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PHILOSOPHICAL

PRINCIPLES
O
F

Natural Religion
Containing the

:

ELEMENTS
O F

Natural Pbilofopby
And
the

,
ri

PROOFS

for

NATURAL
Arifjtng

^X^\

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RELIGION.,
from them.
F.

By GEORGE CHEYNE, M. D. and

R.

S.

Printed for the Gol den Ball in Cornhill over againft the Rojal Exchange. 1705.

L N D N: U GEORGE STRAHAN at

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loun. as claim Honour of Tour Lord/hips Patronage. and Caver- Principal Secretary dom of State for the King of Scotland.T O The Right Honourable JOHN. faing undertaken in Obedience to lour Commands. of Lord Ker. EARL ROXBURGH. Cefsford. My Lord.. taming . and con- jw A 3. HE following Treatife may in fome ttte Meafure.

Such .. haw made you f ogreat a Mafter of Reafonwgs of this kind.gt. imworthy of Tour Lordfoips Protection. anfwer.Epillle Dedicatory. that I am not capable of offer ing any thing to Tou worthy Tour own Perufal. when you allow d me the Honour.tfw/NaturalKnowledge. I had with your Lordflrip. Thtf Tour LordJJitfs uncommon Advances. even in the more abftrufe parts ofGeo- metry. the Dignity of the Siibjeft.gt. yet did hit the Performance. to talk with you on Philofophical Subjects. I Jbotid not think it.**&amp. r&amp. taimng part ofthofeDifcourfes.

Such has heen Tour Lord/hip* happy Genius. and doing good to Man ledge . to become Moft ufeful to Mankind. It wa&amp. and for Buftneis.lt. to layfuch Foundations hoth for Know ledge. and Conduct m Tour Studies.Epiftle Dedicatory. has not retarded Tour deeplnqutries. in the Know of civil Government nor Tour univerfal Learning rendredyou more unfit for an active Life. that Tour great Progrefs in the nobler -parts of Philofbphy.s the peculiar Wif- dom of the Antients. kind. that they left it to their Stars to de termine^ which of the two afford them Occa/iort. What .

in the moft difficult Times. It was Tour LordJJjip s Opithat the Providence of the Almighty Governour of the Univerfe. if others know not as I do. ProvifwnTour Lordflrip has laid inforthefirft. had refertfd to this . it is becaufe they have not had Occafion to Dtfcourfe with Tou on Subjects of Learn ing. pacity r\ i for /-v^ * Her Ma~t A* Tour Country. ifany thing could he reckorid fo. is an undoubted Proofof Tour Ca the other.Epiftle Dedicatory. And the ^tieeiis Choice. I wotfd fay too. for the prefent Reign.

as well a$ an Ornament to lour Country. . being prone to Atheifm. have vainlypretended. by which the Se crets of Nature have been more than in happily unravelfd any former Times. I cannot but look upon Tour Lordflnp a& a fingular BlefTing. great Advantages . to expofe the Folly ofa cor rupt Generation of Men. the Oracles of Reafon to be on their fide. who are a Living Exerriple/Zw/- and Probity go Hand in Hand. pofe.gt.Epiftle Dedicatory. and that Greatnefs and Honefty receive A 4 addl* true Knowledge. on purlaft this Age. And upon the fame account. thofe &amp. who from their vithas Practices .

or Fortune.Epiftle Dedicatory. But. that Probity and Candor that foincs in all Tou fay or do.fup- pfy tie Place of a juft Enco mium. Tour Modefty. as the Motives upon which you accepted . or Breedingy&amp. andJJyallnot prefume. hecaiife I would not offend Tour Lordrip s darling Vertue.?r Tem per. or which is more valuable. mention.lt. additional Liifk e from one ano ther. ) jnom J Si May Tour Jjwd { ^\ happy in your Adminiftration. Tour Birth. / J/iall choofe to tranfgrcfs again ft to the common Rules of Dedica either tions. hut Jliatt only make good Wifljes.

the World in And your Temper. fuccefsful. May your Endeavours for fettling the Peace and Hapfinefs of your Country . my Lord.it. this fmall Treadle is the only Prefent . I can make your Lordflip. as your noble Mind. were Juft and Ho nourable. May your In tegrity -protect you from unjuft Malice .e as your Love to it is fmcere. .Epiftle Dedicatory. for the many Favours I have received from you and Thefe. May you lye as eafie in your Office. as you are to all ftccepted.gt. has fecufd you from mean and nar row Prejudices. are the only Returns. as l&amp.

Lordfliip s Your moft humble. . and &quot. that no one can Honour you more.W ^^ V *^j moft obliged Servant. than My Lord. y ^ti CEO.! beg your Lord- Jhips Acceptance. CHEYNE. frefent ll)ave to offer you\ of winch however. . andthatyour Lordfiip woiid believe.Epiftle Dedicatory.

to they are infcribed. As for the Ma terials. becaufe my Subjeft wanted not . TH whom I E End and Defign and of thefe Difcourfes. If any one think. I have had Occafion to be converfant in . what gave the Occafion and Rife to them. may be gathered from the Title Page.e&. for I induftrioufly avoided all Quotations.. I give every doing Juftice to Man Liberty to lay in his own Claim. (bme of them I borrowed from the Works of thofe Learned Men. and the Contents-^ I have alrea dy hinted. the Commands and Converfation of that noble Perfon . without their Names. wi*. I have made free with their Inventions.THE PREFACE. and aflert his juft Right. others had. by a little reflexion on my Sub.

. Newton s Store. diftinguifli them. moft plentifully. points. not Authorities^ but Demonstration. That . from thofe* who have written on the fame Subje&s with my felf. Some part of the Matter was furnifhed me from Mr. having treated their Opinions. I hope the Goodnefs to pardon they will have me. Borclli and Bellini^ that Friend to Mankind^ my conftant good Friend.. on Principles (tho juft and demonftrative) Nature from mine. Dr... Archibald fitcairn his Differ tat ions fupply d me the I borrowed but little. as will even in my rude Drefo. For what without particular Innuendo s.. yet of a different If I have had the Misfortune^ to differ in fome few Philosophical points^ from fome great and deferving Men.The Preface. both to avoid Re and bccaufe they generally went petitions.. befides. eoncern d the Animal Oeconomy . and his Inven tions have fuch peculiar Marks. with all the Candor and Regard due to their filer its j without mentioning their Names ^ and a mannerly Liberty in Philofopbical is allow d to ev ry Body.

and the John 5 Craig^ I^zzmeA Oxford^ Dr.Wealth of Learning y not to want any Paneygrick from me. to bis Roy Men fufficiently eminent Chrift-Church in the Common. I ted^ wifh there ftill..The Preface. may not be faying fo If my Occaiion of Performance excite others^ of more Leifure and Capacity to do it the Juftice it deferves. and Dr.. Friend of :&amp. is owing to thejudiciqus Corre&ions and Advices of the Reverend and Excellent Mr. I think I may a Treatife on it was wan fay. THE . That thefe Sheets have not many more Faults than they have. If I am not over fond of my Subject.gt. I have obtain d the end of my Ambition.ArbuthnonPhyfician al Highnefs.

The firft LAW of Nature. p. p. 1 1 it felf. Of the I. as to the Mate r rial The Phyfical Lam */ Nature. 8 and Demonftration Explication of the 7. Rticle 2. I. The Introduction. 12 IP* S . That Bodies cannot ofthemfelves either move An or alter the Dire&ion of their Motion^ p. and of ifs $ $ Laws. 6. Definition A Pag i of Nature. Part of this Univerfe. $ 5. p. ?^ Phyfical Laws. Vis inertiae in Bodies.. A Demonftration of the j| ture. about 3. CHAP. The true Scheme of Nature. p.. 6 firft Law of Na p.THE CONTENTS. ^ . Appearances^ confuted . 2 the Philofophers . 9 8. p. p. 7 & 4 & 5 feq. and uniform Apfea* ranees of Nature. p. The Opinions of s it and Nature. 3 4. can move in a curve of That no Body 9.

p.The 10. do not move of ibid. I/&/W Law of a perpetual Motion. themfelves. is eflential to p. Tto ^ JEW)/ cannot move in an Orbit perpetit ally. 2$ Rule . p. Mechanifm/razz what isnotfo. in their Orbits. f 04 perpen dicular Stroak. The Conrfe of a Body The Method of compounding.gt. /?/ p. 24 Ibid. That the Celeftial Bodies. that neither of thefe particularly . when their Direftions wAkp an Angle. and refolving Motions. or iMpulfe. 13 J 12. That there can be no perpetual Motion to diftinguift A p.6e Impossibility demovftrated. by two different Forces. p. monftration. p. i88c 19 w/V/6 iVV De Nature. p. That neither Motion nor Reft. 22 17. p. II. 2O&2I 5 impelled at the fame time. 1 6. That the Influence of an omnipotent er. drawing in Three different Directions a Body in 4quili1 8. Ibid. Pow $ The Necejfity of a Vacuum demonftrated. 27 19. 13 13. 25 Ibjd. 28 2Q. p. e. with it s De14 monftration. from one Jingle impulfe. in its Motion. is the only Canfe of the Prefervation of a Body moving. i. with one another. brio. $ 15. 15 14. p. The T&amp. The Second Law of Nature. 7/6e Proportions of Three Forces. Matter. p. The Proportion of an Oblique. Contents.

in his Aftronomy. That the Attra&ion or Gravitation of Bo & & dies upon one another . about the Formation of the Univerfe. 41 feq. Ibid. $ p. one /ingle Impulfe^ 21. That the Attraction or Gravitation p. & & $25. 48 & 49 Ibid. 27. p. Gregory. 30. is a Faculty communica ted to. 3 7 feq. This Hypothefis. p. The Hypothefis of other Philofophers. Des Cartes his Hypothefis confuted at large from the Arguments adducd by Dr. 42 feq. or retaind in their Orbits by a central attra&ive Force i p. by fome Being p.3 2. is 47 of Bo dies upon one another. is the only Principle to account for all the Appearances of fuffident Nature. p. 33 23. tial not a Property effenp. p. Mr. or imprefs d upon Matter. produced and confuted. Leibnitz s Opinion about theCzuksof the Celeftial Motions. and Do&rine. his Opinion. That the Attra&ion or Gravitation of Bo dies upon one another. 26. 34 feq. y . That the Celeftial Bodies. about the Mechanical Production of Gravitati on. not fufficient^ nor fat if- fatiory. and the Des Cartes Caufes ofthe Celeftial Motions. 49 Ibid* intt from Matter. do not their Orbits from one /ingle Impulfe. That the Celeftial Bodies muft be either turnd round^ by a circulating Vortex.3 1. to Matter.The Contents. 30 22. 24. Ibid. 29 move in ibid.

Contents. material Suba or is a T/ta/ 35. 74 & feq. p.gt. The Figure of -the Particles p. p. 67 Mercury explain d. JF/VA 2r/&amp. jHW ticles extreamly fmall. ThcFigure of rances of the Element of Water explain d. ^ 37.The Ibid. 69 for.^ ^ prodigious Velocity. and the manner of p.lt. of the Fluid of Light. The Flux or Reflux of the Sea. or Gravi Attraction or Gravitation. jlancc. 68 How from fo feiv Primitive Fluids as. 66 the Nature $ $ Properties 33. p. tation being JMpreJs d on Matter^ and the man ner of it s Operation. 59 and the Nature the? arts. 7^ & 38 . the and feq. Appea 30. p.. 32. anfwcred. 28. the infinite Vari eties of compounded Fluids may be accounted and feq. . p. agzinji Attraction. 50 Sc feq. and Properties of Air explain d y p. The Nature and Caufcof Fluidity explain W. $36. and the Perpetuity thereof. 61 $31. The Motion of the Celeftial Bodies.?/ for from this Principle. 56 $29. Fluid of Light is projected from the Sun fixt Star. /Ae covflituent Par*re. Water. 72 & feq. 62 Freezing explaind. p. Light Body 34. That the Quantity of Earth^ denfcr Fluids producd^ does continually decreafe. the on Water Ibid. The Nature of Cold. accounted for from this The Objections. p. 7/fc Nature and &amp. accounted Principle &amp. Mercury and Light.?/ p. p. and the Conditions the necejjary to conjlitute p. Air.lt. 55 Ibid.

That all Bodies have p. p. of of Light and Colours the Nature and Pro p. The Caufe why different Co lours. p. *# mutually upon one another. by Mr. 96 in accounting for the Appearances of Gravitation. 78 39. The Appearances 99 & feq. is & constantly diminishing^ to Light. p. Newton. ibid. jeft. in the Obibid. Summary. T&tf Bodies. 81 What the Primitive are y Ibid. That Light ^w///?/ 0/ Rays differently re- frangible Ibid. p.?/Cohefion 44. ftwrt 88 Ibid. in that admirable Treatife at full length. 86 proportional to their Denfities. 0/Opticks. What Colours are made by the leaft refrangi What $ ble Light. That the Quantity of Heat and Light. 3&. 41. &amp. 82 Colours are. Bernoulli s Experiment on Barometrical Tubes relating J 43.lt. p. Ibid. and Solidi- . and in our Seniatioris. 95 Mr. in themfelves. exhibit Bodies $42. and reflexible. and what by the mojl.lt. Caufe of ons ef Light. Ibid. their refraftive 84 Powers p. from the Principle are not confin d to one Jingle Condition thereof\ but muft alter thefe as the Appearances re &amp. A perties down as they are fet . 89 feq. p.The Contents. we Nature. and the Bulk of the Body of the Sun and fixt-StafS. and Light. and Original Colours p. The Nature of the Sun and fat Stars.?/ quire. and RefraftiReflexions The the 40. 79 Ibid. Ibid. That p.

general Principle of At p. fttppofes Matter end?wd y p. I and of I/ the \He Introduction. with which this Hypothefis. Mankind in particular. Ibid. not being ejfential to Matter. Contents. 113 46.. This Syftem of things. if not p. p.The ty. The Appearances and Caufe of Elafticity. traftion. Inquiry into the Condition. 5 & 6 . pag. Of II. That there ^arefcveral Degrees of Cohefion obfervable in Bodies . 104 Ibid. 4 of Motions p. 2. and /hewn to be one the flanenefs of the Cohering Surfaces. p. Two different Demonftrations. tha t feews beft to An account for the Appearances^/Cohefion. 101 the gene 45. tewufe Motion ejfential to matter. which fam to require dif ferent Conditions of the general Principle of Attraftion. coud not have Lccit 3. I JL TtaEpicareaa Hypothecs. of ral principle of Gravitation. Mechanically froducd. $ That Matter has no other gnxlity anfoerable to Self-Exiftence. about 2 Origin of the TJniverfe. 114 CHAP. explain d from the. Condition -of the Caufe thereof* $ p. p. the Origination of tint World. 3 4.

apowcr. I? 8. 1 6 the Powers 1C. 7 s Suppofivg Motion ejfential to Mutter. 15 and Terreftial Appearances that have been explain W. yet farts (confijlcnt to their Nature} coud only move in Lines Parallel. unaccountable from.. Mechaniim. Self-Exiftence. coud he prodncd. ^ Ibid. from this Principle of Attraction. 1 1 7. All the Celeftial Mechanifm. Allowing Matter a ibid. Contents. That Solidity or Cohefion. 17 of Mechanifm. Allowing Matter. p. to one another. and therefore above the Powers of Meibid. the Nature of Matter . in confident p. yet it coud not have producd thisprcfent Sy ftem ofthings. to change it s Dire&ion. and unaccountable frotn. and Jo p. p. and an oblique Direction. wcer p. ^ There are federal Appearances in Nature. Self-Motion. That to afcribe to Matter. 9 Body*. 14 or the Gravitation of Bodies one upon another. . coud never have ar if en from one or all ofthefe Properties^ p. Attraction. Animals dc wonjlratcd. yet nothing but fluid or/olid Spheres. 6. in- confijlcnt with.The 5. is to makp it a free-will d coud produce no Agent. p. Ibid. Self-Motion. and an 5 oblique Direction. p. and in- cwjiftent with meer 9. to be perpetua Mobilia. 9 7. The Production ^/Animals above p. Ibid. Ibid. it Obliquity of Dirc&ion . are unaccountable from meer Me chanifm.

. Ibid. -aStt- That the red Organs. That from all this TJniverfe^ coud not have been bccaufe its it Eternity of it felf. that all the parts (liquid and folid.. and involuntary Mo tions of Animals arc perform d^ p. 37 14. of the Origin $f the Univerfe^ p. A Demonstration p. requires^ an Extrinfick Principle for ftence. Freedom and $ 13. The fpontaneous Motions. p. Mechanifm. 24 $11. Ibid.The Ibid. 36 Freedom and Liberty of Rational Creatures. 30 &c feq. 27 the Icing offowethittg. Mechanifm. is formd at the fame and therefore the Production of Animals. of Rational Crea tures above the Powers p. inconjiftent with above 12. is above the Powers of ally infinite in Ibid. Several Demonftrations . p. above the Powers of p. frefcnt Snbfip. 40 $15. an life or Defign^ that every thing is ne+ other th}ng y which is an in$ fa Hi It I? . 1 6. of 28 Mechanifm in the Brutes. The voluntary Motions. Ibid. injlant. Contents. are above the Powers of Me chanifm. of the p. 18 Mechanifhi. That In the Production of Animals. How the voluntary. and therefore the Prodn(iion of Animals. in Animals arc Number. The Ariftotelian Scheme. p.) of which jkoud have been ^ they conjift. there was a Neccjfity. Liberty. of tive the Senfi- Kingdom. 42 That every thing in this 1)nivcrfc has an end. 29 0/ Mechanifm.

p. from all upon another had al World ^ tertiity. World been from Eternity. 1 8. they p. That ftnce had ft the Heat. 47 That the Quantity of Fluids. 49 and Bulk. 20. themfelves. which wiift have eer now. That all p. no Liquids extant in our Syftem at frefent. and the celeftial Bodies do not move in their fence Orbits by Mechanifm. fixt p. p. had 51 been all Extingnifoed e er now. and Light.have movd from all Eternity. fequently had there had been. and have not been for ever of Mark. 5 6 Since the material Part of this Univerfe. 17. That the Celeftial Bodies. theft Animals have wufl the frft of every Species of . had the World them qittte deftroyd all Eternity. coud not have been from. Animals. of the Sun and the Stars all conftantly decreafe. Had the World UftedfroM all Eternity. do not move in void or emfty Spaces. 44 Eternity fons. by . of themfelves for both thefe Reap. the Celeftial Bodies had been all amafs d in the Center of the materi ^22. is not infinite in his Extent. and conthe World been from all Eternity . 53 Idfled from 21. Jiefiftance to their but fitch as make fome fi Motions . in all the Planets has been conftavtly decreasing.the Attraction of thefe Bodies one the World been.The fallible Contents. they coud not. $19. Since Motion is not eflential/0 Matter. fome that they have been Created by wife Being. P- 5^ 2 5.

7? . it of the Deity. arefo many Demonftrations. Number ofTears^ how great mall fo ever^ foever. is a f lain Proof p. p. 63 the Number of any generated thing on If Globe had either constantly encreafed or de &amp. Ibid. That this World 7 1 have been created^ by the mnft Supreme Being. That all tlte p. p. That this World has no other Quality fttitable to Self-Exiftence. 70 ertafed^ in anyfinite Ibid. 60 Had the Word lifted from all Eternity. whett was his Pleafure. 76 That the Exiftence of Matter. 68 Eternity.gt. 2. III. A Demonftration that Self-Eixflcnce involves p. p. a 4 3. Contents. Arts and Sciences. p. of the Being of a God.The been infinitely big^ 24. and confequently that whatever is Self-exiftent muft neall the other Perfections ce/arily be God. 26. 73 Arguments of tie preceding Chapter. of the Exiftence offowe fupreme Power. p. and particularly Mathematicks had arrivd at a greater Degree of Perfection. 2 5* this than they have attain d. the Exiftence of a Deity. by any finite Number\ how f then this World coud not have been from all p. Introduftion. 7 2 C H A Of P.

that the Prefervation. but alfo their firft Impulses. quire the Power ^/Omnipotence. along the Ta gents of their Orbits.. are fo God. 89 Demonftration. neceffarily requires the Pow er. The Preservation of the Faculties of Things. from what they are now govern d. and ccjjity Principles. which is God. and confequently the Exiftence of a Deity. nor of Motion. not only the firji Formation. did require the Power of an Almighty Being. and Ar That 5. p. and consequently. 81 telligent Being. of Ibid. nmft ofnehave been fomtd. many Proofs of p. require a Power above Matter. 8. of right great fes. 90 . that. of rational Creatures^ their Freedom and Liberty and Nature . of irratio nal^ and the voluntary Motions. 6. p. p. by different Laws. 85 Thai: the Exiftence 0j Animals. p.The 4. and therefore txitft have been producd by an in p. rangement of the great Bodies of the Univerje. anddofkill. did. That the Spontaneous Motions. does ttot depend A on the Nature of Matter. a moving Body in it s motion. it Muft flow from fom Power from thefc. Bodies. but alfo their centripetal Irnpulfes. 87 7. 88 and Being. That the prefent State of things. of the p. 84 That not only the Formation and fir ft Itxpulthe in did reLines. Contents. necejjarilj in fers the Exiftence of a Deity. all the Appearances of which are above the Powers 0/MecbanifilL tie Being of a g* y.

Earth. A general View of the Worlds of Creation. The Nature of the Sun. The Analogy. Irregularities of the the Affions ari/ingfrom of the Sun and . p. from the Wildom and Mdiority of the Creation. which have afforded Means fir determining the fame . and of their Satellits to our lyloon. Diameters. 108 JJ 1 6. J/jcwing how the Celeftial Bodies are rangd. and p. Reflexion on the Beauty. ^ and a Reprcfintation of the whole Syftem of things. the Motions of the Bodies in our Pla Celeftidl Range and Or the Diftances and $ netary Syftem. r and Light of the p i?4 t . with their Ufes. in thoje of the Celeftial Bodies. 95 that represent the Periods. Of the Nature. The Numbers. p. of this neat and com$a& Syftem of things. detaonjlrated. in 17. 103 15. A $14. 94 II. the der. to our Earth. p. from the moft accurate Obfervations . Gravities and giitwtities of Matter. p. and Rcfcwblance of the Pla nets. is that which produces ^ihe nobleft Ef fects on the Minds of Men p. 98 & feq. the end of their Creation. pittance 1xt Stars. 12. Order and Simplicity. Diftances. Vicijjltudes of Seafons. That the Argument f-r the Exijhnce of a Deity. their Periods and Moti ons.The IO. The Motions Moon. p. IO2 15. Contents. through the univerfal Space.

upon the Meliority of the Frame and Conftitution of the Celeftial conftant. which woucl not ty of others. between the Times of the Periodical Revolutions. From the Velocity of the Planets Motions.The j 8. 19. p. viz. From which fuits the whole Syftem beft. 123 their ufe A Ibid. of all the Celeftial Bodies. p. between the and the Area s defcrib d.From the conftant Proportion. in their Diftances from the Sun. when portion. p. p. of this our Planetary Syftem. From the pitching npon that Proportion. in refpeft of their Denfities. 128 refpett of Ibid. 125 the fame Principle. 129 Ibid. and their widle Diftances. the Comets. the Sun. Contents. From Times Ibid. Some more . p. with a Conje&ure of The Nature of their +J * $ and dejign. Ibid. the Laws of the Caufe and Magnitude Motions * . of and Meliority. 127 Ibid. they might have been irregular. hatie fitted the whole Syftem fo well. p. p. of cj J their Atmofphere. the conftant Proportion. uncertain and in* From $ 20. by a Raj from p. that of Gra vitation. 135 particular Refle&ions. 135 ?bid. From p. in all their Affe^ions. &quot. and Tails. 118 the Demonftration Wifdom Beauty. and one Condition thereof. in an infini over or under. 126 the Diftances of the Planets from the Sun. their being in a conftant regular Pro in a fettled uniform Order. producing the conftant Motions of all the Celeftial Bodies.

The Vfe and Neceffity of the Moon. Ibid. or Night. TheWifdomof the Earth. about the Vfe and tion of Day and Night proceeds: the fatal In conveniences of a perpetttal Daj. of and 22. The Vfe and mals and p. the Difadvnntages of any one perpetual Seafon. the tniferable State of thofe who are deprivd of his Influence . the Nccejjity and p. the other Night. 138 the Earth. p. 144 23. the dreadful Conferences of her not having been. the Stability of the Sun. 24. the Necejfity and Vfe of her Revo lution about her own Axe.The Celeftial Bodies. or of one half of the Tears being Day. 152 25. the beautiful the fixt Stars. to the Animals and Vegetables of the Earth. or offewer than ty V&amp. 133 Necejfity of the Sun.e f the enjoy. 136 Number. 1 50 the Contrivance ofour Globe. the Caufe and Neeejfity thereof. p. 161 . the Vfelejjnefs of more Moons. Diverfity. p. the Vfe and Necejfi Seajons of the Tear. The Wtfdom of the Combination of the Di urnal dotation. The incredible Contents. with the Annual Revolution of the Earth about the Sun. Ibid. to Ani Vegetables. his tion about hw Axe. of the Magnitudes of $21. $ p. ADewenftrationofthe Motion Mo p.gt. whence the Alterna Some farther Conjectures Deftgn of the Comets. immenfe Diftance. 140 Reafon thereof. p.

p. and give \m thefe beautiful Turnings and Windings. The Dejign and Advantages of our Moun . in the wantoftheSeafons of the Tear . with great Diver/ity of theuniverjal Condition of their Preflure. of the Law of their Preflure. the the and the Earth. * tains^ that they are an indifpenfible Condition of our frejh Rivers. for our Ships. which r/idkgs \m fat* ten and enrich fo many Countries in one Courfc. on the Sides of the Containing Vejjels. 156. the Inconveni ences of a Coincidence of the Equator and Eclip tick. of the prefent Obliquity of the Equator. 173 reft of and The Nature. and of a greater Degree of Heat and Warmth in thofe it mo p. p. for the fupport of our Clouds. the and the nolle fluid of Light. and Beauty of our Fluids. 31. 163. the fewncfs of the Original ones. the Adnice The wonderful Wtfdom. The Nature of Vegetation. extent.The Contents. 189 The and Sim wonderful Beauty. Subtilty. and a Demonftration a priori of the Figure of their constituent Particles. p. 169 places which want ft. for failing Vapours. Necejjity. and the Caufes offertility. Ibid. ihe Viift Ufe. p. to the Ecliptick. of our Atmofphere. Diftance of juftment of Planets the from the Sun. The great Advantages. many Advantages $28. p. it s Necejjity for Life and Vegetation. p. 176 29. of 27. 182 $30. 164 $25. and Rain and frejh Water. and the their fpecifokGravities. 155. 186 The Caufe and Necejjity. and drying our Marines. plicity of Idea .

prefent us with. The Structure of the Glands. and A $ Animal Appearances^ p. the Courfe of the Aliment till it is mixd with to account for the the Blood.5. 203 34. the Opinions of others about the manner thereof confuted. and of their feveral Coats. with a general Rule hoiv . the Nature. Of the Animal Oeconomy. Efficiency of 33. qre naturally and moft eafily ex Secretions in plain d* p. and 34. the p. as 3. and The manner Caufe of Digestion .The Contents. Nzwtoris latter Difcoveries of itsNatttrCi $32. p. 191 Nature of the in ternal Parts of the Earth. general View of p. 207 The Stru&ttre and TJfe of the Lungs. commonly receivd^ with an Account of a new and a more considerable ufe of them. 204 &: feq. 197 of the inthe the Hypothefis of Philofophers. Caufe of of all the bhiids in the Httwan Eody^ the Strtilfttre of the Vejftls. 214 J 37. p. Laws^ and Mechanifm of Secretion in general . and of his and JupiterV Satellits. The true and Mechanical Account ofMufcular Motion from demonstrative Principles . 202 the Animal Oeconomy. Some Conjectures about p. the Mamter of their Operation. whereby mofl of the difpaird of Appearances of the Animal Oeconomy. and an Account of the more particular humane Bodies^ p. eftheufe of Saturn s Annulus. Idea Mr. 221 The the Mechanical Motions $ 38.

