. of the Spring or it required winding up d be foon fatisfy d it Weights. which pro ceeds from a Principle both independent of.. Their Mo tions and A&ions depend upon a Principle Matter arifes from . as has been fliown in the former Chapter.of Natural Beitsion. and of all the Celeftial and Terreftrial Appearances. which a&nates the whole frame of all the Syftems of Bodies.. and if this vitation.. . its 45 keep it a going^ that Motion depended that upon fome Principle without itfelf. they wou d immediately ftop and their Motions wou d be deftroy d and they wou d become a lifelefs una&ive heap of Matter. Now this is the very Condition of the Earth the ^ Moon and Planets. The Power which produces and preferves their Moti ons. fprings from fomething without thcm- Power were fufpendcd or withdrawn.

and he no dependence on them. which have but Qualities both finite in Number and Degree j and confequently have affignable relations to and dependen for it is otherwife ces upon one another in the Immense Being in refpeft of his Creatures^ which can have no Proportion to him. Whatever depends upon ano Canje^ as alfo. . // &. thefe cou d ther thing as its not have been from all Eternity of them- jelvef.And when a thing depends upon another thing . fible Wherefore it is altogether impof- this prefent ftate of things fhou d have been from all Eternity of itfelf^ fince at prefent it cannot fubfift in a regular and beautiful Syftem without the perpe tual influence of fome fuperiour and exPower.. The vifible things of this World. (I mean only of thofe things which are about us..44 culties. thing.) . trinfeck^ XVI. for Self-exiftence neceflarily implies other independency as to Exiftence on any either as Caufe or as Efteft . whatever is neceffarily requir d for the Exiftence or Prefervation of another thing.

from the Sun . .. and the Fi(h be deftroy d level our Mountains we fliou d have no &e(Ti Waters ^ deftroy pur Atmofyhere. this 45 implies that the thing exifts that the fecond may exits which fuppofcs Defign and Contri vance. and not of the Selfexiftence of thefe things.. ifteitston. ces .or the Airs Elafticity.the Earth cou d bring forth no Fruits for our Support- take ftagnat away the Moon^ the Seas wou d . is Now towards the Being or Prelervation of ManRemove the Sun from us. Do not thefe and a thoufand other Inftan-. we fliou d fwell like poyfoned Rats. it plain ifti ly implies that the thing exifts that the fecond may exift. Like wife. which likewife foppofes Defign and Contrivance. and confequently is a fign of Produ&ion or Creation... and coni^firft quently can be no fign of Self-exijlencz there any thing more plain. when a thing is neceffarily requir d for the Exiftenceor Prefervation of another. or us tyttd. than that moft of the things in this our Syftem are neceffary or ufeful in thefe things.of thing as firft Natural Caufe.

and flioiul plain ly difcover.. If a wild Scythian or Indian who never faw a Houfe in his Life.. Now this is the ve ry Cafe betwixt us and the Syftem of the things about us j not that I think as whole . he wou d certainly never dream that it had for ever been there of itfelf fo difficulty in con was built by fome he then beheld it.ccs I cou d the Beings allege. that the Accommodations and Conveniencies of this Building were exfuited in every Circumftance to the Wants and Necefllties of thefe Creatures^ aHy I think he wou d have no cluding that this Houfe wife Architect for the Convenience of thefe Creatures. demonftrate that all of this Univerfe exift as the ne- ceflfary Effeft.. fliou d iftent. which is a moft evident fign that all thefe things have been produc d and are not Self-exfervation of other Beings. or for the Exiftence orPre- and confequent]y imply Contrivance and Defign-. meet with a Noble Palace neatly finifh d and finely ftirnifli d^ and about it fhou d find Creatures that cou d not fubfift with out fuch a Convenience.

// *.of Natural 3KeitQtotn 47 whole for us the Univerfe Syfteme of was made of the Race of Manfynd^ but that we cannot be without a great many of thefe things that are round us. Gra vitation. XVII. I mean of their Material fart.. and Exiftence depend upon Principles quite extrinfick from and independent of themfelves. That Animals coti d not have been from all Eternity is plain. but for both require the conftant influence of a Principle even different from that which governs the inanimated part of the Univerfe. for both the Reafons alleged in the two former i. (according to this Scheme) is Matter and Motion if we once al (for low a Power diftinft from thefe. I have formerly fhown. and been for ever of emfelves.. this Now all that is obfervable in World. and that confequently we were fome part in the fo they cou d not have defign of them.. we ruin this Hypothecs ^ for we do not then know ho iv . Their Produ6Hon For 3eHons. that they can nei ther fubfift nor be produc d by the Pow ers of Mechanifm .

. they cou 2. diftinft from Matter and d not have been its Properties.) But the Produ&ion and Prefervation of Ani above the Powers of Matter as has been formerly fliown.... that it is impo Deffgn fible to confider this. and therefore fince mals is they depend upon a Principle diftinft from and independent of the Laws of Mechaand need a continual influence of niftft.. the Bones articulated? How wifely are How prudently the With Veins.4$ $l)rtofop!)tcai far ^nncipies how the influence of this Power may reachj as to the Produ&ion and Prefervation of the prefent ftate of things. fome Principle. All the fevefor ever of themfelves. ral Parts and Organs of the Animal Body are fo prudently adapted to the benefit of the whole Compojitnm as plainly implies and Contrivance.. Mufcles contriv d ? and how conveniently faftned to the feveral Places of the Body to produce the neceflary Motions ? what Judgment are the Arteries 5 and Nerves rang d are ? With what Wifdom d in their their fluids difpos proper Veffels? . and imagine they have been Self-exiftent.

.. which by thefe Operations upon Matter is chang d into a folid Form 5 of which but a very fmall part is ever refoVd into W^ter a^ain. ilourifliment of Animals and Vegetables .of Vcffels? natural Msrpom is 49 How carefully the propagati on of the Species provided for according to feveral Circumftances ariffng from the particular Climate mal is confin d to^ ry Particular the whole Compound fion to after. and its Corollary of the pre ceding Chapter ? that fome part of the XVIII. and Element each Ani and how juftly is. and the greateft part requir d to the produdion of Minerals and Metals is a wa tery Fluid. and therefore Animals It has cannot be Sclf-exi* ftent. eve adapted for the Benefit of ? I fliall have occa- purfue thefe Inftances farther here but any Body who is ever fo lit tle acquainted with the ftnttfnre of an Animal. been formerly fhewri in g XXX. whereby the quantity E of ... cannot but difcover evident Footfteps of Defign and Contrivance in it. impregnated with fome other Body.

And in deed this dccreafe of the Quantity of Wa ter on our Globe is fo confiderable^ that a very great Man is of Opinion that the Comets were defign d to fupply the fame. dom of Nature generally fupplies re uniform gular Deficiencies by regular and ... the Wit expei:ed from em. which when they come nigh our welling.. fend us fuch a Quantity of Vapours from their prodigious Tails. to be Befides. Jom receive Vifits from thefe Cekftial Bo dies.. I fear. wherefore if the World had lafted from all Eternity in the State it now is.of Water on this our Globe is daily ins~ pair d and diminifli d . we had long fince wan ted both fait and frefh Water. and we are fo little fenfible of the difference of the Quantity of Water fal then and at other times. as is fufficient ta fapply the Expenfes of Water till the Re But we fb felturn of another Comet. and thefe ling D Comets are when they come within our Regions at fo great a diftance from us y that no fuch considerable EfFe&s as may anfwer our Demands are.

XIX. we ftiou d have been reduc d long before this time to a State of utter Darknefs. yet it ieeins to be more conftant and regular than the returns of thefe Comets j but of this we fliall have Occafion to difcourfe at more length in the following Chapter. fince it s certain that the fore. are very cer tain that the Rays of the Sun are impri* of the fixt had the Sun and jixt Stars faid may be We a E foiled .. it is plain things has not been from all Eternity. Stars : Now been from all Eternity.. Caufes. and tho the decreafe of fluidity on this our Globe may not be ev ry Year of the fame Quantity exa&ly. Where Quantity of Water on our Globe does daily de creafe (tho perhaps not fenfibly) had the World Eternally been.. It has been prov d likewife in the preceding Chapter y that the Ligln of the Sun does daily decreafe^ and that the Body of the Sun does continually grow the fame cooler.of natural 3&eltgtott. the whole Face of this Earth had been more parch d than the Defarts of Arabia-^ which not being this prefent State of fo.

foned in our Plants and Vegetables^ in our Metals and Minerals. and we had true.. and their being imprifon d in thefe Subftances^ and the A6Hon of Bodies upon Light. more than Cimmerian But fince we obferve no fuch it is Effeft as this. g XX. plain the World has not lafted from all Eternity. and are retain *! by the A&ion of Bodies upon Light and iome part of them by their feparation from others. We are certain likewife that the Foun Heat daily impairs. that the vaft Body of the Sun is perpetually a-cooling. this be been involved in a darknefs. and tho thefe Effe&s be not fo coniiderable as to become fenfible in three tain of our or four thoufand Years (tho if ancient Hiflories abatement and diminu tion of the Light and Heat has not been infenfible) yet in an infinity of Ages (this di minution being ftill fomewhat) the Sun had been redu d to the Heat and Light of a Candle long ere this time. . are for ever hinder d from returning to the Body of the Sun.

the Sun and Stars do not move in Spaces altoge fixt But ki fuch that do make at ther void. leaft fome refinance to their Motions. . the Planets . and that (fince the Planets defcribe Elliptic\ Orbits about the Sun) the attra&ive Force of the San upon the Planets is reci procally ^ as the Squares of the different diftancesof the Elliptic^ Orbit from the Suns Center in its focus. that the Reafon why. thefe Planets were driven at firfi. But that which does infallibly demonftrate that this prefent ftate of had a beginning and that of things.of Datura! 3&eii0iQu. that our Earth. or at the beginning of their Motion (to fpeak a Force whofe dire&ion made an by fo) Angle with the attractive Force or that at the very fame time the attractive Force of the Sun exerted itfelf on thefe Planets^ - 5 E 3 they . both themfelves they muft have an end is. for example. and likewife thefe Planets attraft the Sun. But that befides.. 53 XX.. I have fliewn in the preceding Chapter. the Planets move about the Sun is that the Body of the Sun attra&s thefe Planets .

54 ^pofopt)icai they were puili d along in right Lines by a Force whofe dire&ion was in fome man ner or other inclin d to that of the direH~ on of of the Sun^ 6therwife they cou d never have revolv d So that it s evident the Mo in Orbits... either of which be ing deftroy d the Planets muft have fall n into the Sun. (for in fjcient to deftroy the froje&il Motion nets^ and cannot fay it is a very ... Medium through the proje&il Moti fion muft decreafe and (in an infinity of Ages) be deftroyed.. Newton has confidered the refiftence arifing from the Expanof the Elafticl^Atmofyheres of the F la(fo I call the other) abfolutely no he only finds that it s not fufthing. tion of the Planets about the Sun^ is com pounded of two different Motions in two different Dire&ions. or ftray d for ever in Lines and tho* the refiftence of the right Medium cannot alter the Centripetal Moti the attra&ive Force . pafs. Now tho Mr. (fo I call that whereby the Planet yet if tends towards the Sun) any refiftence in the there be which the Planets on. on.

and this fluid muft give this fluid is Chapter. the Light of the Sun be a Body ( as If we have prov d Bodies that it to be) in it move it. without the a&nal Motioijt of any one of em ^ yet neceflary that there be a Series of Bodies intcrpos d betwixt the lucid Body and the illumina ftill it is ted Objeft. muft in an init. yet frill they make a fluid. which fufficicnt to have finity of Ages have been quite deftroycd this proje&il Motion.of Natural Beltgiom a very fliort time. muft rcfift other and if it be but the A&ion of lucid Bodies communicated by the impulfe of one Body upon another.) yet he has not men tioned that arifing from the fluid of Light which reaches beyond the Orbit of Saturn^ and tho we have {hewn in the preceding extreamly thin and its parts eafily moveable. in a ftrait Line. which will as much refift the paflage of Bodies. as if the parts of Light mov d themfelves . fo that in both Cafes there muft be fome refiftence dies pafling through this E made to Bo Ocean of Light - 4 which . that fome refiftence to Bodies pafling through tho very fmall.

it s evident that the Matter or Bodies of this Univerfe has been fome time or other before thisprefent time put in Motion. but more elpecially firice no Body put in or ev n endow d with Motion. fer CorolL 3.. of the firft Law of Nature j and fince w^ fte the . can of itfelf revolve in an Orbit or any curve Line. and confequently long e re now all the Planets had been broiling in the Sun. g XXI. it s plain this prefent ftate of things has not lafted from all Eternity in the Order we now behold - it. had the World lafted from all Eternity which not having happened.. that Motion is not effential to Matter^ nor any Combing lions of particles can bring themfelves to particle thereof no Motion^ and fince there are various and different Motions obfervable in this pre~ fent ftate of things..which tho not fenfible in any finite time. thac Since it has been fufficiently demonftrated in the preceding Chapter. muft have been fufficient in an infinity of Ages to have deftroy d the proje&il Moti on..

it is plain they have not for ever been in the ftate we now behold em of themfelves. And fince to move in an Orbit or any curve Line is to move with a Motion compounded of two other Mo one of which at leaft muft have tions.. after Motion was imprefs d. So that fince the Planets do revolve in Orbits or curve Lines. by the Corollary now men it tioned.of ^aturai Beitgtotn 57 the Celeftial Bodies it s do move in curve Lines plain they have not for ever mov d of themfelve^ and confequently they have not for ever exifted in the ftate we behold /em. becaufe at every different point it muft change its diredion j and to fuppofe a Body capable of changing its of its Courfe^ is to fuppofe it to have Reafon and Difcretion. been imprefs d. fince it cannot move of direction at every different point itfelf by both. the thefe Motions was imprefs different ftate one of was in a that other from what it was in. XXIt .. It is altogether impoflible for any Body to move in an Orbit or any curve Line of itfelf. Therefore before d..

and fo ward the common Center of Gravity of the whole j and had the Frame of the World been eternal. . If the fat Stars be not ally infinite in their prefent ftate of Number. theti this things muft of iteteffity both have had a beginning and muft haVfe an end. the terminating Bodies of the material part of the World inuft be all free from Attractions towards the void muft be all approaching to part.. nor the material we part of the Univerfe boujndlefs.. they had long e re now all of em met there. It s certain thefe luminous Bo dies each other^ fitide it s abfurd to imagine Matter not to be of the fame uniform Nature every where ^ attract do mutually and it s as certain they do not revolve about any common Center or Centers. Now if they be finite in Number.. Space indeed may be infinite in its extent but there is no imaginable Reafon to believe the Number of the fixt Stars is infinite. fince they have been bbferv d never to have varied their fituations or diftances from each other. fince have .XXII..

their Number.. and the Boundaries yielding. as has former Chapter. it s plain. been infinuated For fince Space in the is infi- nite (as I fliall hereafter demonftrate) and fince there s a necefllty of admitting of a&ual Vacuities as I have formerly (hewn. muft yield to the attra&ing Force of the Bodies toward the common Center of Gravity of the mate rial part. the Bodies at the limits of the material part being quite free from attractions upon the fide toward the infinite Space..of jjMurai have very good Reafon to believe that the folid Subftance has a very fmall Propor tion to the Vacuities interfperfed even in our and the Matter of this Univerfe is Syftemy almoft nothing in refpeft of the contain* ing Space. the Bodies next them muft do fo likewHe. Matter cannot be infinite in its extent j fince thereby it is not equal to Now if the fixt Stars be finite in Space. and fo on ev n to the Center. for nothing but an equal attraftion on all Hands can keep in their Places. and nothing . or the material part of this Univerfe limited in its extent.

nor can of itfelf continue to all Eternity. ^ XXIIL Chapter bility I In the former part of this have demonftrated the impodi- of the Mechanical produftion o Ani mals and Vegetables.nothing but an . infinite Number rang d up and down the infinite Space can be fuflident for this wherefore fince it has been evidently demonftrated that the material part of this Univerfe is finite in its extent. and I fliall have Oo it is cafion in the following Chapter to make evident. And it s not un likely that the vaft if not immenfe diftances of the fixt Stars from us and one ano ther^ has been defign d to retard this Effe$ as long as the defigns of Providence may require. lifelefs it s all made a and had there Heap^ which not having happened fted from plain this World has not la Eternity . If the World had lafted from all Eterni ty the whole Matter of this Univerfe had been long before this time amafs d in the common C&nter of Gravity. that ev ry generated Animal produced from a preexiftent Animalcul of the .

for if Animals and Vegetables cannot be product upon our Ad verfary (and I have clearly prov d they cannot) they muft of neceffity have been from all Eternity. and that ev ry Vegetable arifes from a final! Plant of the tame kind. have a&ually been all included in the firft of ev ry ties or which is the lame thing.of Natural Religion/ the fame Species .. that pitching upon any one individual of ei from thefe. And that at any in that finitely or infinitely diftant 1 time (if they have . ther kind now exiftent. And it is impoflihle s it can be othcrwife Scheme of admitting nothing but Matter and Motion-. And confequently that all the Animals and Vegetables that have exifted or fhall exift.. and it. with all thefe was included 5 one from which it proceeded and fo on infinitely backwards j and confequently fmce there 13 no new all that are or ever have been prodti&ion. of that Species were once aftuaily together included in one infinitely remote from this now pitch d upon. that all the Ani mals or Vegetables that proceed from it were included in it.

have fo long cxifted) from their Genera tion or Produ&ion , all the Animals in cluded in the firft of ev ry Species were there moving and living Ammalcnls, and all Vegetables included in the firft of ev ry Kind, were there a&ually growing and
encreafing fmall Plants.

Now fince every

Animal and Vegetable has been prov d to confift of Organs in Number infinite (tho* if the Organs of Animals be only finite in Number, it will as efie&ually ferve our
prefent purpofe.) It is abfolutely impolfible any of the Species of Animals or Vege tables fhou d have exifted from all Eterni



for then their

Number muft have

been infinitely many., and the Anwtalcuh and fmall Plants., being Organical Bodies and confifting of parts, and thofe infinite* ly many too, and being all included in the firft of every Species, or thofe infi nitely diftant from the prefent Individnals , thefe firft ones of evVy Species muft of necefllty have been infinitely big, for





fmall foever, amafs

d together

one Bo-


dy, muft make that Body infinitely big; fo that unlefs we cou d admit the firft of
ev ry Species of Animals and Vegetables to be infinitely big (and how abfurd fuch an I leave the Reader to Hypothefis is,


abfolutely impoflible,,

that Animals

and Vegetables

d have been from

I fee how this Ar Eternity ; gument can be evaded., if we admit all Animals and Vegetables to proceed from

neither can

preexiftent fmall Individuals of the fame Species,, included in the firft of each kind.


it is

impoflible this can be otherwife our Adverfaries Scheme, if the Me*


Produ&ion of thefe be impoflible^







XXIX. Had the World lafted from Eternity as it now is, it is altogether

but that Arts and Sciences muft have been brought to a far greater Perfe&ion than they have as yet attain d. Let us take for Inftance the Matbematick^^
it is

certain this Science has been

more im~

prov d within tbefe two hundred Years, than



in all the time paft before that,fince

we have

any Records Years more ,


and two or three hundred going on at the rate of

laft paft.,




to a height

which we


cannot imagine.



the Improvements altogether impofllble

already made fhou d be loft, feeing they contain things fo abfolutely neceflary to

^^Accommodation of Mankind they will as foon forget the ufe of Houfes and Cloaths^ as the Advantages to be reap d from this Science ; wherefore had the World Eter had been brought nally been., this Science to its utmoft Perfection long e er now* It may be alleged that Inundations^ Delu ges , Wars and feftilencies might have de* former Emprovements., and ftroyed all the then we fhou d have been left to begin anew. As for Deluges y it is impofllble they fliou d have been Univerfal, i. e. Natu for rally and Mechanically impodible the only Philofophical Account of an

werfal Deluge hitherto afilgn d,


&. that

of Mr. WhiftonSy depends entirely upon the Principles of Gravitation^ which have been



been proved not to be Mechanical ; and fiace there cou d be no IJniverfal Deluge naturally, (and to allow a Principle above Nature or the eftablifhed Laws of Mecha*

to yield the Caufe) particular In-

undations, cou d never have been fufficient to have obliterated the remains of Scien

of this one., which by In* fcriptions on Medals y by the Ruins of Archite&ure^ by Pillars^ Inftruments^ and Machins^ might have been prcfcrv d n de~ fpite of etery thing but an Univerfal Con


Befidcs,, it s

meerly precarioiiSj

to (ay there have been Deluges that have done any considerable Damage, to the

whole rational Creation., and may be deny d with the fame Reafon it is affirm d, fince it is certain we have heard of none
of any considerable Confequence. It s true there happen d an *Unwetfal Deluge in

NW/sDays ^butbefides, as! formerly faid,
that this

was not brought about naturally, we know not^ if this and other Sciences., had arriv d at any great Perfection before this Deluge happened. So that we are not





certain if the Pcrfe&ion of Arts
ences has



been much retarded upon this account. Wars and Peftilences., it s true., have been and may be, but thofe do not

happen univerfally over the whole World at the fame time:, and there are always tome Countries and many particular Perfons



things cou


impoiliblc thefe have obliterated all the Re^

fo that


mains of Arts and Sciences. I believe it almoft impofllble by any means, except
Annihilation y or a general Conflagration^ fo to deface the Memory and Remains of

our modern Improvements^ that fome of em fliou d not laft at leaft ten thoufand
Ycnrs to come

and yet it s certain we have no evident Footfteps of Improvements ol der than three or four thoufand Years. In


Argument holds good


ev ry thing but Vniverfal Deluges , and to admit or fuppofe any fuch to have been,

to yield the Caufe., fince it s impofllble to explain fuch by the Laws oSMechanifm, or to account for them Matter and



tion as

things are




and to

of jBatural J&eligiotu
allow quit thefe., or to


any thing to have is to admit happen d contrary to them Powers fuperiour to em., which for ought

might have produced that which they can now fo powerfully alter. And tho Arts and Sciences may have been at

we know

fome Countries, yet that is nothing to the whole Globe. For fince that Principle which prompts fome
a ftand for

many Ages



to improve Arts or Sciences they are

d to^ iprings naturally in their Minds, according to the Scheme of our Adverfaand is neither imprinted upon them, nor were the things themfelves reveal d to this Prin them, by any fuperiour Beings ciple in an infinity of Ages, without any Univerfal Deluge, or ev n any particular one of any great extent, muft have of Neceilky brought Arts and Sciences., and the other Accommodations of Life ,

to a


greater Perfection than



they have


attain d.




duly weigh d, it s plain this World has not Eternally been as it is now. And indeed, the Accounts of our Emprovei? r 2 ments


mcnts anfv\ er very well to the time, affign d by Mofes for the Creation of the


^ XXV.

Number of any generawhich we behold on this Globe,
If the

does either encreafe or diminifli continu



great foever., fmall foever,

Number of Years how by any finite Number how then this World cou d not

have been from all Eternity in the prefent For had it enftate we now behold it. creas d in any finite Number of Years how
great foever,

by any Number how fmall

foevcr, long before this time their ber had been infinite j fo that this poor Mole-Hill of a Globe had not been able


to contain

em: And had they decreased, their Number had been none at all^ i* e. the whole Race had been extinguished.
But of thefc has happened, the prefent ftate of things has it s plain not been for ever. It s not eafie to be that the Race of Man lieve., for inftance, kind has been ebbing and flowing without
iince neither

coniidcrabk cncreafes or diminutions/rom




Wars, Peftiand the other means knees and Difeafes, of DeJftru&ion, have not been fewer for thefe 300 Years by~paft than ever they have

We are certain

beenfince we have Records^and yet it s plain the Number of Mankind has confiderably Sir William Pet encreafed in that time.

from Obfervations on Births and Buri
difcovered that in

als has

360 Years the

Mafs of Mankind is doubled in thefe Coun tries. Had they thus encreas d from all Eternityin other Countries.,

the Placets

within our Syftem had not been able to have contain d them by this time yea if in many millions of Years they had but

d by an Unity



Number had been
it s



this time.

plain both the Number of Man kind, and that of other Animals and Vege tables-, muft have perpetually encreas d, if



has been from


Eternity as


at prefent. And fince their Number is but finite at prefent 3 it s evident this World has not been for ever as now it is.


indeed the prefent

Number of AniF 3 mals



mals does anfwer very well to the com mon Mr a of the Creation. Thefe two laft Arguments I have fubpin d, not as
conclusive proofs of the Produ&ion of this prefent Llniverfe in time., but as concur-

ring Confirmations of the former



XXVI. Laftly, that this World ihou d


improbable is have been from


there any thing we fee in any part of it, or ev n in the whole, other Quality fui table to that that has


Cardinal one of Self-exiftence




felves are certainly the nobleft part of are acquainted with- and this Syft-em unfit any of us., or knows


how yet God even our whole Race
travagant a


to have fo ex

Compliment beftow d upon us Self-exiftence., when as we can fcarce
faid to



at all, fo very a

nothing our

Lives are in rcfpet of Infinite Duration.


might with

much Reafon imagine
oz Omnipotent , (which

Mankind Onsnijcisnt

we know

too well he


not) as felf-exicannot be feparated





where one is, all the reft muft neceffarily be. For whoibever Isjelf-exijlent^ muft ne~ ceflai and independently be. Neceffarily^ ily becaafe depending only on himfelf alone when and while he for Being^ he may be
pi cafes


becaufe his Being



necefiary to

depend on

himfelf alone.

And whatever

muft Be in Oppofition of all other Powers., and whoe ver is fo, muft be able to preferve his Be ing in dcfpite of all other Powers, / e. muft be Omnipotent. Whoever is Omnipo tent muft know all things that are pofllble to be done or let alone for he can never be ftipos d to do that which he knows not how to do, / c. muft be Ofifffiftfent; and whoever is Omnipotent and 0;;/;;//r/>;;^ all things elfe muft depend on him ^ for be ing fo\ he may make all things depend of

and independently





already they did not fo.


other things fnnft depend of him for the %. becaufe he can very fame Reafon,



do fo. As alfo., whatever is Omni and Omnifrient^ depending on no-

F 4


So that it s very plain. has created all noble Reprefentation of himfelf. that immenfe Being. which bears fo vifible Chara&ers of his infinite Power and Wifdom. *// *. things. as {hall abundantly be fhewn hereafter.. This beautiful State of things. him. be true. fince after the other two. and having all things depending on muft be fupremely good and wife ^ all becaufe he knows things.. And fince we muft of (elf-exiit. fince nothing can hurt him.....thing. can do all has no Reafon nor Caufe to de termine him to any thing that s bad. nor any Power annoy him... neceffity ftent. which poffeflcs all other Qualities fuitable to that of -Exiflence y has been from Self and when this it Eternity j was his Pleafure.. admit fomething to be how much more reafbnable is to believe that. which I have is the (I think) abundantly confuted. And this is the third Opinion about the Origination of the Univerfe. this only poilible remaining Choice. that whatever is felf-exijient muft poflefs all the other fui- table Qualifications. neceffity which muft of THE .

e.. that me feems as evident^ no Body who has confidered the Atheifts^ to matter. nor that there might . III... may have hear wiflid within themfelves. CHAP.73 THE Philofopbical O F Principles Natural Religion. can be abfolutely convinc d. Of I. /. the Exigence of a Deity. lewd and tily vicious Men. that the three Angles of a Triangle are not equal to two right ones. The Fool indeed may have faid in his Heart there is no God. that there were no fecret Ohferver. there are r T^H AT no Speculative as.

is make the beft ufe of Life that this in the may cer And of we kind of Atheifts there abundance World j for it s can never determine any thing about what we never^ or but very flighttain ly think of.74 $i)tlofopt)tcal might be any publick Funifhment of their Crimes. and has du ly weigh d the Evidences for the Being of a Deity ^ fliould at laft come to a full Per- fuafion of his None-Exiflence^ to me fccrns as impofllble... who know not to live. becaufe it s their Intereft there fhould be neither but that a Man of an ordinary Underftanding . and to be. moft Men think nothing of the matter 5 and few give themfelves the Trouble to there be a God or not 5 inquire whether they think fuch idle Speculations become thofe only.. who has ferioufly fet about the matter. and there are millions who live . firft to be convinc d that the Sum of the An true of a right Imd friangle^ can be It is more or lefs than two right Angles. as it is for one who has the attentively read and rightly gles Bool^ of Euclid^ uuderftood what he has read.

becaufe they never took the But the being Pains to confider them. who made and governs this prcfent Syftem of things. the neceffary Confequences there of. can withftand fuch Now tho the convincing Teftimonies. &amp.. who will but give thcmfelves leave to confider yet iince the Evidences for it. and are fo many. can never be too many^ and fince fome are to be wrought upon by one fort of Argument. 75 Self-evi and dye ignorant of many dent Truths..of Jive Datura! Religion. that none it.. the Confideration of different. do fo nearly concern the Happinefs or Mifery of every individual rational Creature and the Obje&s that inculcate . or not being of a Deity. is a Matter of that Moment to the Government of the World.. tor want of fufficient Proofs. fb fo conspicuous. others by the Demonftration of this great Truth ^ blind. has employ d the Care oi many wife and fo that none can doubt of it good but the wilfully that there is a faprewe Being. I fliall here fet down thofe. which beft with my manner of agreed think- .

the rather becaufe our modern Atheifls have taken San&uary within the Bounds of Natural Philosophy. of Necefllty therefore. in being but this World^ unlefs we admit that fnpreme Power we are now {peaking and fince it coud neither have been produc d from the fortuitous Concourfe of Atoms . II. . are fo many Proofs of the Exiftence of a furpreme Powery who made and governs this prefent Syftem of things. it muft have been produced or created.. All the Arguments of the pre ceding Chapter . by fbme preexifting Power. Now fince there is nothing elfe thinking. For fince this felf&amp. And I have chofen this way of reafoning.$f)ilofopt)icai which are founded on the Prin ciples of a juftcr Philosophy ^ and a more genuine Explication of Nature^ than was known till of late. nor have been from all Eternity of of- . cou d neither be produced by the cafual Concourfe of Atoms^ neither con d have been from all as it has been fufficiEternity of it ently prov d j and fince that it now is^ no Body doubts. fome time or another.

thefe three has been World produc d by the cafual Concourse of Atoms y then a Void^ Atoms ^ and Motion have for ever been. But fince does equally lye againft Suppofitions. t\iis fapreme Power ^ of necefllty. muft have created this beautiful Syftem of things. (for if the Difficulty. Deity. that we . without a Beginning.. phin. by faying that this Syftem was produc d... of em(elves j if it has been from all Eternity of it is. andfince exifting independently... Crea ture can have about the Exiftence of a to conceive his having for ever been of himfelf without a Beginning. ledging to have for ever been of it felf.. by the cafual meeting of Atoms or by al.of Natural it J&eifgtoii* 77 have been produc d by that fupreme Power whofe Since then Being we now inquire into. we might have fome Pretence for flight this all our Infidelity... of it felf-j muft of neceffity ... then the Cafe is as itfelf.) is neceflarily All the Difficulty any rational Powery muft now how Now if we it could avoid this Difficulty. and have been that great exift. He muft therefore for ever be .

who neceflarily . more reafonable to fuppofe that Being to have for ever been of himfelf. But fure I am 3 fince our main Difficulty in the Conception of the Exiftcnce of a be ing abjolutely ferfcSi. to whom we may afcribe. that becaufe in our Conception of a Being infi there muft be included nenitely perfett^ thofe others . rather than either of which we know are nei ther endow d with. and who does neceiTarily poffefs all other fuitable Perfections.78 muft allow fomething to have been without a beginning of it felf. fuch eminent and tranfcendent Qualitys ? I will not fay with DCS Cartes. ceffary Exiftence.) Where fore I we is much . nor capable of. or his having for ever been of himfelf without a beginning. without a beginning. is his heceflary Exiftence. fince the very ianie Difficulty equally and unavoidably^ urges all the three Suppositions is it not more reafonableand congruous^ to allow that Being to have been for ever of it felf.. that therefore fuch a Being muft of neceflity a&ually exift.

it nor Colour . not Solidity^ yet there t& jpermit us to doubt of the Exigence of Matter. it firft exifted. or more Vacuity than is dill fufficient. that III. I believe no body doubts. nor when put in motion can it reft of itfelf\ nor of itfelf change it s cannot move ofitfelf. other fuitable Quathan thofe who neither poflefsj nor are capable of any of them. nor Situation^ in a is cnclu d with no Property but In- which is but a Negation. The Exijletice of Matter . How abfurd .stoin 79 ccffarily poffeffes lities. a plain Demonfiration of the Exijlence of a Deity. nor alter it s deftitute Direction Figure j it can neither change it s word. wou d we gladly now alearn how cou d never have been are certain^ that it a&ive Qiialities vvhat- of is it felf. there be more Pores than Wherefore It fince Matter I ftually is. celeftial out of which the Bodies were form d and terrejlrial our moft folid and tho perhaps in Bodies. fince of all foever.of natural all $cli&amp. is there now exifts a Quantity offolid Mafs..

..uft nothing of itfelf? may as reafbnably imagine that Nonentity. fhou d then. fram d this wonder ful Syftem of Things 5 contrafts all the Difficulties of Nature into this one of For as to the Difficulties of his Exiftence. of itfelf Formation and Produftion of the prefent State of things^ as has been {hewn in the preceding Chap farther now and be {hall illuftrated. and infinite aft every thing not involving a ContraWherefore fince Matter now diftion. Difficulties.. ad mitting Matter to have been for ever of itfelf yet this will not folve half the for ever . as conceive it poffible that Matter fhou d have been. and to have created the folid Mafs y and out of it. a$ually before infi implies a Capacity .abfurd is it brought itfelf . Befides. ter. for Power Power a Capacity to to aft. to imagine into Being ^ it cou d have when it can do We bring itfelf to become a pofitive Being. nite they vanifli quite. Whereas the admitting of an infinitely Powerful and perfect Being to have for ever been. ariflng in the Creation. Power.

that of Matter. We fee all the now happen firft in this Changes that material World. in the con ceiving the Manner of the Produ6Hon of this Vniverfe. to. are cftabliflicd in according to the Chapter.. and which feveral Parts in their A&ions do now obey j and therefore of neceility there muft have been fome Power fiiperior and diftinft from. ties wou d that remove in the the Difficul Formation of this prefent Syftem of things. It has been formerly fliewn^ that: *Univerfe was not form d by the it fame Laws now is govern d. coti Laws the Bat this Syftew of Things d never have been brought into it s G prefent . which form d this Syftem at firft. and prefcrib d Laws for it s Parts afterwards to obferve. Is it not much more reafonable then.of ^aturai Jfeligen* 8 1 a6hially is^ and yet it neither coti d have been for ever of itfelf.. to admit an infinite! v wife Being to have for ever been of himfelf? arifing -J ^/ whereby the Difficulties. nor had it for e^ ver been.. but on the contrary wou d multiplie em. all ^ this it s IV. do vaniih at once.

as to their principal Parts .prcfent Order 5 by the now eftabliflied Laws of Nature. O Stars determin d.. J or Diftances of the Jfixt Magnitudes. Gravitations Situations upon one ano and Order of the Pla nets adjufted 5 the Number... By none of the known Laws of Motion. nor all of thefe were fuffieient to have feparated.. and the other Planets-. (ev n admitting Matter to have been eternally exiftent of itfelf) as I have abundantly {hewn in the firft Chap ter neither one. the Figure^ Number^ ) Denfitics. and amafs d it in the Sun and Stars neither did fixt the Laws of fpecifick Gravities obtain in grofler the Formation and Situation of the inner Parts of our Earth . the whole pro and ccTs of the Formation of the celcftial terrcftr/al World . the Form and bulk of the Annuhts of ter.. was the Num ber. In a word. nor in the Separation and Situation of the fevcral Fluids thereof. Diftance^ and Magnitudes of the Satellits of J^fi&quot.. Saturn limited. ther. ^ Laws that thin and rare fluid of Light ^ from the other and more denfe ones..

it is plain it has been produced by fomething fuperiour to Matter and it s Qualities. it is evident.. And truly from what has been here faid. yet they are dire&ed. Wherefore fince this beautiful ftate of things has not been for ever of d be cou form d nor the Powers itfelf.. and confequently obtain in this fet or at moft thefe by t\&tfupreme Being. may obtain. other than what we have of a Planetary Clock^ or any other complicated Machin^ form d by the Hand of a skilful Artift^ where tho the Rules of Motion. we can have no Notion of the Formation of this prefent State qf things. and even iometimes contradifted^ by the volunta ry Motions^ aud the defign d Interpofings G Z ..of jftattttai Beltgtoa Parts 83 and Arrangements. tled ftate that now of things Laws had but a fmall Share in their Produ&ion. and a great deal more of the fame Nature alleg d in the firft Chapter. into whofe Ex- iftenc? we are tlow inquiring. by and Laws of Nature.. and Laws of Nature. was brought about by none of the Laws of Motion and Mechanism..

be but a very faint Rcfemblance of that noble and glorious Work. Now it has of Matter moving. to fet them firft a going... nor any Combination of Particles^ can move themfclves and therefore it was abfolutely neceflary that fomething diGvrent Irom themfelves y ihou d put them in -a motion. did neceflfarily require the infinitely firft powerful . For fuppofing Bodies already form d^ and the celeflial cl a Being fo likewife did their Hand of rang according to their feveral Diftances from one another yet without this und Impulfej they had continu una^ive.84 ^i)ilofopi)tcai of free Agents.. yet it is the befc and moft adequate our Imaginations^ without runing upon evident Contradidions. Heap been already (hewn that* no Particle of Matter.. can frame. As the Formation and Difpofition of the great Bodies of this Univerfe. Movement. And tho this no doubt. with a due Velocity of their feveral along the Tangents Orbits-^ other* . and imprcfs d Motions.. demand the Impulfe of an almighty Hand. V.