233 41. in the Order and Dijpofition of the Mufcles. . 228 the Some 40. Animals. and the wonderful Strength all this Senfe to the the Bones have in proportion to their Weight^ p. The admirable Structure of the Brain. $ Bodies about us. Ivfiances of great Wifdom and Meliority. p.The how from Contents. the noble and amazing Fabrick. Vifion. 254 noble the The Author Geometry of 45. with Nutrition. and Strength of the Bones. and the admirably wife Adjustment of ofthefe Coats to kpow. furprifing Infiances ofWifdow. with the manner and Organs of Feeling. from what it $ the great and wife this and end necejfity of Diverfity. in the Strufture. . 249 $ 44. p. 235 Some 42. p. p. 240 43. of the Backbone. Mufcular Fibres the Direttion of the $ $ how they operate. the noble Fabrick of the Heart. p. general Reflections upon Wtfdom and Contrivance of the Animal Strufture. in their Mothers Belly. we are obliged to undergo. 2 23 The and wanner Nature of Senfation in 39. proportionating to the labours. Articulations. and the true manner general of the Generation all and Vegetables Animals and Production of the Nature and Manner of dentonftrated. and the the Expenfes of Animal Spirit s. The wonderful Contrivance of the Skin and Skarfskin . and of the Nerves. of Nature in the Fabrick of the Eye. the Difference of the Texture of this Organ in. p. the Nceffity the Nature and Manner of and Advantages becomes after they are born .

wonderful of Ears.. with the wife Adjuftment thereof for the true Magnitudes diftinguiflring of ObjeQs. the Nature of Finkenefs and InfiniteHumane Know ne&j and the Limits of I/ I A H Introduftion. p. and the nice Ad- juftment \ofthis Senfe to the Motions of Bodies about us. Contents. Know 2 ledge 2. and wife Contrivance of the Organs of fome irrational Creatures. pag. with fowe Reflexions on t/js Eyes of other Animals.. That Magnitude. That there are fome which p. with the Conclusion of this Chapter. things. or Quantity in the Abftraft is that of which we have the juft eft Notion. 5 .^ and about which we make the exalfcft Reafovivgs^ with the Reafon. Of ledge. Some Reflexions on the Fabrick. impojflble for us to attain a perfett Of. 276 CHAP. of this . p. i JL it is Ibid. p. the great *Ufe and Neceffity with the manner and Mechanifm 0/ Hearing. 260 The Contrivance the 46. 272 79. IV. p. and the Inconveniences of a different Stru&ure from the prefent.The Vifion.

\6 grees of the Properties of things. That Infinitenefs implies no Contradiction . 15 That Finitenefs and Infinitenefs in themselves hardy without an Adjunft^ are incomplcat Ideas. infinite. That thereby two Kinds of lative. p. in it s Import or Signification^ p. or that the univsrfal Space is Bonndlefs. J 4. $ infinite. and mnjt be for ever. no is in there That Ibid. 9 the Extenfion of the TJniverje is That 7. p. tftintf and Representations of Quantities. p. the other ablblute. one re and that finite is a midle proportion al^ between iniinitely many fnch finites and an infinitely fmall fart of that finite. II have Duration That ibid. and from thence a the manner of the Genefain$ R. p. p. Ibid.eprefentation of nation of an infinite Number + which confifts in $ a perpetuated Addition or Subftradtion.The 3. 6 are the d Numbers Pictures That mojt 5. fuppofing fome created Beings endow d with fame Properties infiuite in their Degrees^ provided thefe Pro as mceffarily imply others that perties be not fnch^ dcftroj the Nature of a Creature. and a the one from the dijiinguifl) A Dcfcription of finite and Mark other whereby to p. with the manner of the Generation of fmall or great Numbers from one givn. That Quantity // infinitely divi/ib le. 1 3 . Contents.18 . 5 Infinites. and with an Ad]un& imply nothing but the De* p. 8 6. abfiirdity. p. mujl be&f0r ever.

The Method of an infinite number finding of different Geometrical Progrejfions . Differences. 29 of this Arithmetick tnfiveral Problems ^/^/Arithmetical Proportionals^ Infinites. 38 Ibid. An their p. portion continued. rvhofe Sums may be equal.tre A fmall Parts are all unequal . Th$ fame illujirated in the Quadratures of Exterior Hyperboloids. with a Method of find ing an infinitely fmall equal part. The Divi/ion of Infinites into thofe whofe &amp. and thofe whofe infinitely fmall Parts are all equal.The 9. o ^ The in Geometrical Pro* 14. Sum s. and the Number of the $ p.lt. wit ha Method offinding the mfrmtelyfaall equal part offilch. Several Difficulties that might be brought thefe Inferences . about Quantities going on in a Geometrical Pro Terms. 44 . fame illitftrated grejjions afcending. p. oi p. avfwered and clear d. gV ^15. That it is ivtpojfible ever for us to under-? jiand or comprehend. and the number of their Terms.lt. go 13. the po/iiive Nature and Properties of Infinites. of owe Por tions of the Area / ofthefe figures. That Finites and Infinites Difparata and Natures and of quite different Properties.. *$&amp. n. Ibid. The fame illuftrat&d in fever al Problems.tinft whofe f 1 p. p. p. p. 20 IQ. Contents. their Svms^ Ratio s SUMS may be equal. 16 infinitely new Aritfametick of Illtijiration $12. p. and offinding different ones. 22 ii.

and affirmative Properties are equally . That Infinites of all Kinds. in their pojitive Nature. in our Difficulties about feveral Subje8s y both in Philofophy Religion. p* and 53 t HE . equal any givn finite 4t This Arithmetick illuflrated in fever at Problems about infinitely fmall Quantities . 0/ Cen p* 50 above the Compreheto/ion of Creatures . Contents.The 1 6. Space. which ought to quiet our Minds. tal of Paraboloids. an to A Method an inter Space. mmaHd to cut offfrom infinite Space p. and particularly in thofe about the Angles 1 8. 17.

CHAR Of the *PhyJical L A w s 9 I and the Vni- form Appearances 0/ NA Tu R E. and thefe common yet. and fo far removed from the Knowledge of familiar.THE Philofophical Principles F o NATURAL RELIGION. there are : Words B : roof a . ^TP^HERE is A Law. that thefe Terms imply Notions fo compounded. nothing a more Subject of Difics courfe than Nature and however life has made few that The Notions about them agree in their Reafon of which feems to be.

thofe Laws of Motion by which natural Bodies are goVern d in all their A&ions upon one ano ther. the II. and which they inviolably obferve in all the Changes that tural State of things. confiding letter Macbins. Simple I Compofition tend to fectle (hall not pre the Signification of thefe . give to them in the fol fhall my apply lowing Diicourfe. Words in their utmoft extent it will be enough to the Senfe I to prefent purpofe. for not only the great Bodies of this Univerfe. every one of which is adand Meafure. By the jufted by Weight Perfect and Wife Production of Laws of Nature. if Nature. I mean. but the inferiour Macbins thereof.moft Men. By Almighty of of an Number infinite God. were created by a different Law from what they are now governed. as . I underftand this vaft. happen in the na But here we are to between the Laws of Creation diftinguifh and thofe of Nature. not infinite Macbin of the Un tyerfe. that there are fcarce any that Ideas that diftindtly conceive all the encer their .

III. keep up their Credit with the choughtlefs and credulous part of Man kind. they were fo far from owning any want of Know that to ledge. will plainly fee.as fliall afterwards be is more fully ex- plain d. When the Pbilofopbers cou d not account for the appearances of Nature. is evident from the following Confiderations $ i. Thele are Allegorical their to conceal pofe meer Terms coined on pur- Author s Ignorance. nor any Plaftick according to Scaliger. That there no fuch thing as an Univerfal Soul animating this vaft Syftem according to Plato. that they really meant nothing by thofe ama- B ^ zing . nor any Omnifcient Radical Heat according to Hip Virtue pocrates. which neither had Foun dation nor Exigence in Nature But who-* : ever will give thernfelves the leaft trouble to confider the Matter. nor any Hylanbic Principle ac cording to Henry More. nor any Subfian* tial Forms according to Ariftotle. they attributed thefe unaccountable Effects to unintelligible Beings of their own Contrivance.

zing Terms. con formable to which. The Ap pearances themfelves. Beings are derogatory from the Wifdom and Power of the Au thor of Nature. is (fuppofing the Syftem of the Umverje already created ) that he has fettled mod Laws. Thefe very Beings will with Powers and Fa not (ewe the defign of their Creation. than employing thefe fubfervient Divinities. unlefs we endow em culties above the Dignity of fuch fecondary Agents. as in fliown. . this who doubtlels can govern Macbin he cou d create. IV. Laftly. the Changes in the material pan of this Syftem are brought about. and lefs be by more intelli indirect Principles accounted may for. fome meafure (hall be afterwards 4. Natural Bodies are govern d in their A&ions upon one another. to falve which they were gible contrived. and according to which. The Scheme of Nature which feems agreeable to the Wifdom of its Author. 3. and laid down Rules. but to difguife their own Ig ^. by more di* iet and eafie Methods. Thefe norance.

fuch as are all Animal Agents . is On B 5 the contrary. and as the Parts are kept together) will go on in the fame conftant tenour of Motion. the Movements of this Clock-Work de unlefs difturb pend upon thofe General Rules. which of it felf as d by fome external Force . nor do I in the leaft degree exclude the Government of God Al mighty in this World. may in fome degree be liken d to a finifli d Piece of ClockWork. ( long naturally. they never tranfgrefs whilft God Almighty preferves Faculties chin in the leaft degree. that have a Power of Free-Willy nor even of thofe that have Self-Motion. form d upon Geometrick Principles. and are particularly determin d by the Configuration of the feI (hall veral Pieces of which it confifts. noc here confider the A&ions of Beings. one Part communicates its Mo tion to another.about which all Bodies inviolably obfer ve. them in their and Operations. my principal Defign to demonftrate his continued . according to which. This Great Ma- of the Univerfe. and which of chemfelves naturally a&ing.

but that continual Influence and Sup the whole Movement would (oon port. nor cou row a Compafs as I have propofed to my all the particular felf. I fliall here only fet down the Gene ral of Nature switch virtually include thefe others. Hand. and infer fuch Conclufions Laws from em ing feme courfes. Befides this. to himfelf the thefe Power of Difpenfing with Laws. as 1 find mod neceflfary for clea- parts of the following Dif- LAW . and of its feveral Parts in his own ples. V. he has referv d fall to Pieces. when he pleates. and without his is the firft Mover .6 iMjflofoplncal continued Providence from evident Princi and to convince the World. that he not only has the Springs of this Great Machin. It is not ray Defign here to ex plain of the Laws of Motion* and of Bodies upon one ano A&ions d it be well done in fo nar ther.

brought it felf to Reft j Nor that ever any Body in Motion. differently dire&ed Vio VI. it felf of it felf altered ics Courfe. Bodies at reft and of themfelves for ever continue in reft. Law is (hew how inviolably this obferv d by natural Agents. nor that ever any Body in Motion. or of moving for a ftraic Line. but that where ever fuch Changes happened. 7 LAW ward lence I ALL in Bodies perfevere in the fame State of reft. by fome outward imprefs d Vio all e. unlefs they are ftop d by fome or turn d out of their oppofite Force. unlefs forc d out of will naturally. unlefs fome external Caufe put em in Mo And all Bodies in motion will na tion move forwards for ever in the fame turally : Line. that State i. bring from Reft to Motion. ftrait Courfe by forne lence. we To need only confider it never has been obferv d that any Body did of it felf.of Natural Religion. there B 4 were .

late the are certain Projtftils wou d for ever move on. changed their places of themfelves. whofe parts. by their Cohefion.8 If Bodies were always evident Caulcs. s . in the fame right Line. which by it felf can never alter its State. nor wou d there be any certain Laws to regu We Motions of the Univerfe. ftop or did not fome Body their Motion $ with a different Direction alter their Courfe. unleis fome new Force if in Motion. did not the Air. lame Energy will continue cm in Motion and drive cm forwards in the fame DireP dions. d never ceafe to turn round did not gradually impair its Motion. on which they move. all Things wou d run into Confufion. and if Bodies are once at reft. Natural Bodies confifl of a Mafs of Mat ter. A Top wou the Air. hinder one anothers re&ilinear Motions. the put em in Motion. their own Gravity. they muft continue io. or the Ruggednefs of the Plane.

which Mr. very well exprefles by the vis inertia. proportional to and the in different Bodies quantity is of Matter as There required much they contain. is And this Refi- always equal in the fame Body. or ftance is Direction. that it is no more inclined to the one than to the other.of Moreover. and confequently of it felf. as is required to put it in Motion. Motion. tQ . Force to ftop a Motion. there is in Matter an unadive Principle. different to Motion or Reft. orDirefor to change its Direction. whatever it be. whereby Bodies refift to the utmoft of their their Power. any change or alteration of State. and e contra 5 And therefore fince the fame Body equally refifts the contrary of its State. either of Reft. is the dion fame thing as to move of it felf another Matter then of it felf is fo far in way. this Refiequal Changes Body in ftance will operate as powerfully to keep a Body in Motion as to keep it at Reft. and docs no leis Refift a change from Reft . it can never change its State of Reft. irs Motion. Newton VII.

IP Motion. Motion of the Veflel communicated to and begins to move with a velocity to that of the Veflel. the Veflel its really the any fuch tinue it in its State ean t immediately communicate . the it. at firft the Liquor feems to move with a Dire&ion contrary to that of the Veflel full of Veflel. if the Veflel equal be fuddenly ftop d. This vis inerti* is no where more con (picuous than in the fudden Motion of a to Liquor upon a Horizontal Plane. Motion to the Liquor in its State But the Liquor perfeveres of Reft whiift the Veflel makes forward and fo feems to move a contrary But when once the Liquor has way. not that there is Motion imprefs d upon that the vis inertia Liquor. than from Motion to Reft. the Liquor continues its Motion and dailies over the fides of the Coreflary . but endeavouring to con of Reft.

Body. K Corollary &quot. nor with a Power to alter the Courfe in which is is it nieerly paffive and muft for put. nor any Combination e* no of Particles. for to alter its Courfe of it felf is only to move of it felf after a particular manner. that Courfe that if it it is fettled in it .of Natural Religion* Corollary i . Matter is not endowed with Self motion. no Particle of Matter. can never can t move of felf. it is evident that of themfelves. but . Hence i. can either move V1H. ever of it felf continue in that State and it. . it alter its Courfe of ic felf when in Motion. Hence it is Evident. 2. is naturally forward in the fame ftrait Line with the Direction of the moving Force . that no Body put in Motion will naturally. or of themfelves alter the Dire&ion of their Motion . and of Ail Motion it felf move in a Curve Line. and indeed. IX.

but what ever moves in a Curve Line muft in every Point alter and therefore naturally of it can its Direction.Lints re but are kept in by fome attractive Force. Corollary 3. 4. and confequendy the right Lines. their SatelKts Comets do not naturally and of themfelves ( of this and the their tho at firft put in Motion ) move in repetitive Orbits. which are Curve. ( I Hence neither Motion nor Reft mean not one of era particularly ) is XI. e. Matter is indiffe rent . fel^ no body move in a Curve Line. i. X. Corollary attractive Force. Hence the great Bodies Univerfe the TUneis. . of thefe Great Bodies in their Orbits lutely Motions do abfo- depend upon this whencefoever itarifes. cfferuial to Matter. which if once fufpended they wou d for ever run out in turning into themfelves.

of
rent as to either of thefe

docs as

much

refift its

and being chang d from
particularly,

Reft to Motion,

as

it

does

the

being

And as chang d from Motion to Reft. any Force will imprint fome degree of Motion on a quiefcent Body, fo the fame de gree of Force impreiVd at the fame time with a contrary Dite&ion, will bring ic
to Reft again, but ic is not to the neceflfary emg of Matter; that it be in Reft or

Mo

tion,

for Matter

will

be

ftill
it

Matter in

which ever of

thefe States

be.

Corollary

5.

^ XIL
it
is

Since then

it is

not

eflential

to

Matter to be either in Reft or
evident
that the
in Reft or in
)

Motion, prefervation of a
(after the firft

in

Body

Motion

Inftant

docs abfolutely depend Almighty Cod as its Caufe, no part of
ter

upon

Mat

can
is

move it
this

felf,

nor when put
ic

in

Mo

Motion abfolutely tion, its being nor does depend upon
therefore the

effendal to
(elf,

prefervation of this

and Motion muft

$ttflofopl)icai

muft depend upon fome other Caufe , but there is no other Caule but affignable,
Omnipotent Caufe of the preiervation of the Being and Faculties of all natural Now this Corollary does in no Agents.
that

manner

interfere

with the preceding

Law,

as perhaps Law, the

from

its

think, for by that inability in Matter (arifing vis inerti* ) to change its State of

fome may

Motion, Reft, or Dire&ion is declared, whereas by this Corollary, the immediate Caufe of this vis iwrtiA is referr d to, vi%.
the
Influence of the
)w>

though by this State of Motion, Reft and Direction, yet this vis is not effential to Matter, but a pofitive

Divine Power, for Bodies perfevere in their

Faculty implanted therein by the Au thor of Nature, as (hall be afterwards
explained.
6.

more fully

Corollary

XIII.

Hence the

Neceffity of a

va

cuum, or fpace diftind from Matter, is for fince by their clearly demonftrablej
vis

of
vis inerti*)

Natural
all

aaeitsiott
refift

Bodies

to the turned

of of
is

Power, any Change or Alteration their State, whether of Motion or R eft.
their

And

fince the Refiftance in the larae

Body

always equal, or the fame, and in dif ferent Bodies is proportionable to the And Quantity of Matter they contain.
fince confequently,
if

two Bodies con
and
contrary

of Matter, taining equal Quantities

moving with equal

Celerities in

Dire&ions, impinge directly will one another, certainly both reft upon or flop at the Point of their Concourfc, as alfo fince it is demonftrable, that two Bodies moving contrary wife with equal
Celerities,

fo that they

and both refting

at their

meet

Bodies containing equal of are Quantities Matter, equally fkavy,

ing, are equally lows, that two

Heavy

;

it

neceflaiily fol

and therefore were there no Vacuities in Bodies, two Spheres of equal Diameters,
Chould contain equal Quantities of Mat ter, and confequently be equally Heavy,
i.

equal Diameters, one of Gold, another of Wood, fhou d have
e.

two Spheres

of

the

1

6

ffinlofopfnra I p^nciptcs

the fame fpecifick Gravities, which being contrary to Experience, there is a NeceP

of admitting Vacuities in the latter Sphere to anfwcr the Difference of their
fity

Gravities.

L A
>

W

;

II.

;

;

;^
the

$XlV.

Changes made TpHE Motions of Bodies

in

JL

arc al

ways proportional
Force, and

to the imprefs d moving are produced in the lame Di-

rc&ion with that of the moving Force. Effe&s are alway proportionable to their adequate Caufes, and if any Degree of Force produce any Degree of Motion,
a double Degree of the fame Force will produce a double Degree of Motion, and
a
triple,

a

triple,

and fo on

rnuft proceed in ftion with that of the moving Force, fince from this only the Motion arifcs ; and be-

Motion

and this the fame Dire;

caufc by the former
tion

Law,
their

Bodies in

Mo

cannot

change

Direction

of them-

of Natural ftettgion*
themfelves, fo that unlcfs

17

fome new Force alter its Courfc, it muft proceed in the fame Dire&ion with that of the moving Force. And if the Body was before in Motion, the Motion ariiing from this imprds d Force, if in the fame Diredion, docs fo much increafe the former Motion if ic
$

has a contrary Dire&ion, ic deftroys a to that part of the fofmer Motion, equal which is imprefs d j when ic has a Dire<5tion

oblique

to that of che former
;

Motion,

it

is

either

added to

or fubltradkd from

the former
tion

Motion, according as the from a Compofition of arifing
is

Mo
chefe

two,

decermin d,

Corollary.

evident, that in the prefent Conithution of things, there
ic is

XV.

Hence

can be no perpetual Motion,
tual

By

a

perpe

Motion,

I

mean an

uninterrupted

Communication of the fame degree of Motion from one part of Matter to another in a Circle, noc as Bodies put in Motion C do

8

ffrpofopptcai

do

for ever continue in the fame, but in fo far as they are refifted or other d

Bodies,

but

a

ftop by Circulation of the fame

quantity of Motion, fo that it perpetu ally return undiminifli d upon the firft Mo
ver.

For by this Law, the Motion produc d is but proportionable to the genera

ting Force,

and

all

Motions on

this

Globe

being performed in a refifting Fluid, vl^. the Air., a confiderable quantity of the

Mo

tion

Communication, it is and medium, confequently of Motion impofiible the fame Quantity fliou d return undiminifhed upon the firft which is neceflary toward a per Mover Moreover, the Nature petual Motion.
on
this
,

muft be fpenc

in the

of Material
is

no

fuch, that there avoiding a greater or lefler degree

Organs

is

of

Friiftion,

according

though the Machin be form d to the exacted Principles of

no Geometry and Mechanicks, there being nor exa6l fmoothne(s in perfect congruity Nature ; the manner of the Cohefion of
Bodies, and the fmall proportion the folid Matter bears to the vacuities in em ; and the

Nature

of

^amtai

Beiigtom

19

Nature of the conftituentParcicles of Bodies,
not admitting the fame. Befidcs, how very finiflied Mechanick Per imperfedl our moft

formances

are,

a,

very ordinary Micro/cope

will eafily difcover

Now

thefe

things

muft very confiderably diminifii the com municated Force, fo that it is impoffible there fhou d be a perpetual Motion, unlefs the communicated Force were fo much
than the Generating Force, as to recompence the dimunition made therein
greater

by ail thefe Caufes, fo that the imprefs d Motion may return undirninifh d to the But that being contrary to firft Mover. this Law, it is clear that the Motion muft continually deacafe, till it at laft flop, and consequently there can be no perpetual Motion in the prefent State of Things.
:

-

-

^
C
-$jfiM Lecn (d
?fii

LAW

$!j<lofopt)icai

LAW
XVI.
ls

III.
or

E PULSE TJ always J^L

Reason
to

equal

Im-

pulfe

or

A&ion, or the Action of two

Bodies upon one another is always equal, buc with a contrary Dirc&ion, *, e. The

fame Force with which one Body

ftrikes
firft

upon another, by that other
prefs

is
;

returned

upon

the

but thefe Forces are im-

d with contrary Directions.
pteffcs

or draws another, is as much prcls d or drawn by that other ; a Stone with his Finger, the if one prelfes

Whatever

If a Horfc Stone preflcs his Finger again. draw forward a Stone by a Rope, the Stone does equally draw back the Horfc

for

the

Rope being

both ways one ftrike an Anvil with a Hammer, Anvil ftrikes the Hammer with equa The Steel draws the Magnet a Force.

equally diftcnded a6b upon both equally, li
th<

much

as the

evident

Magnet does the Steel, as by making both iwim in water

i\

3freligtom

Jb

Barge to Land by a Rope, the Bank pulls the Barge as much as the Barge does the Bank j and in the defcent
in pulling a
attra<5ls

of heavy Bodies, the Stone
Earth as

the
;

much

as the Earth does the Stone

the Earth gravitates toward the Stone, i. e. as much as the Scone does toward the

Earth.

And

the

Motions produced by

both thefe Gravitations, are equal in both, only the Scone is altogether inconfiderable, and in refpeft of the Bulk of the Earth,
consequently

Motion
in

the Velocity of the Earth s toward the Stone is inconfiderable,

refped of the Stone s Motion toward the Earth ; and therefore the Motion of the
Earth toward the Stone
Itniverfally
if
is

infenfible.

And

in ail

the

Adions of Bodies,

Body aft on another, and change its Motion any manner of way, that other will make the fame Change in the Moa
tion of this

a contrary Direftion, fo that by thefe Actions there are made equal Changes, not of the Veloci ties but of the Motion, for the

Body with

Changes

made on

the Velocities in contrary Dire-

C

12

ff

P

B
a reciprocal proportion to
,

<SHons,

are in

the Bodies.

Corollary

I

.

XVII.

If

a

Body A, be impend by
one
in the Direction

two
fty

different Forces,

with the Velocity 3/j

another ia

the Direction \AC, with the Velocity ?vr? make to /fC, as A/ to compleac

A

N

the

Parolelograni

ABC

Dj

the Diagonal

of which is A 2). The Compoficion of both thefe Forces will make the Bodydefcribe the Diagonal At), and in the lame lime as it would have defcribed either of
y*n

the the Sides; for becaule the Force, whqfe vx
v

-J

..-

-

v-

.

>

j

.;

,

V elocity

5ts fB D. a&amp. in like is man whofe Velocity as M y in the Direction Jlfc^ parallel to CD. whofc d or not.of Velocity parallel is Natural &eltgt om N.lt.gt. From thefe Laws.5t T&amp. and their aeccffary Confecjuetices. 2).gt. to will not ia the leaft hinder or deftroy the Velocity in the other Force. &r. Wherefore the Body will reach !BD in the fame time. but it cannot be found in S D and C both. and therefore will not hinder the Velo city in the other Force in and the Body fame time. but at the Pome 2) therefore. XVIII.lt. a&amp. it in the Direction A C. C proceeding to will reach C V in the Corollary ^. by which it tends to the LineS D&amp. k rnuft be fomewhere in CD. locity in the end of the fame time. whether the Force. ads 2). A/. the Force. whether the Force. and confequently. be iraprefs therefore in the end of this time it muft be found fomewhere in ner. and Velocity isN. all the Rules of Bodies C 4 . whofe Ve is or not.

as alfo ones.lt.Bodies afcending or defcending in verti cal Lines. at the Point C ere&amp. the Competition of of any oblique ones. to that of the fame Force coming with a perpendicular Direction to move the fame Body . fuch as A lique the ratio of an Force to move a oblique Body. the Rules of the Congreffes and Reflections of two Bodies. let an ob Force. may be deduced. for Example. for Example. the Method of compounding and refolving Directions Morions any given may be drawn. as A C be imprefs d upon the lique Body E in C. as alfo. as the Geometers have ftiewn. From the in preceding Corollary. into any ob and S 2). as alfo the Refolution of the dired Force. C D. fuch as A*B and D. the direct Force AT&amp..5t a per and from A let fall a per pendicular CD.gt. Force A may be refoved into the two Forces . and another upon pendicular upon then by the former Corollary. the C .

* or as the fine of the Angle of Incidence Al$ to the ^ Radius AC. The fame is true of the Energy of an oblique Stroke upon the Body to that of the fame ftriking perpendi. From the fame preceding Corollary. to B the lar s fame Force coming with a perpendicu &amp. as A C. 11 cularly.lt. if it follows that drawn by the impelled or three different Forces in three a Body A be different Directions ^B.of ^attmrt ffcty&fim* Forces AT&amp. AC. and A&amp. but con tinues .lt. AE.B has any Energy to move the wherefore the oblique Force as Body A C is fi.B to Direction.lt.B. of which only A&amp.gt. fo that Body yields to none of em.

as AT) impelling from to A to T) is equi E. is as AT) to AC. then will the fame AT) reprefent it is the contrary equal Force. and AE or CD.finttes in &amp. refpeftivcly. So likewife pollent d:ions A C. AT) reprefent the Force by which the Body ^is impell d from A to !B. and If mutual Concourfes. to which the other impelling from A to D.lt.equiKbrio y thefc three Powers Lines ter are to one another as three right parallel to minated by their drawn their Directions. two others. whereby impell d from A to But by the former Corollary a Force. $). ailing in the Dire- A two Forces acting in the Dire(5lions .

that AT&amp. AC. or their neceflfary Confequences. AE.5ting Dirc&ion. fo vir that ic is plain.gt. as ^C. three Laws do if comprehend chanifm. and the Foundation fingle Propolition is of all the Mechanicks. from A to to the will be didrts fi ? ^ C. q. thefe three Forces fhall be to one another as AD. as this feveral Geometers have exprefly fliown thefe all -. or not future Inquiries. ^ D Force afting according to the Direction AD. e. therefore the Forces ic&ions Force this AC and AE. AE. as CD is.. if a CD refpective- ly.gt. and in the adting in the Diequipollent to the a&amp. AE to ^X&amp. any appea rance concradidt thele Laws. we . 2nd from A to D. AC. and tually the Rules of Me- confequcatly. d. Body be ailing in the Direction or to AD.lt. AC. AD are to y Force urg d by three different equi pollent Powers in the Directions JB.and being equipollent to the Force A&iflg in the Dire6tions A 2). have nothing to do to (how any thing is Immtchanical. it is not to be Me So then in outchanically accounted for.

that it of thefe Laws or their contradi&amp. Corollary 3. Hence it follows that a in Body an Orbit. let a Polygon be inicrib d in it. muft decreafc at every Angle in proportion to the Sine of the Angle of Incidence. muft continually decreafe by a Body s moving in an Orbit. (fuppofing the for thefl^ftfais always the fame) by mer but every Orbit is equivalent to a Polygon of an infinite Number of An Corollary j gles.5ts fome Corollaries. and fo muft at laft be quite fpent.not according to the eftablifh d Laws of Nature .lt. . and confequently the Degree of Mo tion and Velocity arifing from one fingle Impulfc. Orbit. and the Body will be Corollary at reft. with can t move conftancly the fame Degree of Motion from one finIf it move in an gle imprefs d Force. ^ XIX. but clearly to evince. Body moving in this (Polygon. then fincc the Angles of this ^Polygon are Ob the Degree of the Motion of the lique.

and do conftantly move . Corollary y. which they cou d never do if they mov d only by the Force of one fingle Impulfe. that thefe Bodies do perfeyere in their Motions. that the mis and their Satellits. XX. Hence there can be no perpe tual Motion arifing from one fingle Imfor this Motion muft be propa pulfe.lt. the Comets and the it is &amp. Let us then Enquire how it comes about.Pla~ XXL Hence other Celeftial Bodies their *0rbits do not move in (tho we fliou d fiippofe em folid ) by the Force of one fingle impulie. and if fo. and at laft flop. it muft conti nually decreafe. their We fee thefe Bodies do continue Motions without any fenfiblc Alte rations. the firft Mover . evident. that it may return upon gated in an Orbit.of ffiatwai aaeitgtotu Corollary 4.. but are kept kept in by iome other Powers.

and feperat- ng themfelves.4a equal Degree its own proper Center. fo as to compofe dif ferent Cortices. the Fingers of him Motion by this once put in who frani d marvellous Machin of a World. and that theie Parts being made round by produce ITJ * fuch inteftine Mptions.move round in the fame Trails. both ^iv. into ip r each endowed little jecjual Parts. of Different . Either by the Force of forne Celeftial fluid. with out making the leaft Deviation j now. vi%. or by fome Retentive Central Force em from tuning out in yvhich hinders when they are 0rgit Lines. XXIL Celeftial In order tp- account for the Appearances. that can happen but one of thele two ways. (c\d z Vortex) which carries em about. were endow d with a Motion About as common different Points (at equal Diftances) Centers. Fluid i fo as to constitute as alfo that feveral Golleitions of thele Parts. Globule*. Des Cartes fuppofes fylatter of this Univerfe to have beea ividcd ie by Almighty God. of Motion.

of which he Element . Element violently many different did make up the Matter of his firjt . it much by as receiving by . and ntoviqg abo its own Axe with the Motion of i. from it .gt. r^ 5 Gl&amp. and feeing there Element than wou d was be uiqnp tp of fill this firft fiifficieat the Vacuities between the he be Globules of the fccond Element. that fujppofesdrivep -fowir.tick y Vnd this wQu d be able tq carry rouiid witli 1C . Sphere wou d in tex produce a Body Jike the Sun .out fome Parts of through the Vacuities of the which conftitute fecond Element.thefp foles z% loics about the Ecdif&amp. and being there amafe d in the Center of very.lt. Sun being thus fram d. Fileings Globules driven and ficond fmall the that as alfo Rafpings of thele Points of the Angular calls the M^ter of his ways.he.d 1 remaining part wou d Center t% 1^ by the Circular Motion^ of the(e which did for that rqa%i bules. Places which are efpecially at thcfe the^r^ diftan^ from its Poles.tl^ its throw .h of the Matter of the fartex. farily wou d lylatiq Globules 6f .

or lefs capable of Motion than the Globules. and there Now (hou d fore recede from the Center. leaft. then defcend toward the Snn. of which was : . or receding and fo become a Planet. and the remoter with were they greater or equal. as to be carried about in the Cortex of the true Sun 9 if it were of lefs Solidity. towards the it wou d extremity of the Solar Fortex. ried about by the Motion of the fortex. we may imagine Suppofing this true then. with Velocity. be for without either approaching from the Sw. have a greater centifrugal Force.it chefe Globules the greateft a leis and that fo of neceffity thefe Globules t that are nearcft the Center of the Sun would which are nearcft. and capable of the fame Degree of Motion with it. they wou d by reafon of their Velocity. our Syftem to have been at firft divided into feveral Vortices in the Center. to. it happen that any of thefe Sun-like Bodies in the Centers of the feveral Cortices fliou d be fo incruftated and weakened. till it met with Globules of the fame Solidity. and it wou d for ever be car being fixt there.

that are &amp. which is 3)es Cartes s Reaforij why the Moon fliows always the fame Face to us. fpherical of thefe jj? lome and bigger.. which is the reafhn why the nets next the Sun. Element.Pla- remoter. except away by the biggefl fome few that were from one Fortex Comets. is fomewhat more folid than the other. ic appears that the Tlanets that are neareft the Sun. the Sun. and the Rodies fwirhing o therein. thrown of to another. D XXUL . finiOi their Periods fooriei* than thofe that are thefe ^lamts ^ecaii fe more remote. moves with greater Velocity the Farts of theFo/tex. more powerful . fwaliow d up by others.Bodies before. that are neareft it. ic- they Were Sun like. becaufe that Hemt/pkere oppofice to the Sun and Earth.lt.and ihac their move about own ^xes. in right Lines and became Hence. lucid. tivm thole. As that is alfo that the Matter of the firfl which makes up the Body * of. and that were being gradually incrufhted. ftroyed and till at lafi they were all de- carried Solar Fortex. and yolving .was a lucid. are lead folid.- of ffiafttral JMtgfon* Body.

Ap the is Since the Motion of the neareft the Center of more remote. Now not to mention the many Defeats in the Mechanical Produ 1 ction of this immaginary Syfttm^ Appearances it fhall only take Notice (as Dr. certain that a Vortex Wou d be as propagated it .gt. will prefs upon the exterior thereby perpetually part of their communicate and Motion to chem&amp. they Parts. of the Motions of all the Central Spheres. Parts of the Vortices fwifter than that 2. if nothing did hinder and feeing there muft be fixt Stars. and every Particle wou d be adted by a Motion compounded.34 XXIII. and fome fore there . And. i. It is produced by the Re volution of a Sphere^ about a giv n dxis. which is abfurd and contrary to that Conftancy and Limitation obfervable in the Celeftial pearances. many fuch Vortices as there are one Vortex wou d neceflarily run into ano* ther. tho we fliou d allow the Author all that he wou d have granted. in infirittum. Celeftial contra- dils and the Abfurdities wou d follow.. Gregory has) of the known .

therefore. only concreted parts of the Vortex : the times of the periodical Motion.gt.between thefe folid Bounds.of fore thefe interior parts of the Vortex. then a Body carry d round by it. \jvill be continually loiing Tome part of their Motion which never being reftored. wou d certainly from the Center. thefc pares muft gradually move flower. folid did hinder fomething the and it. dcfcribe a perfect Circle. whereas the Squares of Times of the periodical Motions of the Planets. of Bodies. laft the Motion cording 5. and is as it New were. carry d about by a Cortex are in duplicat proportion of the Diftances from the Center . or the larger the Bafon be which contains the Fbrtex. to this fJypothefa. Ac quite deftroy d. 4. if a Portex run out in infinitum. are as the Cubes of the Diftances and confcquently the Pla nets cannot be carry d about by a Fortex. till at &amp. greater Diftance there were. each Tlanet f$ is of the lame Denfity with the parts of the fartex in which it (wims. in refpeft of th Orbit ^ of unlefs D . and is governed by the fame Laws of Motion.

nearefl: wou d this Orbit approach to a e. would be lefs than that of thole more remote. for that of Mercury is greater than that of Saturn. e. Moreover. which contradids Experience. . The Excentricity of the Planets j. than Channel i. it wou d follow that the Ophelia of all die Planets (een from the Sun. the contrary of which is true. the nearer Circle. fter in their Perihelia. the Sww. Bounds. 5. but this too is fame contrary to Likewife the Matter of the Obfervation. muft neceflarily when enlarg d in a wider the Planets muft move fa* than in their ^pbelia. carry d about with it. be directed towards the Stars . as of Vortex ( every Fluid ) when bound fixt wou d up within ftrak move fafter . the Axis of the cen Body which produces the Circulation of the Fluid. wou d be perpendicular j but there .fity in a Vortex A Body of the fame den- wou d neceflarily defcribe a Circle to tral whole Plane.3 6 of the Body carry d about in it. fince the Pla nets in this neceflarily move in Orbits nearly fimilar to that of the fides Vortex wou d of the containing Bafon.

and makes it agree more exadly to the Rules of Gemetry. He firft of ail (hows. Suns Axis is perpendicu their Orbits. The Comets have not only oblique. that all Bodies which in a Fluid d. they defcribe equal Areas by a Radius from the Sun in equal times. Motions without any perfevere change. but (bmecimes at righc Angles with the Plane of the Ecliptick. are mov d by the Fluid. This Hjpotheps is fonoewhat altered and mended by the famous Mr. for of themielves cl wou they XXlV. defcnbe right Lines. Ltibnit^ he accomodates it better to the Celeftial Appearances. Laftly.of Natural Beligtotu there is not one Planet to the Plane of the whole Orbic lar. iometimes the Courfe of thefe Comets metrically oppofite to that of the Sun in is Dia they . and nothing but the Fluid concurs to turn them out of their D 3 way: . all which is impoflible.efcribe a Curve-Line. they enter into the Cortex of the Sun. if the Solar fortex rnov d round with Force fufficient to carry thefe vaft Bodies of the Planets along with their ir.

3 8 f^Dttofbpitfcal l^nciples next fhows. that every Tlanet is about by a Motion compounded of carry d two other Motions. &amp.Planets Now this the Sun. every one of which has its own proper way of Cir culation. or recefs from their the Sun. defcribe equal Areas Times .. proportional to the Fluid that carries necelfity effect. for thele Areas are in a their ^adii compounded proportion of or Diftances from the Sun. than by fuppofing numerable conccncrical Oibs ot exceeding thinnefs to make up the Cortex. He v/&amp. the Hannonical Circulation of the carrying Fluid. and a reciprocal of the Arches or Lengths of proportion the . The (planets ddcribe Areas by a G(adiw from times. viz^ thofe Orbs that are neareft the Sun circulate and the Veloci ties of the Circulations are every where re to the Diftances of ciprocally proportional the refpe6tive Orbs from the Sun. (paracentrical Motion of accefs to. the muft of circulate fo as to produce which cannot in- be done otherwife.lt. ever part of Vortex in equal it is.lt. and the way. which will neceffarily make the (Planet in what fafteft.

but the Harmonical Cir culation can Account for. we muft find out a that Law for the Paracentrical Motion. in one cated by Now of whofe dius foci the Sun is. The Paracentrical others. The Excujfory Impreffion of the Circulating Fluid. wou d throw off the Planet from the Center by the Wherefore the Tangent.of Natural aaeltgtom 39 the Circulations. and by a Ra from the Sun defcribe equal drea s in equal Times. V/^&amp. which no other Law of a Circulating Fluid. Attraction of the Sun.gt. the Circulating Fluid. arifes from an Impulfe communi . fince the (planets move in Elliptick Orbits. may make the Orbits Elliptick. or the Gravitation D 4 of . Motion compounded of two the Excujfory Impreffion of the Harmonica! Circulation. and the Vortex this Law of Circulation of he calls is Harmomcal. whereby all Bodies moving in a Curve y endeavour to recede Center from the by the Tangent^ and the Attraction of the Sun or the Gravitation of the Tlanet toward it and this Lelbnlt^ is of Opi nion. which in this cafe will make a proportion of equality.

inefficient for tlicle Reafons....&amp.40 of the to fflantt* towards cienc to deftroy this muft be fuffiEffect and befides. d about by a Harmonically as circulating Fluid. . nay. But even is CeldVui Motions as Account of the undoubtedly faHeand this i .PlamtSj and thus we fiiou d have Cortices contrary 2. This to Cortices) which is very abiurd. nor is there any thing in the Mo tions . metS) The Co- was formerly fa id. about. have their Orbits. is not only unreafonable^ but Suppoiicion cable to the uniform Simplicity of dilagit Nature .lt. well as the . iometimes at right Angles with the Zodiakj and fometimes the Courfcs of thefe Comets are quite contrary to that of the fplanttsi Now the Comets deicribing about j^j the Sun Anas^ rnoft be carry proportional to the times.this Head. XXV. it. make them move in Elliptick which cannot be brought this Orbits. feme of them very oblique. unlefs Attration or Gravitation be recipro cally as the Squares of the Diflances from the F@cus r which is the Sum of Leibnitz^s Dq&rine upon .

In the Times are equable Motion. the Velocities are as the Q^adi i recipro cally. and is reaches only from Mercury s (Perihelium to his dpfaliuin. as this very Hypotbefis. but in a Circular reciprocally . and in an Harmonical Circula tion.explain. Befides. 3. be anfwer d.of ^atwai fteugfon* fb 4* difficult tions of the Heavenly Bodies to . as the Spaces directly. and not a Duplicate Proportion of the Diftances from the Center or the Qfydii. and therefore the periodical Times of a Fluid circulating Harmonic ally ^ are in the Now Duplicate Proportion of the tytdii. but is interrupted. the Spaces in one Revolution are as the ^adii. and reaches gins again to her dpbtliuM) and is there again inter rupted. and confequently the (planets cannot be carried about by an Harmonically circulating Fluid. that this To this ic may Harmmcal not continued from Mer Circulation cury to Saturn. . the periodical Times of the Planets are in Sefquiplicate Proportion. al ways and the Ve locities Motion. and there breaks off. which is introduced to account for them. and be at Venus s ^Perihelium.

and notwithstanding. being thus prov d. fincc it rauft be mutual by the This Gravitating or Attract third Law. as if they were carried by a Fluid. circulating Harmonically according to uniform Law. or by fome gravitating Power in them towards him. pals through all thefe Chafins and Interftices. move in the fame manner. fome Tbilofoin their Orbits. the Comet t moving forward in the Zodiack. . neither do their fome Appearan ces fliew the kaft Sufpicion of thefe Inter ruptions. and fo on through the whole Syftem of the (Planets : But what a ghaftly and unfightly kind of Deformity there wou may d happen on thisSuppofition^every one eafily fee. fophers endeavour Mechanically to account for.4* rupted. this is not like the unform and fimpleMeafures of Nature. chat the Celeftial Bodies do not revolve by the Ic XXVI. ing Power of the great Bodies of the Univerfe towards one another. which is the fame thing. means of any be kept circulating Fluid. they tnuft by fome dttra&ive Power in the Sun. Be fides.

which is leaft refilled by the inter- pofition of other Bodies. And thus. not only Bodies within the Sphere of the Earth s Activity are impell d towards it. It is Bodies gravitating towards a Poinc . there be three Objections againft all two or the poffible Ac counts of Gravity in particular.ofjl^atutal fteiftfon* for. for the . firft impoffible from the Part of this Hypotbefis. impels the Body according to the Direction of that part of this Subalc in right Fluid. 4? from the Adion of a Subtile Matter. which violently whirling round the Sun the Earth and the reft of the in general. but allo the Planets gravitate towards the Sun. Planets in particular. but without entering into the particular manner of the Explication of Gravitation do according to this Scheme. to account for 1 . and acquiring there by a Power of receding from the Center. or being driven with an immenfe Velocity Lines according to all poffible Dire&ions. impels Bodies towards that Center abouc which the ftrongeft Circulation is made . or Gravi tation in from che Circulation of a general Subtile Matter.

44 the Motion quaqua verjutnm a great Circle of the Sphere. which is harder to conceive than Gravity That Matter which is the it fclf. or elie we vity.. muft admit its Motion without any Caufe.Quantity pulfe is . or by whole Motion whence the Circular it is produced in all the poffible Mechani cal muft be without Explications thereof. Bodies from the ImGravity which Abfurd of a Fluid can only gravitate in pro and not accor portion to their Surfaces. Ii is ihipoflible to explain Motion of this fubtile fluid comes. there muft be conceived ano ther fubtiie fluid Moving after fome cer tain manner to produce the Motion of of that Flaid. 3. which ding to their. of Matter. which is alledged to (alve is a Contraction to this Nature. and its Gravity to be always proportional to the Quantity of its (olid Mais. 2. Difficulty. Caufe of Gravity. is Matter being to be fuppos d of every where in realon the fame uniform Nature. 4. no luch thing being either concdveable or poifiblc. which is the Caufe of Gra and fo on in inflnitum.

. their by fuppofing Bodies of Cylinders of to confift originally fmall fta/es^ for infinitely thele Cylinders on fuch aSnppofition. primitive confticuent Cy that can account for ail can poffibly the varieties of Colours^ t fee how Taftes and Smells^ and other fenfiblc (Dua lities of Bodies. and confcquemly. which by the Addon of this wou d are as their Surfaces. a Yet the fo very .to hard ^Po/lulate^ to require Bodies be diveriified. Difficulty may be rernov d. And tho this Quantity of Matter. be alfo as their Solidities/ /.e. finee the Surfaces of the original Particles of Bodies are this is as their folid Contents. But that which in my all overthrows inch Mechanical Opinion. e. be to one another (Safes wouM thrir as their Surfaces. being nothing. ._ is of Natural Bcligion* 5 4* all for we find contraray to Experience Bodies gravitate in proportion to their i. the Gravities of Bodies.. the (ubtile Fluid Quantities of Matter they contain. their I only ic by Lengths of linders. Solidities. Accounts. which arife from the Diveifities of the Texture and of their Figure conftituent Parts.

neccffarily to be fuppos d. That there are different Conditions of the Univerfal Law of Gravitation.Accounts. Newton it from certain Experiment $ and there are other Appearances in Nature. Light. to move after different Manners. is that. fcveral different Conditions of thisUniverfai Law of Gravitation. and Caufes the inflexions of be afterwards fhown. and ac cording to different Laws. 5. as Mr. which cannot be Mechanically explained. feems evident from the Na has explained ture of Light. that fecm to Conditions different from that require the the Motions of the Cewhich governs Bodies. however artfully contriv d. to Gravitation. as fhail leftial account Mechanically for thefe different Conditions of the General Law of Now. There feems to be neceffary to ward ces of a full Explication of the Appearan Nature. there niuft of neceffity be fupof this pos d various and different Syftetns fubtile . which ther accord eafily together. without fuppofing different Syftems of this Fluid. nor fcem like will nei the Limitations and Simplicity of Nature.

it From what has been faid appears. that the Planets cannot continue their their Orbits. not as yec known how many and how different thde Syftems muft be fuppos d to account for all the various Conditions of this General Law. 6. Laftly. and fince it has been likewife fliown. that odd. is not to be Mechanically accounted for. this whole more Naturally and Simply to be accounted for from Principles now to be laid down. Affair is Corollary XXVII. Motions in without the Suppofition of it is fuch an Attraction or Gravitation. that may hereafter bedifcovered neceflary to explain the various Appearan ces of Nature.of Natural 3&eiig?atu fubcile Fluid. 47 which looks a is little efpecially if weconfider. that this mud nex d to Matter by the Creator be a Principle an* of the World . that the Attraction or Gravi tation of Bodies toward one another. it is a Principle no ways effencial to . evident.

becaufe the Light reflected from thence ftrikes immediately upon our Orcated a&amp. be caufe the Matter is communi efficacy of by immediate. no kind of Motion is eiTential to Matter.48 to Matter. Matter is entirely paffive in its Nature. gans of Vifion.lt. fes as far as the Limits ( if any luch there are) of the Univerie. we fmell. as Mr. by the firft Law of Nature and it5 Co him rollaries. Contact. fince it is the Source and the 6rigin of the Celeftial Motions. or . things raeer Impulfe of one this Body on any Meand paf- whereas Power of Gravita tion adts at all Uiftances without dmm or Inftrument to convey it. and therefore Attraction or Gra vitation cannot be effential to it . Gregory has demonstrated.5t . Befidcs.Newton. by the firft Law of Nature. becaufe parts of the odorous Body touch the Nerves of our Noftrils. and it can for we fee at a diftance by no means an Obje&. and univerfally all the other are tural Effe&s of Material Na per- form d by the another. and can no more tend to. and after And Dr. it is not a Refult from the Nature of Matter.

it being a Relative one.of Natural Religion. where as impenetrability. and having refpeft only to other Parts which icattrads . thn d on Matter. or draw other Bodies then it it 4? can move of fuppofing this Gravitation of the parts of Matter toward one ano ther deftroy d. is one being thus imprefs of the Divine Tower and Virtue . E reafon . but this Property increafcs and diminiflhes reciprocally as the Squares of the Diftances diminifh or increafe. and the other effential On Attibutcs of Matter are always the fame* all which Accounts. ev n when indivifible* bility ties it becomes Laftly $ That can is not be eflential to Matter which inten ded or remitted. it s plain that this is Univerfal Force of Gravitation the ef- kt by which the Operations of Material Agents are And this Power ofGrwitapreferv d. whereas impenetra or any other of the effential Proper of Matter continues with it. it could not be (aid ro have this Property. yet ftill Matter wou d be felfj like wile the fame extended folid Subftance. More over. if there were but one indivifible Part of Matter in being.

is the reafon why it ought not to be reckoned among thofe Laws which arife from the particular Texture. Principle can be Mechanically and they think it Unphilofophical to admit any Principle in the Explication of the Ap of Nature which can t be thus acpearances acounred for. It is indeed in my Opinion certain. yet its not being effential to Matter. and were there upon no . this in admitting of the Univerfal Law of the Principle Gravitation of Bodies upon one another are. conceive how this i. That they cannot accounted for. The Chief Difficulties that 1 can find have ftrakned Learned Men. nor arifing from its Nature. this Principle of the Gravitation of Bodies one another. but the Mo tion of fome fubtile Fluid. can arife from. fuch as mod of the Laws of Nature or Motion are. that chanically cannot be Me Priciple accounted for. Figure and Difpofition of Bodies. for there is no othis ther Mechanical Caufe conceivable.?o rcafon of the Diftinftion between the Laws of Creation and Nature^ For tho the Ener gy of the Impreffion does ftill laft.