Eternity of themthat they have been all going by fbme powerful Hand} and fufficient is what Hand but his for fuch a Work. fet a it mov d from is plain.. and ftill do 3 require a bits } Power beyond that of Matter. VI. 85 otherwife they had for ever continued in the places^ and at the Diftances^ they were at firft fet... infinite... fince that they has likewiie been fhewn^ have not felves. and impulfe of the great Bodies of this Univerfe.. firft Not only the Formation. and the Laws of Nature. both in Strength and Skill and confequently he who did fo great and glorious things muft ncceffa- who rily be. ving. Wherefore fince it is certain been rowling thoufand Years.of natural saeiifjiott.. along the Langcnts of their Or- but their Centripetal impuWes^ where by their Revolutions or orbicular Motions are perform d. to the prefervation of G 3 their . it that thefe glorious Bodies have about thefe four or five and fince it hath been demonftrated that they are not felf-mobeing folid Maffcs of Matter-. did.

that this Principle whereby the Revolu- . Chapter. as is evident from the firft Law of Nature : The (econd con tinually draws the cekjlial Body from it s re&ilinear Motion. Gregory y has dcmonftratcd ^ that to the Motion of any of the Ce/e/foz/ Boclies in an Orbit . and needs no more to be renew d. fo that it muft be re~ Now thefe peated ev ry Minute of time.. and all the Bo dies of this Univerfe tend toward one a- nother and by which the Sun being the of this our Syftem draws far greateft Body toward him the Planets^ and they their own Satellits .gt. The firft being once imprefs d ^ docs continually perfevere. jecovdary Impulfes arife from that *Uni-* verfal Principle of Attra&ion^ whereby e^ : very Particle of Matter... Dr. and forces it into a curvilinear Orbit. and after hin&amp. along theTavgcnt of the Orbit^ another toward the Center.. about which the Body moves.their Motion. and without which they wou d for ever wander in right Lines. But it has been demonftrated in the firft . there is neceffarily recjui/d two Impulfes. Newton.

but Matter and the rher& 87 of thefe glorious Bodies are perform d.* to but there Powers thereof.. therefore the Revolutions of the Bodies in their feveral Orbits do celeftial neceflarily infer the Exiftence of a Deity. of Animals does Exiftence neceilarily infer the Exiftence of a Deitor it has been demonstrated in the ty-j ^ VII. every individual Plant and Animal is a Machine of an infinite Number of Or gans^ that no Animal is or can be proG 4 duc d . by quently (fince it muft be repeated every Minute) muft be perpetuated in it by feme uninterrupted Influence.of Natural Mtston. unfefs we admit that fu. The former Chapter ^ that all Animals are in their own Natures ferpetua mobilia^ that they have fome Principle above the ers Pow of Matter that governs their Moti-ons ^ it has likewife been (liewn that . And feeing is nothing in Nature.. preme Being for whofe Exiftence we con tend. implanted effential) and confein extrinfick fome Power. is independent of the Laws of Mechamfm. and only accidental (noways Matter.

or generated ter.. we Perfect Being. were all created or formed at fhall be afterwards fliewn) and that all thefe are abfolutely unaccountable from the Laws of Motion.. VIII. to the Exiflence of fome Power fuperiour to.cluc d. (that all Ani mals and Vegetables that ever were or fhall be. and all it s Laws and Pro and confequently to that infinite perties once.. and altogether above the Powers and Now when ever Properties of Matter.&amp. . into whofe Exiftence are now inquiring.. unlefs we admit the Exiftence of befides Matter that fupreme Being. . The fyontaneons irrational^ Motions of and the voluntary Motions of rational Animals. we forfake the Powers of Matter. arid Liberty of choofing or refufing in the latter. inuft fpring from a principle independent fince there is nothing ly and its Properties in the World. and the Laws of Mechanifm. we neceflarily muft have Recourfe.. and indepen dent of Matter. and confequently. by the Force of Mat and Laws of Mechanism . the Freedom of Will.

The Prefervation of the Bei/w flX. does neceflarily require the Power^ and confequently the Exiflence of a Being abfolutedoes great * . who alone does Wotrders y muft neceflarily be. be above the Powers of Mechanifm^ they muft have been produc d by fome Power Superiour to thofe of Mecbanifw. fince . For fince this Syftem of things has not Seen from all Eternity of itfclf.. Natural in a iaeiigtoiu all 8? and of Nature^ of Mechanifm (which are innumerable) are fo many undeniable Proofs of the Be ing of a God. and there. as we now behold it.. For fince this prefent Syflem of Things^ has not been from all Eternity and fince thefe are allow d to ofitfelf. of a Deity.. /. but his who and marvellous things^ who adjufted all the Parts of this noble fabrickjjy weight and meafure. e. Faculties both of the animate and inanimate Part of this Syflem of things. But no the Appearances which are above the Powers word Power alone is fiifficient for thofe. fore he that brought about all thefe glo rious things. and ly perfeft.of latter.

. muft produce a prefs d on therein equal to the Motion pro duced by all the feveral Parts thereof. and fince we fee both have been preferv d for a confiderable time This prefervation of the Being and Faculties of things. muft neLet us take.. this prefent Moment.. which may be fuis no neceflary : ficient for all things not involving a Con- tradition j and therefore that Omnipotent Being indow d with this Power. may be deftroy d (by . either at once. the Prefervation. in Ev ry motive Force (as all it s Motion : other Quantity) into feveral may be fuppos d divided Parts (the Sum of all which muft be equal to the motive Force firft motive Force being impropos d.. of a Body moving. and their being the next. Now the Motion produc d by any one Part of this Motive Force. without having Recourfe to an Almighty Power. can never be ac counted for.ilnce there Connexion be of one Part thereof. im- Motion prefs d... tween the being any or of it s Faculties. or at different times. for inftance^ ceffarily be.) This a giv n Body.

. nor upon the Nature of Motion. and in another hereafter. fince one can be deftroyed withreft . but upon fome Principle cxtrinfic ^ to both. docs not depend upon the Nature of Body. unlefs forced to change the Motion may be confidered^ lation of a Body from one nother. perfevere in that reft they are put in lame by fome Moreover foreign imprefs d Violence. (by the Oppofition of an equal Body ^ ima Force equal to that Part of pell d with the Motive Force we wou d deftroy. and confequently the Perfeveration of a Body in Motion.and therefore the Pcrfeveration of a Body in .. but with a contrary Dire&ion) the reft of the Motion remaining unalteredhave no out the therefore the feveral Parts of any imprefs d Motion neceffary Dependence upon one another.of $atuvtil afteitgion. Now there franf* place into a- as the is no imaginable con nexion between a Bodies being in this place now.. vi^ that firft Law of Nature (preferib d bv the Author thereof) wiiereby Bodies as 1 much them $ate of Motion or as in is.

and by that means ad new Velocity to the former. nor But to that vis into the Body mov d. by which heavy Bodies defcend... a&ing ev ry Minute equally. to God Almighty ^ the Author of Nature and all its Produ&ions. thing diftinft from Matter and its eflential Properties ^ /. After the fame manner in the defcent of neither heavy Bodies the Acceleration of their Mo tion may be refembled (or is equivalent) to the Acceleration of a Body impelled by a conftant equable Force. any one. and it s Ef Jy. e.. that the Perfeveration of a Body in motion. Laft- imprefs d Force is not at all permanent in the Body mov d. which is implanted therein by fomeercitf. or any Number of thefe Impulfes may be deftroyed without the reft. but confifts in the meer A&ion..$t)ilofopt)tcai in motion. fince an fpent that very Moment it is imprefs d 5 it is evident therefore. is not %\\ effential to it... ding a and therefore the feveral Impulfes. is ficacy is owing to the motive Force. do not de pend upon one another. Now.. fince by contra* .

that thing can be without .. for it s Nature. (I mean of inanimate things) /.. whatever any thing can be without. the Continuation of that is not owing to it. to quently requires the Caufe of it s and confefome Power above it. (and of all the Fa culties not effential to) Bodies. does by no Means infer it s being the next Minute. And univerfally. nor of any of it s Faculties. and fo the Prefervation cehration of the of this Faculty of Attra&ion in Matter which is the Caufe thereof does not depend upon Matter. And the fame may be faid of the Being of. unleis the thing be felf-exiftent (which cannot be true of Matter. 93 ^ ry equal Impulfes they may be deftroyed ? and confequently the Degrees of the Ac* Motion of heavy Bodies defending. have no neceffary Connexion one upon another.. e. whatever is not effential to a thing.. and therefore muft be afcribed to a higher Power. Continuation. as has been formerly {hewn) or unlefs Time or Place cou d change the Natures of which is abfur d... things. there be ing .. for the Be ing of any thing now.of ^ntural Religion.

this Univerfe cou d have been better contriv d or it is more compleatly infinite finiflicd.) ino cue and have our Being. or even to find out any real Defei therein... is Things . e. and the Being or Faculties of and confequently their Prefervation is owing to forne Power above thofe of Matter. there are legible and Wtfdom^ in the Contrivance of the whole. than it is. or to con gels.. and then put the Defign in execution.i and it is altogether impot fible for the united skill of Men and An to mend any one Part. had Wifclom firft a&ually defign d it. which of all others affe&s me moft. who made and governs this Syftem of things. to him in whom WQ live. and of the feveral Parts of this admirable Fabrick of the *Vni*terje&quot. i. trive it better.. that altogether no neceflary Connexion betwixt Time or Place.... Or which is the fame. But that Argument for the Ex* iftetice of a Being infinitely perfect. j X. due Regard being had to the univerfal Benefit of the whole infinite indelible Characters of Syftem $ .

But firft of all it will be convenient to lay down a general Scheme of this noble Stru- Let us then conceive the Mundan Space... like the Sun) to be plac d.. that one is pitch d upon. it . or which only cou d bring about the defign d E fed:. and fbmetimes infinite. I fliall endeavour to illuftratc the fame in the following Particulars. and moving about their own Axes only (perhaps) Stars - XL about . or indefinite in its Dimenfions. keeping always the fame Diftances from one another. the fixt (huge luminous Bodies.. the moft advantages to the w hole. which alone cou d bring. or the univerfal Place of all Bodies...of 5$aturai Beitgton* Syflem for in the Contrivance and Adthis juftment of the feveral Parts of ble Machin. This is a very large Subjefr. However. and in it at vaft Diftances from one another. no where the Choice is various. and r to treat according to it s Dignity re than the Limits I quires more Room have prefcrib d to my felf will admit.. to be boundlefs in it s Extent..

and in the common . may but much more a good large Telefcope dire&ed toward that Region of the Skie. over. and yet and they it s included in a bounded Extenfion- for Matter feems not capable in ture of being infinitely propagated. a naked eye in a cloudgive us ibme faint which is bers fall tick^ d the milky way.. Glimfs^ Night... and about thofe Each of thefe Satellits of our Planets. Na let us conceive the fixt in More glorious Body of the Sun.about each of thefe let us imagine fe?veral Bodies like our Planets^ fowling in feveral Orbits at feveral Diftances lefler .. and our Arithmecall can fcarce give us an idea of the vaft Quantity of Syflems that adorn this ftnpenduous Piece of Architecture -^ no doubt are all their Number is fink.. Our Num very fliort here. conftituting that which is caird a Syflem of the Celeftial Bodies. And how many fuch there muft be in the vaft net-like ones Analogous to the Extent of Icfs Space. fixt Stars with their Circumambient PlaOrbs. (or near it) the Center of Gravity of this our Syjlew.

and meafure out the Year. For the eafe of the Reader. Next to Mercury. Beyond our Earth Mars fingly and alone. lits round in concert. the meters. to him Mercury makes his oval round . perform their friendly Courfe. I (hall fet down here the bers that reprefent the Periods. is our beautiful Morning and Evening Star Venus : next Venus . Gravities. describes the remoteft Orbit. Saturn with his five Guards. Jupiter. the with his four Sat ellargeft of the to Mars. and concludes our turn Syftem. in the Light of the Sun. that we can rarely obbut fo near him.. and his furrounding Annulus QvKing. our Earth.. * j tain he being fwallow d up almoft. XII. View of him Moon. which . Diftances. with it s Attendant the a diftinft . of Matter^ in thofe of the Num Dia- and Quantities H Cclejiial Bodies.of natural Eeltstotn 97 common Center of Motion (or focm) of And then next all the Planetary Orbits. and laft of all. in going through the following Parts of this ^ Difconrfe.. revolves about the fame Center.

as Mr. Y. Newton s Rules. The Periodical Times of each Planefs Re volution about the Sun. Whifton has calculated them from the lateft Obfervations. . by Mr.which have afforded any Grounds for de termining the fame.

the Gra vity of fach of the heavenly Bodies (as Means for the determining the fawe^ at the fame diftancefrom the Cen ter of the Sun } is as The Sun s Jupiter Saturn s s The Earth s The Moon s 66690 00060 00028 ooooi ooooo * The Diameters of the Sun and Planets.of Natural Beltgioa and 99 The Quantity of Matter afford in. The Suns Saturns Jupiter Mars*s s 4^4100 043925 052522 9 Statute The Earth * The Moons Venwis Mercurys 002816 JMiles each 008202 5000 Paris 002223 Feet. 004941 002717^ H a .

id.11. 13. 1 8 3 281 3 d. r On the Sur face of The Sun The Earth Jupiter 10000 01258. of I 2 h. 1 8 h. & 7 3 Hi 6 d.IOO The weight of Bodies on the Surface of the Sun and Planets. d. 17^ 57.: The Moon Saturn 00804 00630 00536 i. The Bodies. the Denfities of Celeftial The Moons 700 387 100 The Earths The Sun s Jupiter s 076 060 the Safeltits c Saturns The Periodical Times of Jupiter. Bf . 4 h.

flamftcd by the Eclipfes of the Satel.Ol The Dtftances of the Satellits from the Center of Jupiter. .of I.

gt. j&amp. innumerable.102 middle diflance of the Earth and Tla* their Periodical nets comfard with e . XIII. we How that . 98 522520 152350 IGOOCO 72598 58585. Her Courfe the eafieft and ihorteft Poifible. The Times of the Revolutions of the Sun and Planets about their Sixes. .4 152399 looooo 72533 38710. The Sun in a 5 Days Jupiter in i o hours The Earth in i Day Mars in 247 hours The Moon in 25? Days Venus in 2 3 various and Her Caufes few. What a beautiful Scene of things here ? haye and yet how wonderful are the Works of Nature ? Such like are all the EfFefts of infinite Wifdom^ her Foundations are plain and fimple buthcrfuperftru&ure. and her Means the feweft fimple^ &amp. her Effe&s wonderful.

Cycles. Let us but confult the Books of -the old Aftronomers. and dquating^ we fhall fee there what Work their Concentricl^ and Excentrick^ Circles. out Oceans of that active which is the Medium of Light. and the Caufe of all Heat. all the Appearances of the Heavens^ are accounted for. and the perpetual Change of the Axe of Motion . the Stations and Retrogadationr. 103 that can poffibly bring about her Ends.of j&atutai Religion. in the celeftial Ap pearances : fuch a ftrange ungeomttrical - and contradi&ory Syflem they made of the Heavens whereas from thefe few 5 plain and fimple Pofitions. - compaft Syficw t forry. a Fire. turns round his own H 4 Axe. .. XIV. with wonderful Confiftency and Fa cility. and we will then have fufficient Ground to admire the frugal Simplicity of Nature.. brought into fufion huge Body by the Fluid.. their carrying. perplex their with they made. and Epicycles. and thereby fending thin. their folid Orbs. The Sun being of liquid Force of his Heat. in this neat...

His greater Quantity of Matter.. as the Sun muft neceflarily be. muft certainly be vi d. trify and larger Dimenfions Planets^ makes him in refpeft of the fufficient for all the Expenfes of Light.. there being little or no Refiftance in his Region to retard his Motion. after his And paving been feated in his Place. whereby his Bulk and Heat is conftantly diminifliing. as alfo. Denfity Planets from refpeft of fome of his Fluidity. and that all Bodies heated to fuch a Degree. His Motion about his all own on his Axe^ has been difcovered by Spots his Surface. he lays out upon them. it has continu d ever fince. the folid (fome folid Bodies being more denfe than any Fluid can be) his Sphericity. things ^ till the Consummation of by Virtue of that firft imprefs d Gyration^ and the firft Law of Nature. and will do.04 |^Diiofopl)!tai five from Weft to Eaft in about twenty Days which arifes from his firft Being put into fuch a Circumgyration. lefler and in ... for drawing all the yeft qf the Planets and their Satellits to wards ...

. All the Planets re volve .. is : as their Maffes^ qf Matter tains a or Quantities Wherefore feeing the Sun con very Matter by greater Quantity than any of the Planets.. in one Sun is fituated : And of whofe Foci the what is here faid of the Caufe of the Primary Planet s Mo tions about the Snn^ may be underftood of the fecondary f Janets Motions. at the fame Dias has ftance. has made em ever fince revolve in their their Ellipticl^Orbits. receiv d an impulfe. the Force of Attraction of one Bo dy upon feveral others. about the Primary ones.of ^amtai wards him} for ffitiigf on* i o$ been formerly infinuated. and the Force of the Attra&ion diminishing as the Squares this of Diftances increafe.. reciprocally. neceflarily of muft draw the Planets with their Satellits to him 5 which wou d have unavoidably come to pafs^ had not the Planets at the inftant they were feated in their Places.. which drove em along the Tangents of their Orbits^ with the fmall Refiftance they meet in their Courfes . the Sun far.

while in the mean time every Point in the dcfcribes a Circle about this Axey Sphere^ and therefore if a Sphere move either in a curve. are two diftincft Motions^ which never inter fere. dent. as alfo Rotation obferves always a Parallelifm with itfelf. for if Axe fuppos d this no other Motion (there being in the Sphere) is immoveable. turn round their own Axes from Weft to Eaft.... or fuch as are not very far different from moft of em. and fa each of them niufl continue the . 66r: and in it s motion about the Sun..) or ftrait Line. this Axe y of the diurnal them . the Reafon of which is evi a Sphere move about an Axe.. the Axe fliall continue parallel to that Line it was firft pa* rallel to^ for that Imprefllon which perit s s Axe^ and the petuats it Rotation upon impulfe along the Tangent of it s Orbit..06 $t)tlofopf)!tai volve about the Sun in Elliptic^ Orbits. and at the fame time always turn round it s Axe. the Earth in twenty four Hours. about an Ax?) which is inclin d to the Plane of the JLcliptick.

if not difturb d by The Satellits of Jupi Foreign Violence. Jupiter nus y and our Moon. that in a Re volution about the Sun. Mars and Ve^ fturb it. from Weft to Eaft.. than once enjoy his for it is from this Rota .... ter and Saturn do likewife turn round their Axes. turn that conftantly the the fame Face or Disk^ toward their p rimary Planets ^ and it is not improbable. may alfo turn round their Axes. if nothing elfe dilike wife.. retain this Paralleltfw. do alfo turn round their Axes. and at the fame time defcribing a Right or Curve muft of neceflity retain it s Axe parallel to itfel. in the Earth s Re volution about the Sun. as is evident from hence. and would Line. they. and from the farallelifm of the Axil to itfelf. i o/ the fame as if the other were not fo that every Body turning about its Axe . like our Moon. that we have the Vicifliudes of Day and Night. that the others in which we have not had the Occafion of obferving the like.of ^latum 3&eitgton* . they may in all their Parts oftner Light and Heat tion of our Earth upon it s Axis.

their Phafes.. and the other -Planets with their Satellite. their Gravitations their hatellitiott-s Attractions. and fome of em revolving in Orbits. Since^ I fay. their total and parEclipfes arife. and the Obliquity of their Planes to the Plane of the Ecliptic^. Spring and Autumn.. and their Rotati ons about their Axes. wkhin one another.. their appea ring and difappearing. From the Opacity of the Moon and Planets and their Satel lite. all thefe and many more Particulars are exa$ly the fame in our Earth. Summer and Winter. the Similar Nature of their Orbits . the Proportion of their Periods to their Diftances from the and mutual Center of Motion.Sun. V. and its being inclined to the Plane of the Ecliptick} come the beautiful Seafons of the Year. Since their Solidity and Opacity. it is not impro- . which is of fuch comfort and nfe to it s Inhabitants. and tial X Attendance^ their Revo lutions about the Sun. thee^^/eDefcription of Areas in equal Times. together with their diurnal and annual Motions .

divine .. Water and Fire analo- of the very fame Na ture and Conftitution with ours. and thefe Planets have thefe Planets and Satellite Satellits. which not only are not but on the contra ford or contradi&ory ry highly probable. athofe in our Syftem. Plants and Vegetables. .of Natural JSeligton* be alike in other probable that they may and that they may have Inhabi things. it is very likely that they have Planets. Water and Fire. Plants and Vegetables gotis to. tants both rational and irrational. what a noble and glorious Fabric^ wou d prefent itfelf to our Imaginations ? How is it poffible for any one who had this Idea of the Vniverfey {hall to think it poffible fuch a beautiful Syftem^ con d have been produc d without infinite Wifdom None but the w ilfol^ or ob ft-ina te cou d refift fuch a powcifel Impreffion of &amp. rational and irrational.. and fince our fixt Stars are exa$ly of the fame Nature with our Sun^ as ihall be after tho* not wards made appear. as be afterwards made appear more fully.ah- nalogous to On thefe &quot. and have Inhabitants.

. and that the fixt Stars have their Planets and Inhabitants. how that immenfe like Bodies poffible to conceive that.. while the other more and to their forebode what little by Afpe&s tendance. But allowing the Planets to be inhabited. who can think fo poorly of the reft of the Univeiie.. or other pitiful Ac cidents were to be expe&ed below. or to be peep d at by fome poor Paltry Fellows Or can any Body force of Aftronomers himfelf to think. have been exhaufted in furnilhing &amp. thofe vaft and huge Bodies of fome of the Planets (in reipeft of our Earth) with their noble At* were made for no other ufe but to twinkle to us in Winter Evenings. and of their own Habitation. great and noble Parts. that all Animals and Plants.I I divine Power and Wifclom. poor Corner.. Number of glorious and Sun- of the fixt Stars. are left deftitute and bare? Certainly they muft have a great Opinion of themfelves. is it On the other Hand.. yet they are not of the fame Nature and Confticution with thofe of this out . Changes of Weather..

XVI... and her Courfe about her Axe is perform d in twenty three Hours. but receives only the twenty fifth of our and Saturn but the part Heat. and fo her Day is but one Hour lefs than ours /he has all the Phafes of our Moony appearing fometimes horn d fometimes halv d.of Natural Religion* as is of our Globe^ ferent evident from the dif Degrees of Heat and Light they en joy j as alfo the different Viciflitudes of Day and Night. and a Day of ten Hours.. Jupiter likewife en joys a perpetual Equinox. and the Seafbns of the Year. Mars has no Inclination in the Axe of his Rotation to the Plane of his Orbit^ and confequently enjoys a perpe tual Equinox^ but no Viciflitudes of Seafons j he receives but the third Part of our Light and Heat. hundredth. and confequently enjoys nine times as much Heat and Light. he never remo ving thirty eight Degrees from that vaft Body of Light. The Satellits of the feveral Placets .. Venus enjoys twice as much Heat and Light. Mercury is three times nearer the Suny than we.

Foci& but fbmewhat larger ones in her with the Sun Conjun&ions and Oppofetions than in her Qttadratures. nor is the Earth in any of the Foci of her Orbits . and whofe Inclination to the Plane of the Ecliptwl^ wou d never vary but by the A&ion of the Sun upon the Moon-y all thefe Effe&s are difturb d. the Primary Planets fufFer likewife from the Forces of the Sun y and of the fecondary Planets.. Neither is her Orbit always fpecifically the fame....Planets fufFer many and various Diftur- banccs in their Motions from the Sun^ as alfo. defcribe equal Area s in equal times. or always the fame.. for they are . Thus the Moon (ifa- only by the attra&ive Force of the Earth) wou d by a Kay from the Center of the Earth. for flie neither difcribes equal Areas in equal Times by a Kay from the Center of the Earth.) more Curve about the Quaand lefs toward her Conjnn^ions and . whofe Plane wou d be immoveable. &ed upon wou d about the Earth in defcribe a perfeft one of it s Ellipfe of the fame Species conftantly.

Upon the account of many all which. befidcs a Ecliptic^ Varies great other Irregularities too tedi ous here to relate. as is evident from Mr. Gregory s Aftronomy^ which is a furprifing Confirmation of the Truth of that Principle. and all thefe Uncertainties and Aberration^ are multiply d by her nearer or remo ter Diftances from the San. Moon y difturbs the Motion of the Earth I the other hand. and it s Inclination to the Plane of the every Mqment.. ev n to a Nicety... On Force of the Sun. from the A&ion of the Sun and Earth upon her. beyond which Gbfervation can not diftinguifli. it em in Numbers and yet thefe Irregularities are Wonderfully ac counted for. defcribes a new kind of Curve. the but efpecially of the as . ftronomers. and both the Situation of the Plane of her Orbit.. printed in Dr..of Natural SMtQiom and in every Revolution ilie Oppofitions . upon the common Suppofition of the Law of Attraftion. Newton s Theory of the Moon. and to exprefs all has been fo very hard for A to reduce her Motions to Rule.

. fliou d be fcnt to them. for it s plain they fliine by their own Light.4&quot. all the late Aftronomers agree.^ and greateft of all at the Equinoxes^ efpecially if the Moon is then in her ferigeum^ the Reafons of all which ter. we have a Tide there. may be with due Limitations underftood.. fince altogether impofllble. than Oppositions at her Quadratures. We . and tranfmitted to us. at the and Conjitn&ions of the Moon to the Sun. 5 that he who knows the former. XVIL That the fixt Stars a.. that the Light of the Bodies like our Snn.. fo as to it is make them appear fo lucid as we fee them. I have fuggefted is in the firft Chap And what here faid of the Earthy with refpeft to the Moon. cannot be ignorant of the latter j for when the Moon comes to the vertical Point of any Place. which da fo exa&Iy follow the Motions of the is M00. ^pofopDtcai as evident from our Tides. as alfo on the Place this Tide is greater diametrically oppofite to it . of any pri mary Plajtety inrefpc&ofit sSatellits. with fome few collateral Circumftances.

Hngens Computation.. Befides. from the Sun..... : By Mr... yet their Parallax is fcarce fenfible if any at all. inftead magnifying em above what they appear to the naked Eye fas they do any Obje&^cmov d by any menfurable Diftance. as i to .. The Rays of the Sun wou d be fo diflipated before they reach d fo re^ mote an Objeft. how great foever) does con(b that they fiderably leffen them^ appear like lucid Points. if they five . which cou d noc were at my moderate Diftance be. tho we in this Globe.. is to the Diftance of the neareft fixt Star from us. difcover them* Their Diftance is faintly in refpe& of forae Stars ^ Saturn fhines for all his fo great. that the beft Eye of the World j cou d not by it. allowing fand Feet to the Mile) one time of the Year than another. the Diftance of the Sun -from us. that the beft of Telefcope. (or thou 188304000 Miles.. approach nearer them fome twenty four thoufand Diaweters of the Earth.of natural JHeitgion* We fee how of the jixt Bulk j and yet his Diftance is but a Point in refpeft of the neareft fixt Star....

. Be- fiJe^j different as Magnitudes. and that they 3re at fuch an itmnenfe Diftance from us^ muft be Bodies like our it is plain. Since then. both thefe are true. is at leaft 2404520928000 Bullet Miles. that is (allowing theDiftance of the Sun from us to be 12000 Diameters of the Earth. it is impofiible they fhou d be all in the Surface of the fame Sphere j fince our Sun which is one of em . they Sun } which wou d be evident.. Now this being true. immenfe Diftances as the neareft of em m us.6 $4)i!qfGp!)icai 07664. (hew that they are at from one is fix another. that they Ihine by their own Light. which moving with the Velocity it has. and a Diameter to be of 7846 Miles.. Let us but imagine our felves removed .. when parted from the Mouth of the Piece. cou d they a Cannon be brought near us. or we near them.. is for it only the Diftance that creates our doubt. cannot be reduc d to their this Rule. wou d fpend almoft feven hundred thoufand Years to go thro*. according to the be ft Calculations) Star from the Diftance of the neareft jfxf us.

.gt. yet at our Di ftance we cou d fee neither. In this Station. we fliou d certainly conclude the fame of all the reft^ z//%. (fome of which I hinted before) that they have Attendant Planets^ and no poffible I one 3 . and becaufe all their Orbs wou d be united.&amp. in that one lucid point of the Sun. we fliould then certain no Difference between them .. Since then there are feveral probable Arguments. ly perceive .. we fliou d have no attend the Snn^ fliou we occafion to imagin any Difference be tween one Star and another^ but fliou d Stars certainly conclude both Sun and fixt f the fame Nature . fo wou d all the reft be. and knowing the Na ture of one.. for as to all the Planet s^ that we fee now d not have the both becaufe leaft Glimpfe of themtheir Light wou d be too weak to affect us.of natural Beitgion* 1 7 remov d at an equal Diftance from the Sun and fixt Stars. and that they were at immenfe Diftances from one another. that if one was a lucid Globe of liquid Fire. Cer tainly if the fxt Stars a&ually had JPA/nets y and they Satellits.

but indif ferently fqme of em move one way. Revolutions are very long. only their Courfe in their Orbits is riot determin d one way.. we may fafely conclude that the fixt Stars are fo many Suns in the Center of a Sy&em of Planets and their Satellits. which does in the Pla nets-. that the fame Law of Gravitation obtains in them. that by a Ray from the5#// 3 they defcribe equal Areas in equal Times. its certain.8 one to evi& the contrary. that their Periodical Times are certain and invariable.. there is another Species of Hea venly Bodies^ call d Comets.. that like our Planets . however. which re volve about the Sun-. they do move in a re curring Orbit . XVIII. fmce in three or four Thoufand Years. Befides thefe already men tioned. others ano- .. in very Oblong BUiptick Orbitsj approaching to Parabolic^ The Times of their Periodical Curves. of this Orbit .. we have not determined the Returns of above pofitively one or two.. that the Sun is in one of the Foci. and that their Moti ons are regular.

.. and compofing gular unequally difpofs d. becaufe the thiner part of its Atwofphcre. and uncertainly agitated Mafs^ which is call d its Atrno* fpbere.Icflening in its Rcceft. it has a long lucid Train.of another: natural Religion. Thefe Comets fometimes come fo near the Sun as to be heated . and fo rare that the Stars may be feen through it. intermixt with feveral an irre grofler Particles. which is rais d in its Approach to the Sun.... in many Thoufands of I 4 Years.. ex tremely rarified by his Rays. by the Heat thereof^and extends fometimes to four hundred Thoufand Miles above its Body. It is it is always oppofite to the 6V*. This Tail accompanies it through its Courfe over all the Planetary in its Approach Regions. which.. as that is ten or fifteen Befides Times as long of its Body. They are alfo about the 1 1 9 lame Bulk with the Planets. generally fpeaking 5 and like them are compaft folid Bodies ^ but furrounded with a vaftly large thin Fluid. to fuch a Degree that they cannot be come cool again. whofe Diameter. encreafing to the Sun. and ..

of all the at onc:^ or in a dies lois made very have fuffbr d in their Fluids for they many Years before..2o 0Mofo$)icai This with its violent Motion in a which comes near to a ftreight Line. and we fo little feel the Effefls of thefe Returns (which of nemuft be felt^ if thefe frightful Bo ceffity Planets.. the Reimbursement mentioned ? fince the Sun and Placets are recruited all fhort time. Now the Returns of thefe Bodies are fo irregular and uncertain. and the Difpoiition of the confufs d its d Mafs of fit Atmofyhere^ makes it an un Habitation for Animals. to fupply the Expence of Fluids in the $nn and the But as I have before hinted^ this does not feem fo very pro bable.) that I am afraid no fuch Benign Influeiices^ are to be expcfteel . has pafs its Years. becaufe Nature always fupplies conftant and regular Expences after a conftant and regular Manner. And 5 fo far as fome have thought it defign d.. Ciirv?j after it irregular Ferihelium.. that are not in a ftate of Puniihment conceive therefore we can of the Nature of Animals.

and increafe their Bulk to a neceffary Dimenfion Moreover its hardly accountable how the Sun fliou d draw from thence only the Fluid of Light.of ^atitrai &eiigtcn* ed from them. I readily grant. or if they were prowifcuoufly. the Earth. But then. that of Water. that there may be feme Clouds of Vapours fweep d off the Tails of thefe Comets. Water improper a Gueft. fincc d to draw all which wanted only more of the Fluid of Light. it is uncertain of what Nature theie Vapours are. I think that thefe frightful Bodies are the Miniftcrs of Pivi/te Juftice. the other Yla: nets their proper Fluids fiippofs . and . by the Sun and Planets as they approach them. Now it s certain^ that Heat will raife any Body into a Va pour. for every . as Fire on the Earth r which wanted only more Water. provided it be fufficient to diffolve the Union of its Parts. it is more probable. how thefe EfFe&s can anfwer the Defign.. Vapour will not become a Fluid unlcfs its Parts be of fuch a determin d Figure and Si^e as the Nature of Flu ids require. wou d be as in the Sun.

. as to the Diminution of Light.. if it did not look too notional^ there are many Arguments to render not improbable. that if all the Fluid which the Sun lofes in a Year were brought into a folid Form. changing the Figures . : and may ftill bring about.and lend us Benign or No* xions Vapours. the great Cata- ftropkes of our Syftem. I do believe it may be dernonftrated.. Diminution of the Quantity of Fluids in the Sun and Planets^ it is certainly fo fmall and fo inconfiderable (tho ftill it be fomething) that it will never be fenfible in any finite Number of Years.. in their Vifits. by raifing of Tides. Now what is that to the vaft Body of the Sun ? And as for f the .. it would not equal a Grain of Sand. But as for the of Punilhment . and fo needs not fo magnificent an Apparatus ^ as the vifife of a Comet to fupply it . according to the Defigns of Providence that they may have brought. and the Pofitions of the Tlanets^ and the very Nature of the Orbits thenifelves: and that they may be the Habitation of Animals in a ftate which.

tho feme of be reduc d into a folid Form. or. that fome infinitely powerful . for in all Animals and Vegetables . XIX. And now let any one ferioufly refleft upon the Order ^ Vaftnefl^ Magnu ficence this . fince their firlt Production. it does notever. and make of this our ) feem defign d to laft for jlem. Scheme . and try if Effbft of Chance. yet them upon Examination it of the fame is again diffolv d into a Fluid ..... Thus I have given a fhort View of this Syftew of things. Beauty . the Matter is plain j and as for Minerals and Metals ^Idoubt much. without fome considerable Changes. So that tho there be fome lots of Fluids on our Globe y yet there is ftore enough to fupply all the Ufes of Life and Vege tation. and Symmetry of he can think it the if he can fo much wife and as doubt. Frame.of Datura! Beitgtom 123 the Fluids on our Globe.. whether there be ve ry will be found that moft many new Productions or Generations of that kind.. for any finite number of Years and . as it is at of Opinion it is pretty prefent^ and I am near the Truth. by the.