Nor Omnipotent Caufe of the Unherje . vi%* that thereby thefe Parts of Matter which are the Caufe of. and fines we rnuft of Neceffity admit the Motion of this fubtile Fluid. why may we not rather ad- E ^ mit . and wou d not deprive one part of Matter of (o Cardinal a Property. but this one. which is the Caufe of Gravity. are upon this Suppofition. j has any Body ever pretended to other Caule affign any of the Motion of this fubtile Fluid. But ev n the admiffion of fuch an Hypotbefis removes us but one Seep further from Immechanical Prin for the Caufe of the Motion of this ciples. fubtile Fluid. with which (lie had endow d all the reft. 5 1 Argument of Motion of a plications againft all poffible Ex Gravitation arifing from the fubtilc Fluid. which is the Caufe of Gravitation to be unaccountable without a FirflCaufe. or produce Gravi tation. for it s certain that Nature is uniform and confident with it felf. deititute of Gravity I fiiou d think it fufficient to prejudice any inquifinve Man againft fucli Explications . but the is it felf Immecbanical.of no other ^attttal BeWgion.

which no Man has pretended to account for from Principles of Mecbanifm 5 and the Impreffion of an attractive Faculty &amp. both . that does require that are not to be accounted for Mechanically j the feweft any one pre tends to. the firft Suppofition is burthen d with feverai Additional ones. for we daily fee. fince that this Difficulty in and that befides. is no harder than any of thefe but fince it is Matter of Fad: and Demonftration. to which the fccond is There has never been any not liable. we muft allow whether it be to be Mechanically ac its - counted for or not y anc fince it is not to be accounted for from Mechanical Princi ples. are the Exiftence of Matter.Poftulate upon Matter.mic is this Property the to have Firft Cau/e imprefs d this in Matter. and the prefervation of the Faculties of Natural Agents. the Impreffion of Rectilinear Motions.lt. that Matter is in poffeflion of this Quality . A&ivity. . fame Syftem of Natural Pbilofopby the offered to World as fome Populates not yet. . that the Earth draws to its Center all Bo dies within of it.

Another Difficulty ingenious Men have in the ter. 55 as I think. and yet we muft admit them.lt. we may come ble to conceive how Matter a6h to be aat a Di- E 3 ftance . judicious Perfons . it but we know the Nature in might ftumble man The Communication of a Body in of Motion from one after it is part of Matter to another. were there no other Difficulty this of the like Philofophy but of fymembring and Senfation. 2. Now. I have demon ft rated. we muft of neceflhy refer it to the Power and Influence of the Firft Caufe of all things. are not to be accounted for. the Continuation removed from the impellent Body. as ef neceflity it muft. ner of Thinking and one. and yet there is no denying that fuch things really are. and ev n the firft Production of Matter and Motion.of Natural Religion. tffyflettion. Motion when we arc Souls and capable to explain how our our Bodies aft mutually up on one another . is Conception of this how it can a& Quality in Mat at a Diftance with out any Medium to convey this A&amp. are things not eafily to be explained.5tion. pies.

will offer to explain by Rules of Mecbanifm.54 ftance wichout it is is any Medium . that fuch a Qua lity it is d in Matter. and ^Powerful Beivg to have made this. and that actually lodg the Caufe of all the Great and Uni No wife form Appearances of Nature. how this Syftem of Faculties things was produced.(hown. World. who throughly underftands the Matter. . and nicate their what way they commu A&amp. fufficient to know. it and Influences to one will fuffice fuch. and if we will not admit of fuch a Being. and from thefe to account for future Obfervations and Ap if we admit: an Infinitely Wife pearances . of Material Organs are preferv d. and honeft Man. there are much greater and harder Difficulties in the Mechanical Explication of the Nature of to belurmounted^ as (hall be afterthings XXVlll vvifds &quot. whence nor how the they aroie. there will be lictle Difficulty in al lowing him to have imprcfs d on Matter what property he pleas d. from the Pre- Appearances to inveftigate the Powers and Forces of Nature. but till then.lt.5tions another fent .

of Natural &eligtom The 55 XXVIII. imprinted ture upon all the Bodies of this Univerfe. that a Line drawn from the Sun to them. linear th&amp. is reciprocally as the Squares of thofe Diftances. ) and in fuch a manner. and their periodical Revolutions will be in a defcribes fefquiplicate ftances. (their Diftances from the Sun y and their Recti in the Motions being once adjufted by Author of Nature. if no in Ellip* refiftancc Spaces in which they move. and that at the fame Diftance. gravitates : the Planets mud perpetually move they meet with tick Orbits.lt. proportion of their middle Di By Virtue of the fame Law. that the Force by which one part attradts another in different Diftances from it. and the moft general Conditions of this Law are. is as the Quantity of Matter they contain By the Virtue and Efficacy of this Law. then. that every part Law great and primary by the Author of Na is of every Body attrads or toward every part of every other Body. the Force of the Attraction or Gra vitation of one part toward divers others.* equal Areas in equal Times . and E 4 of .

the Water that lyes dirc&ly under them will be rais d above its ordi nary Level. as alfo thefe the Sun. will account for all the Irregularities hitherto obferv d in the Celeftial Appearances. the Sun. becaufe the remoter parts of the Wa* tcr . Gregory has fhown Like. differ from exad Ettipjes which will be more fenfible in the Motions of the Moon. and their Orbics will be (bmewhat irregular. as Mr. becaufe She is fo near to us 5 and this one attract Confideration. but Jikewife the Planets one another. and the Sattellits of Saturn and Jupiter round them .- wlfe fince a great part of this our Globe is covered over with Water. it is plain that by the Force of this Attraction of the Sun and Moon. Newton and after him Dr. the Moon will for ever turn round the Earth.5 6 ^Dilofopt)fcai of thcfe Conditions. not only attra&s the ]But becaufe Planets and Comets. which will like wife happen if they are directly in the oppofite part of out Globe. as the Earth doth round the Sun. well apply d. As alfo the Comets will in very oblong Elliptick Orbits defcribe about the Sun equal Area s in equal times.

And were not our Terreftrial fee this fiology ( Thus we &amp. this Globe will by reafon of the oblate fpherodical Figure of the Earth arifing from its diurnal Rotation about its Axis. By this Gravitation. one Prin will account for all the great and conciple ftant Appearances of Nature. much iefs them all. and none but this will exa&ly anfwer any one. which is a demonftration of its Truth.of Natural &eW0t om will be lefs 57 attracted than the nearer. which Moon is the Quadratures. its Bodies on prefs towards Center. their De clinations from the JEquator. but their Forces at make up new and a compound Motion. and the Motions produc d in the Waters by the attraction of theietwo Luminaries cm t be obferv d feperately. tho not exactly thither neither. and leaft at thefe eflfe&s are vari- oufly limited by the different Diftances of theft Luminaries from the Earth.lt. and the various Latitudes of Places.Py- more complicated than the Celeftial by reafon of the multiplicity of different Attractions proceeding from the many dif ferent Bodies that furround any particular one) . and full greateft.

and fince gravitate towards the Sun. by which the are kept in their Orbits. is of the fame Nature with that by which heavy Bodies tend toward the Center of the Earth. and lefs conftant appearan ces on this our Globe.5is. fince the Center of the A&ion.$8 one ) we fhould doubtlefs fee the Extent of this Principle.lt. of this Attraction Action and the Primary Read ion &amp. Add to thele Confiderations. it is plain that every part of Matter attracts every other part. and fince we know by the fecond Law of Nature. in accounting for the more minute. and that the Force ( as all other Virtues proround in a Sphere ) is recipro* pogated of the pittances from cally as the Squares In Qiort.Planets is mutual. Bodies are attracted fince we feel that Terreftrul by the Earth. and by which the Moon turns round the Earth. that we are certain by the Effe&amp.lt. as in a great many we actually are. and that the Gravitation &amp. as alfo the Secondary Planets tend to* ward the Primary ones as the Center of their .Plawts jconfequently. that A6tion and Reaction arc mutual and equal.lt.

with out carrying along with em the reft. and firft of all. their Satellits. Having thus in the ral. let us enquire into the Nature andCaufe of Fluidity^which ieems to confift in theMo&Vtfjr of fome principally parts. plain it is they all.lt. Gene d the Laws Laws of Nature.Phy- Ufe of fivlogy.of Natural Betfgfon* their 59 Motions. and fince the Decreafe and Increafc of this Gravitation is of the fame Nature with that of our TerGravity. and the reftial Sun and Moan thofe of our Earth. and mutually gravitate upon one Sun. or the cafie flipping of iome Parts upon others unmov d . eftabliJh of the following Difconrfes j having like wife fhown the Neceflity of admitting the Univerfal Celeftial Law of Gravitation to A pperances. this Principle in the Celeftial let us fome of the mtiR Univerfal of our Terreftial Phenomena . Moon. Planets another. fince likewife the Sun di fturbs the Motion of that Moon. and hinted next proceed to folve the the great &amp. and deduced fuch Conferences from em as we found neceffary to pkar fome Parts XXIX.

tudes fo that they may touch only in a Point. however a/lifted. That their and firm. muft be exaftly fmooth and po3. fily flip upon another. and by contequence. Parts. one Particle may eaand for this End.0pofop!ncai mov d. and Fluids in thefe four Conditions. but their Gravity muft be fuch. perceive able to difcover the Figures of Bodies their we have been fwim- but no one as yet has been ing in Fluids. that no Eye. whereby each Particle of the Fluid attracts another. able to diftinguifli the Figures or Magni of the conftituent Parts of Liquors. e. at leaft. i. be able to Magnitude. go after the manner folid All the Bodies in the Uni- verfe are Originally compounded of muft tho not indivifible. that the Force thereof may eafily Fluids exceed . not mov d of (olid Bodies. whence that cohcfion in the Parts of the fineft natural proceeds . fo very fmall&amp. yet very fmall neceflarily take i. and fubjeded to the Univerfal Law of Gravitation. 2.gt. They lifli d. That their Figures be fpberical r ot at leaft fperiodical or approaching to one of thefe. Parts be extremely little.

of a Fluid. fpherical Parof picks equal Diameters. and keep em in a and thereby make *em perpetual Agitation. Water feems to confift hard. The Particles of natural Fluids muft be firnilar. (mooth. ceflarily require the Conditions in their Parts juft now affign d. generated and thofe that are naturally fuch. of attributing any particu ing no neceffity to the Parts of the firft Kind. thefe general Sup- pofitions. there be are to diftinguifli between thefe by the Force of the Fire.of here Natural &eligton . whereas appear in the Form the Appearances of natural Fluids do neParticles of Fire. lar Figure which own their Fluidity to the Force of the. of equal Diameter*. exceed the Force of their Cohefion and we Fluids. all the general Appearances may of be eafily accounted XXX. uniform Nature from for. which tear afunder the Parts of (olid Bodies. and confe- they may equal fpecifick Gravities. porous. of equal quently of Solidity. that be Homogeneous. and of the fame . and equal fpeci em Gravities. 4. fmall. which have between fome .

is exhaufted. and Gold will by much preffure. Water has above forty times more Pores than folid accounts not only for the different between Water and other Specifick Gravity Parts ) Fluids. makes em flip cafily upon one another. when the XXXI. as to be pervious on all Sides. and ranged in fuch a manner. their Fridions in Hiding upon one another is rendered the their Hardnefs is the reafon leatl poffible $ why Water Air lodg d in is it. let Water pafs through it. but alfo is why it more eafily concreted into a folid Form than . and by confequence. by both which. that a meafure of Water contains at leaft forty times ter is more Pores than Parts. fuch as Mercury. cles The ( Porofiy of the Parti- of Water Cubical which is fo great. and fo may be more Pores than (olid fuppofed to have Parts. their Sphericity keeps em from touching one another in more Points than one. incompreffible.61 ^pflofoppfcai f&tftt tuples fome Spaces fo large. and nineteen times rarer than confequently Gold . for Wa nineteen times lighter than Gold. Their Smoothncfs.

much we know. that the of fome Salts. we but more eminently fbme. that they arc like the Effects of Free of Cold. prodigioufly encreafe the Effe&s and Force of Cold. whereby thefe Salts are fufpendsd in the Water.of feem Natural aaeltgiotu Cold 6$ Sub- than other Fluids are. menlions both Microfcopial Boyle s Hiftory Freezing increafes the Dtof Solid and Fluid Bodies. Obfen&amp. to proceed and Fr Salin fee that all from fome . zing.like g Particles. mix d with Ice.ations inform us. which have abundance of Sur faces in refpeft of their Solidity. ftance floating in the Air Salts. tho they be fpecifically heavier. are thin double wed d. . before they fhoot Figures into Mattes. viz^ the fmall Points of the Salts getting into the Pores of the Particles of Water.gt. which is the reafbn why they fwim in Water when they are rais d once. But this Effed may be more juftly attributed to the fame Caufe that is prefent- be fhown to be the Catife of ly to Freezing. from Mr. we fee all Salin Bo dies produce a Rigidity and Stiffnefs in the Parts of Bodies to which apply d.

fo that they cannot flioot into a (olid are not able to Wedge. which in Freezing. thefe Cbryftals are obferv d to have the Form of are a double Wedge. infinuate themlelves in their Pores 5 for as I have before faid. by the Figure of thefe Cbryftals. and confequently produce the Appearances of Cold upon Bo dies 5 but in Winter they are lefs difturb dj and more at liberty to approach one ano ther. and fix em in a (olid Form. The Dimenfions of freez d Bodies are encreas d by the Infinuations of the(e Cbryftal Wedges in their Pores. and the Particles of congeal d Water are kept at fome diftance from one ano ther. Liquor is exposed the Air) which by both their Extremities when the to the Pores of infinuating themfelves into the Particles of Water. whofe Extremities .. make em cohere. ( and by (Looting into thofc Chryftah as we fee the Particles of artificial Salts do.pljiiofoptjical pzinciplcs Water. diflblves In Summer the Heat of the Sun the faim Particles into a Fluid. and by its A&ion.em in a perpetual Motion. keeps &quot. breaks off their (lender Points.

both in the Pores of the watery Particles. thefe Globules can to touch. and not come fo thefc Particles in Freezing. Specifically lighter cles this. and fo larger both enlarge the Dimenfions. which is one Reafon why Ice becomes But befides than Water. which thereby have a greater Force to expand themfelves than when difperfed. and leffen the fpecifick Gravity of Water thus con- F geal d . its 6} Middle broader and larger. by rcafon of the Largenefs of the Middle of thcfe Chryftals.of Natural Betigfom but pointed and flender. are kept ac Diftances from one another. of the watery Particles. and in the Inter ft ices form d gures. and many of em uniting Volumes. fo that when the Extremities have infinuated themlelves into the Pores of two watery Particles. than greater they were when in a fluid Form. Now Form by fpherical Fi the Insinuation of thefe by their the Volumes of Air are driv n out Chryftals. and thus the Spaces between thcfe fpherical Parti become larger and wider than before. there are many little folumes of Air included at feveral Diftances.

or getting into their Pores. which are not eafily diflblv d into t^eir component Parts again . and other Fojfils. may form itfelf into Me tals. Gems. to produce which. . em into thcfe change different Subftances. that the Quantity this our Globe does daily decieafe. Vegetable. how Hence we may guels at Water impregnated with Salts. or Metallick Subftances. a connumber of thefe Particles are necetfarily required. Minerals. Corollary Hence Water on plain. ic is of fbrne part thereof being every Day turn d into Animal. or keep em afunder from one another. the manner. Earths or Sulphurs. Mineral. the Parts of thefe Mixtures becoming a Ce ment to the Particles of Water.66 geal d into Ice. which are not eafily diffolvible. and fatten them to a folid Body. any Fluid. for (eparate a few Particles of. and they are no mote fiderable fluid.

it s their Or plain. folid. but rather not pafs through the Vacuicies formed by bicular Figures. and lets fagc through every refracting Medium. and fince. none of the Rays of Light whatever be the Caufe pafs . that the Diameters of the Corpufcles of Mercury muft not be feeing Light and than thofc of Light $ and if theie Corpufcles be Spheriodical or Oval. for the(e Interftices are as the bules. Cubes ot the Diameters of the Glo are by vvhofe meeting they form d. if the Particles of Mercury be fphedcal. muft either make or find a Pa pake. that their Diame ters are not much greater than thofc of tlie Particles of Light. Light being Material. fphcrical or for fince Mercury in fpberoidicat Particles. ic is plain. fince likewiie it is probable.fmooth. ever fo (mall Quantities is abfolutely o- XXXH. their fliorteft Diameters muft not be much greater much a greater . of Reflexion and Refradion. that Light does through the Subftance of the conftituent Particles of Fluids.of jBaftirai ffielfct otu 67 Mercury feems to confift of exceeding fmall. cannot pafs through thefe Interftices.

Spheres. why it is fo light. it hew when becaufc comprcfs d fpiral retains its fluidity. their be ing (piral Accounts for the elafticity of Air $ being fpherical Particles which gives free Paffage to any Heterogeneous Matter. through Spires contorted the Interftices of which. to form Paflages for it. the Particles of Light fon may freely pa(s. Mercury by confift XXX1IL Air fecms to of into fmall Spheres. This Account . their Accounts as alfo for Airs being compreffible. through which another Matter freely pafles. form them (elves into Sfberiodf. The So of the Particles whereof Mercury conlidity and the fmalnefs of the Interftices they leave between them. above other fifts. Fluids. beyond all other Fluids.68 greater than the Diameters of the Parades of Light. accounts for that won derful Gravity of Mercury. when comprefs d. or Figures moft refembling them. and this is the Rea. the (olid Subftance Spires of the being very fmall in propor tion to the Spaces they take up. and the extreme minutenefs of its Particles for the eafy afcent of Fire.

whofe Compreffion. with a Force reciprocally proportio nal to the Diftances betwixt their Centers. be fuppos d to confift of fmali Par which endeavour to recede from one another. which I (hall examin hereafter ) feem to be com (hall be afterwards pounded.. under which Name I com prehend all that which paffes under the Name of jEtherial or Subtile Matttr.. cles Tag.for. Newton has demonftrated . then thofe of Mercury . greater that of the Light. may haps. fome. 3)enjity ( |V0/&amp. of thcfe Primitive Fluids viz. as proportional to Mr. 01. Other Fluids ( befides that of the Light. all the Appearances of Air may thence be accounted for. 3 The Diameters of the Parti- Mr feem and Water greater than thofe the Diameter* of the Particles to be Vater. as of of and fhown$ XXXIV. W*~ ter3 Air. pleafe which to me feems the if Air ticles. by far the leaft of all.of Natural aaeltgton* Account of the properties 6? per- of Air. is for upon its this Hypot hefo they will compofe an Elaftick Fluid. of . But there is another more genuine. z j. Mercury and Light .gt. and of Par- F tides .

would ver or Brafs. ^. Sulphurs. ) the Liquor will differ proportionably to the Difference of the Firmnefs or Softnefs dient . mix d with Globules of Flefli or Blood of a lefs Diameter. Suppofing all other things alike. the mixt Fluids will differ proportionally to the Magnitude of the parts of the folid Body. and the may in the Figure of the parts of the Ingredient. which mixes with the Fluid . the Fluid will differ proportionably to the Difference of the fpecifick . and fuch like Ingredients. will make a different Liquor from the fame Lymph.7/o tides of Salts. 5. Cdteris Taribus. of the Parts of the mixing Ingre thus Mercury mix d with Globules of Diamond. (efpeci ally the Fluid. and the Dia meters of the mixing Ingredient being the fame. mated. efpecially the ^Primitive Fluid. Earths. make a different Fluid Globules from Mercury mix d with All of Sil other things being fuppos d the fame. the Figure. thus Water or Lymph mix d with Globules of Flefh or Blood of a greater Diameter. and the Varieties of fuch mixt Fluids general be thus eftii.

but alfo the Figures of the folid Parts in the mixture may be infinitely diversified. little mix d with little make a different mixt with And thefe Spheres of Lead or Iron. the Liquor will differ according to the different Degrees of the folid Parts the Cohefion of among themfelves $ thus. of the thus a mixture of Gold being fuppos d the fame. feem to be the Trimogenial Differences of mixt Fluids . not only all thefe may ther.of ffiatutai aaeiigiom cifick r\ Gravities of the Particles mixing Ingredients $ and Mercury will make a different Liquor from that of Mercury and Lead. Now. the Diffe rence of the fpecifick Gravities being here 4. All other things only confidered. be differently combined with one ano and with the four Primitive Fluids. . Mercury fpherical Magnets. infinitely infinite which will Variety of mixt F 4 XXXV. (whereas the we have hitherto only fuppos d Solids fyberical) all mixing make an Liquors. will mixture from that of Mercury.

may congregated or fcattered rower. It may be ftopt fifted in its Paffage from one place to ano ther. reflefted. go from one place to another. the Angle of Refle xion is always equal to the Angle of Inci dence . and 4. as is plain from Mr. may be and tlie Determination of its Mo tion ierves the changed like other Bodies. or re2. as other Fluids are ftopt in their Courfes of folid by the wn Oppofition Body. ( which are confirm d by the Qbfervations of other jftronorners ) whereby he demonftrates that Light requires about Minutes to come from the Sun to us. fccms to be evident i. any be within a nar . evident from reflecting Specula. and is not propagated in an Inftant.. It refiadting Burning-Glafles. proand a determined to time requires gteffive. vi%. $tpme/s Reafonings upon the Eclipfes of the Satellits of Jupiter. It is From thefe Confiderations. and it obfame Law in its Reflexions that other Bodies do. by the Interpofition of an opake Efody.XXXV. That material Subftance. through a larger It is as Space.

others fellow. and putting them Motiori all thefe Effe&s we daily 7. which effects. &amp. Natural &cltgtotu It 7? may be put out of it^Courfc 6. 5. by ftriking upon them with a detertriin d Force. their in component . Parts. Bodies . parts Plants.Prifm fome are ^ed % and fome Green. others Blue. It more or a&amp. 8.of dence. The of the Sun will warm and heac The Light other (olid arid fluid Bodies. It may be confined and (hut up in de- termin d Spaces like other Fluids. and all upon upoti other Bodies.lt. as Mr. as we fee by the Spirits. the Organs of Animals. by leparating lee. the parts of Light with various Original Colours. by communicating a certain Degree of Motion to them. continue when their paufe is removed j the of Light are yearly irpprifon d in Fruits. and warm Juices they afford. Newton has demonftrated. and may be fcen by a applied to the Hole of a darkened Room through which the Sun Now all thefe arc the Properties of fhiaes. areeqdow d Laftly.5ts lefs. through which it pafles. as other fluid Snbftance? do.lt. and other Vegetables. according to the Nature of the Medium.

74
terial

iMjiiofopljtcai

Bodies and can belong to nothing but MacSubftances.

XXXVI.
are extremely

That the
little

Particles of

Light

or frnall,

we may con

clude from thence, that they pafs through almoil: all Bodies that are pervious, fuch as
Chr)flats j Claffes, feveral Gems, and almoft all Fluids but Mercury, and that it freely
pafles

ver,

where no other Fluid, how thin foecan enter, and yet, no eye, however
has been able todifcover or diftinr

affifted,

But guifh the parts of the groffeft Fluid. what moft of all demonftrates their fmalthat Light may be propagated from innumerable different Luminous Bodies, with
nefs,
is

out any confiderable oppofition to one ano ther ; Suppofe a Plate of Mettal (having
at the top the fmalleft Hole can be made ) were erected perpendicularly upon a Horizon
tal (plane,

were fet innumera ble luminous Objects of about the fame at an ordinary Diheight with the Plate,
it

and about

irance

from it, the Light proceeding from every one of thofe Objects, will be pi opaga
through
this

ted

fmall Hole, without interfe

ring

ring.

This will appear by applying a dark

the Object, in a ftraight Lineagainft

Lu

Light of this Body will through the Hole be receiv d upon the it is dark Body ; impoffible that fo many different Streams of Light cou d be

minous Body,

for the

Now

transmitted through fo fmall a Hole, were not the Particles of Light extremely fmalL

Add
fwift,

to this, that

were not the
little,

Particles

of

Light extremely
(i.e.

being

extremely

more than a Million of times

fwifter than a Cannon Bullet, continuing in its as fliall be greateft Velocity, prefently d peirce all kinds of fofliown ) they

wou

lid

Bodies with almoft as great Facility as

they

do

Vacuities,
reflefted

whereas

we
fbme

lee

Light

regularly

from

Bodies,

innumerable dif ferent Spheres of Light within our Hori%on, may he propagated from their feveral

Moreover,

we

find that

luminous Centers 5 without interfering. How many Millions of Candles and Flambeaux

may we

fending out their Tides of Light, without clafhing upon one ano ther, which argues both the Smallnefs of
fee

the

?6

^fniofoptncai 0?i nctpies

the Parts of Light, and the Largenefs of the void Interfaces between the Particles of

Air and other Bodies.

XXXVtt,

How

extremely fwift the
gather from

Particles of Light are,

we may

the foremcntioned Experiment of
tners,

Mr. fy-

whereby he demonftrates, that the Streams oiLigkt pafs from thtSun to out Earth iq about ten Minutes ; and Hugens in his Cof*
ntotheoros,

nuing

has prov d, that a Bullet conti in the Velocity with which it leaves

the F/J Percur/a being the fame in both, the Velocities will be reciprocally as the times, i. e. the Velocity of Light will
t>C

Now

the Mufle of the Cannon, wou d require twenty five Years to pafs from us to the Sun

to that of a Cannon-Bullet, perfiftin^in
greatcft fwiftnefs, as

its

twenty

five

Years

is

to ten Minutes, or as 131 4700 to one fVoxime, fo that the Velocity, with which the

Light pafs, will be more than ^ Milliqn of times fwifter than a CannonBullet. Moreover, the Diftance betwixt
Particles of

the

Sun and

us

is

at Leaft

i

zooo Diameters
of

of natural

3&eitsfon>

77

of the Earth, but allowing it to be only runs a thoufand i coco Diameters, the

Light

Diameters in a Minute, or fixteen and half

Diameters of the Earth in a Second, or that is more than beating of an Artery,
1 1

oopoo

Taf/t;, fince the

Diameter of the

Earth contains 2865 French Leagues , and
Toifes, accor every League contains Buc ding to the Numbers of Mr, <Pkard.

n8z
1

Sound goes but about

80

Toi/es in a Se

cond, wherefore Light is abouc fix hundred thoufand times more Swift than Sound. Likewife fince the Earth s middle Diameter
is

7846 Miles, 5000 Feet and
;

each of which contains
fince

Light goes in a Se

cond or in a pulfc of an Artery, fixteen and a half; Diameten of the Earth, it is plain, that in every Second ic runs at leaft a hun dred and thirty thoufand Miles, which is a prodigious and almoft an incredible Space But the extraordinary in fo (hort a time. Effe&s of Light and Heat feem to require all this 5 we fee how powerfully it ads ( being congregated ) upon the moft com{olid Bodies, and w.c never perceive

any

78
any diminution of
an abatement of
its
its

Force arifing from
fixt

Velocity.
Stars

XXXV1H.

The Sun and

feem to be huge, denfe Bodies ( like the Earth or Planets ) heated to an extraordi nary Degree, and their Heat probably may be preferv d by the greatnefs of their Bo dies, and the mutual Adlion and Re aftion between their Parts and the Light, which they emit, and their Parts are kept from fuming away by their fixity, and alfo by vaft Weight and Denfity of the Atmoffberes incumbent upon them, and power fully compfeffing them, and condenfing the Vapours and Exhalations which arife from them : The Light feems to be emit ted from them by the vibrating Motion of
their Parts,
after the

manner we

fee Iron,

heated to fuch a Degree, as to be into Fufion, by the juft going vibrating Motion of its Parts, fend forth with Force

when

and Violence, copious Streams of liquid Fire all around $ Great Bodies prefcrve their Heat longeft, and that perhaps in propor
tion to their Diameters.

Mr.

Neww

has

made

of ffiatural

&tt<gfon

79

made
pear

it

probable, that the Comet which ap-

1680. by approaching to the Sun in its&erikelium, accjuir d fuch a Degree of Heat, as to be 50000 Years a cooling,

d

in

whence we may fing the Sun and

guefs, fixt Scars
folid

that

fuppo-

Colk&ions of denfe and

be only Matter like
to

the Planets, heated to a very intenfe
gree, they

De

may

be

many

Millions of Years

without lofing any confiderable part of their Heat, dftronowers have obferv d a clofe, compa<5t and large dtmofpbcre abouc
the Sun, and there is np doubt to be made, that its Body is of the fame Nature with

the other material Parts of this Univerfe, excepting what Alterations its vehement

Heat
ly,
fixt
its

may
Stars are

produce,

and

confequent-

highly probable,

that the

Sun and

only Planets,

vehemently
aft

heated.

XXXIX.
tually

Boferand

Ugh
i. e.

mu
a<5fc

upon one another,
its

Bodies

upon-ZJg&r, in emitting refledting, refraft-

ing and bending
(

Bodie$
>

Rays, and Light upon in heating them, and putting their
Parts

Parts in a vibrating Motion, wherein Heat confifts, according to Mr. Newton s Difcovcrics.
If

we fuppofe

that Bodies aft
it
i.

upon

Light, by attracting cular to their Surfaces,
fictiilar

in
e.

Lines perpendi

fuppofing

two

Mediumi diftinguiflied by Parallel

Lines, and that a Ray in its Paffage out of the one through the other, is urged per pendicularly towards either Plane, by any Force, which at given Diftances from the Plane, is of given Quantities , then what

ever Inclinations the

Rays have to

the Plane

the Sign of the Angle of Inci dence of every Ray confidered apart, fhall

of

Incidence,

have tb the Sign of the Angle of (fyfraftion a conftant ratio j this Mr. Newton has deitionftrated, both in his (principia, pag. 117.

&

feq.
if

and
its

in his Opticks y pag. 57.

&
it

fet}.

and

the Velocity
Incidence

of

the

Ray

be greater
fhall

before

than afterwards

be refle&ed, and the Angle of Incidence (hall always be equal to the Angle of ^flexion ^ and fince it is Matter of Experiment and Obfervation, that the Signs of the Angle*

of

Incidence

and tyfrattion in

all

Rays of
what-

of $atetai meifsfotu
whatever Nature, obferve a conftant and that the Angles of Deflexion and
<fewre

s
ratio,
7/7a-

are

equal

it is

therefore

on the o-

hand true, that the Rays of Light are thus urg d by the ^ffrafting Media, and their Velocity thus abated by reflecting ic fo that is ones, evident, fyfraftion and from one and the fame <%efleiion proceed
ther

Princiciple, ailing differently

in different

Circumftances.

Mr. Newton has demon: and convincing Experi ftrated from plain ments, that the Light of the Sun confifts of Rays differently refrangible and reflexible^nd
that thofe

XXXIX,

Rays

are

differently reflexible, that

are differently Thefe Rays refrangible. that are all alike refrangible, he calls the Light

of them Simple and Homogeneal, and thofe that are fome more refrangible than others, he calls their JL/g/^Compound Mdf&terogeneal\

the greater or
is their

iefs

(

l$efrangibility

Rays,
or
Iefs

Difpofition to
their

of be tutn d more

out of

on

the

way, in like Incidences fame Medium ; and their greater or is their xibility Difpofition to bc reG turn d

pDilofoplnral
turn d back
Surface they

more or
fall.

lefs

eafily into

the

fame Medium from any

other,

upon whofe
out of the

G(efraflion

Rarer Medium into the Denfer is made (b, that the Angle of tifyfraftion is lefs than the Angle of Incidence, and on the contrary. The Colours of Uomogeneal Light are thefe, Vwlet, Indico, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and
SfcA

Thefe Colours

in

the

Objeds

are

their Difpofition to reflect this or that fort

of Rays more copioufly than the reft ^ and in the Rays of Light they are their Difpo
fition to

propagate

this or that

Motion

into

the Organs of Vifion, and in them, they are Senfations of thofe Motions under the Forms

of Colours

;

the
ieaft

Rays

that

produce

Red
thofe
reft

Colours, are
are

and that make Violet, the moft, and the
refrangible,

as they ap refrangible, of thefe Extremes in the Or proach either der fet down, that is, Orange is Ieaft renext to Red, and Yellow next frangible,
leis

more

or

to Orange, and (o on.

All the Colours

of the Univerfe which are made by Light, are either the Colours of Homogeneal Lights,
or

of ^attttai
or

compounded of
is

a Mixture of thofc

;

Whirenefs

produced by a due Mixture

of

all the ^Primary
;

Colours of Homogeneal

and Blackne(s by a Suffocation, of Light ; and all Grey or Non-refexibilfiy Colours, betwixt Black and White, may be compounded of all the ^Primary Co the Pri lours mixt in a due Proportion mary Colours of Homogeneal Light are un changeable in their Nature, and no De nor Refractions will change any of flexions thefe into another ; whereas by the due Mixture of coloured Bodies, Colours may be produc d by Compoficion, which Qiall be like to the Colours of Homogeneal Light, but not as to the immutability of Colour ; for that may be chang d according to the Colour of the Light by which they are
Light
;

Teen

Suns Light confided but of one fort of Rays, there wou d be but one Colour in the whole World, ancl
;

io that

if

the

it

be impoffible to produce any new Colour by Reflexions or Refraltions,- for all
the

wou d

Variety of Colours depends Compofition of Light.

upon
/

the

G

z

XL,

that the Caufe of im Deflexion is not the Diftancej pinging of Light on the folid and impervi ous Parts of Bodies. The Rays of Light which fall upon Bodies and are reflected or refracted. yet not fo fmall as to be come truly plain mff&amp. begin to bend before they arrive at the Bo Mr.gt. as by the rougheft. and that this Action is ftrongeft at the ieaft he has demonftrated likewife. whofe Parts are fmall and fubtile. that they are incurvated by the Aftion thefe of Bodies as they pafs by them. if Light were reflected by impinging upon the folid Parts of Glafs j it wou d be fcatter d as much by the moft polifh d Glafs. which being contrary to Ex* perience. For (not to repeat thofe which he has brought in great plenty ) fince Glais can be no other ways polifh d than by grating and (cratching it by Subftances. Experiments of Rays paffing by the Edges of Bodies. Newton has fhown by feveral dies. fo that the Scratches and of its Surface become too fmall Frettings other Arguments to be vifible. .84 ^ XL.berkal y and all toge ther to compofe one Surface*.

Superfice greater or leffer refracting Power. after the manner hinted Bodies reflect 37. or the Force of its Attraction ftrong to Befides that. Light in the j reflect the greateft Quantity it is of for by Experiment found. that tranfparent Mediums. it becomes totally re/Jetted. but by fome Power of the Body.of ffiatutai aaettgt on* perience. which is evenly diffused over all its Surface. Power. for then its refraCtive Power. thofe Surfaces of tranfparenc Bodies which have the greateft re/rafting upon the Ray. and refraft Light by one and the fame varioufly exercifed in cumftances . for in the confine Superficies interceding two of Air and Sal. for when Power various Cir- Light goes out of Glafs into Air as as it can obliquely poffibly if its ftill be Incidence then more made do.Gem tis G in the ftronger than 3 con- . it 83 is evident that the Reflexion of a Ray is not effe&ed by one fingle Point of the reflecting Body. by which it ads upon the Ray without immediate ContaCt. the ^flexion is ftronger or as the a hath weaker. oblique . becomes too let any of the Rays go through.

and the Reafon why uniform. Air between the aque ous Globules. Now Deflexions are perficies produced in the Su which intercede thefe Mediums of different Denfities. is becaufe all their Parts are of an equal Denfity . that conftitute Clouds or Mifts.86 confine of Air and Water ^ and in the confine of Air Cryftal. as Water between the tinging Particles wherewith any Li quor is impregnated. pellucid Mediums have no fenfible Reflexion. thereby . and Opacity arifes from the mul titude of ^efleBions produced in the internal Parts of Bodies: XLI. there are many Spa ces either empty or Me repienifh d with diums of other Dcnfides. excepting fo far as they partake more and or lefs of iulphurous. and perhaps. Mediums different from botK thefe between the Parts of hard Bodies. oily Particles. Between the Parts of opake and coloured Bodies. ftill and common ftronger Glafs or and ftronger in the confine of Air and Diamond. but at their external Superficies. All Bodies feem to have their Powers proportional to their Denrefraflive ficies.

in the Proportion of theSVgTK which meafure the t^efrattion of upon Bodies.lt. as by Chymical dnalyfes we And as Glafs. Sulphurs al moft that the Aftion between upon Light Light and Bodies is mutual. phurs. thac this refraffive Power does ari(e . to turn all a&amp. Newton has found by Obfervation on almoft all tranfparent Bodies. together with a Calculation founded the Suppofition. that the denfeft Bodies which ly. is evident from Adion and this Confideration. . fince all Bodies very probable. refratt and reflett grow hotteft in the Light moft ftrongSummer Heat. fo fince mutual. that Light is fwifter in Bodies than in vacuo. that this refraBive in Bodies does moftly partake more or lefs Power of Sul find. and it s depend upon the (ulphurous Parts with which they abound.5ls Light congregated by a Burningmolt upon fulphurous Bodies. which is certainly true. this Mr.of Natural aaeUgtom 87 thereby have their refra&ive Power made more or lefs . into Fire them is : and Flame . fince it s from the Aftion of Bodies on Light. by refttttd the Action of the refrafted and G 4 Light.

Glafs by being pulveris d. thofe whofc Pores are fill d with Mediums of an unequal Denfity with that of the refrafting Medium itfclf. are Light. and if this Plate were flit into Threads^ or broken che into Fragments of the fame thicknefs with . XLIL The haft Tans of almoft all Natural Bodies are tranfparent. and tranfmit thofe of aqother. as Salts or wet Paper dried. as Paper dip d in Water or Oyl $ and on the contrary. or feparating their Parts. upon the fame Ground that thin Plates reflect or tranfmit thofe Rays j for a thin Plate of an even thicknefs appears all over of the fame Colour.a8 ^pofoppical The Bodies that reflect Light. reflect Rays of one Colour. or almoft equal Pores Den- with their Parts. and Bodies become more fides tranfparent. the moft tranfparent Subftances may by eva cuating their Pores. as may be feen by viewing fmali Bodies with a and confequently. according to their feveral Sizes.gt. be rendered diffidently opake. by filling their with Fluids of equal. they muft T4icrofape&amp. or Horn by being (crap d.

But of Bodies on which their Colours the parts depend. why a heap of thofe Threads or Fragments flhould not conftitute a Ma(s or Powder of the fame Co it lour which the Plate exhibited before was broken of a hibit . that thin Plates or Bubbles refletted Rays of one Colour and tra/mitted thofe of another. and this is the Foundation of the various Colours of all Natural Bodies. ftolet . muft be denfer than the Medium. of Natural Bodies be muft upon the fame Grounds reflect or tranfmit the feveral (ores of Rays. fame Grounds ex Now Mr. their muft on Colours. and there fore the fmall Parts ing tranfparent. there is no Reafcn why every Thread or Fragment fhould not keep its Co lour. which pervades their Interfticesj and as there is a conftant Relation between fyfrangibility. Newton found by Obfervation. and the fmall the Parts of all Na tural Bodies being like fo many Fragments Plate. and confequently. Co lours gible and the moft (Refran Rays being the leaft refrangible Pw . according to their (everal thicknefs or thinnefs. 89 the Plate.of Natural Beltgton.

and refrad or tranfmit the reft. is. in like the intergreateft thicknefles 5 and rnediateColoursat intermediate thicknefles j the Red at and lours there are ieveral Orders of thofe Co more or le(s intenfe and vivid. muft go to that late pearance written by admirable Treatifc of Oftic fo&amp. being at lead thicknefles of any Plate or Bubble.gt.ffitinnples and thofe of intermediate Colours ha ving proportionally intermediate Degrees fo there is a conftant Re of fyfrangibility . lation between Violet Colour and (%eflexibility. ac cording to the feveral thickneffes of thefe Plates or Bubbles : and the Reafon why the Surfaces of ail thick and tranfparent Bo Light incident on dies refled part of the them. or to fum them up in a lefs room . that fome Rays at their Incidence are in Fits of eafie &amp. Newton $ for it is impoffible to feparate the Parts of this Work from one another without Difadvantage to them. Mr. foe full Satisfadion in this wonderful Ap of Nature.%eflelion y and others in Fits of Thofe whofe who deeafie Tranfmtffion.lt. the Circumftances reflected. without lofing fomething .

4. this Light to cm in Lines perpendicular to their Surfaces. is That Light thefe mitted from thefe vibrating luminous Bo dies a certain time in from requires paffing to us. has now manifefted to the World to what furprizing ments duly Heights. even vulgar Experi ed in managed and carefully examin In the fuch Hands may advance it. 2. from Mr. That far great Perfon having before flhown how Numbers and Geometry would go in Natural tpbilofopby. That fixt Stars are but Planets or Earths vehemently heated.gt. I general. tion. the Sun think we may fafely conclude i. and moves after the fame man ner other Fluids only with a much them do&amp. or having their in a fmalleft Parts ftrong vibrating put Mo emitted from them. and that this Light puts the parts of the(e Bodies in a vibrating tion wherein Heats confift. 5. That Bodies draw greater Velocity. by powerful ribratwni of their fmall eft Parts. That this Fluid of Light e3. Newton s and Difcoveries. That the Mo Motion of Light is fwiftcr in Bodies than in .of thing Nw and Ufeful.

or is rather bend 7. i. in its That the Ray cidence whole Courfe of ^flexion and In defcribes a Curve. breaks through a reSubftance.5iion Mo diffe tion in its (fyflexion. when brought a certain Degree of Strength. muft of Neceffity retard its &amp. and and (lower its being than in Incidence. is the Caufe of their Light. muft be of fuch a determin d Force to produce a diftinft Sound. That the Vibration of the fmaller Parts of Bodies produced by to the A&ion of Light. becaufe that Force of Attrain its which accelerates its Motion Incidence . rent Direction thereof. by reafon of after its this Attraction.in vacuo.lt. ed than broken. in 8. by reafon of the 6. when any Ray the is in that part of thefe Vibrations that has the fame Dire&ion with eafily that of Ray. e. reflefted. when that of the Rays of Light. juft as we fee the Vibrations produc d in the Air by tremu lous and fonorous Bodies. That thefe Vibrations produced Bodies by the Action of their Motion confpires with Light. but when it is in the conit .

is 10. are 9. Light congregated by a Burning. &amp. and that this diverficy in both arifes from the fame Principle. and fo every Ray is difpos d alternately to be eafily reflected or eafily tranfmitted.9$ which im contrary part of the Vibration. That tffyfle\ion caused dies. by and happens only Mediums of is the different Denficies of in Superficies Bo that intercede different Dcnfities. afting differently in dif the Rays of Light ferent Circumftances. 1 That cerreflefi of Bodies to 5. and that the refractive Power of Bodies is principally owing to the cranfmicted totally that are of the fame Sulphurs with for fince all which they abound A&ion is mutual. vi%. That of their own Na ture diverfly Refrangible and ^flexible. tarn .gt. the Action of Bodies upon Light.Glafs ads moft upon Sulphurs. ces Sulphurs ought to 1 2. and fince k&amp. it is eafily refle&ed. That Light through Mediums only uniform Denfity. aft moft upon Light.gt. That the For or refratt Light are very nearly proportional to the Denfities of the fame Bodies. pedes its Motion. 11.

tain

Colours are

tfefrangibility

the primitive upon thefe Degrees.
lifts

d to luch Degrees of or ^flexibility, and that all and original Colours depend
ty
1

4.

That White con-

an equal Mixture of all the primi tive Colours, and Black in a Suffocation of all the Rays of Light, which is the Reafon why ftlacfo burn more eafily than other Colours and other not primi
in
;

tive

Colours
1

arife

of

thefe.

5.

Mixture That the Colours of Na
certain

from a

tural

Bodies depend upon the different Denficy of their fmall Parts, and thereby
fitnefs

Light of one Colour and tranfmit that of others. 1 6. That
their

to

reflect

of Rays make Vibrations of feveral which according to their bigbignefles, nefles excite Senfations of feveral Colours much after the fame manner, that the Vibra
leveral forts

of the Air according to their feveral bignefles excite Senfations of feveral Sounds.
tions
1

7.

That

the

lours arife
Iration

Harmony and Difcord of Co from the Proportions of the Vi*
as the

propagated through the Fibres of the

Optick Nerves into the Brain,

Har
mony

of

Natural fteHgton*

9?

and Difcordof Sounds arifes from the Air. Proportions of the Vibratms of the
Corollary.

From what

has been faid of the Nature
its

of the Sun, and

Light,

ic is

evident that

the Quantity of Heat and Light in the Sun does daily decreafe 5 like other vehemently

hot Bodies

it

muft gradually cool
of
fo

;

as alfo,

by

Rays Body upon all the Planets within its Syltem, which do not return, both its Bulk and Heat muft be diEwiffion

its

many

Millions of

perpetually, quite round

its

minifhed.
virtual

It is

Heat in Metals and Minerals, may be owing to the imprifoned Rays in em $ the Production of Animals in the ordinary way, require sa cer tain Degree of Warmth, which proceeds from his Influence. SomeBodies do ftifle and
fuffocate the

not improbable that all the the juices of Vegetables,

Light, fo as that they are never, or not duly reflected Sul again. phurous Bodies form little Cells by the

Rays of

Action of the Rays of Heat and Light to *& retain

$>6

retain

cm, and from

the Ingenious
learn

Expe

riment of the accurate and
{Bernoulli,

we

fpbere and all

d Mr. John are informed, that our Atmothe Bodies on our Globe are

faturated at all times with Rays of Light which never return again to their Fountain,

becaufe as has been
dtions,

Chown in the former
I

Se*

Bodies do attract, and confequently
thcfe Rays.
fhall here
(et

retain

down

(for he try d the fame Ex periment after different manners) the Inge

one of the Ways

nious Author prefcribes, which by my Or der was repeated here at London. They are
related in the id,

Volume of Mr.Fontanelles
Qtyyalle for the Year

Memoirs of
1

the

Academie

7 co.

We fuck d thro*

a very clean

Tube

of about 50 Inches in Length, open ac both ends, very well cleanled Mercury, till it came to the top, then nimbly ftriking off the upper Surface of the Mercury, which had been ioii d by che Air, and hindred the Effect in former Tryals, we nicely and the upper end with a proper quickly clo& d Cement fo th^t no Air cou d get in, then fu~
fpending the

Tube

that the Mercury

mighc

fubfide,

of Natural &ettgfon*
(iibfide,

97
chat

and darkening
in,

the

Room

no

Light could get

we

perceived that at

every Vibration, Flafhes of Light appear d in the Vacuity at the upper End, which enlightened
all the

Room, which as Mr.
$

@^r-

happened thus that Film of Dirt, wherewith the Air foils the upper Surface of the Mercury, and which hinders the Paflage of the Particles of Light in or
noulli reafons,

being removed 5 in the Vibrations of the Tube, the Mercury afcenddinary
ftafotneterf,

ing in

oblique Situation, lubfides again in its Perpendicular one, and thereby leaves behind it a Vacuity, to fill which, the Par
its

ticles

of Light, being the only Body that
in,

can get

rufhes in, from the Mercury and through the Glafs, in great Quantities, and fo produces thefe Flafhes ; which (hows
that the Subftance of
Light,
it

is

(battered
vifible.

every
the

where,
it s

Now fincc

though

be not

certain, that Bodies

do

attradt

Rays of .Light, and do retain em fo, that they can never return to the Fountain
of Light again of Ligb{ both
;

it s

plain,
this

the

Quantity

in

H

Bright Luminary,

and

and

in

the

Sun

like

fixt Stars

muft be

continually decreafing : However, it s alfo certain, that this Decreafe is very inconfi-

derable in any ftiort time, though
fure there
is

we

are

(ome, and our not being fenfible of this Decreafe, is only an Argu ment of the exceeding Smalnefs of the We find fome odorife Particles of Light,
rous Bodies,

fend out Steams

for

many

Years, without fenfibly diminishing either their Bulk or Weight, which argues the

Smalnefs of the Parts of thefe Steams. But the Particles of Light muft be extremely
fmall, fince the

Sun

for fo

many Ages

has

been conftantly emitting Oceans of Rays, without any fenfible Diminution : But this
can furprife no Body, who confiders that Matter is infinitely divifible 5 for it is poffible

to affign in Numbers, a Quantity, whereof a Body as big as the Sun may

conftantly, for any finite Number of Years emit Oceans, and yet the Sum of em all,

may

not be greater than a cubical Inch, or even a Grain of Sand.

XLIIL

of
XLJII.
that the

We

mod

have already obferv d, general Condition, of the

Univerfal Law of Gravitation in Bodies,was, that at the fame Diftance from the Center

of the attracting Force, Bodies did gravi tate in proportion to their Solidity, and at
different Diftances, reciprocally as the Squares

of thofe Diftances but this Condition is not fo general, as altogether to exclude
5

others
Tterfal

j

the
is

way

to

know how

this

Uni-

Law
is

diverfify d, in

the different

what Lines, Bodies in their Motions or A&ions upon one ano ther defcribe, or what the Effeds of thefe Motions and Actions are and then to in* veftigate what Conditions of the Univer al Law of Gravitation, will make Bodies
Bodies,
to obferve
;

defcribe thele Lines, or produce thefe Effedts. Thus if any of the (primary or Se
condary Planets, did delcribe perfect Circles. or about the Sun, or a
Ellipfe*

Primary

Planet plac d in the Center, the Condi tion of the Hnhtrfal Law in thefe, would be, that the attractive Force at different Di
ftances

from the Center, would be

as thefe

H

i

Diftances

$pofopl)tcal
Diftances
Parabola,
at

dire&ly.

If

they defcribed a

by fuppofing

the attractive Force

an

infinite Diftance,

changing
Force
,

or an Hyperbola, by the Centripetal into a Centrifugal

Law
ways
as

then the Condition of the Univerfal wou d be, that the Force were al
equable

and the fame at all Diftances, 1 1. Mr, Newton has demonftrated,
<Prop.

Lib.l.

We

find, as has

been infinuated in

the preceding Sections,

That the Rays of

Light in paffing through different Media, do tend perpendicularly, to either the Plane of Incidence or ti^eflexion, fo that the Force

of Attraction

always the fame 5 at equal Diftances from the fame Plane. We lee that the Parts of Air, fhun or fly from one another, inftead of tending to one another ;
is

fo that in accounting for the Appearances of Nature from the Unherfal Law of Gravitation,

we

are not

ty

d to one fingle ConK>

dition, but

may

have recourfe

others as

(he Nature and Ncccilicy, of the Appearan ces (eem to require ; for the whole Diffi culty of (philo/opby, teems to lie in invefti-

gating the Powers and Forces of Nature,

from

of

101

from the Appearances of the Motions given, and then from thele Powers to account for
all

the

reft.