And i* It is plain from what has been { all the &amp. different Diftances from the Center of Attra&ion.. their Satellits and the Comets^ are govern d by one Condition that the Force thereof at thereof. is reciprocally as the Squares is it at all of thefe Diftances. he fhou d always without failing throw the iame fide in ern . but if with an almoft infinite Number of Dice. let us of this Divine Archtte&ure.f^inciples: powerful Architect has rear d this noble But to drive the Argument far Fabrkk. we might pofifibly fay he did it by Chance..all^ we fhou d certainly con- . and that the Motions of ces Planets. pro Now bable that fo Hm&erfitt a ful a Principle Law^ fo power and fo conftant a Rule j fhou d be owing to Chance ? If one with 10000 Dice. enquire a little into the par ticular and obvious Defigns and Contrivan* ther.. that the univerfal Principle of Attraction or Gravitation obtains in all the Bodies of this Univerfe.z/r&. fhou d throw 5000 Si7es^ once or twice ^ or even 1000 Sixes once and again.

.. by Art and Contrivance. Now I have demonelude. from the Center of their tions. as by Rays from the S/tf/j and all the Sate Hits..of jfcatutai Religion. worth our Obfervation to take Notice. by Rays . It is Foundations of the World. in all the Revolutions of the Planets about the SHK.. All the Planets 3. fo far as this might have been with all the Bodies of the Uniwe can difcover^ are en* it dow d with it Principle ^ and therefore. he either did it ftrated that Gravitation is not effential to Matter^ and fo out it^ and yet verfe. the periodical Times is in a Sefauialter Proportion to the middle Diftances^ or the Cubes of the middle Diftances. and of the fecondary Planets about the Primary ones. how conftant and beautiful a Proportion^ the Times of the Revolutions of all the Flatlets^ and their Satettits y keep to their middle Diftances for univerfally.. are in all of them (Planets and Satellits) Mo the Squares of the Periodical Revolutions. or that thefe Dice cou d turn up on no other fide. was defign d by him who laid the a.

approach to the Center of their Motion. by their Swiftnefs.and determine the Powers } neceflary towards the . the dreas defcrib d. they move fafter. to tainly nothing make the Calculations. but are the neceflary Ef of the Law of Gravitation. defcribe equal Areas in equal Times^ /.r . and depending upon beautiful Proportions. who confiders how many things are con thefe curring to... adjuft theF0ra. e. and fo Times. juft now feft^ Celeflial Bodies^ mentioned to be the Principle of the Heavenly Motions. and regular Effeftsy fo much as once queftion whether they are the Produce of infinit Wifdom? Cer lefs cou d be fufficicnt. of the Motions of the regular Affe&ions. are always proporti So that when they onal to the Times.. and their Diflance by their Slownefs: Al ways making up equal Areas in equal Thefe two fo umverfal. Can any Body now.f Primary Planets. flower their Nearnefs. Rays from their and when they recede fo as to compenfat from it .... are not only difcoverable by Obfervation..

4. needs only a Degree of Heat. And therefore fince thefe .. in refpe& of the Suny that the Denfer Planet. * 27 the Produ$ion. fince were and this according to their Denfities. if there nefit were no Creatures to enjoy the Be of em and we all know Natiire has :.. And confequently. is a very good Argument for the Planets being inhabited... -. they are fit ted with Degrees of Heat neceffary for natural Produ6Hons.. - 3 Defign ? No certainly. their Diftances adjufted for this very Reafon by the bye... Body think this was fo ordered without him. it is fo obvious no Body can mifs of it for it is plain the more Denfe Matter requires a greater De gree of Heat... for the fame End. is farther remov d from him and the leaft Denfe of Now can any is the moft remote. of fuch exa& and regu All the Planets are fo lar Effe&s. to fit it for natural Produ6Hons lefler and the lefs Denfe. is ftill neareft and the lefs Denfe. all. wifely fituated.of Natural Religion. now this Adjuftment and thefe natural Productions were ufelefs. done nothing in vain. .

and thofe more remote^ lefs faft. as the Forces. petal are reciprocally .$i)ttofopi)tcai thefe Accommodations are provided for li ving Creatures. The Velocity of the Pla Motions j is fo adjufted in refpe& of the Sut? y and the Velocity of the Satel* nets lits y in refpeft of their primary Planets. and the For fince the Centru remoteft. Squares of the Diftances from the Center^ and the Celerities in that cafe^ recipro the fqnare Roots of the Diftan cally. and fince the fquare Root of the remoter Diftance is greater. that the Planet And fo in the Satellits ^ the neareft to the primary Planets^ moves quickeft. 5. and the fartheft. than the fquare Root of the nearer. as from the Center . there fore the Velocity of the nearer. floweft. it was fit the Viciflitudes of the Seafons . floweft of all.. is a wife Contrivance of the Author of ces Nature . for fince the nearer Planet enjoys more of the Heat of the Sun y than the re moter . there are fuch certainly to enjoy em.. is grea Now this ter than that of the remoter. which is neareft the Sun^ moves fafteft.

where the greatefi.of Seafons. by fome Angle or other with the Plane if of their Orbit. there Heat is leaft. it was neceflary the Seafons fhou d be fhorteft. And this K . making there moft. it is doubtlefs moft convenient 5 the Viciffitudes there of fliou d be quickeft.. they muft admit of for Va is riety of Seafons. and where the Heat the Conveniency of natural Produ&ion. there the Seafons ihou d be all thefe EfFe63:s are taken longeft: care of by this adjufting of the Velocity to the Diftance... that anfweof natural Produ&ions ring beft the Ends for fince their Diftances are leaft. natural &eli0ton. they not all of them. And what is here faid Now of the Seafons in Refpeft of the ?lanetfy Satellits Influ may be ences 5 underftood of the from their primary Planets . fhou d be quicker. and their Velocities greateft. that are nexc the Sun^ their Periods muft be fhorteftj all move about their and fince Axes. in the nearcft^ and floWeft in the remoteft Satellits.. for whatever Effe&s the primary Planets pro duce on the ^econdary ones.

but to the already eftablifli d Laws of the Univerfe ...$i)itofopt)!c ai this. one of their Foci^ Elliptic^ Orbits alfo and the Planes of all the Orbits do very nearly coincide with one another.... That the Planets defcribe Elliptic!^ Orbits about the SMI 3 there is no manner of doubt . not exaflly Elliptical^ yet that is from neceffary Caufcs. the Satellits are Orbits of that the fay. is matter . and is not owing to Chance. yet ftill their Or bits are nearer Ellipses now among And tho than any other Geo- Metrical Curves^ and may be reduc d to theie and that the Planes of the Orbits of the Y lands coincide with the Plane of the and with one another nearly. they Aflronomers. 6. as well as the former . All the Planets defcribe about the Sun in . one of Elliptic^ Orbits of one and all the Satellits Species or another defcribe about their primary Planets in their Foci^ :. is a convin ^ cing Proof of the Planets being inhabited for ii all this beautiful Contrivance is loft ? there be no Inhabitant in thefe Celejiial Bodies to enjoy the Benefit of it. and with the Plane of the Ecliptic^.

are brought fome hundreds of thoufand Miles. Foci. the other is not du rable j but temporary. for Advantages thereby arifing to our* Earth in particular. are evident. But this change is not now to be taken notice of fince it is a Qiieftion if thefe Irregularities a K were any .. the colder and more Northern Places of our Globe. this beautiful of thefe three things. Now is it imagi and conftant Order of Elliptick Orbits^ the Situation of the Sun in the one of the of the Planes.. which cannot but be of fome ufe to thofe Places. nable. Now this Benefit wou d be confbnt if the Place of the Pvrihetium did that is the not change ^ but fince not conftant.. that by the natural Courfe of the Earth. than in Summer ... with that of the Eclipcou d have been the EfFeft of Chance and Cafualty? Or that it was without Defign or Counfel ? No certainly... 1 3 1 matter of Obfervation. and the Coincidence of the Orbits . arc depriv d of the benign Influence of the Sun at that Seafon.of Natural Religion.for there by. nearer the Sun in Winter.

. and that of the As to the Rotation about their Eclipticlq own Axe. but the work of Infinite Wifdom. Co far as we have had occafion to know^ move about their own Axes. 7. againft this Ar gument^ fince we know not the Nature of their Inhabitants^ nor of their Natural Produ&ions . yet the conftant Order of thefe things are a fufficient Proof that they were not Cafiial . Mars. The Sun. all the Planets. is : firft Contrivance of in the reft this Now tho of the the Situation of their Perihelia. fmce it is of notable life to one of the Planets. and their Satellits. Jnpiter. Venus. almoft coinci dent with one another.12 3 any part of the Univcrfe Planets. the Axe of this Rotation is dwxy parallel toitfelf^ and they revolve all one way from Weft to Haft. it is matter of ObferVation in the Sun.. and that in Planes. the Earth. it cannot be amifs to any of eni. But this we may conclude. they agreeing in moft things ever be the : But what Defign thereof. the . not the fame^ yet nothing is to be concluded from thence.

nothing fible. if the fame were not difturb d by fome collateral Caufes j as alfo the Coincidence of the Planes of this Rotation.of natural JRcitjjion* 1 3 3 the Moon^ and it is very probable in the other two ^ and as to the Parallclijm of the Axe of their Rotation... cou d have brought about fo uniform 5 and fuch conftant Effe&s. or in fome K 3 particu- . Now can thefe Conftant and regular Efte&s be afcrib d to any thing.. and Beauty. all thefe con ftant and immutable all thefe Effe&s.. and with the Plane of the Ecclipticfyj is wou d fo very near the Truth. and Confufion produce regular and invariable Efte&s? It is altogether impoU and but the Au therefore. that all thefe beautiful and comely Proportions .. but an over-ruling Providence ? Can Jum ble. not to a few things.. it is demonftrable a priori^ as I have formerly fhewn. which agree. let us now coniider. with one ano ther. a nd be nicely exa&. that the it. Farther. thor of Light^ and Order. uniform and regular Appearances. fmall Difference from is not to be regarded..

all the fubfequent Advantages from the prefent efhblifii d Motions of the Placets depen different from thefe ding y any other wou d have depriv d us of thofe Advan The various poflible Diftances of to all their Sate!lit to the Sun .*34 Wiofopljtcai but in particulars. Thus there might have been an infinity of different ^ poflible Laws ^Gravitation^ yet none of them wou d have fitted our Syftem^ prefent Circumstances.. the Planets. becaufe this is the Eftci of the Law of and on thefe two. feve^and yet none of ral and divcrfe ways. em fitted fo well^ to the prefent Irate of things. to -all s. their poffible Gravitation. and the in a M0&amp.?//. the Planets from the Sun ^ the poflible s of their Reyolntioxs. moft of them.. and the Comets^ and our word ^ to every thing in this might have been varied. rable proportions^ befides the Sefquialter^ yet none of em had fuited us fa well. fo well as to the There are innume Reciprocal Dnplicat. Celerities^ . and the univerfal Benefit of the whole Syftem ^ as thefe already fettled.

their pofilble Derifitief.of j&atutAi Heligiom Celerities.. Orbits j of their the poiliblc Figures O I and of the Inclinations of their Planes to one another.. and that every one of cm is difpos d in the fitted Order. that all thefe Affeftions of the Hea venly Bodies ^ might have been in no re gular Order 5 nor conftant Proportion. .. and their Bulf\ feeing every thing and Meajurc j and Proportion. were they Add to difpos d atter another manner. and the po and yet as I IIble Changes of many other Affe&ions ^ are in num ber infinite- have fhewn that are at prcicnt ? bring very confiderable Advantages with them. the prefent ftate of things will admit ^ ilncc both the whole and the feveral Parts of rr K ad jink d. thefc. and conlequently the poifible Varieties of the Bodies might Celeftial have been infinite among cmfelves. and different from thofe now mentioned.. But at all. which moft of thefe they confequently wou d be lofi . by weight feeing they obfcrve Order is 4 the . and to the Plane of the Ecliptic^ . to the Syftew in general. J 1 3 &amp.

who that con- fiders all thefe things.36 $t)ftQtopl)tcal is the Celejiial Fabric^ ufeful. or of it s Creator^ than that frodigiom number of fixt . Bo I come now to confider the Celeftial dies a little more particularly. and of their Motions. both very gooda and convenient. . dares fo much as doubt whether he who did all thefe things lives and reigns for ever and ever ? or who can forbear to admire and adore him. who weighed the Mountains in Scales^ and the Hills in a Balance^ likg a Curtain. Stars can all glorious Bodies. and ftrong Arm out. does wonderful things paft finding fome of the more general Affe&ions.... ^ XX... and firft as Having confidered.. of the Heavenly and (hewn fome of the Advantages. arifing from their prefent Order and Difpofition. now to the any thing beget a greater Idea of the Univerfe. and lip femov d at Diftances from one another not to their Diftance from us? This..&amp. whofe right hand. rang d and down the immense Vaft . who ftretch d the Hea~ and held the Earth in his Hands. like our Sun.

... then imnyfxt Stars of the firft Magnitude ^ as there are Syftems that can ftand round ours. but there are but about twelve or thirteen Spheres. is Supposition. and fecond Hate.. that can ftand round a middle one^ equal to em j and fo many are the Stars of the Magnitude. for. does evince. becaufe they are not fo diftinguifhable from thofe of the other Magnitudes.. Again^ if we examine how many Spheres can ftand round this firft Range of Spheres we will find their number betwixt forty eight and fifty two 5 and fo we find the number of the Stars of the fecond Magnitude.of ^amrai laeligtcn. As for the feveral other Magnitudes. I do not . as the firft and fecond are. that every fixt in like our Sun^ and governs a Portion of Mundan fpace. 137 not only their different apparent Magninumber of thofe tudes^ but likewife the of the firft. equal to our Sythere muft be only as flew. it is not alto gether poffible to determine their num ber. For upon the Star. Befides. but on firft ly for things being nearly fo. I do not plead here for Accuracy.

rife to Vegetables... to hinder himfelf from being ravifh d with the Power and Wifdom of the Great God of Heaven and Earth. theie things being nearer any Re* gular Proportion^ than they are to Irre is diffident for my Purpofe . or that are all of the fame Dimentheir Syftems. that rarifies the iizy Juir ces about their tender Roots.. and makes force their way. fions : it is impofilble for any Body. for gularity. it is beyond that without him they cou d As never his above the Ground .. or view with his about thcfe glori ous Bodies. the Liquor in the Thermometrjcal Tubes^ and drives tjierri through . y is the Sun. fcrioufly to confider in his Mind. and of what abfolute Necefllty to the Being of all Animals and Eyes.. to difplay all the and there Foldings of the {lender Seed^ them by to augment their Parts raifes juft as we find his Heat.. How beautiful and glorious a JXXI.not think that the fixt Stars^ are either all of the fame real Magnitude. is what certain Vegetables all ! doubt... for it is Heat alone.

knows the Reafons. plac d along. for we know. and to exhale the noxious Dews.. and the Mechawcal One Necefiity of all thefe things. are more apd plentifully xieriv d. and he who underftands the Animal Occonomy. z//%. might make a forFood cou d be fupry Shift (fuppofing his Influence) in a ply d em without perpetual State of Darknefs. tint by the Heat of the Sun^ and the Aflion of his Rays^ that infinite Number of the cxcre* cretory Duels of Perfpiration. and cou d through all be of no long continuance . and a cloudy Day. and enlarg d.. baleful thing ev ry Body knows ... how neceffary the Sun is to pur fie our Air. which Nature has deilgn d iliou d be carry d out of the Body. freely which muft needs . all the fuperficial Parts of the Body are open d. and fo thofc Exha lations. and tho* perhaps -Animals. is a Difeafe alone. it s 1 39 winding Branches.... and i the we Vapours of the Ni^ht feel a fenfible Joy in his Light.. yet it wou d be a very miferable fort of Life. and Heavinefs in his Abfcnce^ foul Weather.of natural Eciigton.

altogether impoflible to ac count for the Appearances of the Planets } i. in any tolerable manner.. that Analogy of the Periodical Times 5 to the midk Diftances . and whereby he the Motion of pretends to demonftrate the Earth. and of the fixt Stars. a.. Flamflead has obferv d. which is . For It is their Satellits. without admiring the Motion of the Earth. any other Suppofition. It s being fituated immoveable in the Cen ter of our Syftem^ no Body who has been But of this at the pains to confider the Matter^ I be lieve doubts now. for not to mention at about the Paral prefent the Controverfie lax of fome of the fi xt Stars^ which Mr.needs give a greater Freedom to the Blood and Spirits 5 the contrary of all which.. more afterwards. upon And 3. It is likewife for the Motions of impoflible to account the Comets. happens in the Abfence of this Benign Star. and confequently the Stability of the Sun ^ there are fome other Argu ments that will have fufficient Weight to fettle the Matter among thoughtful Men.

e&i- s Motion. been... to the confervation of any fuch Suppofition (fuch as the TychonicJ{ or Ptolomict^) there are requir d fo many different Laws of Gravi* . and difprove the Caufes of the Celeftial Motions^ we fhall never be able to prove the Stability of the all Earth. of Light and in placing that Foun Life. 1 4* the neceflary Confequence of the cftablifti d Law of Gravitation. to have fet him in a Corner. Add to all that there is no tolerable Ob.of is Natural ffieifgiott. fo that fubvert the whole Syftent Motion of Aftronomy. thefe. ter of their Revolutions. in the Center of unartful wou d it have Syftem. and a plain Solution. does demonftrate the Earth s unlels we wou d a priori . what an Inftance of Wifdom and on Now Contrivance tain his is this. in a duplicate Proportion reci to their Diftances from the Cen then the Earth (and not the Sun) moves.. but has againft the Earth had a full Anfwer. when How he was to have giv n Light and Warmth to all the Bodies round him befides.. For if the Celeftial Bodies attraft one another procally ..

nor the re- moteft too fuch little.. Thus then this great and glorious Body is fixt.. that whatfoever was Matter of Gravitation^ was the the moft fimplc and eafie. yet this Pofition of ours : the Celeftial Bodies. and that fo equally. in w i(e r as clearly the flanets^ refpeft of juft Qiiantity is contriv d to have enough of Matter to draw round him thefe Maffy Bodies. accounts for all the various Motions and Appearances of faft. Warmth. fpeak the Om nipotence and Omniscience of their Author. and look d moft like the Effe&s of Wiidom and Defign For here one fingle Law.. with how much Artfulneis his Bulk and Situation.. and their in their Bulks and DiSatellits^ fo various ftances from him . and that in regular and ... neareft have not too much. like a powerful and a kindly Monarch on his Throne ^ diftributing Light. and Life in to all his furrounding plentiful EfFufion. wou d cafily difcover.. Thefe are fuch great^ Ends... Moreover. that the Vaffals. let us confider...2 f Ijtlofopljtcai that any reasonable Perfbn by inquiring into them..

.wever fufficient Matter Inffonces of this we Wifdom and Debe. have here fign to enforce upon us the Belief that is a being infinitely perfeft thereof. but I am rather inclin d to be lieve it may be the neceffary Efteft of the Fluidity of his Body. it being very well known. into a one way. . and emitting this Fluid of Light through the Planetary .Emanations thereof upon his AttenAs for his Rotation about his own dents.. circular Motion of the whole Ho.. perhaps it may be for the better propagating. to be able to laft fo many Years without any Orbits. how fully it has been faturated with the Fluid of Light.of and uniform exa&ly his Body is rounded.. by the Force of the heat. the Author XXII.. Axe^ it is no doubt likewife^ for wife Ends and Purpofes.. fenfible How Diminution^ tho there are conftant . that the Particles of all folid Bo dies running into fufion. Kegions . d . are turn d innumerable different ways 5 and io by their Oppofition and Inare at laft determin terferings..

that Luxury. not have . Now comfortable and delightful a thing this is. to their primary Ones^ but reft XXII. is it to have a Light held us forth from Heaven.. The by fuppofing the may reap rejpe&ively. Travellers and Voyagers can beft tell.. how our times wears out ? For a very lit us reap both thefe tle Experience. twice in twenty four Hours. fome thing A~ fupplying of the Sun in the Night time. and joyful a thing. fome part of Mankind iliou d be travelling by Land how pleaor Sea. which how abfolutely neceffary it is toward the fubfiftance of Animals and Vegetables. Ambiton and neceffary. and to point out to us. how Curiofity .44 otherwife gather the ufefulnefs of the fecondary Planets. but to direft us in our Courfe. receives from our Moon. in the Night Seafons fant then. We can no the Benefits we of the nalogous.. to Earth. which are i.. we (hall ... makes laft Advantages from the Prefence and Motion of the Moon. 2. She raifes our fides. for at leaft three fourths of the Year.. now made it only to guide our Steps..

Salio.. Now frefh tho there be ma daily Sea are the into y yet they very inruning confiderable in refpeft of the vaft Ocean of Salt Water. of Water themfelves. Every Body knows that a Lake or Loch. but contains a greater Quantity of Flefliy.. the heat diffolving their Union. alter is d by this yet no Water abfolutely pure. Bony. Earthy. that has no fi e(h Water runing into it..of /hall Natural ffieitgioti* now {hew.. and combining em in new Forms. Metallick. are Stagnation.... and confequently it s Corruption and Stinking. and it is upoti thefe.. and Vegetable Particles^ than of pure - lement duce this EfFeft. and its Stagnation. the conftituent Particles a /linking rotten Pu-dle... turn into fending forth naufeous and poyfonous Steams . will by the heat of a few Months. and then the firft Effcft wou d be ? that all the Places toder it s Stagnation.. L ward . But admit the Ocean once ftagnated.. for tho* I do not think. and wou d by no means hin* ny thoufands of Water Rivers. and fepathefe noxious Particles which by rating pix&amp.

and by the noxious Steams thence arifing. wou d be firft wrought turn upon by the A&ion of the Sun. as it were^ and then let fall again ^ whereby the ters near the Shores. the Salt of the Sea I does . the as by ters are lifted up in a heap. too fbort a time. and the begining Malady ftifled. and then by Degrees it wou d get farther till the whole were become more baneful and poyfonons than the Lake of Sodom and Gomorrah-. af terwards the Plants and Animals where ^ the Moon. and . This of new Water on the perpetual Change Shores.46 ^tjtiofopljicai ward the Shores. keeping any one Portion thereof. to have it s mixture corrupted. are conftantly fethis AcHon of Wa Wa cur d from Stagnation and Corruption. d to a Mephitis . Now what a noble Contrivance have we here by appointing an Attendant to our Earthy all the Vegetables and Animals arc prcferv d from certain Definition. whereby the Fifties wou d be firft deftroy d.. (but I am of opinion that to the full effe& of rlns wife Defign.... expos d to the heat of the Siw.

can ceafe from wonder. if our Earth. it And con* here perhaps fider that if will not be atniis to our Earth had any more than it. at any L a tolc- . ftick the Parts of Bodies fo together..of does very natural much Keltstotn ^ 147 have contribute for as I and may obferve afterward..) Befidcs this. that the Particles of Heat.. cannot fo cafifaid before. we fhou d have Tides that wou d raife the Waters to the the tops ofour Mountains. or at any Diftance near to that of our prefent for tho Moon) might be augmented^ yet at Conjunctions andOppofetzons with one another. or can continue in Unbelief. Moon were biger or nearer the or if we had more than one. and in their Quadra* lures we fliou d have no Tide at all. does this ebbing and flowing of the Sea afford ? No Body that confiders them. one Moon attending receive it.... that we fliou d moreDamage than Advantage from perhaps thereby our Light in the Night (provided {he were of any Bulk. and with the Sun. how many Conveniences in Rivers for our Navigation. fn ihort. and Harbours. ly tear em afunder. the pointed {lender Particles of the Salt..

be not in fo great hazard of corrupting from the Heat of the Sun. we by the fliou d be in noxious were none hazard of being Steams arifing ftiflcd the from it s Ocean . or at a greater diftance. which it wou d ftagnat more than evident now does... From all which how wifely our Satellit. in hazard of being drown d and at if our prefent Moon were or if there lefs. how ftrongly Fluids in Motion will refift the Efficacy of Cold. for xve fnfKciently know. fince our Moon fuits us fb well^ and tho the Fluids of thefe Planets. and the fre quent toffing and turning over of then*. or feparatcd Forces of (6 many Moons... yet they may pot be in hazard of being congeal d by fibly the Violence of the Cold. J O all. by the united. they muft be reafonably expe&ed to fit the Neceffities of the Inhabitants of thcfe Planets.48 ^ijiiofopljicai tolerable diftancefrom us^we fliou d be every * now and then. As for the numerous Attendants of and Jupiter Saturn. However the thing be^ we may here obfcrve . may hinder this EfFeft . has been contrived for our Purpofes.

or great Oceans.and of the Satellite of the other Planets which laft being fo frequent. one very Bodies at (uch a Diftance from each the grcateft at the greatcft efpecially Diftance} for had they been fituated much nearer to one another. 3. which by prudent placing the Heavenly Bodies. and in particular fuch dcftru&ive Tides .And Moon the Eclipses call .. in placing other.. From our this d by her Name pro ceed. L 3 upon . they wou d have caus d prodigious Diforders in very diffe rent Manners. . at fuch a Diftance from one ano ther.. that neither Animals nor Vegetables woiul have been able to fuftain their Fury .of ferve ^attmtl ifteitstotu 149 and and of Wisdom fignal Inftance the Heavenly Contrivance. .. where-evcr there was any Quantity of Fluids. are of wonderful Affiftance^ toward the Solution of this fo defirable and fo much defpaird of Problem? . and the Longitudes of Places are dctermin d... are intirely prevented. for by them the Differences of Meridians. which is of exceeding ufe in Navi gation. Of the fame ufe are the Edipfes of the Sun.

I have lit what tle more to fay about them. their Natures.. but loudly pro claim Author. in the Matter of Navigation.) there . the Head of Navigation all Wisdom and Being of their XXIII. Motions.. in this great Drama of the World. and much la* ter Hncc final Caufes have been cultiva ted. that I fhall infift no farther on this Tofick^ but from this whole Seftion about the Ufe of the At tendants of the Planets fhall infer.. with that Care becoming fo noble and andMifcful a Part of Philofophy. but the World is already fo fenfible of the Ad vantages arifing from the Motions and Appearances of the Heavenly Bodies. Orbits.. that they are not mute Perfons. and theitSatellits has been brought to any tolerable Pcrfeftion. and Situations. than I have already (aid. that the Aftronomy of the Planets themfelves. (indeed it is but of late.o $t)iiofoptical jipon this Agro in comes other without the which nomy 3 were meer groping in the Dark. have been fo lately determin d. As fo the Comets..

without being put to the . To few of em our Rcafoning upon. as I have before hinted. have vifited us twice. that we have Icarce any folid Foundation to bout . L A . they may be the firft Rudi ments of Planets ^ not as yet brought into our Syflem^ or rather the Ruins of fome banifh d thence. from vinejuftice. there are fo em we know of. Only.expenfe of a new Creation.of jjtiatutai Religion. to wander in thefe long EccentrickjOrbits^ through the World. However^ from them we may learn that the Divine Vengeance^ may find a feat for the punifliment of his Difobe- dient Creatures. few accurate Obfcrvations al that extant. theie blaming Stars feem not defign d for the Habitation of build Animals in a ftate of Happinels. But moft likely they are the Minifters of-dibaleful Steams. upon the Planets^ they long come nigh of j and if what be is commonly faid em by Aflrologers vifit us without fome true^ they (eldom fuch direful Salu tation. fending their Trains. nay ev n fcarce of Animals not under a State of Punifliment...

the parti cular ones (with allowance for Circumafter the jftances) will eafily follow.. and how probable it is that they are in habited by Creatures fitted for fuch Habi tations^ I fliall content my felf with point ing out fome of the moft confiderable Inftanccs of Defign and Wifdom in this our flanet . that once in fixteen or twenty Hours at rnoft. arifing to us by the Rotation of the Earth about it s own Axi*. Come we now to enquire the Wifdom of the Contrivance of But having already (hewn the Analogy between them and our Earth.. both becatife the defign d Brevity of this Treatife will not permit me to be Ib particu lar.. We the Inhabitants of this Globe are fo made. as the Subjefi deferves. we require a Time for Relaxation j all ing 9 in and generally fpeakhealthful People this time is pretty .52 ^i)tlofopi)icitl into XXIV. if the Analogy hold in general.. hoping the Reader will reafon fame manner (bateing particular Circumftances) of the reft.. And firft let us confider the Advantages. and that. the Planets. and becaufe.

and Education. between the Store-houfes of our Spirits will not permit any longer Application than twen to our Conftittity Hours. during the time of this Reft. and the Weak. It was likewife ncccffary^ that the Air fhou d be at leaPt cool and temperate. or ev n while the Sun is above the Hori^on^ the worfe for it j the we Sun and Heat exhaling the natural Perfpirations too violently. may get the better of thefe natural fropenfities^ and a very ftrong Conftitution may bear out with harder Meafures for fome time j but the Young. for generally find thofc that deep in the open Air. once in twenty four Hours.. 1 53 fix and nine Hours. and too quick raifing a Mo* .. pretty equal. natural ly run into a Relaxation^ and recruiting their Spirits by Sleep.. without Injury about the Time of fix tionSj and much Hours is required to fill em is again and neceflary that generally fpeaking^ it an Alternation of Application and Relaxation^ fhou d It s true Cuftom be once in twenty four Hours.of r natural ffieiiston.. and almoft all at their own Liberty.

and more accor tural^ and ding to the Necefllties of our ConftitntU on. to afford us time to recruit em. whereby the Sleep is lefs calm. and more difturb d. And tho we generaly perfpire more in the Night than the Day.. in the Night than the Day.54 a iWofoptjtcai Motion. than the Day. the Night by its Coolnefs and Quiet. that of neceffity.. Day } the Expenfes of the next as alfo for nourilhing the Mufcles.. and the other Parts of the Body ^ for the Bufinefs of Nutrition perform d in the time of Reft... yet this is more na lefs violent. Befides.. becaufe the Blood has too rapid and quick a Motion. thefe things are won for by the Rotation of derfully provided the Earth about its Axis j for thereby we Now all have the the and fpending our Day about the Neceflities of Life.. Channels. Spirits in. the Darknefs is lefs fubjeft to Noife and Difturbance.. to af is moftly.. for Bones. if not altogether penfes ford . in the Blood. Viciffitudes for Application of Day and Night. the Ex of the Spirits are too great.. and lay up in ftore.

and very grievous.._ of natural Eeliston. and confequently raifes the fizy Juices.. or for any long time. fhining upon them . at the Roots of the tender Seeds. and are more fed by their Sleep. and grofs People naturally fleep longeft. or Materials for nourifhing Be* the Parts in the time of Application : fides that a gentle uniform Motion is re- to the quir d to apply nourifliing Parts.. to thofe that live under the equatorial fartsy without which Life wou d be both ex ceeding fliort. let us refleft upon the Nccefllties of our Vegetables^ which are the Support of Animals. and thereby forces the folded Branches to expand and en large.. Likewife.. i $? ford Leifure. and we than any other Animal Fnn&ion. More over. deep more. and to fettle em there ^ generally find that People reco vering from a Difeafe^ and Children. Now were the Sun conftantly. what a comfortable and refreshing thing is the cool Breezes of the Night. we have before faid. neceflary Places. that the Heat of the Sun rarifies.. thefe Juices wou d not be at liberty to fettle .

and confequently cou d produce nothing .. and higher. has time to fettle and confolidate in the and it s Cold runs the thin Juices Night. mov d . they may be heavier y but not fo tough or hard. what is rais d in the Day-time.fettle^ and confolidate but in the fit Places ftill of the Branches. we Nights.... firft into thick. and the other Excrefcences of and generally. till at laft rifing higher they burft the Tops of the Canals. by exhaling the watery Parts harden and (which This are now brought nearer the Surface of the Plant) does evidently fee in Nntgals. tho* this too depends Conftitutioo. and firft On the other Hand^ had rot the Earth much upon the make of the Seed. and very hot Countries. which wou d be the fupervening Heat. fuddenly bring up their Seeds^ but their Parts are lefs firmly ftuck together . whereas by this Viciffitude of Heat and Cold. fizy 3 Subftances. produce Vegetables of the firmeft Union of Parts. the Leaves of Vegetables Countries that have moderately cool fix.

which by in the Channels. which wou d of nenot only have lock d up all Fliiids cefllty. exceeding Rains wou d have been pour d down (as the Vapours became cooler) next Sleet. the . but wou d have frecz d the Blood and &amp. we had not thefe Advantages. Spirits of all the Ammals^we are acquainted with for as I have fhewn before^ there is a faline Body conftantly fwiming iu. our Air. as neither of thefe cou d poflibly bear. . that firft baleful we and fulphureous Damps (by the Forces of the preceding Heat generated and rais d.. mov d upon its Axe. for very near one half of the Year fhou d have been in perpetual Darknefs.. then Snow^ and Ice.. the Confeqtience of which wou d have been.) wou d have fafl*h. and Froft.of Natural ^elision... if not abfolutely neceffary to the Being of our Animals and Vegetables^ but we had fuffered alfo fuch Inconveniences. by Degrees. only loft all which are fo beneficial. the Sun in its but only turn d round annual Period. which wou d have ftiflcd all the Animals^ or had they furviv d that.for

Snny what Abfence of the and with how much firmnefs wou d thefe Saline Bodies haveform d themfelves! Certainly nothing that moves^ whether Animate or Inanimate^ wou d have been able to ftipport fuch a cold And all this is is not only demonftrable a fait. from the preceding Snow. they flioot themfelves into oblong {harp Wedges . as not to be able to do any Particles. Now in in a half Years Quantities. next all our Ground^ wou d have turn d into a ftiff in a manner dif{linking fuddle y (being folv d by the Force and Quantity of the Snow . is fo attenuated and reduc d into fo (lender whofe Points (being eafieft bro ken) by the Force of the Fluid of Light are firft beat off. huge Deluges of melted Waters.158 i&tHiofoptical the Prefence and A&ion of the Sun. we fliou d have had. which ftick together the Parts of all Bo dies... during a much (horter Abfence of but this Matter of gloriom Star. -priori^ and a&ually happens in thofe Places that are under the Poles. Again. in the enlight- ned half of the firft Year. which likewife wou d have produc d fuffocating Mifts . Damage..... but in hi* Abfence..

or they turn d delirous by the violent Agitation of the Blood and Spirits^ and then dy d in Convulfions y like fo many Puppies in the Dog-Days-. ariiing from the Earth s Kotation about her Axis.. It s there are fome People live under the &quator^ yet they have but a fcurvy time on t. poffible. that any thing that has Life refift fuch a Degree of Heat. and let fall by the fupervening Cold of the Night. ha ving as long a Night as they have a Day. than the Depree of . the Blood and Spirits of all the Animals of our Globe. fultry 3 $9 Snow Water) then wou d Heals and a burning Air have gall d us. neither in Houfes nor Dens ^ till at laft the Heat encreafing without Abatement.of Datura! Religion. being by .. falling by the Plenty of Vapour. wou d be quite exhal d. which is a mighty Relief.. that we fliou d have found reft. tho they are fupply d with conftant Breezes. and prodigious Quantities of Rain. the continued rais uninterrupted Aftion of the Sun. d by the Days Heat. for it were abfolutely im- fhou d true.much a far harder part..

and there cou d be and Cold that no Rains nor Winds becaufe it is the cooling of the Cafe. that which makes the Cafe much worfe than in any part of our Globe.. but it . of the Heat for the Poles ^ And as we have very certain Infor mation. they wou d be but &amp.. that is the Caufe of both . not only our Fiflies wou d be deftroy d. thefe. feeing Air to fend it Plants or we cou d have no freflt we cou d have no cool down: If we had any Vegetables. but Waters. and fo. Air. iSj that the Rays of the Sun wou d be both direft. The extreme Degrees of Heat happen there^ being in But compatible with an Animal Life. thofe which require the greateft Degrees of Heat.. that few if any at all^ inhabit near*^.. or turn d into Defarts of Salt. which by no means cou d happen in our every fucceeding Hour heating the Air to a greater Degree than the former. of one particular $i)iiofopi)tcai at ftated Seafons.. that our Seas even not* withftanding our Tides^ wou d either be Add to all exhal d. upon this Suppofition.

demonftrable we fliou d kave Occa- none ... and of fion for 5 all thofe delightful Changes^ w hich r are fo .Seedtime. and Harveft.. about its own Axe^ with the Annual Revolution of the fame about the Sun. Next let us combine this Diurnal dotation of the Earth . of the Diurnal Rota tion with itfelf: And from thence we (hall have the beautiful Seafons of the Year. Summer. and (horter Nights. is one of the moft fignal Inftances of Wifdom and Contrivance. the comfortable Viciffitudes of colder and warmer Periods.. fuch as we have on our Globe now. Upon all which Accounts it is very plain. and again of longer Days. and Winter. and longer Nights.. of Snow. of ihorter Days. that can be imagin d.of it is Natural Beligmn.. and Rain. cou d bear fuch an excefliveand uninterrupted Degree of Heat. for any body who underffonds the Animal Oeconomy. g XXV.. that the prefent Rotation of the Earth y about her Axe. Winds and Calms. will eafily fee that no Animal. and the Yaralleltfm of the Axe.

about the Sun. had the Earth only turn d about her own plcafant.. and the other confequent Changes of the Year. But by this wife Conjunction of all thefe three Modifications.^ittcipies ib comfortable. which as I have fhewn. once in twenty four Hours. we might have had Days and Nights.. then all our wou d have been of Viciffitudes Days.. yea. but our other Seafons wou d have been un certain. wou d not have agreed. which are of fo great ufe to US. If both thefe had been united without the third of the Parallelism of the Axe of the Diurnal Rotation to itfelf .. without any Rotation.. and in fome Places none at all} and fo theEfteft of the Annual Revolution wou d have been defcroy d in fome Meafure.. once in the Year. neither with Life. and another equal Night . . and neIf ceiiary in our prcfent Circumftances. nor Vegetation. If the Earth had made a Period. Axe. and Nights ^ which by no means wou d have been fufficient for Vegetation. we fliou d have had but one long Day .. we enjoy our Sea fons.