XLIV.
cohering

The obvious Appearances of
two
very fmooth

Bodies are thus,

well poliflh d, plain Bodies, put together, will firmly cohere even in an exhaufted
Receiver, which fliows evidently that their Coke fan is owing, neither to the Gravity, nor

any other Property of the Air; all faline, cryftalline, and moft mineral Bodies, break in very fmooth and plain, or at lead congruent Surfaces , and univcrfally almoft all hard and very compact Bodies, break wkh Surfaces, which immediately upon the which is Separation, appear whitiflj,
to

an Evidence, that though the Surfaces be very fmall, yet they are very fmooth and polifh d, for only innumerable little polifh
all

d Surfaces, are fit to reflect plentifully kinds of Rays, whereby white Co

lours are produced. ces of cohering Bodies,
to

Now thele Appearan
do

naturally lead us

imagine,

that

one necelTary Condition
the plainnds,or at leaft

toward

Co^/^is

H

3

Congruitj

f^tnrtptes
Congruity

of

cohering

Surfaces,

and

this

fecms neceffary to exclude any Fluid from lying between cohering Bodies, for theie Bodies cannot be laid to cohere^ or be con
tinued, betwixt whofe cohering Surfaces, in all its Points a Fluid may infinuate itfelf,

The

of the cohe plairmefs and fmcothnels more Points come ring Surfaces, will make into Cotttaftj than when they are rough

and
/ton

irregular.
arifes

For whatever Caufe Coheif

from,

we

fuppofe that

Cade

to a 61

more
be
;

ftrongly at the Contatt, the Points of the cohering Bodies come
Colxfion in Curve

mod

into Contatt, the firmer the

will

and though cxal Congruity

Surfaces, will bring as many Points into Contact, as plain Surfaces will, yet Curvlty not being the fimpleft, nor mo(t expedi
tious

of producing this Effect, nei ther agreeable to Nature, (who always her Effects the fliorteft brings about all and eaiieft way ) in feems evident, that
the plairmek and imoothnefs of Surfaces, is one Condition of Cohe/ion, and that thofc

Method

Atoms that are terminated with plain Sur
faces

of ^atutai &eU0f on*
faces, will ( ctteris faribus
)

i

o$

produce Bodies

This will appear firmeft Cobefion. more evident from the contrary Quality in the conftituent Particles of Fluids. For we
have fhown before, Condition of Fluidity,
Surfaces, of the
that
is

of the

one neccffary
Particles

the Curvity of the

conftituent

of

Fluids, in
that
their

refpe<ft

whereby their Cobefion is very fraall, of the Cobe/ion of thofe Particles and are terminated with plain Surfaces,

Gravity always exceeds the Force of their Cobefion, fo that from both thefe
Gaufes, they eafily flip and move one upon /* another. that fome then may fuppofe

We

of the Primary Atoms, of which Bodies are conftituted, are terminated with plain Sur
faces
dies

on

all fides,

which will produce Bo

of the firmeft Cobefion, others are part ly terminated with plain, and partly with curve Surfaces, which will produce Bodies
of a
others again are intirely terminated with curve Surfaces, which will produce Fluids, and between thefe inCobefion
;

mean

tirely plain,

and

entirely

curve, there are

infinite Combinations,

of plain and curVeSut-

H

4

faces

and cannot be feparated buc by a Force fupericur. as this it were. to whofe Plane at^. attracted by . will Bodies. endeavour to embrace one another. let a Circle be defcribed. let !P A be perpendicular. Now in can be deriv d from nothing Nature. whereby all the Pares of Matter. will moft fitly anfwer the Appearances of Coatcradt he fan. there wants to hinder a Cement. let us then enquire what Condition of the Unfterfal Law. and &amp.lt. bring nefs and in the Surfaces of cohering yet this moft Points into Contact.P be a (Particle of Matter. On the Center A. to feparate ftill them. will not hinder them from being feparated. in refpeft of their Figures. by any Force how fmall foever j and dies fiiice we require are certain. but that Univer* fal Law of Attraction. XLV. and at ihe Difhnce AD. that cohering Bo a determin d Force.faces which will account for all the vari ous Degrees of Cobefion in Bodies. them from being e^fily feparated when join d. But though this fmoothplainncls. to that by which they one another.

218. L .PF = VE.lt. in any &amp. &amp.lt.?. right Line &amp. 5)0. of fuch a length as may reprefent the Force whereby.lt. (P^.lt. Li^.P by all the Particles of this Circle. and at F draw F/ pa rallel to AT). the Particle attracts the E Body &amp. from ? to any any Point in the Radius of the Cir in the cle draw !P Ay take .Prop.. Newton has demonftrated.of Natural 3Reltgtotu Condition of the Univerfal Law. and let Lt^I be the Curve which the Point 2^ thus constantly circumftantiated Generats 5 Mr.

you have Iffot tte Area 0&amp. y= x&quot.lt.P.P JLM =^=~^^ PH.?. we then &amp. = i x a- whofe And if for x you fubfticute !P ^.P/j&quot.IPrincip.~ x you fubfticute you have putting m. Matkemat. . (hall OTHILM .lt. &amp. that the Force whereby Af&amp.P attrads the Corpufcte multiplied as the upon the Kftarace A &amp.lt. and F^. F be call d x. j . and let F^ ? or the Force whereby the Point E attracts the be reciprocally as any Power ( fuppofe n) of F then the Equa- Body &amp. the whole Circle. upon the Q^adim is &amp.Phil.and therefore i.lt.OTJ1 r ^ 1 Wl v /r| . r AHIL let &amp.lt.lt.P r tion of the Curve will be.lt.gt. t n . &amp. =H .lt.P.

107 m x &amp. the i.lt. with its AD the Cow- Afympiote is .P AH1L will be in and Jf being nothing.P4 tratting K If 4HIL=o x ^ = n and VA = oo i vanifhing. when the is y attratting Plane plac d at ot the Hyperbola. &amp. in which Cafe.lt. will coincide wich the dfymptote $0. i. and &amp.gt.) finite.H ( whole Center . or the Di~ ftance between the Corpufcle and the atTlane &amp. then the of the attracting Circle being produced. ti\s Area.~ consequently the the Cor- iM of the Circle upon pufcle = m t x If M = i. then the Arch X&amp.lt.lt. (the Curve being the vulgar Hyperbola.P A = o.of Natural Bcligion. Attraftim e.

ami &amp. and whofe Radius t= oo ) will coincide with is .lt.P A AT&amp. AHIL will be oi more f/. then the Infinite. when -V A o.cc x = i. and conx ftcjuently the Attraction &A it AfilL iu r..lt.gt. = i. the Attraction of the Circle &quot. And hence appears that . and i. is &amp.gt.P^ /&amp.y - + 2L If 7i Cff. there the 4*4 AHIL will be -nothing.PA quently AL i and HI will coincide. than that in the former Cafe.^tttlofopitfcal T.^ and confe- x /4HIL =00 x o = therefore and V A = If n ^H be = 4 x And then f H called &amp.gt. -f- &amp.PD = &amp.gt.lt.4 (the which Exprcffion fliall be after meaning wards explained ) and therefore the Attra ction will be $A x AHIL = o .PJ = o. let &amp. where ?i in = If n = o 2 and (P /4 ~ oo . a.lt. is greater i../cfe upon the Gw2!_ x AHIL . multi ply *d into it more than Infinite from whence that the Force of the Atraflion appears this Cafe.

- when (P A oo I and a the Atfay. ly AH If A = a. contrary to what happened in the firft Cafe. the Attraction will oo for of be greater than when !P A two Produds. that is the greater. vi^ becaufc (P A = a .PA=--o y thmAHIL but will be more than infinite. for the reafon o is mentioned. the Attraction. which has the . for the Attraction &amp. when (P traCtion.P being cail djf. AHlLici this third in Cafe will be greater than the fecond and Cafe. if (P i op A o. then as former =&amp. = greater Multiplicand. that ^is to a.lt. the Attraction A m = ? and &amp.lt. will be greater than in the in this Cafe now fecond Cafe.of Natural Religion* in this Cafe. where n = i.lt. vi^ i. as a greater than infinite is to infi nite.lt. If ?i J = 2 and &amp. fo that if A denote A=o . AH1L o in Force of the Attraction confequently the when PJ both Cafes. having the fame Multiplicator.P in that Cafe was the fame both when was equal to o and to oo .

* (fi traBion will be equal to ~H 2* (Id J? 4- i 1 45 + 3Z 5 rt Hi%0r. the Force of the circular &amp.no a common AHIL in this Cafe. and at any affignable Diftance of the Corpufcle eafily in be upon computed the Corpufcle P. and and confequently 00 X0 = 1.Plane Attraction of the any affignable cafe of the Powers of the Diftance P F. and the increafes when thus the Powers of the Diftance n increafe^ . pufcle when come into or the Plane Contaft. that the Force of the AttraEtkn of the Plane up thefe Calculations it is From on the Corpu/ck) when the Diftancc is no Cor thing. If the Attraction will be m = 3 and PA =a i } then the At. tf 6 After this manner. is Multiplicator in both. If m = and PA =00. then as be 3 fore. greater than AHIL in the fecond. may from the Plane.lt. AHIL will be equal to nothing. evident.

much lefs propor than when n=. I. the Force of the Attraction and PA =o. and when they are at fome Diftance from one another^in is this cafe.) cannot obtain in the Cohefon of Bodies 5 for the Difference between the Force. is when the AttraBion reciprocally as the Diftance between the attracting Bodies. H = i thefe Calculations. when the Towers of the Diftances are high. at the fame finite Diftan- ces decreafes fafter ? or at a greater rate. or x. fo fmall.of ffiatmal &eltgtotu thus when n == 2. thus at the Diftances. As alfo. when in = 3. to where the Difference one Cafe and in the other. and is P A o. and fo in others between n yet greater. than when they are lower. . is this to Now : apply theCobefion of Bo dies It s certain that the firft Condition (vi^. it s clear from upon greater. fame n than finite is when is lefs. that the Force of the Attraction of the Plane the Corpufcle. the Force of the Attraction tionally. or when n is a greater Number. than when and fo in others higher. when the Bodies are in Contaft. as does not anlwer the Appear ances .

the proportion of the decreafe of this Force. for we find. Diftances give from one another. fame. that the Force is whereby Bodies when they come to immediate Contatt. the Condition of the Univerfal it any which furround Bodies. ciprocally as the Squares at fome Diftance from one another^is greater than in the former Cafe . J3ut not fufficient to account for this Difference obfervable in the if manner of the Cohefion of Bodies. In the fecond Condition of the Univerfal Law of Gravitationfoiz^whcn the Force is re of the Diftance. greater than the Diameters of the confticuent Parti dies cles will be very difficult to make fuch Experiments.ances . at fome deterthat min d would Law. becaufe the Fluids But when . they are at ever fo fmall a finite Diftance from one another. than when cohere. upon the Surface of our Globe.) the Difference of the Force ofCohefion. between Bodiesat immediate Contaft^nd of the fame. get in between the Surfaces of Bo they are at any Diftance. very much greater. But were poffible to gather by Experiment. in it to the cohering Bodies.

is too fmali to be diftinguifh d by our Senfes. removed at almoft an infenfible Diftance from one another. they render the efficacy of the Force of Attraction where of the Force thus the Particles of by Bodies cohere. of the plainnefs Surfaces of cohering Bodies . howfoever everthisbe. altogether infenfible at any Diftances from one another. greater than are the Diameters of the Particles of thefe Fluids . and that the Particles of 4ir y endea vour to recede from one another. and a Diftance equal to the Diameters of fuch jfubtil Fluids. may be explained from this &amp. then of Gra* one Condition of this Uniyerfal Lw I vition . in between the Sur Light. and of^ir.lt. and fo by the efficacy preffures. Ho w- very evident. that all the Appearances of the manner of the Cohefion of Bodies. for if all Bodies cohere after one and the fame manner.of cles Natural their lateral of chcfc Fluids. get faces of Bodies. and feeing one atight and Bodies aft mutually upon nother.Prin* cipleof Gravitation. together with that other of the already mentioned. deftroy whereby Bodies cohere . it is affifted.

fures. in fo much. is fufficient variety in this Univerfal Law all thefe Diverfities for account fo that it s to evident that from thefe Principles. that by frequent and long con tinued Bendings. traftm. we fc the .- firft Bendings. tho* opt fo large. to account for the different Degrees of Firmnels. as to be vifible as afro &amp. or in the become vifible which no doubt were K/&quot.gt. others aftw another (and thefe Diverfitics to fome may feetn not improbable. there before. find the Convex fide exceedingly ftretch d. there In we in the out.vitation will fervc$ if fomc Bodies attraA one another after one manner. bending elaflick Bodies. being thus it is no hard matter to undcrftand (cxplain d. Cahejton in general XLVL fame of fmooth and plain Sur faces. Cohefan in all pofGble Cafes may be explained. Solidity and there Cohejton obfervable in Bodies ) then.fide. and of fome one or more of the mention d Conditions of the General Law of AtPrinciples. which feems to arife from the Elafticity.

are join d together. or its Parts forcibly d together. the^irtraftive Force wou d immediately bring thefe Planes and together again. to hinder their A&amp. that two very fmooth and plain (quare Surfaces. attracts by fbme one or other of the Con ditions of the General Law of duration. were fo another. only the Convex fides. fuppofe. mightily contracted.fide : the fame thing happens. on the in. ftrike againft one ano ther. when two elaflick Globes. ceafingtoaft.of jftatutal ffieiigtom the Concave fide.lt. the matter being thus. by any external Force. that no forein Fluid I a . fo as to run prefs into Folds or lefler Convexities. fo that each Particle in thefc Planes. fide feparated.5tion tain. as to move upon a common of the Congruent fquares as an /frcw . are turn d in towards let us their Centers . feparated if thelc Planes were if the by zfarallel Motion. chat the external Force which thus fe- Force ( paraced theft Planes. if thcfe Planes. or Balls.and that no forein Fluid endowed with a disjoining fuch as Air and Light arc ) cou d init is cer : terpofe. Diftance were fo fmall.

another after fome one gr other Condicion of the Universal Law 5 being feparated by a forein Force ? they muft (when that Force ceales) . if the feparating Force ceas d. fo far.eafily gathered from the Condition of the Law of Attralkn y and the Diftance of thefe Planes being given. neceffity have fome of their Parts in theie Adtions. admit any forein deftroy the effi Fluid to enter. and in both Cafes. whereby thefe Particles If we then attraff one another. feparated by a parallel or a circular Motion about an Axis y or by a - Motion both after thefe. changing their Figures. the attracting Force would a6t and bring em together a- gain . the Surfaces of the Parts of Elafiick Bodies.Fluid could get in to hinder their Adtion. as to manner they provided they be not feparated. fome manner compounded of ( for it is no matter after what are disjoined. and that they attratt one plain and fmooch. with a Force which may be. ) fuppofe. Now all Elaftick Bodies in their Actions upon one muft of another. which may cacy of the Force.

) and fo will produce all being the Appearances of Elaftick Bodies. and Condition of the Unherfal Law given.of natural Beltgton* fes) join i i \? together again with a certain degree of Force. to determin the Condition of the Univerfal Law by which their Particles attradt their one another . in this place with the particular Gonfcquences. If Elaftick Bodies ferv d one conftant (Proportion. in their un bending. to defcend into all the par ticular Circumftances. ic were eafie from thence. be explained. there arc as great Varieties in this as in Cobefon. from particular Conditions of the General Law of Attrattion. may be accounted I . the only (principles thefe intricate. but fhall content laid my fclf to have upon which dejpair d o for.may the Elafticity of Ten dinous Bodies. and hitherto down pearances.lt. but it is not my ob- Bufinefs here. Upon the fame &amp. (which is to be eftimated from the Diftance.Principles. but per haps fome think. toward bending Forces. I fhall not may therefore trouble the Reader.

come into the Subje& CHAP. but that thefe already explain d are moft of rances what I (hall makt ufe of in the following Treacife. from the fame Principles.ii 8 I ffpofopfflcal 0?mcipltg would proceed to the reft of the Appea of Nature which lam fatisfy d can be accounted for. for which this Chapter was defign d only as a Lemma : Befides that. fome of the reft will naturally of thefe Diicourfes. .

.

.

. CHAP. to fee T is a little furprifing Men contending and wran^_ gling about the Origin of their ieveral Families. whether he fprang from fome times the Earth dropt from the Clouds y when he began^ or if ever there was a B time or . and yet fcarce any Bo dy give Himfelf the trouble once ferioufly to confider or enquire how Man at firft became to be.THE Pbilofophical O F Principles Natural Religion. this Origination of World 3 and of Mankind in particular. Of the II.

or the Off- ipring of blind Fate and Chance. and that thefe Particles mo &amp. tho thefe Enqui s be far more worthy a wife Man than thofe infignificant Contefts.. I fhall not think my Pains ill beftow d once in my Life to have cxamin d how this prefent ftate of things became at firft to be. and yet very many now a days don t fcruple to own themfelves the Children of the Earth.. the firft is of thofe of the Epicurean Se&. very fmall.lt.^I)i!ofopi)icai time ries when he was not . II. Whate ver others may do. nor their Pedi gree dcfpifcd. without troubling our Heads who made it. or whether it was~#We or eafily fatisfy not. extreamly Matter have for infrangible Particles of ever been . No Body can well bear to have their Anceftors affronted.S ving . but few of us go farther^ we take this World as we find it. that holds that an iwmenfe Void^ and an Infinity of different hard and ly figur d. We are pains d we and our own immedi ate Parents have not been for ever . There are three general Opini ons about this matter.

. with out any Caufe.. to which to a very high pitch we find none of its other qualities anfwerable. as B 2 not . Time and Space it s true may have for ever been but that is becaufe they to a may have fome relation Being endow d with all other fuitable j Dualities but Matter feems to be too igno ble a Being to arrogate fuch high Endow we ments.which is a very liberal Firft this Compliment to fuch an unadive inaiii- mate Mafs^ to make it independent for its Being and uncapable of being deftroy* ed (both which Self-exiftence neceffarily implies) tis to raife it of Dignity. This is the Scheme upon which fome build their and upon the account of which fome of our Moderns think emfelves fuh* Hopes j til Philosophers 5 III. after innumerable ren counters^ did at laft fettle in this beautiful Order of things we now behold. Scheme fuppofes Mat ter to have for ever been of it felf..of natural JReiigion. 3 in a dire&ion oblique ving of emfelves to one another. how juftly we (hall now examine. over But pafs this Head.

hard.. But I d gladly know whence . e. it would continue fo for ever... have prov d XL of the preceding Chap ter ^ that Motion is no more effential to Matter than Reft. be fuppofed to have dire&ed the feveral parts / . and with the fame eafe. and. if it was from all Eternity at reft.not eiTential to the Bufinefs in Hand. We never bring it fclf into Motion. Whatever can be fuppos d to fince it is put Matter in Motion. if in Motion. this motion did proceed fuppos d there is nothing bcfide unadive Matter it felf to produce it. thereof to the Places they are to have produc d this frejent now in ^ ftate of things. that of it felf it can IV.. it wou d for ever move on. No .. Let us confider how out of thefc few Principles of an ttdwenfe Void^ an infinity of very fnjall. and in and their oblique Direfrangible Particles^ Si/on to one another. may at the {ame time. it is poilible to form have this prefent ftate of things. that wou d for ever continue in the ftate it it is put in.

For. that No Body But fome thing can never be without it.of j^aturai 3Seii0iott. 5 can think Motion effential to Matter. and may be divided in mfiiritnm as well as other tities^ Quan and a Body may be moving any fi nite time. fay they. that .. : are only alternately to and the ter from moving very (lowly mination of the Motion.. and thofe of great Name too. or the at reft. but that every thing is in fome degree of Motion ^ yet that abfolute Reft in Bodies clear is not it iiripoflible. who fees any part thereof at reftfor what is effential to any thing. for the fpace if is as the Velocity fmall y and the Velocity be very the fpace it moves through is fo Kkewife And that thofe Bodies which-&quot.. is from hence.. and yet never (enfibly change its relative Place . To ry this I true... that the* it may be ve that nothing in this Univerfe is a&ually at abfolutc reft. feem to be Obflacle. Motion is a Quantity. tradiftion implies no cona Sphere in a vacuity fhou d B be . anfwcr. Philosophers^ have afferted that no part of Matter ever was nor can be at abfoltite reft.

.. from which preffure the intermediate Sphere wou d be at abjolnte Reft wherefore if it is not abfurd a Body {hou d be at abfolute d be it is Motion fliou impoffible Reft ^ to Matter. There is another Argu efiential ment which to me feems very conclufive againft Motions being effential to Matter.fM)ilofapl}fcai be d by two other equal Spheres with equal Forces and contrary Dire&ions.. And it cannot poffibly move in more than one of em at once^ and therefore it will of itfelf move in none of em.which are felt move at all. fiippoa Body moving in ^acuo^ it muft move fing Now what is it in one certain Dire&ion. it will not of it and confequentFor ly Motion is not effential to Matter. and that is -from the infinite poffible Vane-? ties of its Dire&ions laying afide the confederation of all other Bodies j or. i. pot . e. no Reafon can poflibly be aflign d why it prefs . that determines it to this Dire&ion rather than to any other of the infinite Variety. in the faculties of natural tbicgs. fhou d rnoYe rather in this than in any other of the klfinite number of Dire&ions.

. The Contrivers of this Scheme faw wifely enough^ that granting thefe Atoms to be felf-moving. that thefe Parti cles moved with different oblique Dire&ions to one anotherby which means they wou d meet and juftle and B 4 refleft. there can be no Choice made at all. it not being effect ial to Matter. V. yet nothing cou d be produc d Abettors of this Philofophy their Void for want of Motion. and there being nothing elfe to produce it. yet nothing wou d follow but r an eternal wandering in Lines parallel to one another^ without any other cifeft. From all which it is that allowing the plain. and no Reafon to determine any one way. But allowing Matter to be .. in innumc- . poffible and their Atoms.. where there is an infinite variety of Choice.of Natural Religion. felf* I wou d know exiftent and felf-Moving whence came this obliquity of Direction y this is to afcribe Will and Choice to thefe Particles.. not endow d with Free-will. and to alledgc that they are ca pable of refolving what way they w ill go. and therefore they added. as has been prov d..

they muft all move in -parallel Lines ^ and confequently they cou d never meet in order to We now produce any regular Effe&. and all Motions produc d by the fame adequat fame DiCaufe have the re&ions and confequently..8 innumerable different ways.. . and yet according to the Opinion of thefe for infinite as Men d Ages by -pa ft. if the Mo tion of thefe Atoms arifes from emfelves^ they muft all follow the fame Dire&ions^ i. they have mov they lifted. obliquely dire&ed Mo* the Caufe of the one being no lefs accountable from their Principles than the other. to iiippofe this World already as to fuppofe thefe Particles this endow cl with tion. Why do they not fo ftill? Since (according to their own fuppofition) their Na nothing has happen d to alter or the manner of their Motions ever ture^ fince. We fee all Motions nowperform d in the fame dire&ion with that of the mo ving Force. do not find that Matter or Bodies can alter their Directions. e. But does not every Body fee that it is as eafie and as intelligible in Being..

and obliquely di- re&ed. unaccountable in why Matter iliou d move one Direction rather than another.. or otherwife wander on in right Lines as before And to make fome con verge to one point. others to another. for that wou d be making em all converge to a point. But allowing. yet tis ftill inconceivable how they r fhou d produce a World.. and all that s alleged on this Head by the Favourers of ther precariotts.. thefe Atoms to be ^ji Jelf-exijlent.ving.of /Ince it is atural 3&eitgton* altogether . is r : to fay thefe Atoms were intelligent free Beings.lt. which cou d chufe the courfe they wou d . they w ou d produce a fluid Sphere^ their rectilinear Motions turning into circular ones .. and fo nothing but one great fo^ lid Sphere cou d be produc d if they happen d to unite after their Meeting. For thefe Atoms cou d not move all with the fame degree of Obliquity to one another. this Scheme is altoge VI. upon any other ac count but the Direction of the imprefs d Force.) felf-mo&amp. and if they again reffe&cd from one another.

wou d go We have a very powerful Proof of the infufficiency of thefe Atoms. is.. Bodies in ter this Univerfe. /.and yet thefe pro duce no regular Syftems of Bodies. differently fituated^ obtaining all poffible varieties of Obliquity. now So that out of all their Motions. tho* they move and probably juftle and inter As I have juft fere all imaginable ways. The truth of the Rea mat Bodies were fclf-moving^ they cou d move what way they pleas d.o $t)tiDCopi)ical in.. which how fmall a part this is of the infinite variety of a fpherical one. e. only Spheres of different Mag nitudes cou d be form d. they .. by the interpofition of the furfaces of refle&ing Bodies thing. Stion to produce any in the of the Sun. cou d meet to pro duce any real Body^ and ev n the Body which wou d be produc d woti d only be faid.. tho endow d with their obliquity of Dire- Rays which as was before prov d are very fmall parts of Matter. and if flop when and where they pleas d.. only thofe whole Directions converge to a point. I leave the der to confider.

of natural Religion. To (hew a thing po fible to be done.. Again . 5 the principal Bodies of this tlni- were fram d. unlefs particular Motions.and tis as 5 probable (till contrary be evinc d^ in fome Particulars at leaft) it may not be fo. allowing thefe Atoms to bzfelf-exiftentjfelf-moving and obliquely dire&ed. For unlefs we defcend to Particulars. d they wou d be free-will Elective Agents. we muft tell how. yet I wou d gladly know how from thence this Univerfe cou d be fram d It is not enough to fay barely thefe Atoms thus difpos flate d wou d at laft fettle into this of things. . what way^ and by what Laws it may be done. Generals are always to be fufpe&ed 5 a Contradi&ion may be difcovcred in the particular Explications of an Appearance that was not taken notice of in the the general Scheme^ as indeed it happens in every individual Inftarice of prefent Subjeft hitherto attempted. I (hall not ask of thofe who defend this Scheme^ a particu lar this&quot. VII. be {hewn by what Directions and Refleit &ions verfe . we are never certain it can be fo.

V1I. can by what Laws of Mechanifrn.... We all know how wretchedly Des Cartes (the ableft Patron that ever this Opinion had) has blunder d on thefe Heads.. from thefe tell by what MecbaPrinciples alone.. any one Animal or Vegetable was produced.lar account of the Mecbamfm of every in dividual Appearance in our Syft erne D for But it any one that indeed were endlefs. and yet to be fully fatisfy d of the truth qf this Hypotbefis^ a Man muft underftand t}ie particular Mechanifm of the whole of things. can the moft contemptible of the Celeftial #//. or from what mechanick Principles the tell Planets defcribe Elliptic^ Orbits. and his Followers have It is furnot mended the matter much. and of every individual Syftem Appearance./ or Terrejtrial Bodies cou d be produc d . . how any reafonable Man prifing to think cpu d believe this Vtriverfe to have been produc d by Matter and Motion j when as yet no Man that ever liv d. I {hall for the fake of thefe allow their whole Scheme to be true.