.. which confifts of folid .) For tho Salts confblidat Water. and moft Heat only fo that in a few Years the Earth wou d have been reduced into a Wildernefi of unnfeful Herbs.. and afunder.. and entry of that Heat and Moifture. exhaufted.. there is requir d (befides a certain Degree of Heat and Moifture.. and loofe. and forth of worn and thofe other Plants that require thd leaft rich Soil.. porous Parts. firft M feparate their a . then our for had we Ground had been out by conftant bringing Vege tables^ and wou d have run into Weeds..) a Lixivial and Nitrons Salt.of us . yet they keep the Parts of Mould or Sandy Clay (which has little or no Water) the fame not allowing they get betwixt em.. natural &eit0totn 163 enjoy d a conftant uni form Seafon all the Year round . whereby their Particles are ftuck together. flippofe of Summer Weather . which keeps the Mould loofe (for re for the ceiving the moift Air. for toward the Produftion of the more ufeful Plants. by very Reafon^ for their Particles them entry into themfelves.

. thefe are either quite exhaufted. Excrements of Animals^ or thofe new Mould. fee the beft Ground quires. Now We wears out in a few Years. as well as Animal ones) and endows the re Juices with the Qualities the Plant their union. Stubble. by conftant Growth and Vegetation. and the Expences of Vegetation 2 but expofs d to the Air^ and Weather.. all thefe. wou d by a Now fhort . whereby they pregnated with are old Turf.. debar d from the Aftion of the Sun. fuch are burnt Wood. .. this Nitrous Salt are : im Such and the Dung.... and turns into wild ufelefs Weeds ^ and all the Materials for enriching Ground. are ga thered from Places . burnt Turf.... things which abound with Lixivial Salts .!M)iiofopDicat and then keep em from coming together j and perhaps both forward the Motion of the Liquors in the Vegetable Channels (which are certainly endow d with fome Degree of Elasticity and To capable of being ftimulated. and the like. as is evident in younger Twigs and Branches. or dcftroy d.

that the cold of the Win.the all this is but fufficient for one Months Vegetation. the Digeftion is better.. Moreover.. Animals themfelves. the Blood is the natural Funftions.. and lefs and the Crudities of the pre~ ceding Summer are fettled and digefted. from September toApril.. Add to thefe. ter^ by ftoping the Pores of the keeps the is fenfible Perfpiration.of /hort Natural Eeltfiion. uninterrupted Vegetation have been quite fpent. even cou d not con veniently bear a perpetual Summer. within. to that Degree that is necefiary for confufficient would not ftant Vegetation. tity lefs whereby there Spirits Warmth more a greater Quan of rarify d^ generated. for we find there is more than twice or thrice as much Rain falls the Winter fa Months. than in the Summer fix Monthsin and yet fix .. in Time s a that perpetual fall Summer ^ there Quantities of Rain. to moiilen and foften the Mould. are ftrong.. violent M 3 I mean . the (enfible more Excretions .. more natural. for we find now.. and performed with more Vigour.

who are and perpetually in both thefe Extreams. the Spirits more exhaufted.. yet are found to be not at all difpos d. that there are rational Creatures. in healthful and found Animals is quite otherwife in Valetu (for the Cafe dinary ones ^ asofnecefilty kmuftbe) and in a moderate and not over tedious Win* ter ^ wheras in Summer the Blood is more yarify d. who inhabit this Globe of ours. anfwer. we fhou d be reduc d to .1 66 $l)tlofopi)tcal I mean. that tho as to the Prefence or Abfcnee of the Sun. unaftive Droves* Skeletons ^ if a we db- Now perhaps againft all thefe it may be je&ed. as I To this I pretend they wou d be. So that it is evident we cou d bear more violent. they may be much J the . the Change of the one being abfolutely ne- to qualify the Errours and ExIf we had a pertreapis of the other.petual Summer^ ceff^iry meer fliQii perpetual Winter y d turn Dull. the fenfible Perforations and the Digeftion worfe. neither of thefe States perpetually.. and lefs natural. all the Conco&ions lefs thoroughly perform d.

tual Vegetation^ fofcens the Mould. Rain. I concurring from the Vicijjitndes fuppofe...of the fame as Datura! ^elision. do enrich the Ground. rais even the Clouds. in the more Southern Countries. .. that both hinders the perpe . and Rain. yet. before... to moiften. Let any one confult Varenius^ and he will be fatisfied that thefe Southern Countries have Winters^ though not of Snow. yet what is abundantly fufficient to ftop the perpetual Vegetation.. and there fall Befidcs that. there are other Circumftances. are have faid full d from thefe hotter Countries themfelves. impregnated with thefe nitrous Salts^ which are driven (by the Force of the Winds) from colder into thefe hotter Countries ing. which fall for fome confiderable time. the when defHIPd into for as I is fufficient for this end Air every where of fuch Salts j as is known by Experi ment... fattens it for the next Crop there and are Clouds of Snow.. M 4 foften .. which arife of the Seafons in the other Parts of the Globe which alters the Cafe quite.for there are conftant Seafons of Rain.

^titiofopijtcai foften and fatten the Mould. they are not fo much diftinft Sc^- fons fioin the two former.. and to cool the Blood. which are the Effe& of this Combining thefe two Motions to I need not fhew the Inconveni gether. as dations and eafie Steps. Gentle G^whereby the one flides without an Annual^ or an Annual without a Diurnafy there wou d not be that variety of Rains. for their Growth j and as for Spring and AHlumn. unfit for the prefent Conftitution of the Animals and Vegetables^ is.winds. nor conftant 5 and Trade.. nor overflowing Rivers. fuch as require a Summers Heat. that upon fuch a Suppofition getable thing that this Poetical ftate of a Perpetual Principal Now the we &amp. and other Fluids of the Ani mals.. and fuch like Circumftances.. ences of a perpetual Winter^ every Body is fufficiently feniible. makes Summer. that in fuch a ftate (either arifing from only a Diurnal Rotation. fliou d have neither Ve nor Animal in a very fliort Time efpecially of any confiderable ufe^ or va lue. and cool Breezes..

foften and en rich the Mould.. to transfer the Pro* dub of one Country to another. and to flop conftant and we have Froft and Snow Vegetation in others^ where the Heat is not to {pare. we have fufficient Heat Modifications.. Come we now to confider the Obliquity of the Plane of the Ecliftick^ to . for the Benefit of the Inhabitants of this Globe j for by thefe. evi how wifely thefe three fo different been link d together. and cooling Breezes in the Winter^ of thofe Countries. adventitious Heats.. to have the produd of the Ground brought to its Vege tation* XXVI. keep natural.. dent. and made capable of Induftry.. through the inter ail it is mediate Degrees. we have Rain.. or . to cool. where Heat is not wanting. to lock up the Mould from being wafh d in and either the away.of flidcs into Natural Eeitsion* From which 1 69 the other. till the time that all Circumftances concur... have in Summer^ to ripen the Fruits that are the produft of every refpe&ive Climat^ and we are furnifii d with Reafon..

the one half of wou d have made but a very Vm comfort- . and this Axe had been at right Angles with the Plane of the Ethe fame Appearances as to the cliptick) of Day and Night. and not to have been endured j and in the frigid Zones. had not been at all and what a hinderance this wou d have been to Life and Vegetation. to the Plane of the Annual Orbit of the Earth.. and all the Confequences thereon depending. and even in the Tewperat Climats. the Heat wou d have been intolera ble. or not j and the Alte rations of Seafons. I have . already (hewn. dred the Annual Revolution of the Earth if the Earth had mov d quite ufelefs j for about its own Axe. or of the Axe of the Diurnal Rotation. whether the Earth had mov d round the Sun. which makes an Angle of 66 J Degrees. had hapViciffitudes pen d. I have alrea dy fhewa... that if the Equator and Eclipit wou d have rentzck^ had coincided . Befides that in the Torrid Zone. the Cold wou d have deftroy d both Animals and that of the /Equator.

wou d have been rendred ufelefs.of ^antrai Beitstom comfortlefs Habitation. John Keitt.. has contrived the Matter much better . . and who confequently have the greateft need of the Suns Heat.. by my very learn d and ingenious Friend Mr. than they wou d have had. which is taken notice of this .. than if the Sun haePftiov d continually in the Equator j and they that live in the Torrid Zone... and five fixths at leaft prefent Obliquity of the Ecliptic^ to the Equator we reap one very confidcrable Advantage. that we be yond the -forty fifth Degree of Latitude. le(s Heat. take the whole Year about. wou d have been any ways. and the adjacent Places. a tolerable Seat for rational Crea of the whole Globe. But God who is wifer than Man. have more of iti. who are rather too much expofed to the Heat of the Suny than too littl^. have by thefe Means.. for fuch Crea fo that but tures as we now are only the other half. even to the Latitude of forty five Degrees. for by tures. had the feartb -obfcrv d a right Po- of his fition . and that is.

that fmce this Globe of ours. & has been defign d for a Habitation of ra tional and irrational Creatures. and the Temper of the intermediate ones. Thofe who defire to fee the monftration of this. of the Earth pag. to ripen. feq. fuited to theirs thofe Animals that cannot tranfport themfelvea.. that can . may confult Keill s Examination of Dr.) the prefent Heat of the Torrid Zones ^ ve all the Kinds of Animals ry well fitted for and Vegetables that inhabit and grow there^ the Cold of the Frigid Zones ^ very tolelerable to the Inhabitants and frodtiffiiovs of thefe Places . of vari ous Tempers ) Conftitutions and Dijfofitions^ and for Vegetables of different Natures and Fzrf #e..fition. and the like Animals and Vegetables. To thefe add. and Nouriftiment. Burners The ory DeMr.. and the Vegetables that require a greater Degree of Heat^ not having too much.f ^requiring different Degrees of Heat... 71. (to {hew the manifold Will dom of the Author of Nature in the Va And fince we find riety of every thing.. and bring em to Perfe&ion.

it s evident that the the Axe of the Earth prefent Situation of .. of the for had the Diftance between the Earth and the Sun.. in the fame) Climate. and the rational Creatures being endow d cold. to the Plane of the Ecl/ptick^ is the beft (of that infinite Variety pofllble) be. and prudently for his Creatures. d for our prefent Circumftances confiderable for by any other very would be can never loft. The fame is divine Wifdom. And fince it was impoffible to have ac with Reafon and Means } to commodated. who has provi ded fo liberally. tranfport themfelves where they live moft at eafe. (or in one. or moft of the mention d For all Advantages which Reafons we the (iifficiently admire. all of and that cou . Earth in refpefi of the Sun j in the Situation Her- .of can fufter ^atutai Religion.. 1 73 not having too little Heat. Wtfdom of the Author of Nature. XXVII. been the fame with the Diftance between confpicuous. Alteration. all thefe fo various and dif ferent Animals and Vegetables in a place an equable and uniform.

. as under the very Polar Star (if any fuch there be) of our Globe Are not feel in the midft of Winter. but that thefe em. were three times nearer the Sun we brought than we are. and what a Condition we fhou d have been in then^ we the other Hand.. or with a little our felves againft their Inju Induftry fence as to the Figure of our Earth .. On Day had not afforded fo much Heat..Mercu ry and the Sun. thofe that live now then very wifely provided for. be the neceflary Refult of the Earth s Rotation about its own Axe. who are put in fuch a Mediocrity. or we from the Sun. or the Sun brought three times nearer us than he is. that neither our Heat nor Cold isfo violent.e. wou d have been hotter than red hot Iron. to the-Diftance Jupiter or* Saturn are remov d. between we two extream Diftances. had the Sun been remov d from us.. and the Flui of the fuperficial Parts of the Earth. at it dity the Commencement of this Rotation . ries ? we may either endure tho Again. i. yet it ... our hotteft Summer may eafily guefs. our Ground in Winter.

the Surface of the Planets has been covered with a Fluid which -.. it wou d neceflarily have rifen from the Poles. the they pofflbly can. Newton has demonftrated that Earth at leaft feventeen Miles higher at the Equator than at the Poles. by deavour to recede from the fame Axe much as a centrifugal Force. gives an Account why at every forty or fifty fathoms. fince it is evident to our fight. arifing from the circular Motion . convenient for us. at the Com mencement of this circular Motion . below the Surface of our Earth. longer. its plain is that at the Commencement of the diur nal Rotation. was fluid. and therefore. 1 75 very s By the Parts en as Earth Motion about its Axe. and fince Mr. if the Matter of any of the Heavenly Bodies. and accumulated at the Equator. particularly^ in that the Diameter at the Equa Jupiter. .of it is Datura! Religion. af- with a good Telefcofe. generated by the Circumvolution of an Now fifted tor is Elliffe about its leffer Diameter. than that at the Poles. and fo in duced a ffheroidical Figure on the Planets Body.

which are moft comfortable and ufeful . and the Production of the nobler Sort of Vegetables. that the Surface of the temferate Climates is larger than it Xvou d have been. had the Globe of our Eartb^ or of the Planets. and univerfally in every fluid Body revolving about an Having fhewn fome of the Advantages arifing from the feveral Mo tions XX VIII. and lefs convenient for the Habi tation of Animals.$f)tlofopi)tcai It is Earth. likewife evident from this Figure of the Body of the Planets. been either fpherical or oblongly fpheroidical.. and Figure obtains not only the reft of the Planets. fo that the Advantage of this Figure Table.. are hereby confiderably leflened^ and the Surfaces or Space about the temperate Zones.. . The fame in the Earth. and their Satellits but likewife in the Sun. which by reafon of the oblique Incidence of the Rays of the Sun upon them. are {hereby confiderably enlarged. we never mifs of Water.. are colder. is very confide- the Surfaces of the Polar Regions.

with Particles of different Natures. and the . already. that it being more eafily rarified and heated by the A&ion of the SM$. cou d be any confiderable time without it. and as to Vegetation^ Dr.of tions Batumi . furrounding our Globe of about forty or forty to the heighth. and lefs fpringy. Elaftick. of fuch Necefllty toward the fubfiftence of Animals.. Fluids. Fluid..than other more compaft.growth of Vegetables. and N . The Nature and Properties of this Fluid.} come now briefly to confider. which are common to the other Planets. and are not the im mediate Confequence of its Motions ^ and the firft in order is our Atmofybere. is fitter to ces in promote the Afcent of the Jui the {lender Channels of Vegetables.thofe that poilibly may be more particularly be longing to our Globe.. . This Atmojphere is a thin that neither. heavy. have in fome manner (hewn But fome of it s ufes I lhall now I firft point out. 3&eltgion* 1 77 of the Earth and the Combination of thefe.. five Miles. it is Grew and Malpighi have fliewn a principal concurrent therein. intermixt .

there is ntceffarily d a Fluid of a requir determinate Gravity^ and Elafticity.. the Circu muft ftop there. are right Ventricle of the Heart to the Lungs y and if the Veficles thereof be not diften- ded or blown lation up.. lodged up and down among it s Parts.... that they may more ry eafily pafs through the Capilla* and for the Propagation thereof in the wider ones. as to Animals it is well known. for the l^ungs of all fuch found quite deftitute of Air. that they cou d live but a few Minutes without this ElaftickJFluid. and probably that which fo fuddenly kills thunder-ftruck Animals.and drere being no Fluid without a confiderable Portion thereof. and the fides of their d together. that the Blood is fent from the upon opening. and terminating We have . the firft ItnpuHe of the Juices upwards. Veffels. is the quick and violent Rarefaftion of the Air about them . and the Animal and both for the Comminution periili of the Particles of the Blood. Moreover.. by the Air..... It s Vejicles quite clap certain. does thence arife.

neither too much^ nor too little eUftic^ for the tifes of Refpiration. they will languifh and dye fo that ev n to them. is neceffary* how well is this Fluid fitted for the ge this of the Inhabitants of this Globe ? it being neither too and fnppof there/ to be afterwards N 2 . Portion of Now ElaftickJFlmA. yet if you draw out all the Bubbles of Air. without which we flieu d neither have firefli Water.. which moiften nerality ^ is&amp. nor Rain .- where the Water in feme meafure fupplys the want of and make it it it fit for raits For tho be the Sun that take the Water.. Another Ad vantage we fc-eap by our Atmosphere that by it our Chuds and Vapours are fupported. and Steams Pr-ogrefs is yet conti * by the Aimofykere^ nued to the upper ted when it is Regions. great Difficulty a thin as in a thick Air and ev n in as es y have F//Z&amp. rifics firft its Soil. 179 ia of breathing. which are al ways found in Water. nor Snow. nor too light..of Batumi fficlifltotu. nor any of thofe things. and makes it s flight in Vapour s. a certain . and enrich our Vegetation.

/. and that its only the Atmofpheres. by its Tendency toward Now then. the Vapours cou d rife to no fufficient heighth.. and fo cou d never be cool d fufficiently. from its Surface. that no Vapour cou d be turn d into Snow. if there were no Atmosphere. the of the Sun. that forms thefe Clouds and Vapours into Snow. and Rain.form d into Snow.. to I Vapours above a few feet. when. .. make the places fo warm.. but a Adion Void .for it s the Coldnefs of the upper Regions. (being dcftitute of thefe refle&ed Rays) and the length of of their Defcent. the refle&cd Rays of the 6V/. around the Earth .. or Rain.. there. ever the fupporting Afwofphere becomes lighter. ib as to be form d the Center. into SnoWj or Rain for at a fmall diftance from the Earth s Surface. no Atmofphere. wou d not be able. Rain. .: than raife the thefe Vapours ^ that greater buoys em up in the Air. or Soil whofe . or carried into other Regions. does want it more. being fpecifically heavier. that if there were perfeft Every Body knows. or Hail..

than another^ is Wind by the Snns Beams . they fall down with the Temper of Heat lighter. one of the principal Means of our Dews. or Cold.. or Rain according So that its plain. A third is... and Rains. our Breezes which carry our Ships and ferve for for the other Purpofes^ Accommodation of Humane Life. more in one Place. and dry our Ground when over-moiftned . and all the BlefUngs^ that is that follow upon thefe.. upon the Sea. than under Ground. it s our Atmofyhere ly. and the Combinations of the Earth s Motions. they had in the iipper Kegions y and fo become Snow.. and purifie our Air. Laftly. and fo be deprived of all the Benefits arifing thence. than thefe accumulated Vapours. the Attractions of che Moon.. fo many nothing but a violent Motion of the Air^ produced principally by its Rare* fa&ion. from aoxious Steams. N 3 Our . Without our Atmosphere ^ we fhou d have no more Wind above... Advan tage of our Atmosphere and our Winds .. which (with the Concur? rence of the Sun ) melt our Snows.ofjftatutat Religion.

..^i)tlo(opi)tcal Our Attnofyhere is the Vehicle and Medi um which moftly diftinguifhes us from Fifies^ and the infe Sound is nothing rior fort of InfcBs. or : XXIX.. Mountains^ without which it were almoft impoffible to for Animals to fubfift. that there which it s very plain w as Counftl and Defign in the Contrivance and Produ&ion of our Atwofyhere. and r fhte this wou d From r be. all I leave the Reader to judge. ev ry way round. The Vegetables grow.. next thing in Order to be considered is. we fliou d have nb fuch thing as Langua w hat a comfortlefs ges or Mufick. but a Modulation or Percuffion of the Air^ communicated by an impulfe. Without our Air we fhoti d not be able to hear the Report of a thoufand Pieces of Ord nance difcharg d at the fmalleft Diftance. they being one of the principal concurrent Caufes toward the Produftion . from the vibrating fofcorous Body. our. that vSenfe in Undulations through the Fluid of the Atmofpbere. and propagated of found.

to rife firft. where the Air is N 4 of . It has been fhewn from Calculation . fame... Fire under an Alembick^ by d (the Sun a&a ratifying the /. whereby they are put in a violent Motion innumerable dif ferent ways. 1 83 on of our frefii-water Rivers. as is fufficient to make Streams of Vapours. Halley^ that the Sun raifes Va pours from the Surface of the Sea. which refting in thofe Places. freflieft it makes the the lighteft. buoy d up by the weightier Atmof* phere) in fuch Quantities. fufficient to frefli fupply all the Rivers with Water for that time. Now as thefe Vapours being rais ing upon the Surface of the Sea. Year.of natural Religion. and fo to little Bubbles of are expanded in larger . in a ral Perfons . and it Water by Particles the Infinu- ation of active among the porous Parts thereof. the Portions rarifies its thereof. Ed. Diinenfions than they formerly had means become fo are fpecijically and by that and lighter . e. by feveand particularly the inge nious Profeffor of Geometry at Oxford^ Mr.

and then Rivers ^ for doubtlefs our Vapours wou d fall in Rain. but that afterwards in their Bow els they arc preferv d... till they at laft hit againft the fides of the more eminent and Moun tainous Places.. till they be of fufficient quantity to form Rivulets. tho there were no .. form Rivulets.. and thus be come heavier than the Air they fwom in. and ftony^ afford them a Bafon^ till they are accumulated in fufficient Quantities to break out at the firft Crany ^ whence they defcend into the and feveral of them uniting. Rocks. and Dew... are carried up and down the Atmojphere^ by the Courfe of that Air..184 of equal Gravity with them.. they are condens d^ fo as to be precipita ted thereby through the Chinks of the Plains.. of the Globe*. and many of thefe Pvivers . and by this Concuffion are condenfed. and fo gleet down the rocky Caverns of thefe Mountains^ whofe inner Parts be ing hollow. fo that it is evident the great Benefit of thefe Eminences is not. that by the Shock thefe Vapours get in their Courfe from them.

by the afliftance of the tides . Globe at wou d over confiderable Places of the once ... whereas. they .. plac d Globe. if they had run at all. for tho there had been Rivers without Mountains^ (which in that cafe is hardly poflible) yet only have run in a ftraight Line. equally.. and Eminen is the Determination of thefe Rivers* ces. and at laft difembogue where in . the Rivers cou d up and down the whereby they enrich. and fo or wou d be fuck d up in the Ground.. make an ttttiverfal Fuddle-. the Rivers make innumerable beautiful turnings and wind ings. Another very con fiderable ufe of thefe Hills. whereas by thefe Mount a ins. and water the Soil of feveral different Coun tries in one Courfe. (at leaft a Nights) pouring down in fome particular Places^ and there treafuring up ^ for a conftant Supply to the Rivers. they are perpetually almoft. make the Tranfppr* tations and over Lands more eaCarriage fie and manageable. feveral Mouths into the Sea. fatten.. by thefe Eminences.of Datura! Eetigton* but then they 1 85 fall no Mountains.

which are indeed numberkis. in of that vaft Number of compoun refpeft ded ones.. without which we cou d ne ver have been. The . All thefe Advantages we have by our Mountains^ for tho from other Caufes^ we might poflibly be fupply d with frefh Water Springs. of us^ that which I (hall prin fential part take notice of . nor cou d thefe Rivers have 5 fuch delightful turnings. nor thofe ufeful falls ^ which gives them an impetuofity that may be improved to fo many delight ful as well as profitable IHes. i. is. Next come our Fluids to be confidered. The fewcipally nefs of the original and primary Fluids.and Ports y for the they from Harbours convenience of Shiping and Navigation.. (tho Nature feldom is Luxuriant in diverfity of Caufes) yet without our Mountains we cou d never have Rivers. Thus we fee of what Advantage thefe unfightly Mol s (as fome thought them) are to the Accommodations and even Neceffities of living. feeing they are a very ef- XXX.

The pofitions. a collection of exceeding fmall.y heavy Spherules . it had choaked us immediately.. For the Lewdnefs and Debauch ery . that produces all our delight it is that is the Water alone.of natural 3&eitgicm 1 87 The primary ones are only four... vaftful and ufeful varieties r l. Airy Water. and of Liquors^ fo frugal is Nature in Principles . I do not know xvhat a great part of the World would have done. Mercury and Light-. great Difference be tween the ffecifecJ^ Gravities of our Fluids. Now not to mention the ma ny ufes of this laft Fluid in Artificers Works.e. had Air been as heavy as Mercuryy it had been altogether ufele(s in refpiratiODJ on the contrary.. in the prefcnt Circumftances of Mankind.. and had there not been a Fluid of the fame w eight with Mercury^ i. vi^. Mercury being about 8000 times heavier than Air. or Lymphy of all our Mixtures... and fo fruitful and various in EfFefts and Com2. three of which are but feldom much compounded with others^ fo that it is Safes the parts of folid Bodies floating in this Fluid.

is is principally con* if not abfolutely this thing obftru& no neceffary.?lves. has fufficient force to take away but a little weighty Sphere.88 $f)iioCopi)ical has brought a great ma ery of Mankind.j that I fcarce fee a how and not the Serous part cern d. cificl^ Now by all this difference of the Spe- Gravity of the Fluids.. moft wonderful in thefe 3. in the extreme extreamly beneficial.. a Remedy is provided for thefe Maladies. But that which Fluids. thorough Cure cou d be made of em. capillary Veffels.. fuch as the Particles of Mercury certainly are. is.... wherever any Diftemper arifes from an obftruftion of the Blood the Globules Veflels. ny Difeafes to that degree of Malignity. that this Fluid.. wherein themf&amp. and to feparate thefe Globules from one another. which I am fatisfied are more than two or is three. The univerfal condition of the dire&ion of their Preffure upon the fides of the containing Veffel j for in all Fluids of whatfoever kind or nature^ this is communicated in Lines perpen dicular . without this Fluid j for it s certain..

is Now this Property of Fluids. the Sphere will nccefTa-. confequently the fides of the containing Veflel preffes the contain d Fluid. is which of their fo beautiful and uniform.. can only touch a in a point. in the fame Direftion. feeing a right Sphere. as much as the contain d Fluid preffes the fides of the and this preffure of the containing VefFcl fides of the containing Veffel y is direded in the fame right Line with that of the contain d Fluid. Now third . if this Flam.5Hon through that point of Contaft j Dire&ion through the point of Con* do not likewife pals through the Cen taffi^ ter of the Sphere. the nece fary Confequence of the Sphericity conftituent Particles . rily revolve upon the Plane till the Dire&ion of its preffnre.of Natural JSeitsiou. and can prefs it in a dire&amp. from the point of Conta& pafs through the Center of the j Sphere juft fo likewife. for fince by the Rea&ion or Repulfe is always equal and contrary to Impulfe or A&ion. Law of Nature... but is contrary to it. if a Plane prefs two .lt. 1 8? dtiular to the fides of the containing Veffel.

and fince they are fuppos d exceeding fmall. it is do prefs the fides of the in a Direction perpendicular containing Veffcls. And on the what nature foeve^ that Fluids by demonftration. is perpendicular to the fangtnt Plane . plain that all Fluids of fides of ftion perpendicular other hand. And fo if there be any number of Spheres whatever^ prefs d by a Plane in the fame Dire6Hoa&amp.. two in the point of Contaft. But a Line through the Center of a Sphere from the Spheres.. and fince this is the Dire* ftion of the preffure of the Plane upon the Spheres . the Line of this Dire&ion will neceffarily pafs through both their Centers... . as alfo fince curve furfaces are compoun ded of an furfaces .. infinite it is Number of little univcrfally preffure of Since alfo the Particles of Fluids v are5jp/?ericaly or nearly approaching thereto. fince true. the Line of this Direction will neceflarily pafs through all their Centers. prefs the the containing Veflels in a Dire* thereto.fame Dire&ioii. it is alfo the Dire&ion of the the Spheres upon the Plane.

of Natural JReitgtou* 19 dicular thereto. XXXI. but all of the fame Diameters y Solidities and Weights We among emfelves.. and thofe of Air. and Almighty Power of God.. have rounded thofe infinite numbers of fmall Particles y whereof Fluids confift ? or cou d any thing but his Wtfdom^ have afiign d them their true dimenfions. What a noble reprefentati* on of the Divine Wifdom does our Fluid of Light afford us! how wonderfully are its parts fram d gious velocity and with what a prodi are they feat from the Body of ! . Mercury and Light .. Now cou d any thing but the Fingers. their exal weights and {hall allow him to requird Solidities? continue in his infidelity who can demonftrate by what Laws of Mechanifm^ all the Particles of Water were turn d of the fame Diameter^ Solidity and Weight.. it s certain that the Par ticles of all Fluids are Spherical. or nearly thereto ^ fo that this is now approaching no more Hypothecs but Demonstration. turn d all of different Diameters^ Solidities and Weights from one another .

but fingle Point may no be congregated into a Surface fo finely poliflied.. in every Pulfe of an^fr- fome hundred and thirty thoufand Miles ^ what an amazing. and the laft Red. ter is Discoveries prefent us with. as not to fcatter almoft one half of it.. Newton s la Idea of this Fluid : .a Indigo. millions of different ways. muft this be nothing it runs ! but the a6Hon of the Mind.. we are not able to comprehend nor ima gine a Number fufficiently fmall. without interfering ev n in the ftraiteft Pailages- in one Word.. its fubtility . And thefe are the primary and ori ginal . its Rays traverfe through one another.. evYy its Ray endow d with own is Colour ^ different degree of Kefrangibility flexibility. a fourth Green . no Pore fo fmall as to ex no Stream of it fo greafc..a fifth Tellow^ a fixth Orange. .of the Sun clude it ! itsSubtility is almoft beyond imagination... and its and Reanother One Ray Violet. can anyways And then what a beautiful reprefent it do Mr. to exprefs tery. and uncon ceivable velocity . third Blew. .

1 93 ginal Colours find from the mixture of thcfc^ all the intermediate ones proceed.. is lefs or more intcnfc. from the final! quan of them being refle&ed on. according to their different De grees of denfity and thinmfs^ are apt to refleft back upon our Organs. but the Light that falls up on -them. Rays of one and of one degree of R.. Their prominent little Parts.. For the firft degrees of Intenfentfs^ in all the primary Colours ^ feem to arile from fome determin d degrees of den fit y and ^ and the fubfequent degrees from. O the . tity of any mcaliire all of them in a luffo* great being So that now it is not Bodies that catcd. upon their Co Surfaces. and White from an equable mixture of the whole j Blacl^on thecontrary. and their Colours arife from their Aptitude^ to refleft Rays of one lour..efraj7giand to let others bility and Reflexibility. lour too.and this one Co Colour. are coloured. pafs through their Pores.. accord are of diffe ing as their prominent parts rent denfities^ or are thicker or thinner. and tranfmit all thofe of another.of Natural 3&eligt on.

and that in Lines perpendicular to their Surfaces All the dif : ferently reflexible Light. and the fame Principle . Motion. the Sines of the Angles of In cidence j are to the Sines of the Angles of Refra&ion in a conftant ratio ^ and both thefe Properties proceed from one. diffoland puting their parts in a vibrating ving.the other different degrees of denfity or thicknefs or thinnefs. of the Surfaces of Bodies.. obferves this one Law.. as alfo Bodies aft upon Light^ in drawing its parts to them... of the prominent little parts. Law c/z-x. and the rcfte&ed . and that this attraftion is equal in all the Incidences^ and Refractions at equal Diftances from the fame Plane. Light a&s upon Bodies by heating. that Bodies attraft Light in Lines perpendicular to their Sur faces.... obferve one of Reflexion likewife ? . to the Plane of Incidence. aHng in different quities Circumftances y viz*. that all the different Angles of In cidences are refpe&ively equal to the gles An and all the differently Refrangible Rays of Light .. that in all the obli of the fame Ray.

fo there muft be different degrees of attraction in Mediums ^ fuppos d^ to account for their different Powers y in bringing the reframed Rays nearer to or farther from.... then muft of the that its enter the Body Plane. the Ray muft refleft.. and proceed in the Line. and fimple Theory of Light is here ? this is fo very ^ like the frugal fimfltcity^ and vet the ma- O 2 infold . it has already made the Sine of the Angle of Incidence y equal to the Radius . Now what a beautiful. that before the Ray arrives at it. different degrees of Attra&ion in Bodies ^ which produce their different degrees oi Elafticity and Cohefion. and not fall upon the refleding Plane at all 5 if it a leffer degree of attraction.of refie&ed Natural 3&eiifjton* 195 Rays are turn d back before they : arrive at the refle&ing Plane reflecting Plane. uniform. For if the have fuch a force of at- tra&ion. dire& impulfe. together with the degree of attraction in the refrafting Bod}% And as there are neceffarily generates.. the perpendicu lar^ for it s well known y all Mediums have not the fame refra&ive Virtue.

.. in paf- from a luminous Point. that a Ray of Light. through two differently refracting Mediums^ to illumi fing nate a given Point j fpends the leaft time (the redrafting Powers of the feveral Me diums coniidered) quently pofllble.196 ^Jjtlofopljtcai infold variety of Nature.. Now I appeal to . e. But having been pretty copious on this Subjeft already . This the Geometers have demon ftra ted. I might like wife iliew here the Art and Contrivance of Nature. that one would be afoioft tempted to believe it true. when the Ray one and the fame Medium. vi&amp. Mr. were there no Democrat/on and Expert ment to confirm the truth of it. in the propagation of Light.. and particularly.... to reflior- takes the way in the produ&ion of the Cohefwn of Bodies.z. very ele gantly Page 40 and 41. Ray paffes from a luminous fled upon a given Point. Hugens in his Treatife of Light. pafles^ and confebut through / . teft it when a Point. I (hall only (uggeft one very remarkable Inftance of the wonderful Contrivance and Wi dom of Nature.

will never be convinc d.. this 1 97 how incredulous focver. to the Reader. and our accounts of this matter. to fhew the wonders in the Bowels of our but our Difcoveries are fo few.. fo lame. but take the fhorteftCourfe r poflible 5 fign d? that will bring it to the Place deHe that can refift fuch pregnant and powerful Inftances of Divine Wifdom.. Others have thought that being kept in. that nothing certain can be determined about thefe Inner Regions. XXXII.of jaattttai Religion. O 3 within . if be not an Infbnce of Conn\d and Dcfigny is not this like the Methods of Pru dence and Wtfdom^ which will not fpend more time on a thing . becaufe they faw that Springs run fafter in Froft and Snow. Some have con cluded that there muft of Neceffity be a Central heat. I fliou d next proceed. than juft what is neceflary to do the Bufinefsj which will not go about.. than in hot Weather y but that might proceed from (bme of the other more narrow out lets of this Baft/is being ftopt ^ by the Froft and the Vapours that the Sun raifes thence.. Earth.

to whirl within the Bow els of the Earth. count for the Effe&s and Vertues ral others to ac of the Metals^ Minerals ^nd rious and of many other Fofftls^ Bodies. to make a feeble turn it this or the other way above Ground. If the Earth were an univerfal Magnet ( as it s commonly but erroneoufly believ d) then the parts might follow the Nature of But tho it attracts Bodies.98 within 0!)tloCopi& and that there was fucceeding this.. as the whole. fome confidequite round. pi .. different from the Loadftonc as &amp... there diffonce. after a certain moving manner.caI this outer Cruft of Earth for muft be a rable D ifcontinuity^ . One might as probably expect a different turn and figure of internal Orbs ... well as the Loadftone does. but I am of Opinion the Caufes of this variation is to be fought in the Magnet it felf 5 and not in fo remote and fo far fetch d a Caufe - for feems pretty odd .gt. that a Sphere (hou d be made. to account for the variation of the Magnet . a large Sphere.. and from a different Law. yet it s after another manner.

the other a King only Neither can I think that this Annulns can : be fome remains of the Ruins of a Cruft. I cannot think it As holds.. the one a whole Sphere. the one be ing exteriour the other interiour. and at an equal diftance from the Body of the Planet .of ^aturai Beligtotu 1 99 an of their Brother the Magnet. befides. (hou d be fo ruinous as this Suppofition wou d make that Planet to be. it is thefe Planets .. for the analogy between thefe inter nal Orbs. that the Works O 4 Truth . of an equal breadth quite round. and that of the Annulns of Sa turn. fcarcely probable that which like ours. and of Nature and artfulnefs. Laftly. whereupon by the figure and llze of its parts in regard of Bodies attra&ed. this and th0 cwr^/tf. may be defign d for the Habitation of fome fort of Animals.. becaufe this Ring appears to be regular and uniform. I believe Hypothecs may be form d. that is fall n in upon the Body of the Planet../ of its dire&ion might be accounted for . allthefe Hypotbefes have not that fimplicity . but: this is not a proper Place for thefe things.

fM)ilofopl)icai Truth carry along with them. then it s very plain that when ever a lefTer Body (however figur d) attends the Motions of... and fo the Satelhts of Jupiter and Saturn. If it be true that all the Bodies of the Univerfe attract one another. that the Multi tude of the Satelltts of thefe Planets may ferve in their vaft diftance from the Suny to hinder their Fluids ( by frequent and various Difturbance) from free7ing. Now this Anvnhis may pofllbly lerve fome fach purpoie as this^ fince it . that that lefier Body is defign d by it s is that produce fome effeft. the Confequent of this Attra&wn.. or diforder the Motions of their refpe&ive Planets-... attra&lion^ to plain. and I have fuggefted before. and revolves with a greater.and the greater number of the Satellits of Sa turn^ than Jupiterj feems to favour this ConicSure. were defign d to attraft. or may never 5 come to difeover. the Fluids. Thus raiie it s our Moon was defign d to and regular Winde^ and to difturb the Motions of our Earih^ for our TfefeJ^ Purpofes that poffibly we may.

it is likewife certain that its Strata are not of fuch Gravities as a regular fubfidence according to the Laws of Gravi tation of Bodies. If any one had but occafion. which do us fo great and manifold Services... and the Bowels of the Earth. for the Accom*. by that we have frefli depth. to look over. all our Metals with all their Varieties . and Colours.of it Natural Religion* moves differently from the Body it fel But all thefe are but Conjectures on both It s cer fides j and as fuch I leave em. pro^ ceed from fome Motion and Mixture of different Particles within the Body of the Earth. in any considerable moft Places diftant from the Sea its Water at we have from and Minerals.. Bowels. It s likewife certain . we haue all our natural Salts . which fhews it has not been compounded thefe Laws. modations of Life. .. the variety. and Vulcano s. beautiful Figures. and the fubfervience of Medicine from the depths of the Sea. tain that Earthquakes. of Shells.. Minerals. . Ores. which is of fo much ufe. and Stones^ which . wou d require.

my felf with Gene fo long up on the inanimate part of this Syfleme of now to confider the Animal things. they can produce nothing coherent. and I wou d afford very demonftrative Contrivance. tho how pearances. XXXIII. Inftances But of Counfel and have fo many other I things to fugged that I muft content rals.. Des Cartes s Ditciples 5 may perhaps un dertake. on the Head am about. But when they come to a Plant .202 $l)tiofopDtcai \vhich Induflry has colle&ed^ he cou d not but admire the manifold Wifdom of the Author of Nature. Having dwelt Dentation of the fower and Wifdom of the One of Democritus or Author of Nature.. to give fome faint and imperfcft kind of Explication of the Celeftial Ap from their Principles. or of a are like the peice 5 their Schemes tjien . or Ani mal^ they are perfe&ly at a lofs.. This were a very large and copious Field. I come Kingdom that noble and manifeft Repre* . . wretched their accounts of this Matter are^ we have in fome meafure already fliewn..

thrUft into thfc Stomach j ... is fo exadly adapted. that For ev ry has neither Form. being grofsly the and foftened by Teeth. to fbme wife Defign. in the Laws of Geometry and Nature. an infinite Wisdom. The Fibres. by the Conftri&ion of its Meat | XXXIV. but a Being abfolutely per- fe&. ev ry thing is fo fitted. part of thefe. follow. to its own proper ufe and -thefe Ufes ^re fo manifeft and evident.of the cafual concourse of Atoms. is through the Gullet.. I (hall here. that they clearly argue. to the H//- mane we fily Structure. divided^ by the Saliva. as being the moft perfcft^ are with.. an exaft and exquifite Knowledge. that nothing is efFefts - fufficient for. give lhall confine my Speculations. the reft will ca- begin with the proceis of the Aliment and the Circulation of the Blood. of the Animal Fabric]^ and economy and Philofophy. nor Beauty.. an odd inconfiftent Mixture of things. as I did in the Ccleflial fome general Scheme. and which once acquainted fully underftood I (hall being .

Stomach . of the Mefen* receiving firft a foe thin Lymph frpm the . fhe Mufcles of the gainft Midriff and Abdomen employed in refpiration.. by the perpetual Motion of the Coats of the Stomach. gated with the Bile and Siveetbread-juice r the one to fweeten. mate parts are broken^ Coheiions diffolv d. farther ibftned by the Sncciis of its Glands^ and the Liquors taken in. where being fwell d and. to be thruft parts are A&ion of their Spiral ... while the finer. out of the Body. the other to dilute the Chyle^ by the vermicular Motion of the Inteftins (arifing from the alternate and Longitiidinar of the Midriff and the Fibres) the preffnre the lower Belly the groffer Mufcles of deriv d downward. are the narrow of the fqueez d into Orifices la&eal Veffels^ which open into thefe inwhence in {lender Chanels they teflines^ are carried into the Glands tery. Inteflins 5 thruft into the it is irri entry into which.. its and their inti this And by preffure of the at its fides of the Stomach upon it is the contained Aliment. aone another.

form the Vena Afcendens and Dewhich two likewife join at their fcendcns. con- . and creeping along the Gul to the left Subclavian it let^ paffes on Vein 5 where in one or two Mouths. The Veins (in a continued Channel with the the Blood from the Ex Arteries. form d for it by the Uthefe La&eal.&amp. which in its Relaxation or and all uniting in two large Veflels 5 whofe fides diverge. it afcends into the Thorax 5 and about the Heart fometimes dividing. it opens into that Veffel. and fcours its containing Veiled which from the Mefenterie\Glands unite in larger Channels^ and pafs dire&ly into the common which is nion of Veflels Receptacle of the Chyle ^ a Bafon.*) bring tremities of the Body. which Circulation is thus perform d.) entry into the right Ear of the Heart. and circulates with it. and Lymphatic^ in one Dud.of Batumi Bciifiiotn 205 the LpmpbaticJ^ Du&s which dilutes this Chylom and there mixes with the Blood.. re ceives the Blood from them... it immediately unites again.. and in its from thence Ca&

which bending a little fends forth the Cervical and AxiUary Ar teries. from the Arteries into the Veins ^ and from thefe to thofe^ and in this Circulation . XXXV. it is difcharged in to the left Ventricle then likewife dilated. drives . where leaving fome of its Particles proper for their ufe j the reft is fent into the Veins. and is carried into the left Awri cle of the Heart. the reft turning down again. by the Vena Pul~ monalis. thrufts it into the Rcrnidlon it : which is then its ftate of which when contra&ed. through the Arteria Pulmonaltt j into in the Lungs whence it is receiv d. Syftole. which are nothing but the re turning Arteries ^ and thus the Blood is carried about in a perpetual Circle. forms the defcending Trunk. by whofe contra&ion it is pulhed into the Aorta. and thefe dividing into innumerable leffer Channels.conftri&ion or right Ventricle. . duly perform d^ Life and Health confift.. carry the Blood to the feveral parts of the Bo upwards. dy... then open to receive it j by \vho(e conftri&ion. an uninterrupted Channel.

of Natural Religion. the Tefticles. whole laft Bran ches muft be Cylindrical. and fome of the Conglobat Glands . which fometimes unite in one common Pore . has been faid. and fo fwell to become vifible. and that all the Secretions of what kind foever are thefe Secret ions. fometimes run into a common Bafon. in its windings. fends out feveral little Du&s. are derived. and a Gland but the Convolution or various the Evanefcent Artery . the Blood. fo is it likewife evident from thence^that it is only from plain from what is only the Blood.. And therefore the fame is reafonably to be concluded of all the Glands . that it that is recruited by the Chyle. This Stru&ure is evident. This Cylindrical Artery . the La&eals. that all the Expences of living are furnifhed.. As it is XXXV.. fince Nature . of is of the Glands. fnch as the Inteftins with their Secretory Duds. and may be feen in all the reft if they happen to be obftru&ed. Now made by the afllftance nothing folding. of equal Diameters. in all the larger and more confpicuous Glands.

which this Du& for makes. is Now when s tho the fo. fo that the Motion of Secretion muft be compoun is this pnlfation ded of both Velocity. greater. and produces milar Inftruments. that all Fluids the containing Veffel^ prefs the fides of and that in a direction perpendicular to it is thefe fides and this is evident in the fince it is.Nature is conftant and uniform in her fimilar Afi- & i The different Dia~ meter of the Orifice of thefe Secretory Du&amp. this lateral preffure.. Effeb by the Nature of the Secretions themfelves depend upon thefe three things. of the longitudinal Motion is yet it is not in the proportion of this Ve for this prejjure is always fomewhat locity even. puL of the fation prefigure. Particles this of a Diameter.. greater than that of DU&. Arteries^ to that owing. thefe Motions. Now . when the Fluid is at reft. and is - 5 then . are whereby 2.. It is likewife evident that the Blood is urg d for ward by the Force of the Heart. with the Trunk of the Artery The different Angle9 already demonftrated.

of the feparated Fluid muft be Homogeneous to perform the uniform Fun&ions of Life.. 3. then in to be the fame. to the Specifick Gravity of the Fluid. that the Blood is zHetrogeneous Fluid^ and contains parts fities different Specificl\ Gravities. nothing elfe being in this Fluid to produce this preffure. yet they will not both pafs 5 becaufe their Motion of Dire* So that this Diverfity in Skion is different Particles : the Angles ^ thefe Secretory Duch make with the Trunl^ of the Artery. and in a Fluid urg d by a Longitudinal Di re&ion. The different Velocities\ with which the P . as the Blood is in the Arteries y this lateral preffure. both 5 compound Proportion of whence it is evident that if two in a of equal Diameters D but of une* qual fpecificl^ Gravities^ arrive with the fame Velocity ^ at an Orifice capable of ad mitting either of em..of natural Religion.. feems altogether the poillble Diverneceflary to account for of fecern d Fluids . different and of different Denfides^ and Cohefions&amp.ev n admitting their Diameters^ and Figures. For it is not to be doubted.

and Union of folid Parts.. muft be in the fame Proportions. at the Orzof the feparatory Duds.10 the Blood Secretory made in arrives. Du&s^ at the Orifices of thefe for fince the Secretions are form of a Fluid. eafily others of an harder. Now tho upon this iuppofition of only different Diameters^ . For fuppofe^ (as my worthy and lear ned Friend Dr. why fome Animals are of a foft loofe Texture. but this .. and more clofe Cohefion. And tho* fices the Diverfity of the Diameters of thefe Du&s. of the Kidneys^ Liv-er and Tefticles. the .from this alone.) Diameters of the Secretory Du&s... for the ftmilathe fecern d Fluids from fo Hetero* rity of geneons a Fluid. feparable Texture firmer. as the Blood is. there is no po ilble Reafon can be afngn d... loofe. Cockburn has very juftly reafoned) the Dtaweters of the Particles of The Gall and Semen ^ to be as i ^ . 3 *Urin. and why one part of the Body is of a tender. different Velocity of the Blood. it is certainly that which is of greateft Moment in this Affair of Secretion^ yet is impoflible to account.

.. muft be the termination of a Secretory DU&. So that upon fuppofition of only different Diame ters^ it is impoffible to account. view of the Nature and Manner of Secre tion s^ the particular ones may be underflood.. for the Homogeneity or fimilarity of the feccrnecl Liquors for all the Particles of whatever : kind..of Datura! JMujion* the Particles of Gall and Semen cannot be feparated in the Kidficys . which carries a fuitable Portion of the Blood. to every part to be nouriflied. fo that ev ry point in the Body. Nutrition is perform d by a Secretory DU&. arifmg from the terminating Artery. that are lefs than the Diameter 6f the Secretory DU&.. the Diameters of the Particles of thefe Fluids. through which a proper part of the Blood is brought. of the Diameter of the Excretory that Du&s of this the Tie/tides. muft be indifferently But from this general feparated there. lefs than being by fuppofition. The Blood being brought by P a the . yet the Parti cles of Vrine and Gall may be feparated by the Excretory Dufts of the Tefticles.

which Glands in the Brain r their original . the Capillary &amp.&amp.. they are hollow but extreamly fmall^ fo that tho* the Spirits move in them after the fame manner. of thefe Arteries by innumerable volttiicns^ form innumerable little Glands^ of which it s C^rf/r^/part confifts. in thefe Glands..?#. the finer. O of the Evanescent exceeding . arifing from thefe in* finitely many little Glands of the Cineri* lions part of the Brain. and by the fame Mechanifmy the Blood circulates through the Ar teries .. are feparated^ and log d in the (lender fmall Tubes of the Medullary parts. and terminating in all the points of the Body j fb that properly . yet by reafon of the many convo lutions form to which they are TLxcretories^ And the ilendernefs of their Mnfcular Coats ? the Arteries. which are the beginning of the Nerves. ^aW Particles of the Blood. and more fubtile. Thefe Nerves are Bundles of fine fmall Arteries to the Brain parts . they are only the Secretory Du&s of thefe little Glands. and the Secretory Pores of the repositories of the Animal Spi rits

Much after the fame manner ^ are their proper Fluids feparated from the Blood in the Liver and Sweetbread. By the Motion of the Heart y through the E- mulgent Branches. the Blood. . the Veloci ty of their Motion.of Natural Heltgtom exceeding fmallnefs of their Cavities y and their diftance from the Heart .. is in refpeft of that of . this very much abated however flow Motion keeps em very near full. the Blood is brought to the Kidneys^ and is there freed of its Se* rnm^ by their little Glands^ and is receiv d into the fmall Excretory Dufts of thefe Glands^ to be carried into the Pelvis and . P 3 XXXVI.. thence by proper Tubes into the Bladder. I eft ides ? the other and Conglomerate Conglobat Glands of the Body... the Animal is a6Hvc and watchful. and the immediate Organ of Senfat ion. fo that it is needlcfs ^ to infift on thefe. and when thefe Tubes are quite full of this nervous Fluid. when they are near empty it is languid and dro wfie for this Fluid is the 5 principal concurrent in Mufcular Motion.

this Air ifufhes in through the Pipes of the Tnacbea into thefe and blows -ern up. The by the Coats of the fmall Branches of the Trachea . Now before brought to Light. form d infinity g XXXVI. Vehicles y is the fetus whereby they fhnd of thefe little ereft upon the Trunks Wind-pipes^ and give a free paffage to the Blood through thefe Vcffcls^ ipread upon their fidesJ.fetu s enjoys the benefit of the Air3 by its weight and elaftick^ Force. thefe Velie flat upon one another 5 and by fales their freffure upon the Blood Veffels 5 hin der its progrefs through them . And wlien by the weight of the Thorax^ and the ..4 $i)iiofopijtcai Lungs are compos d of an infinite number of little Lobes. of different Figures. and Magnitudes ^ hut fo join d as to leave but fmall Vacuities between *em. but as foon as this . fo that they (when blown up) as may be confidered fo many fine Tubes ending in little hollow Spheres . Each Lobe confifts of an of fmall fpherical Vefides. the Blood Veflels in a fine Net-worl^ are fpread. upon the fides of thefe Vefides .

renders it more capable to circulate ^ in the more narrow fels. feparate the Globules of the Blood^ which had Pvoorn and Liberty* to unite in the wider Channels of the this Veins j and by reparation of thefe Globules of the Blood.. with thoi e of the Abdomen. and that is to form thefe Globules of which clafticl^ the Blood principally confifb. there isftill a more confiderable ufe of this natural Fun&ion behind. paflages of the Capillary Vefif I be not very much mifta- ken. through. from one another. ind confequenrly. (which is probably the unform d part of the Chyle . on the Blood Veflcls fpread thereon. and Aliment) and thefe red Globule s.. of P 4 which . fti cfy thefe Veficles preffing againft one another. and the ela- Fluid a&ing upon the fides of them. feveral Salts ^ K&went a of a thick confidence . But...of natural A&ion of the Mufcles thereof. the Trachea in Expiration. and Midriff\ thisdttjtzcl* Fluid is thruft out of the Vejides. It is un doubted Matter of Faft and obfcmtion 5 that the Blood confifts of a Lymph ^ which is the common Vehicle.

it s exhaufted^ as in violent Hemorrhages. yet wherefore it is of neceflity. as in obftru&ions .. Blew and Purple ^ thefe any body may difcover with an ordinary Mzcrofcope. but the Lungs.. as White. and by the neceflity they are under to change their Figures into oblong Spheriods . blown from the viicid it is part of the Chyle ^ more fubtile by the force of fome Now no Elaftic^ Aura. as alfo from their Colour. and coagulate thefe Globules be little highly probable. and that Acids do ahially de{troy their Figures . And fince it s cer tain that they are not folid Particles 5 both by ocular infpeftion and touch. that thefe Glo bules muft be form d fomewhefle in the Body from the Chyle. can the Afford tbis elafticl^Plmd and this may be * .6 ^Dilofophirai are we now fpeaking but fometimes they are of different Colours. that thefe Globules may be or may be all burft. j Place in the Body. they may bubles.. and be all recovered and recruited again. in the capillary Veflels. Now certain.

a finer Elafticl^ Fluid.. to the Blood Veflels.. to be fent into the Lungs. there is conftantjuft returning ly loged.. may through thefe Vefides... this fubtile E/^/V^ Fluid beyond doubt. get through but in theLfl/Tgj. is fent from the right Ven part of the fafeft courfe of the Heart to the Lungs. in all the fubcile fe&s commonly afcrib d to the other.of the reafon Natural Religion. Veins 5 the Chyle enters into the and thefe too only . which are why immediately ro the Heart. it feems to me all part in the Body.. which is the principal Agent. For fince in our grofs Eliment of Air.. brought into the returning part pf the Blood. by that vaft Force u(ed in Expira in thruft be the fides of tion. yet this finer Fluid.. and feeing thefe Blood Globules muft be gene rated fomewhere^ and fince there is no can be fqueez d with fufficient JForce^ to fides the of the Blood Veffels. and is fpread upon the fides of the Vejicles there tricle of . that thefe Globules are form d there after this manner : The vifccws Chyle being by the fhorteft and poflible. tho* the groffer Eliment cannot.

ick.r. is forc d into the wfcow part of the Chyle. whereby greater the thin Serum ads upon it.. in the Aft freffure the Blood Veffels. and by its ferfendmilar it upon the fides of that Cavity forms^ produces a fmall little buble^ of a certain magnitude. it is preferv d in its figure in all the various Motions of the compound Fluid of the Blood and if it little bubles fhou d be happen that thefe moft certainly are by a biirft^ (as they j thoufand Caufes) when ever they come to theLtfflg.8 of.. and th. they are new.form d again. in little fine Tubes. For fliou d thefe Globules be all . through Pore^ continued through the Veftcle of the Lungs y and the fide of &amp. this fine Fluid d. this lit tle bulk is broken off from t\\ePorey and carried along the Artery y and the Cohefwtt of the parts of the Shell of this biiblc^ being than the force from without. whereby the circulation is rend red conftant and uniform.nefs of SWl^ from whence it has its $pofopi)tcai of Ex being fqueez a piration. which is runing by in the Serwt. and by the force of the fucceeding Fluid.

in the forc d Blood by the Elathrough the fides of the Vefides } and Blood Veflels in the Ltivgs^fo obvious^that I fliall infift no farther upon it^ fince ev ry body may fee an inftance of the fame Nature. to be but an appears nothing infinity of fuch like little bubhs^ form d by the im* niiftlon of the Air. into litJ But from this one Prin tie Shells of Oil. in mixing Oil with Vinegar.of all natural Eelt sicn. when view d. J7 ples^ flag. ciple. many of the dcfpair d of Appea rances^ in t\\^ Animal Oeconomy^ may be made eatie. and a thoufand Difficulties about the Gaufes of Difeafcs... And this makes it look the more like truthj Nature being frugal in her Princi T t 4^7. and Vinegar.. the Subftance of which Mixture . and unfit for the Limits I have prefcrib . there muft oneceffity arifc Obftru&ion in all the Capillary Ar The manner of the little Produfiion of thefe ftick^Flmd. and the manner of the Operation of Medicines vanifli. but with an ordinary Microjcope. a general teries. 2 1 9 deftroyed. but various in the effecfo thence But it being both foreign to ari- my d Peilgn... bubles.

ted is A Mufcle. and leave the as I XXXVII. only a bundle of Fibres. inftance reft but in one Particular. each Fibre confifb of ly of the Mufcles. to another Gccafion.$i)tiofopi)ical __ prefcribM to my Corollaries thence felf. Vein and Nerve. of which all fame Plane run parallel-. vided into innumerable little orbicular two concave Segments of a Cells. have hin XIII.. enter an Artery. into thofe orbi cular Cells. form d of thofe of the other. are hard and Sphere-.. of the preceding Chapter . foft and part in the compared. the latter to let in (upon . is only the flefhypart lax} the tendinous. to bring and carryback the Blood. folid^ thefe make the Head and Tail. the firft and fecond.... the Fibrils of the one are di which are always inferted into fome folid as to thofe of the Bel places of the Body . ty d tranfverfe fmall Threads y together by which go from Fibre to Fibre . to deduce I fhall all the arifing. an infinite number of little Fibrils. and are call d Membranous Fibres-. the fleihy of the Mufcles is fpongious.

Bernoulli s DoSrine on all this And metrical Theorems he the Geo confequently^ has difcovered a- bout mufcular Motion. and confifts fo leave the imprifoned Elaftic^ Aura. to efcape. from Cell to Cell ftrait- be blown up. 22 1 (upon any Impreffion communicated to its very proba ble from its Acid tafte 5 that this nervous Juice. Now it s it) of Particles which are pointed and fit to break the Shells of the Globules of the Blood.. thefe little daick^ Cells of the Fibres muft of neceffity their thereby Longi tudinal Diameters. are now a&ual But I fliall Theory^ and Matter of Fah have an occafion of fpeaking of thefe after wards . This is undoubtedly the true manner of mufcu lar Motion. and fo move that Organ to which one of the tendons is fixt. John Head. And ned which wou d contra& the length of the whole Fibre. into the orbicular Cells of mufcular Fibres.. by which means. And upon an immiflion of this Liquid of the Nerves.of jfratttrai Belision.. the Globules of the Blood may be a&ually broken. own proper Juice. and agreeable to the learned : Mr.

and the other to the Bone . accord and Determination. The very evident demonftration of the true Caufe of mnfcular Motion . and their Na ture being thus determin d^ a priori is a Xvards. and the one Extremity of the Mufcle. is faftned to fome folid of theProduftion of thefe Globules. and Animal Spi rits are in fufficient plenty. which is the reafon that muscular Motion is fb conftantly and uniformly perform d.. Thus the Motions of all the . are carried back by the Veins to the Lungs. which has been long thought uncapable of being d. are ar ticulated one into another . muft be So . Only now. For the Mo tion of the Joints and Limbs the Bones which are the Pillars of the Body. the length of the Mufcle being fliortned.that dra\vn toward the fixt Extremity. that is to move beyond its Articulation.. of ing to the Manner the Articulation.. . fo long as the Blood Globules.. The broken Shells of thefe cxplam Globules. the moveable Bone. to be new-form d.

which are Cavities for receiving or holding the as it comes from the feveral Ve Blood. ad af manner already explaki d. iblid parts form XXX VIII. and the elaflicl^ Force of the the Heart is containing Veffels.. a Mufck. or is to be driven to different Places. fels. a& by the Longitudinal Diameters of its Mujcular Cells being fliortnedy and fo by the win ding and fpiral Dire&ion of its feveral Orders of Fibres^ the Cavities of the Ears and Ventricles are leflcn it is And d or conftring d. all obfervable that thcMufcu/ar Fibres of the Coats ter the of the Veflcls.. like other Mufcles. The Fibres of this Mujcle.. But the Membranous Coats. meerly by their own Elaflicity^ being ftretch d firft by ex ternal .of the ^atutal of the Body are perFluids of the more d. Fibres of the The Body are principally propelFd^ by the Adion of the Heart. Now confifting of feveral Orders of flefliy FibreSj of different Dire&ions^ it has two little Ears and as many Ventricles.

that this Coat a&s as a Mufcle for Na ture does nothing in vain. the third. together with the Range and Di- liquely re&ion of thefe Fibres^ it is eafie to know the manner of their operating upon the included Fluid.ternal Violence. bring known. tendinous and mufcular^ of white {lender Fibres diverfely interwoven. when a conti nued Membranous^ Tendinous one. The Stomach has . it is a fure Indication .. and wou d ne ver have diftinguifh d a Coat into Fibres^ but for Mufcular A&ioo. Ration or Nutrition. The Coats of the Gullet are three.. So that the Nature of the Coats. and of their conftituent Fibres^ of the Channels. the outermoft Membranous^ the fecond flefliy and Mufcular^ turning ob from the uppermoft end of the Oe- is fophagus to the Stomach . branes are Thus the fides of all Mem bent or prefs d outward by fome but reftore emfelves by their own natural Elafticity 5 whereas when ever a Coat confifts of Fibres of whatever kind. excepting thofe for Senincluded more capable of a&ing by its own Elafticity.

. ad jacentParts^and particularly the Organs of four of the Senfes the reft in a large bun dle^ are let down by the Cavity of the Q. and ferve the dy .. of white Carpettendinous Fibres ftan* the next Coat. .of Natural Beligion* the innermoft (liort is *2 5 has four Goats^ like. the innermoft is of the fame nature with that of the innermoft of the Stomach . Vertebra. the third is common and mem branous 3 arifing likewife from the Peri toneum. flender Pipes j wherein the Animal Spirits are treafur d up for the Expcnfes of Motion and Senfation-^ they arife from the Glands of the cineritious part of the Brain. fmall. and are terminated in all the points of the Bo faidj are a ten pairdefcend immediately through proper Holes of the Skull.. The G///^ con- of three Coats. of ftraight - and fift circular Fibres 5 the fourth Membra nous from the Peritoneum. The Nerves y as I have before bundle of fine.. the fecond is of two Orders of Muscular Fibres^ Longitudinal and Spiral.. ding perpendicular upon which is nervous and extreamly fenfible j the third isfleflry and Mufcular.

to keep in the Blood which otherwife upon the dilatation of the Artery ^ Mnfotlar Fibres afundcr. The Arteries have three Coats^ the outermoft is a fine of Nerves^ Web and Blood Veffels. and at fit Places are fent forth to a&uate the feveral inferiour parts of the Body. . gainft the than thofe of the converging Arteries..$i)ilofopi)icai idnnaples Vertebra. wou d tear the The Veins have only the Mujcular Spiral Fibres are thinner. . which is thefe other Coats made up of feveraly?r^ta of Spiral Mufcnlar Fibres^ Artery. becaufe of the IcfTcr force of the Blood afides of the diverging Veins . oi the fttu6hire general account their Aftions upon the in- clofed Fluid underftood.. From this of the Vcffels. the fame Coats with the Arteries . for the nourishment of and for the Mnjcnlar A&ion of the intermediate one. the fhort erefted Fibres ferve for the at eallly may be trition of the Aliment. according to the bignefs of the The third is a cloie tranfparent Membrane very ftrong and compaft.. and for firaitning the the Cavity of the Guts and Stomach .

dimenfion and thereby /. and the included -Fluid.5Hon manner already explain d. in a dirc&ion parallel this by encrcafing Diameter . Thus the Blood being puflit by the contrafiion of the Heart diftends their Coats atill into the be equal to the force of this Impulfe then that Elafticity of aft. e. up or down to its length. among the Originating Nerves in the Brain.. the Longitudinal ones to move the Veffel.of natural few turns oblique Fibres. and fo brings the Mufcular Fibres into Aginning to at the &amp. the force of the natural of the Membranous Elafticity Coat . long their whole length. which make but ferve to propagate gently the included Fluid. this Coat be feme time the ner vous Juice is {queex d out from the Nerves by this dilatation of the finall Arteries. ? after the propell the Blood in a continued Stream. And both thefe Forces a&ing at once. and fo encreafing or leflening it in breadth.. through the uninterrupted Channels of ^ the . leflening the other. the tranfvcrfe the Spiral ones by fqucezing it it in length tranfverfely.

through thcL/g/j/ from the Surfaces of Bodies. is that which when feltj lery. is the Veins and Arteries. tranfmitted to the$!}ticibpi)ifal the irnpulfe of the Heart. in the lame mdnner it was rcflcfted from the Body. ing. .. And call d a Pulje or Puljat/on of the Ar~ All Senfation is perform d by the immediate A&ion of the finer and more fluid parts of Bodies. and thereby an Impulfe modi reflected fied after a certain manner. propagated only by the Membranous Coat. Organs upon the through them appropriated and contriv d them for fuch a Senfe^ and to the Brain. paffage through the Meatus Anditorius.. flrikcs on the -tympanum ^ which mo . the Sound after- ving . in its diverfe Modifications. is tranfmitrcd through the HUMOWS of the D Eye. by thefe fubtile parts of Bodies^ fifly is difpoted . XXXIX. upon the Or gans of Senle the Impulfe communicated -. firikes the filaments of the Optici\ Nerves which con In Hear vey this Impulfe to the Brain..&amp. and congregated upon the Retina.. Thus in Vifwn.

and they the inclofed Air of the Labyrinth . had the common Air afted upon them. and they communi cate this A6Hon to the Brain So that in fome manner. all Sensation is nothing but : Touching. and Touching . feveral ways diversified. 3 . all for beyond doubt . ration is Gene it is nothing but Accretion. Animal.of jsatnvai Religion ving the Bones of the Barrel. Q. aft immediately upon the Nerves themfelves. In Smelling. to be im~ there is no poifible and unconceivable thing in an Animal but an infinity of bran ching and winding Channels ^ and their contain d Fluids. I have demonftrated the Me chanical produ&ion of Animals. can produce an . that all Generation is from a preceding little Animal lodged in the Male. after wou d have been. the Effluvia and more fubtile parts of Bodies. and no Difpofition or Arrangment of either. Tajlittg. the Auditory Nerves there^ the fame manner they are mov d.. fince all the parts m lift be form d together. with the Advantage of a better qualified and gentler Impulfe than they cou d have had otherwife.

Blood Globules ^ may be form d out of the and one kind of Li quor may be feparated from another^ out of the Blood in the Glands^ and thefe are all the Produftions an Animal is capable of. d corrupt and deftroy their contain It s ing Veffels..230 or together. and Difpofition of parts. which can never reach to that wonderful Number. Like wife the Fluids. iince itisabfurd God Almighty \z in confin d to a new Creation. cv ry Generation of an Ani and that thefe Animals themfelves are all confpicuous in Male Seeds ^ it is plain that they muft have been all created at once:. mal. an^Chyle in the Veffels^ nimal confifts to think of. tho doubtlefs the Velocity of their Motions is perfectly accommodated to the fmallnefs of their dcrncfs of their Bul^ and parts. evident then that they muft circulate after a manner proper to etnfelves. Now. if they did not move in the wou Channels of thefe fmall Animals. the flen- folid and fince thefe . we find fame little bubles. and lodg d in the Loyns of the Ori ginal pairs of all the Species of Animals.

thefc Fluids cannot Wherefore it . with Branches and Leaves duly folded up. by the Force of Juices rais d by Heat... fuitedto this Degree of Growth and Perfection. from external Injuries j and that Vegetation is only the unfolding and extending of thefe Branches and Leaves. till they arrive to *// *... and involv d in Membranes^ or furrounded with Walls proper to defend them in this ten der Eftate. in know the (lender Tubes of the Plant. without fome infenfible Evacuations and Secretions^ this Lofs muft be repaired fome way or other. move.of natural Religion. tain that the Seeds of Plants arc nothing but little Plants. are that the Eggs of Animals only an Vie* rns for a little Animal ^ furniilied with . to be afterwards log d in the Female .. pcrfe&Jy form d. We We Q. where they are fitted with Accommodations. be carried off in the foft and tender Fluid of the Stolen . in till they be fitted to proper Place. is not improbable they in may fome lurk fomewhere the Male. to the next Period of their Lives are cer bear the Light and the Air. 4 proper .

But this. are . it were fufficient to perfuade any one. with thefe already men tioned . is owing to the feveral Mem branes they are involv d in. but the Analogy between the manner of the Generation and transformations of thefe lower. and the fure^ that all breaking of the Membranes that folded em up by the Augmentation of thefe parts ^ the feveral Figures and Shapes they put on. Injuries and fenc d from external and we know likewife that all the Effeds of incubation^ isfupplying a fit to make degree of Heat and Warmth the congeal d Fluids flow. and more eafily pafs into the nourishing Channels of the included Animalcul^ and the Heat of the Sun or of our Culinary Fires^ when duly adjuftcd.3^ |M)itofop!)itai proper Food. We the feveral Transformations of InfeSis and other Animals^ is nothing but the Expansion of their parts.. who confiders the fimplicity and uniformity of Nature in all her Works... Now were that all there no other Argument. and the more noble Animals . produce the fame very Effe&s with that of the Females.

and were once all actually in the Loyns of our firft Parent. juftly our Fluids are contriv d and difpos d. and yet how fuffi- cient. are. to make thefe uninterrupted Circulations wherein Life confifts .. and have been ever fince / grow^ ing to our pretent Eftate. how fimple.of j$atttrai Heiigtott* 25 3 tioned put it beyond all doubt. XL. general view of the and of the manner how the Animal Fun&ions are perform d evVy body may fee how wonderfully we are made. for fince even Mechanifm^ affifted by fome kind of Art and Contrivance^ does fo miferably blunder in the Undertakings of . how wifely our (everal parts are fitted for their Ufes. theCaufes of all thofe various the Animal performs.. Mo It i$ impoffible duly to confider thefe things without being rapt into admiration of the infinite Wisdom of the Divine ArclnteB and contemning the arrogant Pretences of the World and Animal Wright s y and much more the Productions of Chance or juftling Atoms . From Stm&ure of the this parts. that we are all deriv d from one Seed.

Put .34 0!)ilofoptical of this Nature (as we may fee in all the Schemes of the Projectors upon t\\ck Heads) we may be afliired blind Chance and JHWble cou d never produce fo beautiful fimuniform Effects. and he that indnd Majj with Wisdom mnfl and he that contriv d hitnfclf ^tnd^rftand^ fo wonderfully and wifely. with all their skill and cunning. Cou d any of our pie and mechanical Undertakers . Wherefore of unavoidable Neceflity^ He that for id the Eye waft him felf fee. and form d fo all things both ani juftly and exaftly^ mate ^nd inanimate^ muft needs bt.. that the moft exaft and nice Performances of Art^ come fo far fhort of the dead Organs of Animals^ or the inani mate Productions ot Nature^ that a weak Eye may difcover the vaft Difference. make but an ItifeSl or a Plant y with the fame Faculties and Qua we ihou d begin lities that Nature does But they are fo far to hearken to em. and he thai made the Ear mufl himjelf hear. from that.