It is impoffible to conceive how innumera ble hard and compared Atoms in Now Figure. The only tolerable account Particles is of from Cohefzon their branched in fuch like hard folid Particles refle&ing from one another. in or der to produce folid Bodies.. cxtreamly compared and hard of Matter muft (as indeed the leaft parts neceflarily be) which compa&idnefs and hardnefi is a demonftration that nothing cou d be produc d by em^ fince being fb they cou d never come to cohere. fwimming an immenfe Abyfs cou d ever come to co here fo as to produce fuch hard Bodies as Diamonds and fome other Mineral Subfiances are. but like chain d they wou d .this mutual embracing might keep em from being eafily torn be ftill movable Work y and cou d never produce the appearance of Firmnefs affunder. can never poflibly lay hold of one another. at leaft not fo but that the leaft Motion will disjoin em again...of Natural ffieiigion* VII. without any other cement but their catching hold of one another. Thefe Atoms are fuppofed in frangible.

It were endlefs to allege all the Inftances that might be brought on this Head. befides their Matter and Motion. yet they cou d only produce loofe heaps of Atoms .. There are feveral Appearances absolutely unaccountable from the Laws of Mechanifm. iaid And what is here of Cohefion and Solidity . du&ion of this prefent ftate of things. maybe likewife fhewn of Elafticity. Self- moving..14 Firmnefs and Solidity. as is (hewn in the two laft Se&ions of the preceding Chapter. fome few of the moft confiderable tors of this .. and to meet according to any Laws of Mechanifm. and confequently thefe cou d never be produc d by Matter and Motion alone 5 or any Combinations of them. or fuch movable ones that are al together unlike the folid Bodies we now So that to account for the probehold. will . the Abet Opinion want a Principle for Both Solidity or Cohefion and Elafticity which are owing to no eflential Property of Matter. obliquely dire&ed. And thus allow to be ing thefe Atoms Self-exiftent. VIII.

all the Bodies of this Univerfe are VZK. IX.. but is im^lan-* ted therein by fome Power fuperiour to that of Matter j whence it is evident that one of the primary Attributes of Matter is independent of the Laws of Mecbanifw. Not only Gravitation or that implanted Principle whereby Bodies tend towards one another... The firft I (hall inftance in. is above the Powers of .of Natural one be inconfiftent will fuffice. is that great Law In to which fubjeft. the former Chapter I have endeavour d to fhew that this Property is not cffential to Matter. for if any with the Laws of Mechamfa^ then it is cou d have been impofllble this Syfteme produc d by the concourfe of Atoms. and therefore this Syftem of things cou d ture or 5 not arife from thence. That of Gravitation. nor can arife from the Figure^Tex* Motions of its Parts. and which is the Caufe of all the beautiful Appearan ces of Nature owes its Origin to fomething different from Matter and Motion. That aftive Principle which animates as it were the dead Mafs of Bodies.

to explain the regular and confront Appearan c ces of Nature^ were moft of em Ungeometrical^ and all of em fo inconfiftent or it was as hard to allow unintelligible. all the and ferrejinal Appea Celeftial rances are likewife above the Powers and Laws of Matter and Motion. cou d never from the meer Laws ofMechaniJM explain how the Planets came to move in Elliptic!^ Orbits. All the At- tempts of others before Mr.6 $i)itofopi)tcai all of Matter. All the Fb/fofophers that ever were... they might Matter had been felf-moving) have for (if ever ftray d in right Lines. planted . e.but. as has been (hewn in the former Chapter. that they (hould conftantly revolve in Orbits. Newton. that they fliould approach to and remove from a determin d point at different Sea- and that uniformly and conftant is ly. altogether unaccountable from the Laws of Mechanifm.. i. But from this im fons. that as to conceive the their Poftulata thing which they pretended to account for from them. but the Effe&s and Appea rances that neceflarily depend thereupon.

nervous Juices are both deriv d from the Blood. verfe cou d not have been produc d by the there is Laws of Mechanifa. but fingle Appearance fcarce a that can thence ade is quately be accounted for. r. The Motion of the Heart is caus d by the nervous Juices mixing with the Blood in the Mujcular And thcfe part thereof... X.of Natural 3Ed!0tom ail 17 the planted Principle of Gravitation. and forc d into the Mufcnlar part of the Heart. The Produftion of Animals altogether inconfiftent with the Mecbaniftrt. the Motion of the Heart by the Texture of their C containing Vc fck . Phenomena are accounted for^ and that to the greateft nicety we are capable of So that not only this Unidiftinguifhing. Laws of fqueez d by the force of the Heart from the left Yen* is The Blood tricle^ through the Arteries unto the Ex^ tremities of the Body. and is thence re turn d by the Veins into the right Ventri cle thence by the Arteria Yulmonalvs unto the Lungs ^ from the Lungs by the Vena j fulmonalvs to the right Ventricle again.

. and a Gland with . the latter muft 2... a Circle to move the constantly return in I iliou d then think their Scheme Machin : Ibmewhat is fcafible. fince the firft dernonftrably impoffible. Here now the Heart is the Caufe of the Motion of the Blood in the Arteries. and the Motion of the Blood in the Arteries the Nerves. But. In all Animals there be fo hkewife. e. a Perpetuum Mobile^ which by what was faid in the preceding Chap ter is contrary to the Laws of Mecbamfm. fo that the fame Water fhou d . and perhaps by the pulfation of the Arteries upon the Nerves in the Brain.8 ^iiofopijicat fcls. By an Organ mean a diftinft independent part of a Machin :Thus a Wheel and all its parts is an Organ of a Watchj if I may fpeak fo. which is a plain Circulation of Mechanical Powers i. If an Epicurean Philofopber cou d contrive a Water Machin that the Water fliou d move the Machia^ and the Machin the Water . is urging their Juices through the Caufe of the Motion of the Heart. are Organs in if number a&ually indefinite I not infinite.

Senjation is per- form d by the mediation of an Organ arithe Brain and continued through fing from the part affe&ed.. But may all obvious. then the Organs which convey the Senfation are C infinitely fmall. many. and confcquently tho ev ry minute part of the Body be fenfible.. which is evident both from the Nature of Senfation and Nutrition. are infinite in Number. Jfceitgiotu its 19 Origin an in an Animal Organ Extremity thefe Organs or independent Now Body. that one this perhaps it may Organ may convey Sensation through feveral places. is its or a Canal from are infinitely parts in the Animal. if every point of the Veflels and Mufcles of the Animal Bo the is Anfwer dy be fenfible. it will not follow that the Organs which convey ttiisSenfation are infinitely many^fince they be only the continuation of fome few Organs through different parts. leaft Now there is not the folid part of the Veffels imaginable or Mufcles but is fenfible r and therefore the Organs in Animals that convey this Senfation. To be obje&ed.of with all to its natural parts. 2 and .

ev ry aflignable part of thefe Canals muft be the termination of forne Decretory Duft feparating a fluid fit to encreafe their Dimenfions or repair their Loflcs and thefe fecretory Chanels again muft have others to encreafe their bulk or repair their Lofles.. Nutrition by an Organ. may de cay and be impaired. and f on in infinitum.and if infinitely fmall they muft be infi-. Moreover feeing even the Canals themfelves do encreafe in bulk. nitely many. and fince there is no part of the Body that may not be encreas d or diminifli d (as is evident from the Cure of Wounds in all Places through which the neceffary part of the Fluids of the Body can pafs) it is plain that cv ry individual point of the Ani mal Body is the termination of an Organ through which the Nutrition may be con vey d.. through which the Supply is convey d to the Place to be nourifh d. feeing their Extremities in or the Brain conftitute a finite Snferfcies^ fill a finite Space : For a finite number of in fmall parts can never make a finite finitely is perform d Quantity. Again. .

In one Word. all the for7 lid parts of the Body are nothing but C 3 cither . the Brain is a numberlefs Congeries of infinitely fmall Tubes woven into feveral Figures ^ the Nerves are bundles of fmall cylindrical Pipes . little Cells or the Glands are no Veficles^ thing but a clew of little {lender Pipes diverfly rolled or folded together . that the fiinfinitum. and the Litngs and Liver are but Heaps of little Bladders upon which the Blood Veflels are fpr cad in Net-work or of little Glands among which thcfe Veflels are difpcrfcd. the greater Number of fine (lender . thofe capillary Pipes are difcovered j and thefe parts which were formerly reckon d Parenchywatous are dles or heaps now found to be of exceedingly fmall bun Tubes or Threads.ffieligion* Add to all thefc... neft Glaffes difcover nothing in the feveral parts of the Veilels and Mufcles but and the better the Canals Microf copes are. and each Fi bre of an incredible Number of little F/bound together and divided into brils. The Mufcles themfelves confift of a Number of Fibres..

feingitconftkutesafinite Quantity. and confequent^ the ly when the complications are infinite Machin . or (lender Bundles ty d together by others fiirrounding em^ or going from one Threads .. made of Organs in Number really infinite.... For thefe Organs become at laft infinitely imall j and fo their Sum muft be infinitely which that every Animal all From it Now how many.. and or all the Membranes are Membranons Coats of the Veflels.0?tnciples either very fine exceeding (mall Tubes for the conveyance of fome fluid. nothing but thefe Threads wrought toge ther into thin Skins. is is beyond difpute. In Artificial the more complicated and compounded the Contrivance of the Parts is^ the grea ter the difficulty is in adjufting them 5 and the difficulty encreafes in the fameproporti- on the complications do.. Machines ^ Laws of Motion. ridiculous is it to imagine a thing fo wonderfully made cou d be the or of the blind Eflfeft of meer Chance. in Fibre to another^ or fpread out into thin Membranes: For the Bones are nothing but fuch Bundles.

r nay^ if they wou d but tell us (without runing upon Contradiftions ) a Machin might be produc d . and quite impracticable by the Laws of Matter and Motion: But exa&ly the prefent Cafe. it s very arrogant in them to think People fhou d believe the Matter without any Reafon upon their meer Word. fince fuch a thing how fuch we might But was never feen nor pre tended.. 23 Machin is the altogether above Power of this is Mechanic!^. Allowing have been produc d by the cafual concourfe of Atoms ^ why do not thefe very fame Caufes continually operate.of Natural lleltgioit. No Body now-a-days thing of as that underftands any Nature or Philofophy can fo much imagine that any Animal how abject foever can be produc d by an equivocal Ge- C neratiofi . begin to hearken to their Pretences. and why do we not fee the fame Effe&s in our Days (fince the Caufes continue the fame) that w ere beheld in former Times ? If any of the Philofophers fliou d fhew us fuch an Appearance . and therefore the Produ&ion of an Animal is altogether imAnimals might mechanical. 3..

in the fame or 5 different Individuals. capable of receiving the Benefit of the We in the nothing Animal Machin^ but an infinity ot d with branching and winding Canals. which can never be done by the Motion of any for as hath fluid what way foever mov d been juft now faid.. in the Generation an Animal. fill the Liquors of different Natures.. know very well that there is the . till and it be fit to be trufted with the Light.24 |M)ttoCopt)ical neration Male in two or without the conjun6Hon of and Female Parents. than a thing is of ma of king itfelf. and that the Parents conduce nothing but a convenient Habita tion and fuitable Nourifhments to it. Befidcs.. who have confidered And very few the Matter but own that ev ry Animal proceeds from a preexiftent Ammakid. Air. going fame perpetual round which are no more capable of producing thewonderful Fabrick of another Animal. Veins and Arterie? fhqu d be form d at the fame time. the Heart cannot be fent from move. tinlefs Animal Spirits... there is a neceffity that the Heady Heart^ Nerves.

So that it is evident that the Head and Head through the Nerves into Heart. Philosophers To obferve how in every ftep they contrad id . it 25 Animal the j be cannot deriv d into the Spirits Heart unlefs the Blood be fqueez d by the Heart through the Arteries into the Brain. the Arteries Veins and Nerves muft be all form d at the fame time^ if the Ani mal is Mechanically produc d. try able to form the Idea of the Generation of an Animal. And we know all of the internal Mechanical Ali ens of Animals are perform d by the force Let any one confider the of Canals and other Infinity Organical in an and parts Animal. It is Penance to their fluids. again confider that all that one Animal can conduce to ward the Generation of another is by the force of fome Liquors through fome Ca and if from this Power he be nals. But this is altogether impoflible.. for no Motion of any fluid or fluids howfoever difpofed can form all thefe at the fame inftant. doing read the wretched Accounts of the wifeft and moft learned on this Head..of the ^amrai aaeitgton.

tradi& the known Laws of Motion j and indeed the manner after which they wou d have generated is as much above the Power and beyond the Laws of Mechanism as the true em and genuin Manner and Me thod of their Produ&ion is. for they are indeed only Animals of a lower Rank.or the Laws of Motion.. e.the thought ful parts of Mankind wou d be eafily temp */ JL ted to believe. the meaner i. it is evident that an Animal cannot be produc d mechanically. Nature. tho Plants and fily fatisfy all the vegetable Kingdom be liable to the fame Difficulties. From all thefe Considerations. and furnifh us with the fame Obje&ions . that fince the better part was produc d by Mechanifm. And cou d it be once prov d either by Demonftratton or by Matter of Fa& that a Plant or an Ani mal cou d be produc d by Meckanifat^ i. all the reft of this vifible World might have . be once folv d by indeed cou d this one of the Philosophers we fhou d be eaany J d of the reft. e.... it is too hard a Probleme to be folv d from For (b few data as Matter and Motion...

it is a Matter of the greateft Confequence that have demonftratcd... the Arrow in that given it by the Bowftring. and the Hand of the Dialplate in that given it by the Wheels. 27 So that have been form d the fame way. it is determin d to one direftion (while in Motion) which it can no more alter than move of itfelf. But all Senfitivc Animals have a Self-moti0/r. the in the direHon of the Club or of the it is Body of the Piece out of which (hot. that neither Animals nor Vegetables can be produced Mechanically. . we There are many other Ar guments which I can produce to prove the fame Propofition which the Language I write in will not permit fitive me to fet forth. ^XI.of ^atutai Religion. We (hewn that neither Spon taneous (nor indeed any) Motion is eilen* tial to Matter. and that neceflarily and conftantly if notforc d out of the fame by fome foreign Violence.. This have fufficiently our Senfes Ball goes may on daily inform us of.The Spontaneous Mo*ionsof the fenpart of this Syfteme is an eternal contradiftion to the Laws of Mechanijw.

or In It s true. Befides. ibme of clinations prompt em. The Docility and Segacity of fome Animals demonftrate the contrary.can turn and wind. tions a priori I have juft now brought to evince the contrary. con Befides the Demonftrafidently alleg d. . if they were d to be endow d with it ? No really fuppos thing but a fenfation in our felves of the Principle of their A&ions cou d create clearer Evidences of & Spontaneous Motion. Modern are as neceflarily determin Dial-plate. move through all the points of the Compafs.. as their Occafions require. that the Brute-Creation are only pieces of Clock-work and that all their Motions . What more evident Proofs thefe of a Spontaneous Motion cou d poor Creatures give than they do. d as that of the meerly precarious. and fome BruteAnimals fhew more Indications of it than fome of the Race of Mankind on whom But this is and may be deny d as eafily as it is they beftow it.... go back and 0#. forward our Philosophers have afierted. the Obfervation and Experience of all Mankind contradi&s it..

The Voluntary Motions of Ra tional Creatures are altogether unaccoun table from the Laws of Mechanism. Wherefore finCe the fenfitive World is endow d with fpontancons Motions.the Mufcles are Bundles of Fibres. And we fliou d be ftrangely furpriz d if by any combination of ma terial left Organs. and fince this is far beyond and above the Powers of Matter. every one of thefe Fibres confifts of a prodigious Num ber of lefler Fibres or Fibrils which are fo many very (lender elaftick Canals bound about . we fliou d produce the fmaL part of their A6tions and Paffions. which being clofely compared at both ends make their two Tendons^ each of which is inferted into fome one fixt part of the Body or other. it is evident this Univerfe cou d not have been produc d Mechanically.. XII.. MuC cular Motion is perform d much after fuch a manner as this.of Natural ffieligton* 19 Befides^ it is altogether impoffible to ac count for the far greater part of their A$ions and Motions from Mechanifm^ as we have in the preceding Propofitions {hewn at large.

I (hall forbear at prefent to determine) whereby thefe are diftended. and fince the Nerves are very fmall Arterial Tubes.lt. Wherefore fince the nervous Juice is form d out of the Blood. the lat ter to carry thither likewife id .. which mixing in the proper flu.. of the Glanditlous Subftance cretory Dufts of the Brain.z its Blood^ produces a rarefaction (the manner how.* with the Veficul&amp.. which are nothing but fmall (lender flips of the Arteries for deriving an appropriated Juice from the Blood...30 ^Dtloiopi)icai about by fmall tranfwerfe parallell Threads which divide thefe hollow Fibrils into fo many elaftick Cyftes or VeficnU^ as Gut were ty d at equal diftances. if a Into every one of thefe Veftcul^ ^ an Artery.. with the other Excretories of the Body. for avoiding Difpiites. Vein.. and confequently are much of the fame Nature.. and their Longi Veficul* tudinal Diameters (from Knot to ftraitned. Knot) and fo the length Mufcle fhortned. this Juice of the whole The Nerves are the/Jr- . and Nerve enter... the two firft to bring and carry back the Blood.

or by the rewith in the {lender fiftence the Juice meets Pipe of the Nerve it felf. ( ing abated either by the many circumvo lutions of the Artery in the Gland. and the mufcular Coats of the Veffels.) If the circula tion of the Blood be admitted .. they and the influence of the nervous full . the Stomach and Guts. while the Auricles are are diftended. of Blood. tis impoflible that any of thefe fels Juices fhou d ffognat in their longer than till they be filPd. the Lungs.... that it moves Velocity be abundantly more flow. Now in the MuC.of Juice muft ries 3 Natural move in thefe Nerves after the in the fame manner the Blood does only with its Arte this difference. cles of involuntary Motion... fuch as the Heart.. its Ve And therefore the nervous Juice in Channels is propell d after the fame manner and by the fame Mechanifm the Blood is urg d forward in the Arteries. this nervous Juice is conftantly deriv d by a Mechanical In the Heart. Necefllty. which is the Origin of the Nerve. and all the Juices of the Body be allow d to be deriv d from it.

After the fame manner are the mu^ cular . by a Mechanical a& alternately. And thus. fo as that while thefe are diftended thofe are contra&ed.. and the influx of the nervous Juice into their Mufcles is thereby ftop d.32 $l)ilofoptical nervous Juices into their Mufcles thereby ftop d j but when once this Blood begins to flow into the Ventricles the refiftence . till the Blood be deriv d into the Aorta^ and the Impediment from this diftenfion to the influx of the nervous Juice be taken off. and fo the Ventricles come into Con- tra&ion ^ which hinders the Blood from runing any more into the Ventricles from the/^#~ ricks ^ and then the Auricles are again filPd : andVentricles being as it were Antagonifts to one another . the Auricles Neceffity they the diftenfion of the firft permitting the influence of the nervous and fo on the other Juice into the lattery hand. from the diftenfion of the Auricles to the influx of the nervous Juice is taken oftj and fo it flows into the mufcular Subftance of the Auricles and thereby they arifing are contra&ed^ while the Ventricles are di* ftended.

.. thorax.. and the Nerves that aft in this funftion is taken off. and the Mulcular Coats of the Arteries then a& 5 the Mem branous by their Elaflicity concurring. and fb the influence of the nervous Juice cular Coats into their Mulcular Coat is hundred but when the Blood conceiv d deriv d the impetus it has into the Veins. which diftends them.of Natural ^elsgion. and fo the Mufcles of the diafragm and the other ficles thereof. and of the Coats of the other Veffels containing Liquors deriv d from the Blood^ alternate for by the conly contra&ed and dilated traHon of the Heart the Blood is thrown into the Arteries. In the Lungs theGravity of the dtmofphere forces the Air into the fmall orbicular Vethe Breaft- Cavity of whereby the preffure of its Sides upon them. this im is by pediment is taken off. and dilates the concurring ones are at freedom to and to diftend the Cavity of the till ad . the preffure of the fides of the Brcaft for -thefe j become too ftrong bir/d oppofite comtheir dilating Caufes D and then by own . 33 of the Blood Veiiels.

we can bend and un bend em as we will. Contradiction to their Nature and there- fore voluntary Motion is quite contrary to the Laws of Mecbaniftn : we can move our Hands and Feet how and when we pleafe in an Inftant. tions there neither is nor can be any fuch Mechanical Neceffity ^ it being a plain .34 Gravity and the elaftick force of the Ribs they fall down and comprefs the Lungs and (hut np the Emifiaries of the Nerves. There is no Mecha nical Caufe imaginable to force this ner vous Juice into the Mufcles of voluntary Motion. own So likewife in the Stomach and the Longitudinal Mufcular Fibres are in ASkion. the Tranfverfe and Guts. . and fo of of on the other Hand. when Spiral ones are relax d by the preffure the a&ing Fibres upon the Emiflaries the Nerves of the relax d ones. when thofe are relax d thefe are in aftion^ and univerfally in al$ the involuntary Motions there is a Mecha nical Neceftlty for the derivation of the nervous Juices into the Mufcles employed But in voluntary Mo^in thefe Motions.

of Natural J&eiigiott Motion. And the only Conception we can form of vo luntary Motions. and adds a greater force than the natural to the nervous Juice. But this A&ion of the Mind or Will upoi) thefe Animal Spirits being altogether unaccountable from the Laws of Motion. ..lt. Juice be that curing the Nerves that ferve any Mtif^ cle. tho all other things continue the fame. as is plain from this hence. and no Motion can follow unlefs deriv d.5b .. it is plain that volun tary Motion is altogether iwmecbdnic#I.. skilful is that the Mind like a upon that Nerve Mufician which conveys animal Spirits to the Mufele to be contra&ed.. ftrikes whereby it opens its Paffage into the Veficles of which the Mufcular Fibres cond pot have done by its fifi. s indeed were it Mechanical^ it cou d not be Voluntary j for what ever a&s conftantly and neceiMechanically farily^ and fo can never aft volunta a&amp. yet no Motion will follow. And rily.. which it cou natural Power.

than they now have. of our natural AHons are neceffary. but they have. Some Men indeed deny have any Free-will at all j but thefe need only examine their own Conferences to be convinc d of their miftake^ they will find that even when their Reafon wou d determine em to do fuch a thing.3 6 ^l)i!cfopl}icai XIII. Their Power being limited. or fclves is which we find in our altogether inconfiftent with Methat chauijm. I wou d glad ly know what greater Indications of free dom they cou d wiflv to have. but thefe which are commonly call d voluntary Aftions^ are as much free as the nature of things will permit them. they have in their Power to forbear it or to do the contrary ^ they can rife or fit flill^ or backward forward to fliew their go ^ Freedow.. it in in moft. their . (which determine their Actions) are indeed violent. That Freedom and Liberty of refiifinpr o choof Ins. they can choofe the time and Place the Degrees and Circumftances we own of It d free. The Paflions of Mankind all thefe Aftioiis that are call s true fotne .

we can take out the . where there are weighty and folid Reafons for doing fuch a thing ..their Power to fufpend for of them j iatisfy ing are not neceffarily determin d toward their Satisfa&ion . or by making an Ele&ion among many things^ when there is no imaginable Rea&n to determine him more to one than another. are by doing the contrary. things in us D Tho .one and not the other. or to be able to fufpend the effeft of na tural A6Hons. they Now it s certain that we are capable of cle. when without this interpofition d wou Mechanically operate. in two or more of the fame all Circumftances alike. is free and has a Pow er of election the only Indications he couVl give of this Freedom. giving all : thefe Indications ^ to fliew our Freedom we have it in our Power to hurt or even deftroy our felvcs tho there be the beft Reafons in the World to hinder from fo doing. for the Aftion of neceffary Agents can only be fufpended by a Mira the fome time which fhe ws they Let us fuppofe that Man in a pcrfeft ftate of Health.

yet in thi Infbnce that Ob. we have no Freedom..38 ^t)tlofopi)tcat Refpiration be Tho reckoned an involuntary certainly perform A&ion.be one of the moft evident Indications of Freedom that can pofllbly be defired.eHon can have no Place . For tho in other Cafes it may be alledg d that it is the fubtil and imperceptible man ner after which we are determin d that makes any of our Adions feem free. On if the other Hand. if we are ne- cefTarily and determin d in all our A&ions. and this feems tp. and that by Mechanical Laws. Now abfurd to think that Nature fhou d determine any natural FunSlion to be per form d regularly and conftantly the fame way. it is abfolately .. yet we have to keep in our Breaths and to fufpend the efficacy of this natural Fun$wn for fome time.. and tho mechanically and it it is d in our Power uniformly. and at the fame time determine this Fnn&ion to be irregularly and uncertainly fufpen- ded. it is by the Necef- of Nature we are determin d. for if we are determin d ever fo imperceptibly fity it is ..

And therefore were we not free. i. 7. Now where all Circutn- we can never be determin d to any one of them by themfelves. and if it equally even were propos d to afiign aa Num Num even or odd Number. 9. equally odd 4. 6. the things without us are in ftances alike. we cou d ne ver I make an Ele&ion among things alto gether al&e. are and 2.of /Batutai lutely impoffible we fhou d in all make any ECircumftances it Je&ion among things alike .. there are infinitely many which are equally fuch. two Farthings are altogether alike. 5. Thus. Thus bers.. The fame thing happens ija the Anfwers to all thefe Problem* 4 D . can only be from the things themlelves with out us. that do not concern the Effence of that Species of Coin. mean By things altogether alike. for all things within us are upon this to be fuppos d to move Hypothefis uniformly and Mechanically. fuch as are alike as to all the Cir cumftances neceflary to conftitute them the things requir d. bers. tho they may differ in fbme fmall Circumftances 3.... 8. for if we are determined.

will. for Mechanifrn produces all its Eftefts ne- ceffarily.. it.out Free.40 Problems which are affigning fuch Problems . Virtue and Vice. And therefore fuch things as thefe are only pitch d upon by But the energy of our Wills or Freedom. Tuftice and Jlnjaftice are only bare Words. Now Liberty is and is only to be found by ion on our felves and our A&ions .. if he be obftinately refolv d not to confefs felt. there is nothing in their any Nature that can pofllbly determine us 5 and in d indetermind^ one of the Anfwers to call the Conditions of the Problem only being had refpeft to. And that is that with. but there K one Argument which will always have weight with the wifer and better ^ a thing a reflex } part of Mankind. no Arguments will make a Man confefs he feels. as this Freedom a plain downright Contradi&ion to Mechantfnt. XIV.. Having I think fufficiently Jflipoflibility (hewn the Inconfiftency and of . free. Now if moft cer is Rational Creatures be tainly they are.