. according as it. is Scales^ lefs..of atural 3&eltsiom *35 But I proceed to make fome reflexions upon the particular Inftances of Council and Wisdom in the Animal Fabrick. Number a prodigious of fuch Glands muft there be on ! Now what the Surface of the whole Body Into ev ry one of thefe Glands an Artery^ Vein and Nerve do enter ^ fo that we may guefs how prodigious the Number of Organs in from thefe that are vifible to the Eye afliftcd with an ordinary Micrvfcope.. Lervenhoecl^ reckons that about one Cuticular Scale. and that a Grain of Sand will cover 250 of thefe one Grain of Sand will cover 125000 Orifices of thefe Ex Scales^ fo that cretory thicker in one part of the Body than another ^ between thefe Scales the Excretory Du&s or lye of the Miliary Glands of the true Skin open. g XLI.The Scarf d of feveral Lays of fmall compos which cover one another more or thicker. The Skin with its parts is what offers itfelf firft moft. 500 fuchDtifts may lye. Thefe Glands fecern an Animal Body muft be. skin being upper.

protru Dufts up. cous Subftance.. by reafon of the heat coinpaft The and cold of thefe different Seafons. of NecefTity they muft be many . Skin is thinner and fofter. in And paffes 24 in skin arc the Papilla fyramidales. that fince San&oriu* obfervcs ^ through a of Fluid them fifteen Ounce weight Next under the Hours. and in each interfeftion In the Summer the planted. to moiften thefe Fap/U* and then under this the M/- Glands thcmfelves are d About and ferve of Feeling..36 ^i)i!ofopt)tcat cern the Sweat and intenfible Perfpiration. fyramidalcs //&amp. along the other VeiTels make thefe the Nerves and all cover d over with a miia fine Web. to the Surding their Secretory which there face^of the Scarfskin^ upon Lines. is composed Scales of which the Scarfskjn a Hair is .^ ... and thefe interare many by parallel fefted others. -Scarf they are the finite like wile in Number- Extremities of the Nerves of the 5%. in Winter more and hard.. to convey the Impulfe more immediately for the Senfe receiv Nerves to the Brain.

if the Tyranridaks or the Miliary Glands had been few and large. contriv d than this exterior part. and to skreen them from exter rhe Skin it fclf is nal Injuries defign d to to hinder Obje&s from wrap up the whole Body. and to be the Organ of the Senfe of muffing and Feel Now what can be more wonderfully ing. to fiiftain and to keep the Papilla Fyrawidales in their Places.. then the Inter Pap ill vals c had been without any Senfe of Feel and fo might have been deflroy d ing. to the danger of the whole and thefe Intervals had not been freed from the noxious parts^ which are here thrown out of the Body but by their infinite by thefe Glands ev N timber. without our Knowledge.of is Natural Iteiigiotn a 37 defign d to fence the Orifices of the 5Vthe Mtliary Glands and cretory Dufts of ^ making too pain ful and cxquifite an Impreffion on the Nerves. and the Miliary Glands from being difordered. to receive the Impreflions of external Obje&s... ry point and Atom of the ABod is taken care of But that ..

.. then we fliou tual Torment. had made us cry out. Whereas by this nice adjuftment of the Senfe of feding to the Impulfes and A&ions of Bodies round us. we fliou d not have dar d to have approach d our Cloaths or our Beds^ in t . A6Hons and Impulfes of the Bodies among which we live. is the ap: proportioning this Senfe of Feeling^ to the which is r been ten or twenty times as exquilite as it d have been in perpe is. or in more callous than it is. to hinder .yet moft wonderful . For had our Senfe of Feeling & fliort. we can live in indolence from the Difturbance of the and AHeffluvia. or of the Wing of a Fly. ev ry Hair had been a Dag ger. and might have J O been torn away or confum d. many times duller. ons of little Bodies that are ncceflarily in Motion and we feel fenfibly enough. the touch of a Feather. without our Knowledge or Concern. we had loft fome of the moft exquifite Plcafures of Life. our tendereft parts had been as infenfible as our Hairs or Nails. we had it liv d and had been as perpetual Mifery.

.of Natural ffietgtotu hinder us from hazarding the Ruin of our Fabrick. And it is worth noticeing. by which forae drops of a vifcid Fluid is that the Scales which forc d out. grows upon it. which is a notable Inftance of Council and Defign in the formation of thefe Parts. for it is as it is more or lels ufed highly probable. do arife from the preffitrc of touching Bodies upon the Mouths of the Superficial Veffels at different times. this Senfe is adapted to the Circumftances wherein they live... compofe the Scarfsk^n. And confethe more moderately we ufe the . the more of thefe Seal s are form d. is rendred more exquifite and or more dull and imperceptible. drying and hardning. that thisSenfc of Feeling fcnfiblc. Scale. And univerfally indeed in all Animals whatfoever. and guard the Organs of this Senfe from being violated. which there becomes a irnall and therefore the oftner the Mouths of thefe VeiTels are preis d upon^ or the oftner we life thefe Organs of touching.. and fo a caUoiijvefs quently . and the Skin becomes the thicker.

. which is a wonder- were it otherwife. either in on or Insertion. Having already fliewn the wonderful yet fimple ftru&ure of the have little more to add upon Mufcles. that they wou d certainly deftroy themfelves.. XLII. and to inftance in all the Particulars. were to tranfcribe it. w ife Contrivance of the Author of for thefe Pleafures. they are not kept from Excefles that way. Situati has fomething that fpeaks its Defign and Council. fince we fee where there is both Sin and Nature-.. of which there are about 446 in a Hu mane Body.the Pleafures of Senfe (the moft exquifite of which lie in that of Feeling) the more lively and fenfible they are life ^ and the more immoderately we the full lefs r they are fo . to that learned . I For tho ev ry fingle Mitfcle. yet feeing Borelli has written a whole Book to fhew this. fo diftra&ed is the moft part of Mankind. my Reader for his full Satisfaftion in this Affair. or to write a whole Syfteme I fliall refer of Myologie. prefent Punifliment. Figure. that Head.

. he has (lit fome^ that other s might this is through then! undifturb d^ fuch a wonderful Inftance of WiC pafs R dom . and ftances.. now had they been fituatcd neat Or about thefe Parts. has plac d them at a conft derable diftance from thefe Organs.. they might not rife in bending thofd . up and fill Places with their Bodies or Tendons he has ty d them to the Bones by Annn* lar Ligaments ^ and alfb that one TLendoit might not be interrupted in its Courfe by another. they wou d have aL ufes Motions^ and made thefe Places foft and fpungy. that they might be fufficient for the various 5 and forceable Motions of thefe Organs . i .. learned and furpriflng 24 Book De motit malinm. the Arm or Leg. {hall Then only fuggeft a few Inthe maiiner of the Dif- of the Fingers and poiition of the Muftles know that for the Toes.of ^attttai BeWgion. is admirable* We of Life 5 thefe Mufclcs were to be ftrong and large. and and going confequently unfit for grafping their * together difturb d to avoid this^ the Infinitely wife An*tbor of Nature. and that ev And n there.

Mr. Lipfirf 1 printed in the ^ ASla 694 . So that when t\\e Animal Spirits are but as $ to 8 r the Weight fuftain d by em fhall be as i lifted.about Mufcular Motion. derful wife Contrivance Now what a won and compendium of . that none can pafs it over without Admiration. than the ele vated Weights j for fuppofing the Animal Spirits expended. has demonftrated that the Expenfes of Animal Spirits^ are in a much lefs Proportion. Bernoulli in that Curious Meditation &quot. Weight four times as great r as when they Globules j in are but as 5. a. in burfting the Blood the veficnlar Cells of the then a Mtifcnlar Fibres^ to be as 8. may be to 4. It is very obfervable that in Mnjcular Motion the Expenfe of Animal Spirits^ is not in Pro portion to the Labour the Animal is at. the And Difference becomes moft fcnffble between thefe Animal Spirits and the fuftain d weights^ when thcfc Spirits are expended in greateft Qtiantities. the like or the other Propor tions of the Animal Spirits-^ efpecially.$i)ilofopt)tcai dom and Defign ..

What a ftrange variety R a tions . and thoughtlefs. by which we have that Livelinefs and Agility. has taken wonderful Care. by all know which we move. io that a is obliged to hard Labour. that aftuates all our Enjoyments. we live. and all Sensation perform d. /.. the Animal Spirits which are the Subftance. that Chearfulnefs and Tran quillity... of Mo3... the very ElTence of the Blood.. unaftive.. we that the Spirits are the moft precious things in all the Animal Body. fo neceflary and ufcful was to be fav d by all means poflible. and No\v dull.of Natural Urttcjtom of Nature is this ? Here in great Labour. or rather. as one that is under no neceffity to work. are fav d as much as is poflible .. e... we are which all the Pleafures of Life are reliflied. this. and agreeable to the Neceflities of Life. that no Expenfes fliou d be made therein that cou d be avoi ded. and without which.. and our Blood circulates.. a Subftance.. and we fee the wife Author of Nature.. not reduc d to the necefllty of having is Man who twice or four times as much Vi&uals..

and falling.. by a Line drawn from it to the Center of the Earth . the various Motions of our Head. the Center of Gravity being pofed as naturally to keep their Heads creft.. and if at any time we chance to rhrow this Line without that Space. the Center of Gravity is fodifpos d. And in thofe Animals that live with the Water..^44 tions are our Organs capable of? There is no poffible one. and fo be in hazard of our Arms. and Rreaft. ftrongeft Mufcks upon their Breafts. by which means we are kept from tum bling. as to fall. whereby they are kept in the fitteft Pofture for fwiming or fo difflying. al ways in fome part of the parallelogram form d by the outer fides of our Feet. have all tjieir in the Surface of the Watery there is a Bladder . and two Lines drawn by our Toes and Heels. that might be ufeful and how wonderis the whole Machin adjufted ? For iully our erc& Motion. Thofe Animals that are defign d for flying or fwiming on the Surface of to us that we want. immediately bring it back within that Space.

either fwims on the Surface or finks to the Bottom. by which they let out and take in the Air. which being cut out. they become heavier. Birds moft and Fowls that fleep^ refting on one Foot to eafe the other. fuch to wit.. as renders em in an /Equilibrium without any Pain. But this Bladder is commonly of Air. they become lighter than they were. that fo the Center of R 3 the . the Fifli ever after.. which is under fome Degree of Condenfation. or as they pals to a Specifically lighter or heavier Element j for by taking in more Air... whofe Orifice isendow d with a Mttfcular Sphintier. from the preffure of the full Mufcular fides thereof. than the Fluid they fwirn in. naturally lay their Heads linger their Wings. and fb fink fill or emerge as their Occafions prompt them. d with Air. live and they commonly alter their Equilibrium.of Bladder Natural ^elision. and fb fink.. and by let and fo neceffarily emerge ting out fome. to render them Specifically lighter or heavier. with that kind of Fluid they in. by the Comprefllon or Expanfion of this Bladder.

without any Mufcnlar Contra&ion. prc- ferv d .. a thoufand fiich Inftances^ relating to this Head alone of confift Mufcular Motion. XLIIL The Bones compared of hard Fibres.. are fo ftraitned as to admit only what is fufficient to repair their De All the considerably thick Bones cays. are either hollow or and both fpongious^ forts contain an oleaginotft Subftance. Thefe are wonderful Inftances of Divine Wisdom and Providence ^ but thofe who pleafe to will confult that noble Work of Borellfs. may fall upon the Foot they ftand on^and the Animal be preferv d from overturning j and thofe Fowls that deep fo on the fmall Branches of Trees. may grafp the Branch more ftrongly. that their Claws by the Gravity of their Body.. incline a little backwards.. which upon the compleat growth of thefe Bones.. ty d together by Tranfverfe ones. after the manner of the Mnfdes ^ they are nourifhed by Blood Veflels which enter their Subftance at feveral Pla ces.. find to their Satisfaction.the Gravity of their whole Body.

and Purpofes: For culations are i. The Tendon of Motion-.of fefv natural Veficks.. 247 which by the Heat of the Body. whereby . in the Articulati*OHS of the Shoulder and Knee efpecially. more than a Semicircle which by. our Limbs had been in hazard of being dif- made jointed upon ev ry Occaiion. that they dry not. and thereby grow brittle. is considerably bigger at the Extremities than at the middle. that in all the Revolution of the is kept at the fame diftan-ce of the Sevridiaweter of the Tubercle from the Center thereof. or equal to the middle.... the Cen joint. but this cou d be obuiiVd. and that for very wife Ends call d the Periofteuw. is capable of moving round. JaeiiQton. Thereby the Arti ftronger^ for had they been leffer. e... By the largenefs of thefe TftJfirr&r^ it comes to pafs. There are fevcral and ter R various . All the Bones are cpver d with a very fenfible membrane din little each large Bone. And 2. is exhal d through the po rous Subftance of thefe Bones y to fupple and anoint their Fibres... the Arm and Leg.. /. no other Contrivance pofllble.

. Now all thefe dif ferent Articulations are from the Neceffi- or Motion of thefe ty of the Situation The Bones in order to be the i$ones. as was reconcileable with a fufficient degree of Strength. wonderfully ted for the Motions of the feveral fit Mem ber^ one is like Ball and Sockgt.&amp. that the Inftruments of Motion. as the Radius with the *Vlna^ a third are only ty d to gether by intervening Cartilages 5 as the Vertebra of the Back. might not re quire tpo great an Expenfe of Spirits.348 ^t)ofopl)icai various manners of Articulations of the Bones into one another. and that the mechanical Ma~ chin might not become a Burthen to now the wife Author of themfelves N&amp. by evacuating their middle Subftance. to move them. as the Thigh-Bone with the Ifchium^ others are by way of Charnal. for he has made em light. ought to have been as light. snoft convenient that might be..*~ ture.. and yet they are thaji if th?y ha4 (iranger by very has wonderfully provided for this. cpmpos d . by which the Bone can move equally any way .

and exactly nice Geometry ufed by Nature in the Figure. BoreUi hath fhewn that thefe Bones are fo many Ve&es. ^nd pf their Cover the . Connexion. the Quils of their Feathers and their Bones are^ and this wonderful wife End. and move a- ny weight. or the firfi is twice as ftrong as the fecond. by which the Vires Moti~ is v&amp. cou d no othcrways be obtain d but by this Contrivance..of Natural Religion* folid Cylinder. to a clofe one of the fajiie Num ber of Fibres.. This is moft confpicuous in thofe Animals that are form d to fly .lt. or overcome any Rcfiftence. Order^ and Motions of thefe fiUars of the Body.. as their Diameters fo that a hollow Bone of ^ double are -. Diameter... of which the Center of tlv* Articulation the Fulcrum. it is wonderful. equal lengths.* of the Mttfcles elevate. how light and yet how ftrong. is as 2 to i. the Strength of the one Fibres -. compos d one has demonftrated. the Tendons are the Ropes. two Bones of and of equal Number of that of is to the Strength of the other. There is a wonderful.

had bcei* perpetual hazard of being depriv d of the Inftruments of their Motions^ befides that the able. the wife Contrivances3 and prudent adaptati ons of thefe admirable Machines for the I (hall inftance benefit of the whole. i. have If it had we . to {hew all the Necejfities.the Muftles-. but have gone forward like a Poft or a Pillar. whole wou d not have been pli- for the various Poftures to put our felves in.. muft have it been all a large Angle upon their innermoft edges.. and fo the Spinal Marrow. without Articnlations ^ we cou d not have ftoop d or turn d. what can be more wonderfully contriv d than the Backbone. it were alone a fufficient work. which made lends Nerves to all the Inferiour part of the Body. had it been compos d of a few Bones only.. and then Then.. Particulars. had been in hazard of being bruis d at ail quently in every ftooping j and confethe inferiour Parts. only in two or three proceed. had of one entire Bone. then the Articu lations of thefe Bones in bending our Backs..

we fhou more Benefit by it. that curity of runs down its Cavity . to hurt the Spiral . we had not been capable of thefe Varieties of Motk ons that we now are. that Medullary Subftance. is bent after the manner of the Catenarian Curve. from being thruft backwards or forwards. *5 * of various Bones without inter d have had no vening Catilages. this So that we fee. the Ar* ticulations might have been cafily disjoin ted. or had thefe Articulations been after the manner of fome others of the Bones. the Contrivance of were.of corififted natural Beligion. ty d by the Back for the Se common Cartilage. of the Body is the for by thefe beft that can be imagined as it Hulk many and what a plain fmall Articulations upon {bmeand fmooth Surfaces. keeping the middle. if each Vertebra had had its own proper Cartilage. than if it had been entire without Articulations. and brings the of firmnefs . by which it obtains that Curvature that is fafeft for the included Marrow... the oblique greateft degree Proceffes of each Superiour and Inferiour Vertebra.

But as they are now contriv d.2 Wlofopl)icai Befides Spinal Marrow. thefe Proceffes force the Ribs to move upwards. As I have obferv d be? fome Bones are articulated after the manner of Ball and Socket as the Humerus with the Scapula and that for this wife fore. Certainly.. then there fon why have been no more reain Inspiration . and fo lift upthe-StowiM**. had not the been fo plac d as they . whence the dilatation of the Thorax proceeds. it cou*d not have giv n a more pregnant Indicati on thereof. Tranfaerfe Proceffes are. might have all man ner of pofllble Motions j but the Vint and Cub it us is join d by way of Cbarnal. End. if infinite Wifdom were fuppos d to have fram d this part. that the that Arm . ... to keep the intermediate Vertebra from being thruft backward or forward.which cou d not dilate^ were there no Tranfaerfe or they otherwife difpos d.. Now can there be a more manifeft In* fiance of Council and Contrivance than this. 2. the Ribs fhou d wou d have mov d upwards and forwards^ than backwards. Proceffes .

3. there was a hazard of bringing the direction of the A&ion of the Tendons of thofe Mufcles . Nature in thefe Motions lofes no Benefit in the feveral Parts. manner^ we fhou d have had no Benefit thereby. Be- caufe the Tubercles of the Bones of the Fingers and Toes. that it could have by another of the fame kind in this other Articulation j and we fliou d have loft the Benefit of fiich it. thefe points of the Fingers which are at the Articulations^ cou d only come into contact cou d not be conveni Proportion to the middle with the Body fqueex d ^ and fo the Aftion cou d not be uniform.of ^atutai ffieligiotn a53 that this Articulation might be the more for had it been after the former ftrong. ently fo large in of thefe Bones as they are in others. that can con.. fift with the good of the whole. takes off the Neceffity of another having all the Motions. becaufe thereby in grafping or fqueezing.. Thus we fee. for that Articulation of the Shoul der. the Hand by the greater Strength in this Joint. here . and by this fmalnefs of thefe Tubercles.

. which the Wit of Men cou d not have thought d them. how carefully and ftrongly is that principal Organ of the Body. to ferve as fo the Tendons many pafs. Pullies. to prevent this Inconvenience. about which at fome diftance from the Center of the Articulation . of. and two very clofe and compact Membranes? What an infinite Multi- . or very near the Center of Motion whereby this A&ion wou d have been quite.. the Ojja Sefamoidota (call d fo from their Refem- blance to the Grains of Sefawntn) are plac d at the Articulations of thefe Bones. are ^ XLIV. by means of the P at ella thefe are wife and noble Ends. quite through. of the Articulation. The fame Artifice is us d in the Knee.. the dire&ion of the whereby Motion of thefe Ten remov d always at the fame diftance from the Center of Motion..which contract the Finger and Toes. or almoft deftroy d. fcnc d from external Injuries.. Now clcs. had they not obferv dons.. How wonderfully is the Brain contriv d. by a thick Wall of hard Bone.

.of Datura! 3&eit giott* ^$5 Multitude of Glands.. a hundred of which do not exceed one fingle Hair? How commodioufly are the Nerves. are in the Cortical and of begining Nerves in the Mepart. d down very remark that the Veins the fame Holes the pafs out. Channel. or any greater Quantity thereof than ordinary .. their dilatation and pitlfatzou wou d cornprefs the Veins againft the bony fides of their Paflage.. dullar Part. at Arteries enter ^ for if do not they did. that ferve for four of the Senfes y and all the parts of the Su per/our Regions 3 feat out the ihorteft and fafeft ways through proper Holes in the Head? And thole that ferve the Infericarry is our Regions of the Body. to the dcfhu&ion of the whole which by thcfe different Entries hlachin and Exits of thefc VciTels is prevented. Thcfe Veins alia do not run along by the fides of the Arteries ia the Braio. then upon any violent Motion of the Blood. And it jin. as they do ..a Bony able. and fo occafion a ft agna tion and extravasation of the Blood in the Brain. log d in the Arte ries ..

its point to ward the left fide. for the Arteries here. . and with what a Force does it fqueeze out the Blood into the Arteries . into the Mufcles of involuntary Motioi^ which wou d have been hindfed if the Veins had always gone along with the Ar teries for thefe Veins wou d have receiv d the impulfe of the Arteries^ and thereby in fome Meafare kept it from the Nerves. and with what are its Columns and Furrows clofer is Contra&ion of turn d a little its Ventricles ... for the more eafie a cent of the refluent Blood in the Cava . the left the . pa and that 350 Pound weight of (es through the Heart ev ry Hour. How are its varioufly vmfcttlar and effe&ual for its end. Judgment for the difpos d ! Fibres through all the reft of the Body. Next how ftrongly is the Heart built. Boretti reckons it equal to the force of 3000 Pound weight^ Blood.. for thereby like a reclining inverted SiAuricle becomes lower that! pbon. which is alfb another wife Contrivance of Nature ^ were by their dilata* tion to prefs out the Juice from the Nerves..

. whereby the Blood has a in its true courfe forward y but paflage the fame wayis hindred from returning frequently happen. upon the equal prefjureof the Blood on all Hands^ and the Rcfiftance of the fides of the Vet (els. in this which is moft wonderful the different Stnt&nre of the Heart in the Fatus . in the Places. fame the in from that of the In the Heart of adult Perfons. w hich r runs from the Tmnl^ of theAorta. juft oppofite Y&tW) to the Mouth of the Cava afcendens^ there is a Hole from the Cava. and iscall d the Foramen Ovak^ there is likewife a Paflage. Batumi EcitQion. Valvs themfelves. to the Trunk of Arteria Pulmonalk. Now the Blood which is receiv d by the Placenta from S the . is which Inconvenience this entirely prevented. by and Situation of Contrivance prudent And ev n the Figure of the the Valvs. 257 All the Auricles and Ventricles have Valvs ..of the right. that opens into the Vena Pulmonalis. is feveral different for wife is Ends and Purpofes. which wou d to the Ruin of the Animal . But that Affair.

by pafles only through the right Ventricle. to the Tntnl^of theother^by the Cava it is thrown through t\\eforamen Ovalejnto the VenaPultnonali*. whilft that which comes from the Defcendens. Blood that comes from the Super iour Parts of the Body. is by the umbilical Veins car ried into the Port a. in the FoetiM cou be- d not go through the Lnngs^ their Veficles by their coHipreffure upon the Blood Veffels. and falls into the right Ventricle. cle. from whence the communicating Canal.. pa-ffes only through the left Ventri is The reafon of which caufe the Blood Paffages. which throws it ./ obftrudHng that Courfe^ neither indeed.into the Arteria Ptilmonaltf. by which it is fqueez d into the Aor The ta. is diverted by the Ifthmns of file Cava from the for amen Ovale.the Mother. fo that the Blood that comes from the Cava afcendenf.. by a Canal which goes ftraight from the Trnnk^ of the one. did . it is imme diately carried into the Aorta.. to be difpers d over the Body. from which it is fent to the Cava. which carries it to the left Ventricle of the Heart.

lt. Now wifely are thefe different Channels for the Blood contriv d. it all comes into the Air . and by the current in the /Wmonary Vein. that the Blood can no more pafs that way from the Cava. the F&amp. by : the communicating Canal And fo that dries up..of Natural 2Mi0tom 25 9 did the Blood need to pafs through the nouriftied from Lungs. whofe Fluids had already rethe Advantages they cou d reap from the Air.. that neceffities ! S a can . the Valve of the foramen 0* vale is {hut fo.xtw being the Mother. is fuflicient for. by the diftenfion of the Lungs. but when ceiv d. And this is certainly one of the moft con vincing Proofs of Defign and Conafel. before and after its Birth This is a plain Indication of fore-knowledgej and of fuch an one as no thing but Omnifcence. in her Lungs .. And through the Lungs fo finding a free Paffage it runs no more . and is no longer nouriflied from the Blood of the Mo is taken off from ther j this preflttre the Blood Veffels . for the different how of the Foetus . after the manner already explained.

the animated part of this Syftcm^ wou d be but fo many PupfetSj tofs d up and down by Chance and Organ ^ Fortune. and confequently. without Houfe or Habitation^ and . and the Provifion defign d. by fome intelligent Being. What Animals cou d not provide themfelves with Food. feeing. for thefe various a noble piece of Get?metry is manifefted in the Fabric^ of the Eye. that the thing was forefeen.. that in the natural Courfe of things. by the wife Author of Nature rent Provifions are made.. and the manner of Vifion ! Without this XLV. cou d not guard againffc it^ without the Benefit of Light. diffe and different Circumftances adjufted^ Periods of their Lives. and fore-deffgn d. nor be forewarn d of approaching Danger. all the feveral Steps of the growth and Vegetationfioth of Animals and Plantsy have been forefeen. for to provide for an Event. But this is not the only Inftance of a Precaution.can pofllbly be wifh d for . for it s evident. muft happen a long time after^ is an infallible evidence..

which is emit ted from luminous Bodies. and Colours of re Diftantes. and u- on the bottom of the Eye.) Motions^ yea mote Bodies ? How wonderfully muft the feveral Coats and Humours of* this little Ball be difpos d. and never to behold the chearful Light ? the Mifery of fuch a Life is beyond Exprefllon and Conception And on the other Hand. State wou d it be.of Natural Religion. than that the Particles of Matter fhou d be (b fram d^ as by their means to {hew us the Shapes^ Portions. to be confined to per petual Darknefs. to tranfmit through them : that fine. what can be more amazing. Thefe things are not only contriv d and fram d nited with fo great Wifdom and Skill y as not to admit of a better j but to any one who attentively confiders them. for feems impoflible that Light fhou d reprefent Obje&s to us^ at fo it 83 . they feem of fuch a Nature as fcarcely to allow any other Method. and refle&ed from the Surfaces of Opake ones . and depriv d of all the Pleafures and Con What a mifcrable veniences of Life. andfubtile Fluid.

d the ConjunQiva^ and jnakes the white of the Eye. and fmooth. And it feems impoflible that any other Compofition of the Eye. The fecond Sclerotica. which the internal fide thereof (which Sclerotic a. than the reft of the Globe of the Eye. from the Qbjeft upon the Eye. that upon any toucli 3 the Tears might be fqueez d from the la chrymal Glands. but by the trartfmifll- on of fome fine Fluid. an exquifite Senfe. confifts of feveral Lamintf^ w hich are pourifli d by fo fmall Blood Veflels. where it makes the third Coat call d the Cornea^ from its Refemblance to a piece of Transparent Horn^ it has a greater con vexity. firil Coat is call r The fourth Coat is the Choroides it . to wafli and clean it. it is thick. hard. hath little !&quot. it is compos d of fix Coats and three Humours. fhou d be equally fitted for that end. but Tranfparent before ./- is vaft a diftance. Opake behind . as to It is of obftruft very little of the Light. The the Globe of the Eye is fpherical-. it lies under the Glands which feparate a black Liquor.. -.

) The the which is nothing but the Circum it is ference of the P tip illa compos d of circular and ftraight Fibres. th^ Pifturcs of 84 prefs . apd. Light is 5 too ftro ng^ the Circular Fibres contraft the Papilla. its On Rays. to let in more the more diftinft...of is ^atumi Belfgion. IJvea. according to the ftrength or weakfor when the rtefs of the Light. that their Force hurt not the Eye ^ and when it is weak.the Retina backwad^ or the Axe of the Eye lengthned. otherwife of a whitjih Colour) for dring the re$e$cd Light from difturbing the Pi&ures of Gbje&sthis Coat has a fifth is Hole before. of too near Objefts. which is called the fupilla^ for admitting the Light. the ftraight Fibres dilate it.Vifion. at the approach... for the infide of the TiJvea from joins the Choroides^ Ciliare.. to contrafl: or dilate. Circumference which rifes the Ligawemum forepart of the Eye is by whichthe d outward.. The fixth Coat is the Kttina^ which covers like a Net the bottom -of the}^ it is only a fine expanfion^ of the ^Fibres of the QpNerve $ upon this -Coat.

reChryjlalline quifite to receive the diftinft impreflion of The Optick. calFd the Aqueous^ under the Cornea . Nerves are inferted Objefts. it is thicker than the Aqueous . the in^ midle point of any Objcfr. is The fecond . Aqueow it is The the glaffy Humour. had been vifible .of Obje&s are fram d.. it is The it lies is fir ft Humour immediately thin and liquid^ and of a fpirituous Nature. upon its back part^ is the F^etina fpread. which it keepeth at a diftance from the Humour. in fo much that it will not freeze in the greateft Froft. And confequently y had the Center of the Optick Nerves coincided. and thinner third is than the ChryftaUine^ it gives a Spherical Figure to the Eye. with that of the Retina. as Monfieur Mariotte has fhewn by Experiment. the ChryftaUine^ next the convex on both fides^ and refembles a double convex Lens ^ it is co vered with a fine Coat y call d Aranea. infide in the of the Optil^Axes^ whereby the middle point of ev ry Objeft is diftinftly feen^ for the Center of the Reti na is infenfible.

what can be more admirable than this ftru&ure of the Eye .gt. ev ry part contribu ting fomething toward its Perfe&ion. vifible in the other j fliou for it is impoflible. with that the the Obje&&amp. of Room . becomes vifible . from the Eye of any dead Animal.but by this lateral Infertion of thefe Nerves. and then placing the Eye a darkened in a fit Hole. and there to paint in the fame Order and Proportion.. The light which comes from the feveral points of Obje&s. (as taking off that part of the is evi Dura Mater. the point of the Objeft which is invifible in the one Eye. we fliall fee through it. for looking then upon the back part of the Retina. isforefra&ed (by the Cornea and ChriftaUineHumour principally) as to meet again upon the Retina. which covers the backfide of the Retina.. dent by the Image thereof.. are the Caufe of Vifion. d fall on the infide of Rays both Eyes at the fame time. The Cornea . the Figures of external Obje&s painted upon its infide) and thefe Piftures propagated by Motion^ along the Oftic^ Now Nerves.

that the Rays that pafs through it may not be reflected back again upon the Retiaa. for the Expanfion more conveyance of th? Impreflion The Choroides is tinl:ur d to the Brain.break the dire$ Rays that . and fo confound the Obje&. eafily changes oblique Figure. eafie black.Cormais more convex than any other part of the Eye. the Hairs of the . The OpticI^ Nerves are inferted on the infide of the dxes of the Eye. produc d by the of the Opticl^ Nerves. render it oblong. that the whole Objc& may be diftin&ly view d.. by which all the Rays are ga thered. queouf its Humour being either thin. the Images are painted upon a Skin.a contract or dilate the Pupilla. to Mufcles protrude.. and few of em loft on the The A*U&amp.. according to the De grees glajjy of the Strength of the light. The Humour keeps the Retina at a due diftance from the Chryjlallin.. Ciliare contra&s. when Obje&s are too near .he Ligamentum or both the the Bulb of the Eye. to pafs through the Pupilla..Eyebrows.. when t.vea*. the Fibres of the

Our Eyes are double^ to (ccure both fides from Danger ^ becaufe if the Objects were near.. to keep it from more pow erful Injuries. when one Eye accidentally rendred ufelefs^ we enjoy the Bleflings of this fo neccflary . Befidcs we cou d not diftingtiilh the diftance of Ob)efi:s by one Eyc^ for our two Eyes are like two the different Stations in Longimelryy the diftance by affiftarice of which. between two Obje&s is meafurcd. thence arifing. As aL is fo. and fo cou d not guard our felves from the Dangers. wall d with a ftrong Bone. however one Eye were plac d^ we cou d not diftinfily perceive them that fhou d be fituated toward the fides of our Body. funk in a Hole.of natural .. The feveral refraftive Vir tues of the Coats and Humours^ ferve to correft the Errors arifing from the diffe rent Refrangibilities of the Rays of Light.. that they hart not the fight thofe on the Eyelids defend it from filth and light Bo dies that fwim in the Air^ the continual Motion of ty j Eyelids the Cornea^ elfe it it is moiflen and fweep woit d dry or grow dir .

thefe ceffities two of thefe Animals. and that becaufe of the different refraKve Air.. coming In thofe Animals that Water. have a Clufter of Semifpberical Eyeballs all Thofe Figure. and living which fend in the Piftures of Objefts around them . Figure of the ChryftaUin Humour of Fifties^ is a nearer to a Sphere. and thofe that feek their . for that Vertue of Water from convexity which wou d unite the Rays of Light coming through Air 3 \vill not unite the fame fo perfe&ly at a point. than that great deal of Land Animals .. have no Motions of their Neck. through ga ther their Food from the Ground the Pupill is Oval or Elliptical. for oCreatures that by their ther reafons. in the fame diftance. the greateft Diame ter going tranfverfly from fide to fide . in thofe that feek their Food on higher Pla^ ces 5 its greateft Diameter goes from the top of the Head towards the Feet perpen different Figures be to the different neing wonderfully fitted dicularly.neceffary a Senfe. by the Benefit of the It is obfervable that the other..

. of Forefeght and Connfel in that Being that fram d thefe Organs but that which to me fair^ is is moft furprizing in this A that in rational Creatures.of Natural ^Religion* the dark. or had the Di ftance . which Varieties over concur to demonftrate that Objeds at a due Diftance. are of the iame real Magnitude our Eyes reprefent them. the Laws of remov d that had the Retina been pricks farther &amp. whofe Organs are found they fhou d have been fb nicely fram d in all the infinite pofllble & and under y as to reprefent Objefts at a due Diftance of their true and real Magnitudes. which refleds the light and enables them to fee beft in the leaft their ifi Food light j thefe are wonderful and furprizing Inftances. or brought nearer the Chriflallin Humor. or (keeping the Retina at the fame Diftance from that Humor) had it confifted of two Segments of a lefs or greater Sphere^ the Vifion had been indiftinft or none at all . Now all we know from have their Retina coloured white . and this we are certain of by our other Senfes.

270 ftance been fitted exa&ly in the Focus of the Chriftattin.. which wou d have expos d us to a thoufand dangerous Miftakes^ for Example.. or the Atom that we now fcarce take Notice of. either bigger or lefs than the Truth.. we had feen Obje&s ev n at a due Diftance. but by . any thing confiderad have feen but a very fmall bly. we cou part of them at once.. had our Eyes magnified Obje&s... bcfides that thus we fhou d not have difcovered the true Magnitude of Obje&s ^ which wou d have had a thou fand fatal Confequences. the Precipice that perhaps was not many Feet from us^ might have appear d at Ibme Paces Di- have tumbled down^ ere we were aware. wou d have ftancc 3 and we our View. and hindered us from taking in any other Objeft} in a covered all Word. which we cou d not have difcovered. and twenty dange rous things might have been in our ways. but had it confifted of of Segments of Spheres^ leis or greater^ than thofe of our Chriftallin Humour^ that are at prefent.

that was beft . likewife. and obftru&ed our ObSight ^ and had our Eyes diminiflhed jeb confiderably. we coti d have feen them but faintly and iridiftin&ly all mi nute Bodies wou d have vanifhed. and then ev ry little Particle. he certainly deferves not to enjoy . Can there then be a more pregnant and convincing Evidence of the Being of an infinitely wife Power ^ who out of the infinite pofllble Varieties. our Eyes might have poffibly been form d 5 none of which cou d have brought with it^ the Advantages the prefent Strufture does. . and we might have been deftroy d by thofe which we thought at a difbnce. In one Word. thor ... the Blefllngs of his Eye Sight^ whofe Mind is fo deprav d. of difadvantagious Fabricks of this Organ^ has fingled out that only one. than thofe ofReptils. wou d have been able to have damn d up...of by a great deal of Pains .as not to acknowledge the Bounty and Wifdom of the Au. fo that our Promuft have been flower greffive Motions.. there are Infinities of different Ways.

its and our Blood lations . we enjoy the Benefits of Converfation ^ and the Pleafurcs of Mnjick^ and by it we are forewarned of thofe Dangers. XLVI. our Eyes cannot inform us of. and purifie our particular Modifications) wou d : Atmofyhere ^ by drawing it in we fitted to live..the ravijbing and aftonijbing Stru&ure of this noble Organ. in Feeling a general one. and buoy d up to the higher Regions . according to the Exigences of different Climates^ by Motion our Winds are produc d. yet neceflary Ufes our Vapours are fupported. this of It is by Means Senfe. is perform CircH* by it Sounds are convey d to our . Hearing is the next Senfe in Dignity to Seeing^ (for I reckon his thor of Nature. of which the reft are only without which be our Lives very Comfortless. it s which fail our Ships. to be there form d into Snow or Rain. fhou d ferve us for fo ma By it ny different. and what can be more wonderful than that the fame Medium of Air.

one of which opens. Paflage refembline m it T . 273 Ears. the Mouth. from corroding the Tynrpa?ntt& y which is a fecond principal Part of the internal Ear.. here upward. and other Mcns Thoughts to our Minds. behinds the Palate of this and receives Air to fupply thefe Cavities. In Bony Barrel there are fevcral Holes. ftretch d upon a It is behind which is the Barrel^ in the Cavity of which there are four little Bones call d the Hammer^ the Anwily the Stirrup. i.of Natural Bciigioti. The Internal Parts of the Ear are thefe. or any hurtful thing. which hinders Infe&s. which ends in the VejiibuhtM y and is follow d by the Cochlea^ which is a a Snail s Shell.. and the Os orbicular?. coming in by the outward Ear. the Head of Circle. and then are many Glands y which feparate a vifcid glutinous Matter.. Next to the Barrel^ is the Labyrinth. riming firft downward . The Meatus Andit or his ^ which is a contorted Paflage for the out ward Air. that have no Communi cation with the Air. a thin Membrane^ like a Drum.

in the Labyrinth and Cochlea fo that as the ex-r . through the Air (the Sonorous Body ftriking the Ambient. excites thefe undulations in it. after the fame manner is the internal Air mov d by thefe little Bones and this internal Air. and carried through the Me. or ex ternal Ear. after the manner any heavy Body thrown into a (landing Lake. thus mov d.. to ftrike the in-* ternal Air after the fame manner. to hinder d.2/4 it Auditory Nerves terminate. on which beating.atus Andit or ms or to the .. Tywpanuni Drum. makes $ anlmprdlion upon the Auditory Nerves. are thereby mov d and as the Drum is ftruck by the external Air. Air by many repea ted Vibrations. and all Apparatus feeins intended. Waves in a Circle round it) thefe are gathered by the Concha. Now when any Sound is propagated in Undula the tions. tcrnal Air ftrikesthe Druwfo does it move the Bones in the Barrel.. and as k is accordingly is the Impreflion inade upon the Auditory Nerves.. . mov fo the. the four little Bones that are in the Barrel. raifes in the Water.

of Natural ffidigiotn the Sound from coming -with too great Violence upon theib Nerves.Hearing^ is nicely adjufted to the Gonvcmencies and Neceilkies of Life^ which is a of Deftgn in the plain Inftance the fame might two remaining Sen. for the Conveniences of Life Had it been more exquifite. and fometimes to diforder them fo^ as to Now how wife deprive us of this Seuje. for we find that too fudden^ and violent a Noife. Fabrick of this Organ be demonftrated of the fes. deprived of all the Fleafures and ! Advantages thence arifing : fcl that it s e- vident our . and the Morion of every little Atom wou d have rob d us of Reft and had this Senje been any thing confiderably more dull.Noife had been capable of difhirbing us.. the buzzing of a Flie^ or the Noife of our own Breath. Wou d have pirc d our Ears like a Peal of Thunder. then every little &quot. ly is this neceffary and plcafant Senfe eontriv d.. we fhou d have been in proportion thereto. T 3 . which for Brevities fake I mult now omit. is ftill able to difturb thefe (lender Tubes.

. that . upon which it immediately the Chyle may be propell d upward..and that for all unite again in this w ife End r .. in their Courfe. that by the Pulfation of the great Artery. of thefe Fluids.$M)ttofopl)icai all have before obferv d. as before. that the Canals except the Arteries have I XLVII. not only in the Veins the Lymfhaticks. and with others. Thefe Valves are but in vifible. and obfervable that this laft Channel always goes up the left fide... and thereby obftrufting that backward Motion. lyes. that all the Branches of the Arteries which go off.. when any fmall Artery is obftru&ed or cut. Valves. all thefe Valves^ opening toward the term of the Natural Motion. the La&eals and it is DuStus Thoracicus-. but fhuting by the Preflure of the Blood in a contrary Direction... but hindered from returning back. by which their Fluids are per mitted to go forward. at any fmall Diftance from the Trunks.. do one Trun^ whofe Branches communicate with one another. the Blood may . It is likewife remarkable..

than ^ to 7 : fru.. before demonftrated in the Blood require different to fecern the ^ different Fluids in thefe Glands minution of the Velocity is the Proportions Dr. (to whofe of the Ac Trunk. to the primary Branches of the Ar and doubtlefs the odds is teries ... The Velo in the extreme Arteries city of the Blood is confiderably lefs. Ke/ll. than that of the fame at the Heart. greater in the fmaller Branches.. to the Parts communicating below the Ob- which muft have otherwife been depriv d of Nourifiiment. or its Entry into the Aorta^ becaufe it is of thefc extreme Ar teries the Glands are form d them the fccretions Velocities are made.. and by which as was .of Natural ^Religion* the 277 may be brought by Branches. ftru&ion. whereby it appears the Diameter of the Aorta^ does not bear a greater Pro portion. Di* evident from : this curate Compendium y Anatwiy of Human Bodies I have always had recourfe where my Memory fail d me) has giv n us all the Branches of the Arteries to the ateat . has Nature been in the Stru&ure of the gal How Veins ! . .

it s Gravity afting laterally to the as in thofe . not omit here the wonderful Contrivance feveral of Nature in the Pofition of the the Vterns j the Parts of the Ftfns in in the iirlt part of the time Skyll whereof and of its Geftdtioti being Very thin. which when the Blood prdfles back. than thofe of Walls is in lefs. that the for the fame ends and purpofes and having now Occafion Arteries did -. perpeud/cnlar backward. large . Branches of thefe linall the Horizon communicate with one another. I can to fpeak of the containing Veffels. Now thcfc Valves were ufelefs in other Veins.. againft the fides of thefe wi the thicknefs of their dening Channels. but the foreward Motion of the pres d bv Blood. for their widening Channels. Bcfides. are endowed with Valves. Veins ! for becaufe of the lefs Preffure proportion the Arteries.. that only thofe Veins that nin perpendicular to the Hori-j^off. Veins.$fttlofopi)ical of the Blood. and foftop Pailage. are are tornits fill d. Occafion to the Blood to pufh back give no and not ward. which flick to their Sides like fo many Thimbles.&quot.

of natural Beiigiom only Membranous. and acquires that Pofture which is fitteft for its Deli Thefe are fignal Inftances of very. has . it in a Direction that upward.. though I have at a few of thofe Inpointed only ftances that we the Animal Fabrick and Oe~ conowy affords. I now come to make a few general Obfervations under one Head.. but I haften to thickens. a Cloib. and fo to put a Clofe to this Chapter. the Thorax and Abdo men with the Limbs are fo dispos d as to make Fluid the Head always emerge out of the or at leaft preferves it is ftill it lies in.. in the Formation of thefe Organs and parts.. XLVIIL Having I think made out that great Truth. with its Face to toward it s Mothers Belly. and fo the Head becomes the heavieft place in the Body whereby it tumbles over..already fwell d to a far greater Bulk . diffidently to wit that are wonderfully wade. but about the time of its Delivery the Skull and hardens^ the Limbs and Members ft retch out. Counfel and Forefight..

while other more curious and nice Plants will only thrive in their proper Soils: Thus Hens^ Gecfe. and Hares. and Minerals. nioft value for for . that are of moft life. Thus Iron is found almoft every where. and the Pheafatit hath fifteen or twen and thofe which lay fewer.. thus a Crane. and are of Food. Corn is the Produft of all Soils. that thofe Animals... lay oftner. whereas the IV tridge ty &amp. which is but fcurvy Meat. than the fitnefs of ev ry Crea ture for the ufe we make of him ? The of the Elephant. Plants. and Advantage to us... and Turtles are more produHve than Crows or Jackdaws. and Climates. and Conies. the Infitiency of the Cawe!. but one. than Foxes or Lyons-. as the Woodcol^ and the Dove. and the Alka and fome lays but other Sea Fowls.280 Bulk than I at firft defign d it. two Eggs. It is very remarkable. fo long employ docility ed in War. What is more are fuch as will grow almoft in every Soil and Climate. and is are found in moft Places. and are more produftive of their kind than others..

thofe Animals which have Teeth on have but one Stomach. and Swiftnefs of the Horfe. Beauty^ Strength.. it being ufclefs to fuch. as Fifits and other Inhabitants of the watery Element. fince their (lownefs allows them time to dwell as Snails and Moles longer on an Objeft.. Expcnce of Organs. when the cumftances of the Animal wou d haverendred ern Fo ? Thus thoFe Animals that are (low of their Nature. Sd alfo. thefe other \Vou d beufelelk. Thofe Animals alfo.. and there by fo well fitted for our life frugally and Service ! How ufelefs has Nature avoided any Cir-.. and ev n Excrements are fwcet.of Natural SRtltgien* for travelling in the parch ferts^ d and dry De- the gentlenefs of the Sheep. but thefe that are enclow d \vith a quicker Motion. have no very quick fight. that have no Ears have no Organs for making a noife with^ becaufe \vanting Ears. b* caufe thefe Teeth render more Stomachs both Jaws.. tl iifelefs . have brisker Eyes^ and a more as Hawkj and quick piercing fight ^ Hares.. the Cleannefs.. whofe Breath * Foam.

partiqn to his Body than any other w* mal.^i)ilofopi)icai ufelefs and thofe Animals that have no upper Teeth or none at all. Counsel ^ and Meliority in the Contrivance arid Fabrick of the feveral Animals . the Echinus and the Gi^^ard. and a thoufand fuch Inftances of Wisdom . have three Stomachs to fupply the want of thefe Teeth.asinBeafts. and confequcntly can have no has not fo great Ute for much dexterity^ well q. prevaiKd upon by thofe behind* THE .Brains. has a better and more eafiiy manage able Hand ^ whereas a Mortice that has littie . the God who rules in the King Earth. fiiap d nor eafily applicable a Hand. the Crop. Bat tho. who numbered all our a and appointed them out their feyeral Ends and Uies v I am afraid will flpt. and in all granivorous Birds... thcPattch^ the Read and the Feck. may be gathered by any one who will cpnfult the V/ritings of natu ral Hiftorians. A Man which has a bigger Brain in prq.fe who I will not be canvinc d by the Inftances that there is have brought doms of parrs..

in vain things. for us to add a Cubit to our beyond their Stature . that our Minds and Capacities. our Intellectual as it is determined Limits. the Eyes of our Underftanding are capable of but a limited aperture^ and of receiving but a bounded Obje&amp. but Darknefs and Confufion : We may (boner Aaa be able to accem- . for us to extend poffible Faculties.5t If we drive to enlarge it. There can never by a perfect Comprehenfion of. we perceive nothing. r . in vain we Struggle. TT 1 T as JL fcrib d. the IV.. are as really bounded and circumour Bodies and chat it is as imis . that we all our Endeavour. attain to are fome we Labour. beyond all Difpute. Of Suture ) of Finltenefs and and the Limits of Human \.

are both the fimpleft. II. and where he muft be contented to be ignorant. whofc things can be. Figures and Numbers. and not . and moft diftindt. than be able to con ceive.and comprehend. as it dent from hence. how fome Exiftence notwichftanding. and have the lead Influence on our Paffions. to our Reaionings 5 and yet all this. to allow 5 and fince it is fo. that almoft all jufteft and evi Men. in a proper Method. in a Circle of a Foot Diameter. our Minds can never concei^ Interefts. Magnitude or Quantity in the Abthat of is which we have the clearis eft Apprehenfions. the Proper have ties of Lines. The Reaion agreed in their Conclufions ot which is. we are forced it becomes a Wile Man to diftinguifh between what he can really underftand. that the Notions and Ideas* of : rhefe things. who have apply d themfelvcs diligently to difcover. leaft compounded. Preju dices which generally give the for Byafs.accommodate a Line of ten Feet.

to fcurity. Circle of a given fide A or Radius. We may ties. both whole Ex finite right An itremities arc determin cl or given. that Bounds or Limits are given is or that j whofe which bounded on all poffibie (ides infinite chac which is bounded or limited no way thus a Line is that. a right Line with but one Extremity. but $ i. e. cotnpreheads a a a . indefinite. indeed improve either of thefe Facul by Study and Induftry fo far. or a that right Line. but ftill there arc which we can never at tain. beyond which all is palpable Darknefs. tremities is not the other given.of Natural aHeUgfom nor our Imaginations form an Idea of an unlimited or boundlcfs Quantity. one of whofe Ex definite right Line. e. as to be able to reach Heights that may feem furprifing to thofe that do not apply themfelves to fuch Matters . III. that. We may call finite. . there is a Non pita ultra. and profound Ob- fome things. infinite An which is both ways a Line with no Extremity at i. all. Thus an equilateral Triangle. .

from its /?o- Jitive Properties.4 but of an hends a given or finite 4re a fide or Radius. makes a an infinite fide or Radius. infinite Area y asalfo or Sphere. that infinite always than any -finite Quantity. is more than this. . there certain. thing diftindtly a bout the Na what ture ofFiniteneJ* or Jnfinitenefs. by Attributes. rather And feeing before we can is. of a given Solid .gt. ( if one may be finite & in al- low d an to fpeak fo) an Cone. to diftinguifli is have the one none. we muft I tome Mark or Rule. be Infinite. an nt/wil* Solid. fince we great foever.e But ^ecaufe it Infinitenefsis of that Nature. all poffible Degrees of Finites. muft how can have no Notion of any real Quantity but with the Degrees thereFinite and Infinite ot IV. nor apprehended. think. how great greater loever 5 for whatever Quantity always ex ceeds. [cribe fpeak any not. from the other. but of fide or Radius. telling its effential we are forced to it is de- by than what it it. that neither can be defin d by us. equilateral /zw&amp.

finite at a Diftance finite from it. lin d dngky is infinite in refped of the cir And there are ocular Angle of Contatt ther Curves in infinitum. how refped: of foever : great in any thus finite the Space contained between the Jfymptote of fome Hjperlokids . in infinitely Orbits. each of and of themof right of which. we the fliall afterwards demonftrate. Thus their Motions of the is the Centri petal Force. is in* in refped of the finite Space. of an infinite A a a 3 . of the projeflile Force. %- re/ped: another Quantity. which is infinite. infinitely Lefs : thefe there are Gradations in infinitum. finits. ^Planets. in in felves. The other Alfoiute. than circular ones. of one In* or infinitely lathe. yet infinitely Great. which only great Quantities in Infinite . refped: Thus any thofe infinitely Lefs. CwtaEi are as in infinitely Lefs. There is are two ICinds .. fmall *Porlions of in refped: is infinitely Little. Quantity. or this infinitely Grcat^ in refped of that. and a Line par olid thereto. whole Angles of . is tho infinitely Little.of IV.

diftinft (Pitturet. Infinitely Small .lt. alfo Small ones. fo is that. ^ and finite V. for if an in fmali Quantity. in or Space refpeft is of the place of Body. Thus the ExpanAfymptote and of the Univerfe. as alfo. and infinitely Small. we muf confide . infinite an Number were thing. and therefore Univerfally. in refpedl true of infinitely Lefs. of infinitely And what is (aid great Quantities. to an infinitely fmall Part of this infinitely fmall one. may be a Relative finitely of an infinitely infinitely Great one. is to finite. comprehended between the the Curve. Numbers. and confeinfinitely infinitely Great. as infinitely Great. are the moft fimpl&amp. is infinite. to an infinitely fmall Part there fo is finite of. as finite to an infinitely fmall Part thereof. o\ Quantities. correlatives. and become the fame may be quently will then finitely Great. in refped of other in Greater. is affignable j Bu feeing fuch a impoffible.infinite fion Length. and confequemly the] would be fo likewife of infinite ones. or^fprefentatkns. or Smaller.

we (hall at laft have a Number greater than any finite one. how finite great foever . is a Mul equivalent to tiplication of fuch a Number. ons . join d together. confider thus frame our Notions of infinitely how great unity otfmall Numbers . i.of any finite determined Number. by fuch ano ther Number. e. we (hall have the Progreffion. Thus. we can never actually go thro thefe infinite Additi e. a a$ by perpetual Subtra&ion. of a determined Number. fo many times. and go on in and or diminifliing in incrcafing. Aaa from any finite 4 . may may be more by fome one or more Mul Like wife. or the Repreientation of -the Nature. tiplications. if we add we fhall have as great perpetually to icfelf. and if we con finite tinue thus adding in infinitum. infinitum. i. a* Number as we defire. And becaufe a conftant Addition. eafily obtained. whofe Sum at laft would be equal ties. becauie But Virtually. is increased or diminifh d. we fhall have an in* Number. of fuch a Number. therefore what be had by a perpetual Addition. not actually. to an infinite Number of Uni or other finite Numbers.

8 finite Number how Great unites. lies in the infinitely perpetuated arithmetical Operations. And becaufe Divifion only a perpetual Subtra&ion of fuch ^Number. in any time. finite upon given Numbers-. loever. . if (uch a thing were to be obtain d. of one or more we fliall at laft obtain a re finite mainder. we flhould obtain a Number. would at laft exhibit them. therefore. here it is to be obferv d. may be alfo had by Divifion. how fmall foever. e. equal to any Number. fb many times as the Divifor implies. whatever Cafe by Subtra But ction. how fmall foever. VI. finite not that thefe Operations. tum. fo by fiich a Subtraction per petuated in infinitum. an infinitely is fmall Number. fmaller then any finite Number. i. can a&ually compleat or exhibit the infinite Numbtr re But that thefe continued in infiniquired. that the whole may be obtained in this Force of this manner of generating an infi nitely great or fmall Number.

which may reprefent any infinitely great or fmall Quantity whatfoevcr . in being added ta and the Sum of all itfelf. (as fome have thought) is evident from both the ways juft now mentioned. implies no Contradi- fhould be again. in nerating an infinitely great or (mall Number &amp. That infinitenefs implies no Cqpits Import or Significarion. and if a finite Number. tradition. if any finite an infinite Number. or Quantity may be once added to itfelf. at leaftic implies no Congain. in infinitum^ third time. and a would make you can mul a Number by itfelf. for whatfoever has once been. 6tion it and confequently it implies no Comradiition it fhould go on conftantly.of $atut ai Religion* Vf. itiliouldbefomultiply d^ and after an affignabie N^m^roffuch MultiAgain. plications^ itfelf. of ge tradi&ion. it may be ftill i mulciply d or another Number and To it by im plies . how great foeverj a than i. and again. Number greater Number. it may be again added to itielf. e. you may do it atiply and again.

e. infinite an fince can affign their Sum . and univerfally betwixt -and o. the depends upon and fmall gveat. would make a Number . Sum is and the mean themfelves. greater ver. infinite Number of mean whole Proportionals Proportionals in the ratio of a to i. of Geometrical mean Proportionals. . how great foe- it fliould be ftill the Produft of going on in Multiplying all which Multiplications. at the rate fince the of 2 is and Sum can imply no Con* tradition .gt. Quantities. the Parts there and an &amp. are ~ 5 ~ ? 5^c - Befides. i. Likewife it s certain that between any two given Terms an Infinite plies jtMnlofopiiiral no Contradiction. then any finite. thus be twixt ~ and o the Sum of an infinite we Num ber of to is i mean (Proportionals. can imply no Contradiction. the whole abjlraEl Geometry . and the Truth s difcover d by poffibility of infinitely Methods. and the Sum of all which Products. equal to Unity . affignablc. which depend upon thefe Sup- positions.

will convince us. the end of one Part of it . Inftances arc quainted needlcfs. there muft be ftill further Extenfion . fame yet a little further Reflection.of by other which have other Foundations and they are too well fupported. of allowing is evident from the neceffity both Extenfion and Duration to be boundbe infinitely Divifilefs. and Quantity to That the Extenfion. But that its hfinitcnefiy involves no Import or Signification. to allow of any pofitions. for every Limit is boundlefs. for in Extenfion. from the Limiting Poinc. and whereever our Imagination may place the Limits of the Extenfion y of the Univerfe. of the ble for. there muft be Extenfion beyond thefe Li mits. thefe things. is evident is the termination of right Line. . arc confirmed $ Hefitation. that whereever we flop. fince whoever does underftand this. two Diftances in the one going forward. the other backward. Univerfe from hence. need not be told VII. i Contradiction in . in thofe that are throughly ac with this Science.

equal Sphere. . equal fide. may be found equal to any finite Content whatfoever. nite Let us then fiippofe the whole fi to the Exttnfion of the Univt rfe. into the Cube ^oot of -| of the parts & ratio of the^^w to the Grcumi ference.2 it. may be found Moreover. is ffiijtiofoplncal the beginning of another. for a Cube meter. and fo it go on without Bounds or Limits. as is well known . if the muft Extenfeon of the Univerfe is then a Sphere of a finite Dia finite only. to it. and the Radius of a Sphere equal to this Cube. is the Product of the fide of of a finite the Cube multiply d.

will only touch the Sphere in the Point A. of every main. is ic s evident the Extenfan of the Univcrfe finite greater than it any is 2. yet time or Duration muft have for ever been 5 there is an abfolute nccefiity. and muft be without an end. let this Sphere be cut by a plane through its Center. that there muft be Ex. tenjioH without this Circle. fince a plane paffing through this Tangent. evident^ tharit both has been without a beginning. Sphere. the reft falling without it whence it s evident. be the Circle ADFE-. 1 5 whofe QfaJiiM is A ft. that to any gi ven Point At a Tangent A C. As to Duration. . finite Extenfanhow Exttenfon. for whether thisUniverfe had a beginning or not. of admitting fome real Being to have been for ever. it s certain from the Elements of Euclid. great foever. and the Se&ion. and fince this is true. may be drawn. by which there will an extended Diftance re between the Circumference of the Sphere and the Tangent in all their Points ex cepting one. or che Sphere by the Sedion of which it is generated . of which only the Point A falls upon the from Circle.of Natural Religion.

needlefs to dwell Befides. for we cannot fuppofe a time. from the that from were plain. therefore the Duration of this thing muft for ever be . fo that it s evident. is the common one. the very Suppofition. Duration muft be infinite both a farte ante.& poft. and muft be infinite. and fo many different Principles. The infinite Divifibi5. as the Schools fpeak.have already demonftrated. is. wherefore Time or Duration. has been for ever . the is fo and demon there incom- menfurability . whatever Scheme of &amp. destroying itfelf. as I ly the Duration of this Being. and fince fome real thing muft for ever exift.Philofopby we go upon. yet rime could not be faid not to exift. &amp. when time was not. lity were there of Quantity it ftrated upon moft perfect and unavoidable Proof of. nothing actually exifting. in the preceding Chapters .

CD be a Square. as be to Mm. Aft Z&amp. any . Since the 7H- 4H/w is ^D..BD.I(m ^ 2. fmalifoever divi how fliall T p. that ding the fide AT) into Parts equal. as i: V from whence it s fo that impoflible before an adual infinite Divifion of the fide A to find a Part in D& y^D to tht Diagonal &amp. i yet to ftill or &amp.Pp &amp. 5(A/w are Similar. thatfhould have to (P/&amp. whofe Diagonal is !B theft is the fide 2. let men/urability of fufd

and that from all which. Signification. but like all oiher till JdjuhBsj. fliould equal if DS I e. Things in themlelves.any fuch Proportion as either Integers. or even infinite Nunber of times. nothing in their Import but the Degrees of the Properties of Things . it s very evident. or frattions have to one another. involves any Contradiction in their Import or VIII. but the Modes. yet !B ftill on. infirittum j that neither Great. involve and Conception. to find a part Tp in the fide AT). that taken a certain finite. nor infinitely infinitely Small. it is abbefore an adtual infinite folutely impoflible Divifion. or they do not fignifie really Beings. and / Mcalures of the Affections of Things thj is an abftrafl jfenw. ever fo fmall Parts. Finitude and infinitude. were T&amp. in being further divided. fignifying finitenefi unboundednefe of the Property. divided in capable of is and confcquently AD. does not imply a real Idea. it is to fame Subfttntive j thus jjoyn d in finite . or Qua lity of a real Being.

fince there infinites I of feveral Kinds. endowed with yen cerabfurdity. is and tho I am of Opinion. Import is determined by the Addi . and belong to a Crea ture. that there no I there fhould be fuch.of Natural Beltgtom finite JKjiotffledge. which deftroylily cd the Nature of a created The Being. that 5 any Quality. irs prehend thereof becaule they could not com Extent. are of things. any one Property.. . tion of a proper Subject (brine Perfons have thought that Infinitmfs was a contra dictory Term. infinite in is Degree tain it is. or paint an Image their Imaginations j others have thought. that there no Creature. I have fhewn in the two falfity infinite becaufe whatever was in former Seffions. but Infi intelligible Properties nity is till its a vague and undetermined Notion. and endlefs Duration. they thought muft neceffabe io in ieveral others. of the firft. but upon immediately it muft belong to thefirft Be fo could not ing. that nothing could be capa ble of having Infinity afcribed to it. unli mited Exttnfton. \? or infinite Wi/dom. may be which may have no B b b .

may be boundlefs. a Parallelogram but of a may be of an infinite a Solid finite Breadth. and have neither Knowledge. one Extremity. does not at all alter the former Cafe. and Length. fome do not at imply others. either finite all or infinite : Wherefore there is no Impoffibility . as Extenfion does no way . may be eternal. implies the infinite implies the infinite . or Du~ ration. imply Thought. Knowledge and when a finite Degree of any one Pro a finite Degree of another. perty. . lidity all does Impenetrability. but thus alfo a finite Thicknefs or Profundity the Extenfion of the Univerfe. but unlimited at the o- ther. and Breadth. or the mundan Space. nor Wifdom fome Proper as So ties involve fome others neceffarily. does not at imply any Degree of another. may have infinite Length. nor Motion. j .8 no Relation another : nor Dependance upon one Thus a Line may be limited at to. the infinite Degree of that Property. and yet have no other real Property and Time. but when a finite Degree of any one Property. nor im ply any Degree of that other.

may be the Immenjiiy and Eternity is of that firft with all great Being. unit to have been from all lefs we fuppofe Eternity of tt felf. As alfo this World may have been from all Eternity^ and yet have been created.. tho per* B bb 2 haps endow d .dce. implies many have fhewn in the laft Article of the it . and yet be fince infinite in its Knowledge implies neither nor Reflexion. fecond Chapter Time and no real things. for the neceffary Exiftence of a from as I thing other Qualities. which quire alters the Cafe . a created Extenfion. for eternal Dura tion implies no other poficive Quality. they are only the Modes and 0Vcumftances of other things. that a created Being in their Oiould be endowed with fome Qualities Degree.of bility.are fiftences. Natural ffiel&totu or Abfurdity. but in effect. fdf. nor any of the Extenfion Properties of fpiritual Beings. nor compleat SubS/&amp. provided thefe do not imply others which deftroy the Eflence of a Creature And this Univeife may be infinite -. Being. which other fuitable infinite Duration. I do not here deand eternal tcmine 5 whether Extenfion.

that Abfurdity in admitting Creatures all I volve thofe others. Finite* and or things of a quite Light and Sound^Coloun &ndMufick. finite conceivable. infinite boundlefs.not has finite to infinite any for thefe only have a aflignable Proportion. can mutually exceed one another from whence it is evident. which by finite Multiplications. is.20 ^pofoptncai $?inctplcs be abundance of Reaion to . haps.which do not neceflarily in maintain. like Infinites ones finite finite $ and very many quite contrary is bounded. or Subtraftion thefe and that finite can nei nor fubftra6fced from w/zthat are of the fame things . no/* nite Addition norMultiplication of fimtesj&n produce an Proportion infinite. exhauftible ? infinite inexhauftible. different Nature. there may lead one to think fo there is no to be endowed with fome Qualities. that deftroy the Being of a Creature.Extmfion and thought. only kind are capable of Addition. infinite incomprchenfible. that finite $ is no part of infinite. to one another. are Difparata. IX. ther be niteJiQi added to. infinite in their Degrees. they have few or no common Qualities.

in that of the Cubes. for when the Proportion between any kinds of and the Squares. as that between finite^ infinite*. of is fquare An infinite Quantity. nor pare of the one. becaule no Number. the lower to be rejeacdj in the Aritbmetick of the higher kind j thus the Root. of a higher Rank. ib likewife not zddfidites to. all infinites are to be thrown away. in the dritbmetkk of the Squares of infinite Quantities . and fo in the higer Powers.of you cannot add Cows to Horfes. 3 But in Bbb . fo like- wife in the Aritkmtick of finite*. the other is to be neglefted. nor fubtradt infinites. in refpeft of thofe of a lower. of any infinitely great or Quantity. the other. wherefore in the can drithmetick of the one. becaufe no finite Number make an infinite^ nor any finite part of an infinite make a finite. The fame little is true. is to be thrown away. can make you can em from offinftef. &amp. as no parts of the thing we fearch no parts of the Qjt&fitum .5tion. ( mtdy Small) ?n infinite of the lowert kind and a then in the Arithmetick of fuch either infinitely Great or infi* is the fame.

gtfjiiofopitfcai $tfncfpies in infinitely fmall Quantities. arc li . ginations and Apprehenfions are finite. the contrary obtains. the laft is always to be rejected in the Arithmetical Operations of the firft. be- caufe no finite Multiplication of Part of that.5lors. we can neither frame a Picture to ourfelves. fo we can neither exhauft the Con tents . isabfolutely incomprehenfible. can we in a attain to the pofitive Properties. wherethan lefs to ob ever the Proportion of infinite finite tains. I the latter. nor run over the Parts of Infinites^ word. of Addition and Subtraction of thele Quantities. this can produce the former. X. nor any of the Operations of the Mind. by none of the Faculties. fo& by finite Ca fuch as ours are. both our Ima pacities. The pofitive Nature of Infinites. by reafon that the Produdt of the of two Fractions. and therefore is no mean in Arithmetical Operations. or cffcntiaJ . mited. nor form a Notion of Infinity our Me mories and our difcurfive Faculties. is always Multiplication of the But either Fa&amp.

flies little and that is all that Study and Application does. is the laft thing we attain to. as we well do now finite ones . in to give us a furniconceiving things. Bbb 4 far . of their Nature. we then fliould conceive.of ffiatutal Beligfon* tial & 3 Attributes of in Infinites. to the natural of our Minds. that the natural Enlargement of our Minds. the pofidve Na ture of infinite ends . We fee for Ex- emplc ftinft lities. and us with variety of Objects j but adds Vigor. we are capable to advance. cility with much if Fa and our CompnlMnfions. came at hft to be infinite. time of our Maturity Facility. as eailly. as our Minds enlarge. when we are Children. fo that they are very &amp. or Force. come diftinftly to conceive as the greatcft finite Numbers. we might per haps. Numbers all finite ( the moft adequate Pictures of Apprehenfion. as we now do the leaft. but we know very commonly. at the and Capacities. and that a di(Quantities ) of their pofidve Qua Relations. and if our Capacities did conftantly enlarge and encreafe. and our Undcrftandings open.

the relations of neceflary to one ano the Parts. an flitutes the infinite. ther all and that in a regular.. i. io as to it be able to conceive. it For is the more diftind Appre Infinites hending. we muft be contented. the pofitive Nature of Infinites. ______. con* infinite Now thefe may be ei unequal. the Proportion that n has to XL ther. that infinites have to one aCapacities. far from arriving to that Strength.&quot. we fliotiid diftinguifli Number of which. i4 . . or the finite Relations of infinites to one another. an as n. fuch as greffion._. $J)Sofbpj)fcai . nother. fince it is abfolutely impoffible for us to ftretch our beyond their prefcrib d Limits. which we can attain to. with any probability of Succefs.. Parts fuch as Unity. Quantity of equal Parts. for all the Proportions that finite* have. -. to improve that Part of Since then thus is. for it s certain.-.. and that is their relative Nature. Pro* +1 +3+4 +5i &c. fince we can never comprehend the pofitive Nature of Infinites. fuch has to an infinite Quantity of equal infinite \&amp.. i t.

or z 4- i -^ i -}- . i at laft con- ftitutes or reprefents the i quai. of which. in infinitum. and CXD a Numinfinite of indetermin d equal Parts 5 then | will m . infinitum j for Diftinftion nify finitt oo an infinite Number ( reprefenc or figof Unities or /#- I would be underflood always. grefiion aicending or defcending from or the Parts may have no in- of which the infinite Number. let 2. when I do not exprefs its in fmall finitely Parts. i + f y alto let 2 QO 4. or any other Powers of Natural - Num Numbers. i. the infinite. regular Progreffion : all thefe Varieties may happen in the Parts. who(e Parts infinitum are 2.2 4. or they may go on in any Geometrical Profinite. this I here declare once in general^ for fo for all) or oo turn i = 4. are as Natural bers ? or thefe Parts may be as che&fftirif. &c. or as the Roots of fucb Powers. conftkures the infinite.. fake. as turn. Or the Parts. an infinite Number. infinite. ininfinior QQ 2 ovoo x ^ in fignify er an infinite Number. where the Pares that at laft con&itute.o &c.&c. &c in may be e- in infini- +z 4. laftly. C0fej.

From ther. IDO+OO 2 5 = oo 2 4-2^=oo.. 5.or the infinitely fmall part of an infinity of Unities. Addition. Number of Unities. oo = oo a -}- 20Q K) = . alfo oo x oo = oo i * is an infinite i Number x of oo or V+ &*c. oo 3 4. i? r= \j^j z and ^= \J*J a. S C H Article L I U M. whole infinitely fmall cjual : with one ano with Infinites.16 ^DflofopDfcal Wnctptes will be equal to*. + + oo oo 3 likewife oo x oo Infinite or the Cube of an oo * is Number and fo of Unites.-^^^ the Ninth. and infinite the indefinite Power of an forth. = oo J oo ^ + ^ = 00 . this and the whole dritbmetkk of and of Finites deduced . may be Infinites all Infinites Parts are e- thus. 004 oo z . which is i. having firft reduc d to thole. oo e.

z 3 -|- oo 4-x Z 4. oo x 4 -J-oo 3 oo a.006?! GOJ 004^=00 2. ^oo 3 00=003. then Subtraction. oo oo ^ x 4. oo 4 x ooe = 4eoo 3004x400^= = oo 6.00 = 00 1 . 00 ^ 5 _7zz:oo ^00^ _400^=:^_^00^. MultipKcatton. oo P~^ oo ? . 1 4X.=:00? let 004 ^ then oo ? -^. 5 .oo 104 17J * 024=007^. . = oo ].. oo 5 -f oo 00 z ~ oo . 00x5 oox oo^oo 1 and o * 00^x00^=00 ^ +1. izoo .Batumi aaelfgton* 2 = oo 4. 4^004 aO ? C0^~. Let be than n by any finite oo Quantity. 007 ^ 3. co i or oc 700 _ 5 oo = 1 oo -a /? 900? 500^= 400 x *. f = oo &quot. co * -|- oo = OQ lefs n and ob * -}- oo *~&quot.

oo 2* f 7 = &quot.!? ~l ^ 00 /I ? &quot. 5 * ct ^ = oo 2 ry&quot. 2- oo P * I *&quot. Q ^ X OO a P M f O^f e ? -.&quot. ~ oo or oo ~. QO * =* f ~ & tick. ^=OO P ^53 ^.28 fiivifon. Now to illuftrate this Ariihne- in Tome few Problems let the firft be th^c of the Sum of an arithmetical Trogrefto j from having the firft Term in y y = a* . will cafily Underftand the Truth and Realbn of theie Operations.* J 5* k OO ^gr = 59/ 4-1* oo i* ft C3 Fractions.5 | + co A = co ~ A ^oo ep . f ^ oo ^ oof JtHt -2 ^ J 5 ^7 5^5- .&quot. 00- ^ Thofe who are ever fo little acquainted with the Speeious Arichmetick. O 4.

and the i Numbers.= d. in infinitum =^ 4 i oo i x oo i = ( by the Pvules of .. all i .x&amp. which as is greateft.i or an Infinite Number of U- nities. be ( if I ginning at a. by the Rules of Addition ) And the infinitely (null equal Part of fuch a t Sum. o 5 & of ^9 Dif ic ference. hap or oo ) if ^ (^ f a or oo ^ . of natural Term is d. the fame for pens the = o and ^ = oo &c. infinitum) is e- qual to ~\ or the natural Numbers. } Lee \si fignify. then y = #* -f- v e -\- TT& is u* ^atnral fttUgfon* and the Common theiaft = &amp. 4- 4. laft is cxs ^ 4. when uncertain &amp. i Exemple. If ^ ==oo. and Roping at M/zwte may be allowed to (peak fo) giventhe Difference of two Quantities equal to e. Sum i of a whofc or firft i Series.and v ( = o} then j-== ~l^^i^ ^.

. t Suppofe * + ** Proportionals. between i ^ and o. we fuppos d. infinitely Rules of Addition) fmall and the ^ ^ = co ( or oo i ) equal part of fuch a bum. v = and* = oo i. if 0.the infinitely is fmall equal infinite part of fuch a Sum. if (by . f. is equal to an infi nite Number mean * of Five s. or the Sum of all the poffible Arithmetical mean Proportio nals.= oo 5. if a 0. Number of halves. given.the.= -&quot. for Exemple.Multiplication. i =: ~ . t henj=^-. had been then had been equal to IfJii^.. fhould have their Sum . thus if in^f might be in an Arithmetical Progreflion. or Five is the infinitely fmall equal part of fuch a tical Sum of Arithme 01.. = Difference. d ootfj V = = oo = oo /?. ) or &quot. for Example. (by. where a be put to a equal finite Quantity. If inftead equal to an of the common the Number of Terms &^=^0 = i f then &amp.

. = ( by to 5 the Rules ofDivifons i. If rto . let r co s be as z then a Geometrical at oo Series continued. continued.. And universally. the la ft &amp. fmall equal of fuch a Progrcffion is 2. = ^~= part oo 2. . If r be as 2 to then i ^-^ 2. or tht in finitely u/que ad a. firft Term * of the Terms r to sy r * * * then J where y r s = &amp.o be oo ..I(atio and if their the Sum s y./ .lt. - and go -Ji 7 -]- 7 + s ? &c oo * r s and confequently / * ) = cor^oo/ .of ( Natural meltgtom 5 and the by the Rules of Addition) fmall infinitely equal Part of fuch a Sum. be at 0. In let a Geometrical the firft Term be Progreffion call d a y s the &amp. f i. ~ 31 ^ XIH. the Series oo m wputum.. ginning at fuch a on ing CO OO OO i and ending rate. y be comes -^y. to 1 3 for Example. the laft o. if it be required to find the infinitely fmall equal part of fuch Prothat let part be called * the

and confequent) ly * = ( by the Rules ofDivifan -^-~^ s . to find the infinitely ftmll equal part of the Sum of fuch a Profinite. and of the &amp. y ~ If ~^. be t . equivalent to find the tifytio of the required.gV r to If tffytio i i^DaofopDicai be as | to i. then x = $.gt. then jp 7^- =~ finite. and : rt . as the it alfo if the thelaft finite y firft = ~ x be nothing. and fo in other Cafe. as i to then * 00 00 for = i. then OQ = -- -. e. may have Term its Sum being a at laft. = J i. and r to *. an infinite is Number. be required. Example. and of the $(atio of the Terms. r ly = if of the Terms be the fame. equal .^ laft nothing.-iH ii^rh f . be and the and gteffion. the firft Term of the Series. if and confequent*. ^. the firft be and firft the laft nothing.i^. if the firft Term of the Se ries. continu Terms of a ally defcending. whofe firft given Quantity. of fuch fmall equal parts If it bt to 2. Geometrical Progreffion.

fuppofe the firft Term of fuch a Progreflion ~ . Sums an are at laft equal And thus s Infinite Number of different Series may be found. j. ^TY r * a . and put the fecond and then Term of the *I(atio unknown. the 3{atio Sum of the Terms. a Quantity firft than the Sum. be a^ and therefore the Geometrical i continually defcending. W^. i to ~ then a = -}- f f ~ f r^ 4 5. then in that Cafe.-i 4- 8 j becaufe both their to 2. for Exemple. a to i . the Sum of fuch a Procollecting C c c grcffion. D z Progreffion.of Natural fttUgtott* equal to the 33 of another Progre/fion. may be at for if you pur. . for the Term of the Series. both their Sums mufl at laft be equal. laft all equal lefs . and confecjuently if . + r* as r -~^. and going on in whole Sums.-. different fl^f/Vj. and going on in a different ^atw. begining at different Quantities. r to T fuppofed. and of the (Ratio of the Terms. begining ac a different given Quantity.

._ . and going on in different tifytioSy We have no more to do. + - i - infimtum.^. i. = ^ . 9 fo thatnow 3 fuch to find an infinite Number of Geometrical Progteffions. begining at different Quan tities. their Sums fhould be equal j you it greffio^make which all will find the unknown Term Excmple. & of cwo Terms._ 01 . Term i of the Q(ajf tio^ i/i the Sfnw it felf is. rrr *7 . that ks Denominator. if it of the Series {ought . and having ~ to j. but to form an improper Fraction (as it s calTd) whofe Numerator being any Number fuch.- . confequently 5 the firft Term of the Smes^nd of the ^at\o } = being and the fecond ^-. r Sum -^-=: (in s this Cafe) * rAb^fesss v 3 - 9 9 17 f := a. which Series (hould be equal.14 to ^I)tiofc|)!)ical equal to the Quantity given. to the of either of the two preceding which were equal to 2. then Progreffions. for to find & Series begirjing at its Q(atio were required ~. for 9 2. and ~. * confiftins. wherefore.

~. in equal parts be ~ 4. continued the firft finite. $ we fhall have the 7 4 Series s fought ]0 &quot. Numbers. XIV. according to the Arithmetick of Cojjick Quantities. for then per forming the iDmf/Joif. fhall be fliewn. laft thctifytio of Terms : i to part. the the . wfiwtum. of the Sum this infinitely equal fmall of the Progreffion Hull the be | Or Progreffion reduc fliall d to ics equivalent. thus. of a Progreffion infinite r then x or the infinitely fmall Sum of (uch a Progrcfequal part of the lion. Ihall be (by the Method ufcd in the preceding Article ) the firft Term be /. Again . Let 00 . % Ccc .= -^ equal afterwards all 9~5 15 65 Reafon why all thefe &n&tj confiding of at laft Terms to io different are one another.let the fitft + \ + f &c m * &amp.of ffiatutal aaeltgtom or ? 5 . join d by the Sign us Value may be equal to 2 . for Exemple. Suppofe the Geometrical laft Term&quot.

~. fliali 3. and having tffytio firft ries the laft Unity. begining at the Unity.firft Term be * . gining at and ending at oo and going on . three s +3 4-3 +?&amp. Term ot its Term of the Se . be equal to an ^ infinite Number of in infinitum. &*~ 5 then 5= By fuch may have an infinite Multiple or to any other on Submultiple. and ending at oo . and s ifd 4 ^^ ^. to an infinite Number of equal parts.. of the Sum of fuch a Progreffion. going in any affignable Progreffion. finite may Number have Term of its tf^atio its Sum equal to Unity an in- fuch as 4. and infinite j thus if to the Progreffion. If it be defied to find a Geometrical Pro greffion. be i. the infinitely fmall equal part. which begining firft at Unity. And thus reduce any Geometrical Pro begining at a finite greffion afcending. means. of any given equal parts. then5=|. you if &amp. to ~. we may Quantity. fhall be or the Progreffion it felf. and having the alfo. the the laft c* 5 the of the Terms i. infinite.

then is 5 = -^-^ = ~ Number obcainU fo that no fuch an Geometrical Progreflion. infinite Sum Number of whofe oo . in have a Progrefllon. begining infinity of at different tits all ~= and having different 3^ Let r *a* equal to one another. infinitum + -f 4 you fliould be triple of this. find an Geometrical Series finite Quantities. vi^. having its Sum in any given proportion to any other Geometrical Progreffion and affigned 5 confecjuently you may s. and having qual to the the firft Term of the Quarto. &c. firfl you may thus find luch a Series.of Natural met&totu on -|- 37 1 in the ^(atio of i to 2. Unities. i 8 -f- would 16. I fay. whofe Sum you will had it you would have a fliould be equal to an If &ritt. infinite con finite fiding of of Terms can. cTerm of the Series. = oo 2. a then s and r = ~ Ccc = ^Vo . poffibly be unfaerfall)) And you may find a Geome* tried Series begining at any given Quan lefs than the fecond Term of the ^atio 9 tity.

let 336 . Huofc H T 5 sr Let there be a Curve dlfciffes 2&amp.H(atto. you may have Progreflions. A. 4K^.F. you may find gratia the other . and making the firft Term of the Series begin with the firft Term of the &amp. infinitely all different Geometrical whofe Sums may be in are the fixt point computed from the ^xe that fuppofing one of the Terms of the afTum d at

i infinitum&amp.*/ = Crt& that the fpace adjacent.of ffiatutal aaelfgiom 39 = then tiires. of the Area of the ^polhnian Hyperbola.e* AiBCDELfi^ indefinite will be :*!_ and will the be . to c c 4 C .* becomes in =~ fo ^r 1 4it + + + i^&c. Now if n i then the Equation of the Curve will be y =3 i . . x. then ( becaufe 71 D^~~~^ AGLFGf^l x = y~~~ m where ~ | be &quot. t ac Cafe) as alfo it becomes i _TI. ~ 1 .gt. is the continued infinitely in infinitum. (b that (mall equal part. IE be If the Indefinite Area required. * 9$ J and the Area AftC DELI^ will W be equal to** i = i i i i = + + + i i i i + 1+5 &c. that evident. n n 1 is that i ^re&^nd I j~ i. e and the Equation of the be ) = -^^ Area by the common Methods of Quadra* the indefinite &amp. . Unity.

and t 3 if it be continued only till its Q(atio of the Terms ly be oo to 2. by the preceding Arti will be x cle. &amp.B .?c. the Area oo 2 &amp. and the Apollonian And y = i like wile.BEFH the Space i = __ a z i . or ( computing only to the Area * where 4- 1 to both the is Hyperbola. = ~ =^i =2. becomes I. would be equal to an as alfo infinite Number of two s. this Space would be double of Space. r and fo the interminated Hyfcrbolick when becaufe &amp. Now this firft is is a Geometrical Prois i. or oo 2. fince the infinite its fmall equal part. contained between the CurVe and its Afymptote. A CD Lf^. whofe Term laft i i. in this Hyperloloid. Afymptotes of the Apollonian infinite $ and the whole Space on both If n = A/ywptotes 2. * . n 2. 4 is i 2 4..) only by the pre ceding . and the i. =~. upon i that Suppofition.of Natural -I. or z to the therefore by the is preceding Article. Sum of the Terms ^ = i. = + j +i + ^ ^w hoi eAfymptotick Space of this is Hyperfoloid. whofc firft Term fl^if/0 1.C= ifx= = + + + + Term of the Series then the Space w4 n n M j^ infi laft whofe nitely fmall equal part ( fuppofing the oo i. and to laft o.1 4.2 upon fupthat the = pofition that the greateft Term of its un* i. equal Progreffion were only Infinite or eo If i. ) . A1ET&amp. when n the laft Term = i. 5 equal to oo | =| +| +| +| 3 &amp. then the ^r^ and 5 n= = ^= preceding 1 x= AlEDC + 5 + j + i7. of the Terms i -i. and jf=i a i only op the ^re^ is .Crc. = So whole Jfymptotical Space of 2 the Hyperbola whofe Equation is jf x i.= (by the Seftim f + f + f + | O^c.o Bcligion&amp. would be oo 2 4.1 4 J & 1 3 And Univerfally. and if ABEFH and the &amp. oo z.&c.6rc.

thus the Area of the Apollonian Hyperbolaj confifts of an infinite Number ot Unities. ) is equal to. of an infinite Num ber . then the the Sum of which is ^ n ~~ . i. i -f- +w+n + ? upon fuch a Suppofi* Hence it appears in fome part. and both Ajymptotes. whofe 7 had the equal parts of which rc. comprehended between thefe Curves^ in infinitum. in certain Ratio s to one another. of fuch exterior Hyperbololds.ceding Seftion.B = ?i AI= 4 4 w . fo that the whole Space. that iome of thefe HyferMick Spaces. atid -f ~-^ &rc and = i i . ^ == oo they confifted. which in their Language were call d plufquam Infinite or more than infinite. thofe Geometers meant by the Area s of thefe Hyperbolc ids. whei^thc laft Term of the -Series was only oo . ( putting - A &amp. . the Area of the Hyperbola. is is ~-^ to oo this Series J[- ^ equal ~ = ^ + -~ confequently if &amp. what tion. ^-^ * is jfx = f. which might be.

gt.ber 4? of ffiamcal aaeltgton* the Area of the Hyperbola. let the given quation be y ^. Let the Multiple or Sub. for the whole Space in this. multiple required. be required. of which the Area of this Curve confifts. to find the Equation of a Hyperboloid. as every Body knows lefs. i Suppoiing the laft Term . is greater than the whole in either of the other two. and confequencly the given . for Exetjiple. that fhall with the AJymptote If it AftCDEL only oo fymptote. be a. to exhauft thq whole Area of the Afymptotick Space. of two s $ whofe Equation s is 3 i &amp. A the given infinite Space. be y = x~*. then it s plain that muft be equal to fl and confequencly H- 7 . muft be much greater than the infinite Number of two the former of which equal parts. 4. confifts. Expreffion of the given which contains with the AC. $ fo that though the Parts be the Sum muft be more. let the Hyperbola. as fliall be afterwards (hewn.x of an infinite infinite Number of ~ j but here the Num ber of equal parts.

it is infinitum impoffible. that might be made againft them . If it be objeft- to fome People. or defcending. becaufe. the Sums cannot be equal the fame Objection parts are .i -j-i^ Space and let ic be required to find another infinite = infinite Space. i -j-i J|-i -j. thcnw~ a and fo the Equation a -part of the infinite Space = will be y = ^ it may i be = ~ z 3 ~~ . the Sums fhould be equal. in to OQ or o. to fave the trouble of Animadverfiom ( if it be poffible ) I fliall here obviate fome Objections. their . whofe equal parts i triple r of this. whofe Terms have begin different at different and which given Quantities. for fince all the fuppos d to be aor fcending defcending to oo or o . to an infinite Number of equal parts. that of an Arithmeticaly or Geometrical Progreffion.44 given Cfrc. &c in infinitum* Now. and i . and j felf = + +3 + ? ? 4-?&amp. fome of thefe Inferences. takes place in Geometrical Progreffions. may appear a little odd. and perhaps falfe. afcending. and yec &amp.%atios.

&amp. continued to oo fliould be equal to 2 till +2 + 2+2 + ber of O*c. as above an infinite Number of Unities. that there an infinite Num ber of Series s.& us Confider. to oo . the Number of the Terms become 001.&c. as their Sums arc In Anfwer to of three s. as Well as above Exemple. for Exemple. the parts of the firft and the parts two Equations of the of i +1 +~+ all continued to oo . it 5 for ties. j].rc. whofe Sums may actually below an infinite Number of Uni infinite. continued the Terms be Sum oo i of 1+1+4 + 8.&c. i. equal to continued till equal to &amp. equal to o &amp. i.&c. . there of two s. of is an infinite Number folltt . lee fuppos d to have no fuch Proportion. how are i the Series +1 + 3+4+5+6. Num How the continued to jfliould be but the third part of the Sum &amp.of Natural their fyttio afrcligt om Sums fuppos d or in a given to one another . Since are unequal. continued i fhould l be j_ss + ssj_2_LS2^ ~ i ^ a * c. How 5 1 + 1+4-1-8 + 16.

oo z z 3 0& and both have an the yet Number of^ &c.*&amp. infirittunt .2 r i + 2 i are actually i Infinite. O*c. Exemconti i-j-2-j~4-}~S-{-i6. ^c. there are an iw/zwrt of halv s. i. vi%* as i i 4. 1 -[- 1 j e^r.^f..c. becaufe. below an infinite Number Number of Unities. Greater. = + + J in fc&amp. all the Number of Se ries equal to oo i. be infinite. the one a thus for &*c. the other a Leis ple. and (b \ on. there . of makes the air finite Quantities whatfoever. 6^c. for all which infinite- are real infinite Quantities an Number. may be the Sum of another infinite Series parts be all infinite 5 equal tho 1 their unequal. nued to oo be may be equal to 2 till + * *H * firft 4. becaufe the . tho* Number of parts in both. infinitum. of one thirds of one In fourths. they may be different infinits. * j &amp. and oo 5 = + V+ ? -f 5. all whofeSums above is & conunued pares.ffrpofopfrtcal fours. . and fo forth fo below oo i there and oo i -4.5- infinite Quantity and therefore to Sum of minjwite Series.

Now is certain that infinitely oo theLogarithm of lefs. continued to oo =: and the -. greateft t &amp. of na at . whereas the fecond on at the goes fame equable Rate. and a is t ~^. more particu in the fecond Serai. be. not therefore the Number of Terms. into the Sum of the Terms .bf jgafttral meligiom n&amp. becaufe both the laft. . only. and fo quickly arrives ac oo i.$ 4? and always doubles the preceding Term. therefore i + 14-5+4+5 &c. than the Number of Terms But 5 . it v = oo 11 becomes than oo the ^. i . fo that there is not fo encreafes faft ? great a as Number of ^ Terms in the firft Series. Sum of the . in the Arithmetical Progreflion at i and tural Numbers. in the fecond for let the Number of Terms of a ed. in firft Series. the and cheleaft a.. Geometrical in this Cafe. = where r = . Progreffion continu the fytio of the Terras r. is con- fiderably z. begining bccaufe the Sum of ending equal all fuch is to the half of the Rectangle of the then r V ar f . larly.

and therefore the laft. vable. oo + ^ oo i = ( by the Rules of Addition ) \ . ufque ad is double of all the 1 Term preceding + 3 Terms. and becaufe the laft Term is oo i . with all the preceding. there equal to the Sum of all the foregoing Terms. ufque ad oo . that the Series i continued to eo i. becaufe every 9-1-17 &c. is greater. then as for the Geometri in cal Progreffion i Afcending infinitum. every of all the former 8 &c. vi^ + z -f 4 + is i dent. K^. is equal to ao i oo i _ = . is Sum of the is laft. where it is obfertrc. than +2 + 4+8 i -]- +9 3 . it is evi Term here is equal to the Sum + i. i 15 and confcquently the and of all the preceding Terms. therefore the Sum of all the Terms except the laft. to oo in the^dft oof i to 3.the Terms is oo . in like manner in the Geometrical from i Progreffion continually afcending. i + 3 o . + ) ( by the Rules of Addition to oo z. and fince the laft Term fore oo _ i fuppos d i. or oo i . is infinite.

of ffiatutai meltstotu + 9+27. Terms in the than in the fecond the fecond di- verging fafter. then i is of all the Sum every Term triple of the preceding Terms. j n the n -f n\ times. caufe firft. continued to GO i. viz. continued to oo j. Number of Terms than ihe bo likewife. and confccjucntiy the Sum of all oo 4 and + ~ = - univerfaily. _ i -[- n -f n* all preceding. is --^confequently the Sum of the the _ . as for the two. i isi=I Every Term Sum of all the preceding. +1 +4 + therefore the Sum of Crc. continued to oo & Odd and . arrives at oo i /ooner. an a laft. be- there are more . and of all the ( 00 1 w = ~i i -[ preceding. Series s tsrc. and becaufe the laft is oo i. &-c.. *. the Geometrical Progreffion and going on continually to oo &amp. begining at i i. after a fewer firft. and at a greater Rate than the firft. is by the Rules of Addition oo ) to Laftly. if the Series be i 4-4 16 643 &c. the -}- of i to n. /.%atio.

but the Denominator of the firft is much greater. To .i -J-^c con equal to i -jtinued till the Number of Terms be infi 1 4FDCB and ( may be objected. taking AB= i to the Infcri- bed fquare) yet the Area of the Infinitely is no more than B A FG long Tarallehgram i _p i -|- i ^it i from whence the jfrCt continued in infinitum. nite. ~!&amp. and confequently the Number of Terms in the firft. in the on ^TT&quot. Area ( fee the following Figure ) is found -]. that the Hyperbolick i . would feem to follow that Space ^ becomes ^-^. and 2. 7 Log. it is evident that Number Terms in the firft. is fewer than in the fecond. is t = ^-^ Number of Terms It is much lefs.50 and the i +1 + p+ of as has firft &amp.&r. both which have the fame Numerators.. for the much Number of Terms been fliewn. than that of the fe cond. a r* which fecond in the Log. than the in the fecond. were equal to the which is abfurd.

Concurfe of with Aft. make this yet more Ddd plain. i. becaufe that Number. let A^ To = GL (fee 2 . is not the fame infinite and the reafon why that infinite Number. is not the lame in both. e. Diftance. than the Hyperbolick Area. infinite fuppofing the Diftance between A and B oo a and Aft) (the Concurfe of . be greater than (hall have C^c. AFGftt? this is be equal anfwered.. chat tho each of to an infinite Number of Unities. is becaufe (kho* both FCand FG meet at sn in both. i ? and H-i-l-i greater crc. and whofc Length is oo a ) (or the Diftance between A and the Concurfe of FC with Aft) is greater. And i = AFDCft^ + + + i confequently i we Natural ic ffieugtotu To thefe. d.\(l may be al~ oo low d to (peak fo) then b will FG = /&amp. and the Diftance between A and ft ( the FD =&amp. whofe Breadth is i. yet) F C meets fooner with Aft. than J*G with^S. a. c = oo AFG=\-iri i/ x 1 5 where than and therefore fo. Not only but a Pwallelo- gram. with Aft. is oo c fi x . yec the Spaces are not equal.

and Al be i. 3 jx GL. which GL 5 3 in refped of the fame Abfcifs i Exemple. than the point ^ : L the fecond (yx in ) wheg you and take AG the fame therefore the greater you the it will before the fuppofe w. from i. integer preceding Figures ) be call d x. vi%. of two Curves y x* AG . then y = oc~ . that the greater you fuppofe n to be. longer Curve meet with the Afymptote AC. which has i confequently the point i) fliall L in the to firft (yx*=: i approach nearer in ^C. for i . Let n be an =1E n Number. be. j both LED But they all meet with AC. and .= -^- flhews.5* ( ^pofopptcai the fee KiLy. when GL infinite is o. at an Diftancc from A. and (hall have a ) longer Orthan the former. exprefles the Nature of an this infinity you have x = ~ of Hyperboloids. = ( of which the former gives GL =~ y x == the other GL = 3 ~~} v^J^ that which has w 5 ?i = 2.e. G L. the longer will the ordinate be.

5t of the is for the Unity the the Came in both. . note by 09 ^ I a fay that 3 iis lefs than -v/&amp. and confequcntly of i any two . in infinite Parallelogram^ refpe&amp. n Suppofe rr = oo in then GL = K * ^O 1 *^CX5 f GL. Ordinate conftantly which is the proper ty of the Parallelogram fhews that all the ACXGL. meet with it as alfo infinitely produced. among of the Hyperbolick Spaces. i is the becaufc y x ^ Equation for the = infinite Parallelogram^ it may be reckoned Thefe things the Hyperboloids. meet with the dfymptote /L. = b. AC&amp. is which Cafe the i.of thefe Hyperboloids y x whofe Concurfe with the Afymftote A Cy we ftiall denote by oo a and y x i we fiiall dewhofe Concurfe with 3 . AC^ before . only the d d Number of D Terms . which n ByferMtidt y x = i .gt. duly confidered will remove all the Diffi culties arifeing in the different Expreffions.of Natural and therefore thefe infinite Diftances AC muft be different according to the different Values of of n . z =

the equal parts of which the Areas of the dfywftotical Space. if we ap has been already faid to this Cafe. in than the Number of Terms It the infinite (parallelogram.. for Exemjplej^. But the Difficulty will raniQi. the thefe )aft are than the greater firft. and in of them. &c. And Area of the whofe Equation is yof == f. the equal parts of which the Area of the Afymptotical Space.*x z. whofe equal parts are 2 -f. may likewife feem odd. muft be Number of Terms in the we fuppofe that theie equal parts exhauft the whole Areas t ) for if the Number of Terms in the firft. in fhould be m/tfH mto.) Areas of yet its certain. (if of Terms than the of thefe laft.2 + i + 2. of the Hyperbntoidj whofe Equation z is j/x = i confifts.54 Terms all in all of them lefs is different. ply what for it s certain that the Number greater firft. ^-\-^-\-^J^ ^-\-^) &c.. of the in others bormAj (hould be leis. why for Exemple.z -J. and yet. be equal to oo ^ ? the Number . (where n is an in infinitum teger Number.

for Exerru all Series in -f- n -J. than others. in their at oo i .n* J- n* -}-n* n\ &c. pie. tr where 2 ^ be or the Ground of . infinitum. an equal Number of in Times* Now fome of em.c.of ffiatutal ^Religion* 5 y Number of Terms w i in the others. on the Suppofition. jI u yfer -f K j n i equal to oo e. equal Parts in is of theft thedfymptotical Space of thefe the Difcovery. equal parrs. and greateft Number) Ib by thefe means an infinite Number of the this Suppofition. But the Truth of the Matter is. which expreffes the 4/ymptotical Spaces of its AlEDC. equal parts are J JL e&amp. the Invention infinitely fmM part ^-^ depends up . (chofe. obtained upon cannot be equal to the iw^i^Number of un conftitute the Area . whereas to give the true Hyperboltck Spaces. thus equal parts which Dd d 4 i + . Tv^. -j- flop. to go on. that the Invention. they muft be all fuppos d. then e muft be greater than a. diverging finite n is the fafter. where arrive at QQ t fooner. that all thefe Series s flop at oo i and go no further. in the that they i unequal Progreffions. ni whofe .

&c.56 4. riving at or Slownefs thereof. but the reafon of this divcrfity is.equal to -f 9 the ^red of the Curve whofe Equation is jy x E= i . whereas the febut | + \ +& +~. whofe Equation = I .have the leaft infinitely mean when fmall equal parts. from the Number of Terms .&c.&c. becaufe the fe cond Area firft. as they fliould do. than the former . + i + + 1 -h 2. is greater i -f + + 3 than that of the firft.^. and 1. but the 2.s. is equal to the Ais yx&quot.7 *9.which diverge tafteft. If it werepoffiblc to find the fmall infinitely equal parts. firft fo are the parts refpe- dively is . and as the Area of this laft.of the l Spaces. reduced to equal parts. than the nitely Denomination of the infi fmall equal part. which cond i is &amp. they make the greateft Area j an equal infinite Number of parts are taken. 1 rea of the Curve i + 4+8 5 1 6&amp. whereas the parts are lefs fecond Area is greater than the firft .gt. is taken from its ar the And oo i without confideration of the .gt. cho in the time. fo that the Quicknefs unequal part. arrives fooner at oo i .

ever to arrive at a compleat Comprehenfion. at leaft. then we Qiould infallibly. oftheO^w. but to thefe Spaces to me. but if we defire (hall be in a gi fuppofe i to m y to . with- Terms being = oo i out knowing what the Logarithm of an infi nite Quantity is. do not at all extend to the whole to an Alfcifs. have the Relation of one another . f n both p i i which Expreffions. it feems impoffible. f as to j . but one of thefe two.of Natural Beligfon* given 57 or oo a . Space veil Qtytio. can be exprels d. to n+ n l . for thefe equal parts. of thefe J/jmptotical Spaces to one another. but which them all. or as r p+ . fuppofe the Exponent of the AbJclfs of the one be /?. which I have uied to reprefent in fome manner their Re* lations. then thefe i Spaces i fliall be one another. gible nent. . in it s pofitive Nature. I know no way. Spaces. of the other n. J. even of the Relative Natures of thefe infinite Spaces. Infinite equal in the Relati is ons. are equally unintelli to find the Expo whofe fuppofe/?.

is -2. and p then /? =~ _= -i. = 7. in the firft is 2..iftt . Term the other . and if Exponent Power . which fhall Jfymptotical Space. in the reft fecond. = ~. becaufe thofe Terms the ter in remoter. is from the begining of comes equal.and n = 2. that the Equation have its infinite of that whofe Expreffion is y x *. which happens. double = = = +4+8^16. i. ftant the fecond Term for Exemple.and this in always an affignable become firft than the fame after the firft Terms of in num- bred from the begining. and the the of the Terms of the afcend refpedively in the Powers of thefe Numbers. i.. be thefe Cafes. = 2. w=== where 5. m =2. equally dithe Series. if /&amp. and the Spaces are (puting isj^l x i) i ^-2 of the Cwwe. is fon why is this laft Space the double of the of the lat greater firft.f then -^ n .

F in 3n indefinite Parallel to It is evident. that if AB. its own Multiple and Sub- XVI.B. ^ = Log. is . or own flfyof fo the rf/ymptottcal Space of the dppolhman Hyperbola multiple. and = z^H!the s . From the fixt Point the Indefinite right Line ^. the Parallelogram A FG B would con* x \ tain an w/witfe Space = oo =. FG. fb that it muft be the firft and lowed infinite Space its .lt. and fo on then ~ Multiple^ or Submuhiple which (hews that no of the Jfymptotkal the Jppollonian Hyperbola^ can be Space of found but it felf. which renders in other Cafes 3 If both equal. own Square. is Cube ) O*c. ^ x ^F. were produced turn. Term. ^ A draw draw infini- at ereft a y perpendicular AF i.Power of i and | be required that fhall make them 2 both the fame 2** Number 2 w then _ L and = 5&quot. 5.- that as its Unity. and Leg. It . and from A&amp. from n i ? which gives the beginning.

contain an interminated Space. multiply d into any Number whatfoever. which with the Afymftote A.C. and the Area i.It is required to fiad the (hall Nature of a Cun&amp. x^/x-^x* where putting x =? and confequenly /x .gt. be d a y the ordinate E D be /x the Abfclfs E A. let this finite Number called y. and l let y= x^7~ equal to lx- for Exemple^ ^ let a be 4 then the Equation becomes y is = X-* /x. of fignify the Logarithm then the Equation of the Curve (hall be or equal to a finite Space. finite equal to Aft. x.e y FX&amp. reprefented ABC DP given call by any finite Number.

= 9 A F x AF Area + theruhat Space is 9 ~AF\* be obtained. then = = ^^4.) this Area = AFC.B=Al be i. If a 9. let the Num ber to which we would have the intermi- nated Space equal be a.) and let 6fi be produced i.i) = 4 . alfo 9. let a 3 . the and fubftra6ting Unity (nzto Square A ft El) from the ^ra* thus found.i the infinitum^ The fame may general Equation for the whole j& and ktm=:a i . from the Hyperbolical Curves ( fee the Figure of the let A& cuts the Axe (becaufe the Curve continued. and = ~n. for the whole o. for Exemple. we fhall have the remaining Area I E FG a. becomes affum 4.-~? Space j. preceding Article . the Exponent of the Curve fliall be fought + n=-^r. which. AfcEFG I is x = dfymptotical and given calling i^the^r^is i. and confequently intermediate . = we have d.

to the Axe AH y let the of the Circle which may have at the ftrtex A the fame De AlE. gree . C&amp. whofe Qrdinate its being y m ji x.g. for in the and 9 former*BG be defcribed.- infinitely metical Operations of relative Infinites. from the fixe Point A. let a Semicircle and let it be required to find the Radius r.\x defcribed. Having illuftrated the Ant\&amp. Al/dfs with the Radius AC ks AD Equation is = x7 =r. 9 4 c r Sum or Difference of + 4=13 XVII.? evident that different two interminated Areas of Curves may be whofe found. i/i from which fubftra&ing Unity (= have the the interminated Space 76 IE EG is = +f + two + Hcncc k H&amp. the Areais.. may be equal to any finite Space. let us now apply the in ibme few Problems. that involve Quantities Great. infinitely to fmall Quantities. &c.B &amp.=4=1 + we * + f6 4.**- =.

coincide. be the next Point in the Axe to and fo AC (hall become infinity fmall /= equal to the Fluxion of the Abfclfi x \ and then the of the Circle. gree of Curvature. will be Equation z i r x ^. = C. with the Curve defcrib d whofe Tangent to the Vertex is 4 or Let C.z. tnuft likewife coincide beis . But if A and C the Circle fuppos d to have thcfe Points . x t j the an&amp. JF = i= Equation of the then I and cauft.of 6 ^G.

the Cn* r becomes * 2 Parabola. for in that Cafe x is x fmall in refpeft of i. ture. when is a Wherefore the flowing Quantity. If m ti r. If to one half of its Latns rettum. I - is infinitly Radius AD is infinitly fmall.X yW &quot. ^ 2 * == o. and i to be fuppos d o. no GVcfe can fall. great at the Vertex. For in that Cafe .64 Points at the Vertex Curve. The 3(adiiMo[ that has the fame degree of Curva is with the Apollonian Parabola. in refpedt of the Curvature of the GVc/e.e. is ortheC#minfinitly fwiof fuch Cr^w ^@G. or between the Tangmt AF? and the ^ . and =^Il= JL + 2 but in this cafe finite # is infinity fmall in refpeft is of any a quantity. or infinitly fmall. r becomes ~ i. and confequently common with the other 2 %r* # = xw y - =x!j^l = 2. equal j? m l9 then r x . Cm r then = JClldlJi-= oo. 1 + * a So 2 ifm= i. and lo to be thrown away and Circle.

.of $atttrai Cafe the Exponent of i in the fitftTerm of the Value of r. there be whofe Equation* are^ = x&quot. at their Ver* is = fmall (for in the Curvature at the Vertex infinitly all is fuch Cafes. reciprocally proportional to the G(adiu4 of the Circle which couches the Curve at that Vertex) in refpeft of the Curvature of a Circle. = ^ then r &amp. If m = then r ==Jr!i if = 3 r = two Curves* = &quot. Exemples. =- ^3 the E e . If m 2 . Wo. = ^ = ^-=o. and fo the Curve A*B will fall within the GVcfe ^/. And fmall. tex y equal fo the Curvature of fuch Curves. and j&amp. Let let m be any Number^ iwf^ger or fraftion. being fuppos d infinity to ~ r becomes ao. X ~7 oo . 2 becomes Negative^and i in the fecond ^r -. or the Circle will cut the Curve.

may be in refpcd of that And thus infinities s of Se of the nothing. of which the Curvature. : . integer. is infinitly great. fmall.Hadiuis of their Curvatures at the will be. for in that Cafe /y little. y and - m be an or a fraction the & And infinitly firft therefore the Curvature of the Kind of Curves. in refpeft of as x to i. is w- of the in refpeft of the Radius Curvature in the fecond . XVIII.-. may ries s Smaller. or 772 1 .lt. 2 is A: 5:^ 2 :: &amp.2fy- dwj of the Curvature fzrtrt in the firft Cwm. Relations of Having Infinites thus explain d.. as to their are epofitive Nature. v/^&amp. of the be infinitely Greater or preceding. or o to i. than Curvature of the immediatly following.66 the ^po(bp!)i(cai &amp. But&amp. I dull only fubjoin this General Reflexion upon the whole Difcourfe. that Infinites of all Kinds. cal Point if ^~ : A& the to one another. qually .gt. of the Exponents of fuch Curves.

And ture therefore in our Inquiries about the Na and Proprieties of things. their eflen- and pofmve Proprieties are equally be yond our reach. there we have nothing to do. and be of u(e to us. and hope for Succefs.of qually Natural fteuston* 67 above our Ccniprehenfion. there we may la bour. adequate for fuch ^e/erches . is involved. all ftuck into the fame Concave Sphere. as the fixt Stars feem to our Eyes. if not infinitely different Diftances from us. as it were. tho they be an various. in quieting our Minds. or infinitely infinite. God Almighty having given us Capacities. as being without our Sphere. but to leave the Matter as we find it . we ought to pafs over all thofe in which Infinity is concern d. and not belonging to our Province nity is : where Fi- only concerned. whether they be firnp\y tial infinite. this Reflexion may where the pofitive Nature neceflary to be underftood $ of Infinites. arc and fuch are fe- veral . about the Difficulties in the arifing conception of thofe things. but where ever Infinity in its absolute Nature. it is the fame thing as to us. and pofirive Qualities.

and by confequence. we muft partake of the efTential Natures of (uch. and if we be Creatures.. Religion. both of Philofophy and God Almighty cannot be fup- workContradi&ions. And no it s wife Man will at tempt what help. impoffible he fhould obtain.Veral Subjects. nor be difquieted at what he can never JF I * I & . be of finite Capacities and Faculties. and fo ic for him to make us unis impoffible even derftand the pofitive Nature and Qualities poscl to of Infinites.