. fo as we now behold it j any Changes that have happen d therein^ have proceeded from the Laws of Mechanifm that now obtain in the World. independent of any other Caufe. viz. which in few Words tells us very pofitively. we now behold it. but falfly afcrib d to Ariftothj not as its firft Broacker but as its But tho Ariftotle held the ableft Patron. This Opinion is commonly. has been for ever in the ftate a.. That this World Parts. That the World was from all Eternity as we now behold it. That it has been fo for ever of itfeli. yet he did not think it was fo of it jelf\ and there is a very great Difference betwixt f allowing this prefent Syftem of the Univerfe to have been created from all Eter nity by an Omnipotent Caufe. I come to the of the Epicurean Scheme. fecond Opinion about the Origination of the Univerfe.. firft part of it.. and be! it ieving to have been for ever of itfelf without any . This Scheme confifts principally of thefe two i. that this prefer) t fbte of things has been from all Eternity of itand that felf.of ^amrai Religion.

any Difcourfe following not to difpute againft any Schewe of thofe who admit the Exiftence is Caufe.&amp. have been ftom the prefent from hence 3 that Principle for its Eternity condition it now it all of is. My Defign in the of a Deity^ I intend only to fhew. nor without the frequent and particular interposition of a Divine fower^ and to make it plain that naturally and of itfelf it tends to Diffolution^ Tho in the mean time.. Produftion it about the manner of its but if he fhou d fee or learn requir d fome Foreign Ajjrfiance to keep . If one d fee a Piece of pointing out the Divifions of time exa&ly and regularly^ he might have fome that Difficulties .. ^ XV. Clock$&ork&amp.gt. is in evident requires an extrmficl( fubfifting in its prefent fliou Condition. that this prefent ftate of things cou d not have been from all Eternity^ neither of it felf. it is not to be doubted but that that Almighty Power which cou d create can prethis beautiful Syflem of things ferve it in being as long as He pleafes. itfelf..lt. That this Univerfe cou d never .

of Natural Beitsion. . and of all the Celeftial and Terreftrial Appearances. as has been fliown in the former Chapter. Now this is the very Condition of the Earth the ^ Moon and Planets. its 45 keep it a going^ that Motion depended that upon fome Principle without itfelf...which quite extrinfickjto none of its Powers or Properties. fprings from fomething without thcm- Power were fufpendcd or withdrawn. he wou cou d not have been from all Eternity of itfelf in the ftate he then beheld it. of the Spring or it required winding up d be foon fatisfy d it Weights. The Power which produces and preferves their Moti ons. they wou d immediately ftop and their Motions wou d be deftroy d and they wou d become a lifelefs una&ive heap of Matter. and diftinft from Matter and all its Faculties. which a&nates the whole frame of all the Syftems of Bodies.. Their Mo tions and A&ions depend upon a Principle Matter arifes from .. and if this vitation. which pro ceeds from a Principle both independent of. And this Power is no thing elfe but that univerfal Law of Gra felves.

. thing. trinfeck^ XVI. (I mean only of thofe things which are about us.. and he no dependence on them. fible Wherefore it is altogether impof- this prefent ftate of things fhou d have been from all Eternity of itfelf^ fince at prefent it cannot fubfift in a regular and beautiful Syftem without the perpe tual influence of fome fuperiour and exPower.. // &. which have but Qualities both finite in Number and Degree j and confequently have affignable relations to and dependen for it is otherwife ces upon one another in the Immense Being in refpeft of his Creatures^ which can have no Proportion to him. The vifible things of this World. whatever is neceffarily requir d for the Exiftence or Prefervation of another thing. thefe cou d ther thing as its not have been from all Eternity of them- jelvef. Whatever depends upon ano Canje^ as alfo.) . for Self-exiftence neceflarily implies other independency as to Exiftence on any either as Caufe or as Efteft .44 culties.And when a thing depends upon another thing .

and coni^firft quently can be no fign of Self-exijlencz there any thing more plain. ifteitston. and confequently is a fign of Produ&ion or Creation. is Now towards the Being or Prelervation of ManRemove the Sun from us. . it plain ifti ly implies that the thing exifts that the fecond may exift.. when a thing is neceffarily requir d for the Exiftenceor Prefervation of another. we fliou d fwell like poyfoned Rats. Like wife.of thing as firft Natural Caufe.the Earth cou d bring forth no Fruits for our Support- take ftagnat away the Moon^ the Seas wou d . ces . this 45 implies that the thing exifts that the fecond may exits which fuppofcs Defign and Contri vance. or us tyttd.. which likewife foppofes Defign and Contrivance. from the Sun . and the Fi(h be deftroy d level our Mountains we fliou d have no &e(Ti Waters ^ deftroy pur Atmofyhere. Do not thefe and a thoufand other Inftan-.or the Airs Elafticity. than that moft of the things in this our Syftem are neceffary or ufeful in thefe things... and not of the Selfexiftence of thefe things.

which is a moft evident fign that all thefe things have been produc d and are not Self-exfervation of other Beings. or for the Exiftence orPre- and confequent]y imply Contrivance and Defign-. Now this is the ve ry Cafe betwixt us and the Syftem of the things about us j not that I think as whole . he wou d certainly never dream that it had for ever been there of itfelf fo difficulty in con was built by fome he then beheld it. demonftrate that all of this Univerfe exift as the ne- ceflfary Effeft.ccs I cou d the Beings allege. and flioiul plain ly difcover. fliou d iftent.. that the Accommodations and Conveniencies of this Building were exfuited in every Circumftance to the Wants and Necefllties of thefe Creatures^ aHy I think he wou d have no cluding that this Houfe wife Architect for the Convenience of thefe Creatures. meet with a Noble Palace neatly finifh d and finely ftirnifli d^ and about it fhou d find Creatures that cou d not fubfift with out fuch a Convenience.. If a wild Scythian or Indian who never faw a Houfe in his Life..

I have formerly fhown. we ruin this Hypothecs ^ for we do not then know ho iv .of Natural 3KeitQtotn 47 whole for us the Univerfe Syfteme of was made of the Race of Manfynd^ but that we cannot be without a great many of thefe things that are round us. XVII. I mean of their Material fart.. and that confequently we were fome part in the fo they cou d not have defign of them. (according to this Scheme) is Matter and Motion if we once al (for low a Power diftinft from thefe. That Animals coti d not have been from all Eternity is plain. Their Produ6Hon For 3eHons. this Now all that is obfervable in World. but for both require the conftant influence of a Principle even different from that which governs the inanimated part of the Univerfe. // *.. and Exiftence depend upon Principles quite extrinfick from and independent of themfelves. and been for ever of emfelves. that they can nei ther fubfift nor be produc d by the Pow ers of Mechanifm . for both the Reafons alleged in the two former i. Gra vitation..

. the Bones articulated? How wifely are How prudently the With Veins. All the fevefor ever of themfelves. they cou 2. and therefore fince mals is they depend upon a Principle diftinft from and independent of the Laws of Mechaand need a continual influence of niftft... ral Parts and Organs of the Animal Body are fo prudently adapted to the benefit of the whole Compojitnm as plainly implies and Contrivance. and imagine they have been Self-exiftent. Mufcles contriv d ? and how conveniently faftned to the feveral Places of the Body to produce the neceflary Motions ? what Judgment are the Arteries 5 and Nerves rang d are ? With what Wifdom d in their their fluids difpos proper Veffels? . diftinft from Matter and d not have been its Properties.) But the Produ&ion and Prefervation of Ani above the Powers of Matter as has been formerly fliown.. fome Principle.4$ $l)rtofop!)tcai far ^nncipies how the influence of this Power may reachj as to the Produ&ion and Prefervation of the prefent ftate of things... that it is impo Deffgn fible to confider this.

and Element each Ani and how juftly is. been formerly fhewri in g XXX.. ilourifliment of Animals and Vegetables . and therefore Animals It has cannot be Sclf-exi* ftent. which by thefe Operations upon Matter is chang d into a folid Form 5 of which but a very fmall part is ever refoVd into W^ter a^ain. impregnated with fome other Body. and the greateft part requir d to the produdion of Minerals and Metals is a wa tery Fluid... cannot but difcover evident Footfteps of Defign and Contrivance in it.of Vcffels? natural Msrpom is 49 How carefully the propagati on of the Species provided for according to feveral Circumftances ariffng from the particular Climate mal is confin d to^ ry Particular the whole Compound fion to after.. and its Corollary of the pre ceding Chapter ? that fome part of the XVIII. whereby the quantity E of . eve adapted for the Benefit of ? I fliall have occa- purfue thefe Inftances farther here but any Body who is ever fo lit tle acquainted with the ftnttfnre of an Animal.

. and we are fo little fenfible of the difference of the Quantity of Water fal then and at other times.. I fear. and thefe ling D Comets are when they come within our Regions at fo great a diftance from us y that no fuch considerable EfFe&s as may anfwer our Demands are. the Wit expei:ed from em. as is fufficient ta fapply the Expenfes of Water till the Re But we fb felturn of another Comet. which when they come nigh our welling. we had long fince wan ted both fait and frefh Water. to be Befides. And in deed this dccreafe of the Quantity of Wa ter on our Globe is fo confiderable^ that a very great Man is of Opinion that the Comets were defign d to fupply the fame. fend us fuch a Quantity of Vapours from their prodigious Tails.of Water on this our Globe is daily ins~ pair d and diminifli d . dom of Nature generally fupplies re uniform gular Deficiencies by regular and . wherefore if the World had lafted from all Eternity in the State it now is.. Jom receive Vifits from thefe Cekftial Bo dies..

. we ftiou d have been reduc d long before this time to a State of utter Darknefs.of natural 3&eltgtott. yet it ieeins to be more conftant and regular than the returns of thefe Comets j but of this we fliall have Occafion to difcourfe at more length in the following Chapter. and tho the decreafe of fluidity on this our Globe may not be ev ry Year of the fame Quantity exa&ly. Where Quantity of Water on our Globe does daily de creafe (tho perhaps not fenfibly) had the World Eternally been. XIX.. Caufes. Stars : Now been from all Eternity. It has been prov d likewife in the preceding Chapter y that the Ligln of the Sun does daily decreafe^ and that the Body of the Sun does continually grow the fame cooler. the whole Face of this Earth had been more parch d than the Defarts of Arabia-^ which not being this prefent State of fo. are very cer tain that the Rays of the Sun are impri* of the fixt had the Sun and jixt Stars faid may be We a E foiled . it is plain things has not been from all Eternity. fince it s certain that the fore..

and their being imprifon d in thefe Subftances^ and the A6Hon of Bodies upon Light. and tho thefe Effe&s be not fo coniiderable as to become fenfible in three tain of our or four thoufand Years (tho if ancient Hiflories abatement and diminu tion of the Light and Heat has not been infenfible) yet in an infinity of Ages (this di minution being ftill fomewhat) the Sun had been redu d to the Heat and Light of a Candle long ere this time. and are retain *! by the A&ion of Bodies upon Light and iome part of them by their feparation from others. We are certain likewife that the Foun Heat daily impairs. and we had true. that the vaft Body of the Sun is perpetually a-cooling. are for ever hinder d from returning to the Body of the Sun. more than Cimmerian But fince we obferve no fuch it is Effeft as this. . this be been involved in a darknefs. plain the World has not lafted from all Eternity. g XX..foned in our Plants and Vegetables^ in our Metals and Minerals.

But that which does infallibly demonftrate that this prefent ftate of had a beginning and that of things. and likewife thefe Planets attraft the Sun... that our Earth. the Sun and Stars do not move in Spaces altoge fixt But ki fuch that do make at ther void. that the Reafon why. the Planets move about the Sun is that the Body of the Sun attra&s thefe Planets . leaft fome refinance to their Motions. 53 XX. . for example. I have fliewn in the preceding Chapter. both themfelves they muft have an end is. and that (fince the Planets defcribe Elliptic\ Orbits about the Sun) the attra&ive Force of the San upon the Planets is reci procally ^ as the Squares of the different diftancesof the Elliptic^ Orbit from the Suns Center in its focus.of Datura! 3&eii0iQu. thefe Planets were driven at firfi. But that befides. or at the beginning of their Motion (to fpeak a Force whofe dire&ion made an by fo) Angle with the attractive Force or that at the very fame time the attractive Force of the Sun exerted itfelf on thefe Planets^ - 5 E 3 they . the Planets .

on. (for in fjcient to deftroy the froje&il Motion nets^ and cannot fay it is a very . or ftray d for ever in Lines and tho* the refiftence of the right Medium cannot alter the Centripetal Moti the attra&ive Force ..54 ^pofopt)icai they were puili d along in right Lines by a Force whofe dire&ion was in fome man ner or other inclin d to that of the direH~ on of of the Sun^ 6therwife they cou d never have revolv d So that it s evident the Mo in Orbits. pafs.. either of which be ing deftroy d the Planets muft have fall n into the Sun. tion of the Planets about the Sun^ is com pounded of two different Motions in two different Dire&ions... Medium through the proje&il Moti fion muft decreafe and (in an infinity of Ages) be deftroyed. (fo I call that whereby the Planet yet if tends towards the Sun) any refiftence in the there be which the Planets on. Newton has confidered the refiftence arifing from the Expanof the Elafticl^Atmofyheres of the F la(fo I call the other) abfolutely no he only finds that it s not fufthing. Now tho Mr..

muft in an init. muft rcfift other and if it be but the A&ion of lucid Bodies communicated by the impulfe of one Body upon another. as if the parts of Light mov d themfelves . which fufficicnt to have finity of Ages have been quite deftroycd this proje&il Motion. fo that in both Cafes there muft be fome refiftence dies pafling through this E made to Bo Ocean of Light - 4 which .) yet he has not men tioned that arifing from the fluid of Light which reaches beyond the Orbit of Saturn^ and tho we have {hewn in the preceding extreamly thin and its parts eafily moveable.of Natural Beltgiom a very fliort time. yet frill they make a fluid. and this fluid muft give this fluid is Chapter. the Light of the Sun be a Body ( as If we have prov d Bodies that it to be) in it move it. in a ftrait Line. which will as much refift the paflage of Bodies. that fome refiftence to Bodies pafling through tho very fmall. without the a&nal Motioijt of any one of em ^ yet neceflary that there be a Series of Bodies intcrpos d betwixt the lucid Body and the illumina ftill it is ted Objeft.

it s evident that the Matter or Bodies of this Univerfe has been fome time or other before thisprefent time put in Motion. had the World lafted from all Eternity which not having happened. of the firft Law of Nature j and fince w^ fte the . can of itfelf revolve in an Orbit or any curve Line. it s plain this prefent ftate of things has not lafted from all Eternity in the Order we now behold - it. that Motion is not effential to Matter^ nor any Combing lions of particles can bring themfelves to particle thereof no Motion^ and fince there are various and different Motions obfervable in this pre~ fent ftate of things. thac Since it has been fufficiently demonftrated in the preceding Chapter....which tho not fenfible in any finite time. but more elpecially firice no Body put in or ev n endow d with Motion. g XXI. and confequently long e re now all the Planets had been broiling in the Sun.. fer CorolL 3. muft have been fufficient in an infinity of Ages to have deftroy d the proje&il Moti on.

after Motion was imprefs d... by the Corollary now men it tioned. becaufe at every different point it muft change its diredion j and to fuppofe a Body capable of changing its of its Courfe^ is to fuppofe it to have Reafon and Difcretion. XXIt . It is altogether impoflible for any Body to move in an Orbit or any curve Line of itfelf. So that fince the Planets do revolve in Orbits or curve Lines. it is plain they have not for ever been in the ftate we now behold em of themfelves.. Therefore before d. fince it cannot move of direction at every different point itfelf by both. And fince to move in an Orbit or any curve Line is to move with a Motion compounded of two other Mo one of which at leaft muft have tions.of ^aturai Beitgtotn 57 the Celeftial Bodies it s do move in curve Lines plain they have not for ever mov d of themfelve^ and confequently they have not for ever exifted in the ftate we behold /em. been imprefs d. the thefe Motions was imprefs different ftate one of was in a that other from what it was in.

fince have .. Space indeed may be infinite in its extent but there is no imaginable Reafon to believe the Number of the fixt Stars is infinite. they had long e re now all of em met there..XXII. the terminating Bodies of the material part of the World inuft be all free from Attractions towards the void muft be all approaching to part. nor the material we part of the Univerfe boujndlefs.. Now if they be finite in Number. and fo ward the common Center of Gravity of the whole j and had the Frame of the World been eternal. . If the fat Stars be not ally infinite in their prefent ftate of Number. It s certain thefe luminous Bo dies each other^ fitide it s abfurd to imagine Matter not to be of the fame uniform Nature every where ^ attract do mutually and it s as certain they do not revolve about any common Center or Centers. fince they have been bbferv d never to have varied their fituations or diftances from each other. theti this things muft of iteteffity both have had a beginning and muft haVfe an end..

it s plain.. Matter cannot be infinite in its extent j fince thereby it is not equal to Now if the fixt Stars be finite in Space. their Number. and the Boundaries yielding. the Bodies next them muft do fo likewHe. or the material part of this Univerfe limited in its extent. been infinuated For fince Space in the is infi- nite (as I fliall hereafter demonftrate) and fince there s a necefllty of admitting of a&ual Vacuities as I have formerly (hewn. the Bodies at the limits of the material part being quite free from attractions upon the fide toward the infinite Space. and nothing . and fo on ev n to the Center. as has former Chapter. muft yield to the attra&ing Force of the Bodies toward the common Center of Gravity of the mate rial part.of jjMurai have very good Reafon to believe that the folid Subftance has a very fmall Propor tion to the Vacuities interfperfed even in our and the Matter of this Univerfe is Syftemy almoft nothing in refpeft of the contain* ing Space.. for nothing but an equal attraftion on all Hands can keep in their Places.

infinite Number rang d up and down the infinite Space can be fuflident for this wherefore fince it has been evidently demonftrated that the material part of this Univerfe is finite in its extent. nor can of itfelf continue to all Eternity. And it s not un likely that the vaft if not immenfe diftances of the fixt Stars from us and one ano ther^ has been defign d to retard this Effe$ as long as the defigns of Providence may require.nothing but an . and I fliall have Oo it is cafion in the following Chapter to make evident. lifelefs it s all made a and had there Heap^ which not having happened fted from plain this World has not la Eternity . that ev ry generated Animal produced from a preexiftent Animalcul of the . ^ XXIIL Chapter bility I In the former part of this have demonftrated the impodi- of the Mechanical produftion o Ani mals and Vegetables. If the World had lafted from all Eterni ty the whole Matter of this Univerfe had been long before this time amafs d in the common C&nter of Gravity.

And it is impoflihle s it can be othcrwife Scheme of admitting nothing but Matter and Motion-. have a&ually been all included in the firft of ev ry ties or which is the lame thing.for if Animals and Vegetables cannot be product upon our Ad verfary (and I have clearly prov d they cannot) they muft of neceffity have been from all Eternity.. of that Species were once aftuaily together included in one infinitely remote from this now pitch d upon. that pitching upon any one individual of ei from thefe. and it.of Natural Religion/ the fame Species . ther kind now exiftent. And confequently that all the Animals and Vegetables that have exifted or fhall exift.. that all the Ani mals or Vegetables that proceed from it were included in it. with all thefe was included 5 one from which it proceeded and fo on infinitely backwards j and confequently fmce there 13 no new all that are or ever have been prodti&ion. and that ev ry Vegetable arifes from a final! Plant of the tame kind. And that at any in that finitely or infinitely diftant 1 time (if they have .

have fo long cxifted) from their Genera tion or Produ&ion , all the Animals in cluded in the firft of ev ry Species were there moving and living Ammalcnls, and all Vegetables included in the firft of ev ry Kind, were there a&ually growing and
encreafing fmall Plants.

Now fince every

Animal and Vegetable has been prov d to confift of Organs in Number infinite (tho* if the Organs of Animals be only finite in Number, it will as efie&ually ferve our
prefent purpofe.) It is abfolutely impolfible any of the Species of Animals or Vege tables fhou d have exifted from all Eterni

ty

j

for then their

Number muft have

been infinitely many., and the Anwtalcuh and fmall Plants., being Organical Bodies and confifting of parts, and thofe infinite* ly many too, and being all included in the firft of every Species, or thofe infi nitely diftant from the prefent Individnals , thefe firft ones of evVy Species muft of necefllty have been infinitely big, for
infinitely

many

Organical

Bodies
in

how

fmall foever, amafs

d together

one Bo-

3Rett0tou+

dy, muft make that Body infinitely big; fo that unlefs we cou d admit the firft of
ev ry Species of Animals and Vegetables to be infinitely big (and how abfurd fuch an I leave the Reader to Hypothefis is,
It
is

judge)
all

abfolutely impoflible,,
ftiou

that Animals

and Vegetables

d have been from

I fee how this Ar Eternity ; gument can be evaded., if we admit all Animals and Vegetables to proceed from

neither can

preexiftent fmall Individuals of the fame Species,, included in the firft of each kind.

And
Upon

it is

impoflible this can be otherwife our Adverfaries Scheme, if the Me*

chanical

Produ&ion of thefe be impoflible^
think
I

which
ftrated.

I

have

clearly

demon-

all

XXIX. Had the World lafted from Eternity as it now is, it is altogether

but that Arts and Sciences muft have been brought to a far greater Perfe&ion than they have as yet attain d. Let us take for Inftance the Matbematick^^
impoflible
it is

certain this Science has been

more im~
in

prov d within tbefe two hundred Years, than

64

$i)rtofopDicai

in all the time paft before that,fince

we have

any Records Years more ,
thofe

;

and two or three hundred going on at the rate of

laft paft.,

may

carry

em

to a height

which we
is

now

cannot imagine.

Now

it

the Improvements altogether impofllble

already made fhou d be loft, feeing they contain things fo abfolutely neceflary to

^^Accommodation of Mankind they will as foon forget the ufe of Houfes and Cloaths^ as the Advantages to be reap d from this Science ; wherefore had the World Eter had been brought nally been., this Science to its utmoft Perfection long e er now* It may be alleged that Inundations^ Delu ges , Wars and feftilencies might have de* former Emprovements., and ftroyed all the then we fhou d have been left to begin anew. As for Deluges y it is impofllble they fliou d have been Univerfal, i. e. Natu for rally and Mechanically impodible the only Philofophical Account of an
^/z/"-

werfal Deluge hitherto afilgn d,

*>/

&. that

of Mr. WhiftonSy depends entirely upon the Principles of Gravitation^ which have been

of

Natural

been proved not to be Mechanical ; and fiace there cou d be no IJniverfal Deluge naturally, (and to allow a Principle above Nature or the eftablifhed Laws of Mecha*
nifm^
is

to yield the Caufe) particular In-

undations, cou d never have been fufficient to have obliterated the remains of Scien
ces.,

of this one., which by In* fcriptions on Medals y by the Ruins of Archite&ure^ by Pillars^ Inftruments^ and Machins^ might have been prcfcrv d n de~ fpite of etery thing but an Univerfal Con
particularly
i

flagration.

Befidcs,, it s

meerly precarioiiSj

to (ay there have been Deluges that have done any considerable Damage, to the

whole rational Creation., and may be deny d with the fame Reafon it is affirm d, fince it is certain we have heard of none
of any considerable Confequence. It s true there happen d an *Unwetfal Deluge in

NW/sDays ^butbefides, as! formerly faid,
that this

was not brought about naturally, we know not^ if this and other Sciences., had arriv d at any great Perfection before this Deluge happened. So that we are not

F

certain

66

$t)tloibpi)icai

certain if the Pcrfe&ion of Arts
ences has

and

Sci

been much retarded upon this account. Wars and Peftilences., it s true., have been and may be, but thofe do not

happen univerfally over the whole World at the fame time:, and there are always tome Countries and many particular Perfons

who

efcape

things cou

d

impoiliblc thefe have obliterated all the Re^
;

fo that

is

mains of Arts and Sciences. I believe it almoft impofllble by any means, except
Annihilation y or a general Conflagration^ fo to deface the Memory and Remains of
all

our modern Improvements^ that fome of em fliou d not laft at leaft ten thoufand
Ycnrs to come

and yet it s certain we have no evident Footfteps of Improvements ol der than three or four thoufand Years. In
iliortj

this

Argument holds good

againft

ev ry thing but Vniverfal Deluges , and to admit or fuppofe any fuch to have been,
is

to yield the Caufe., fince it s impofllble to explain fuch by the Laws oSMechanifm, or to account for them Matter and

by

Mo

tion as

things are

now

fettled

3

and to
quit

of jBatural J&eligiotu
allow quit thefe., or to

67

any thing to have is to admit happen d contrary to them Powers fuperiour to em., which for ought
,

might have produced that which they can now fo powerfully alter. And tho Arts and Sciences may have been at

we know

fome Countries, yet that is nothing to the whole Globe. For fince that Principle which prompts fome
a ftand for

many Ages

in

Men
inclin

to improve Arts or Sciences they are

d to^ iprings naturally in their Minds, according to the Scheme of our Adverfaand is neither imprinted upon them, nor were the things themfelves reveal d to this Prin them, by any fuperiour Beings ciple in an infinity of Ages, without any Univerfal Deluge, or ev n any particular one of any great extent, muft have of Neceilky brought Arts and Sciences., and the other Accommodations of Life ,
ries,

to a

much

greater Perfection than

we

fee

they have

now

attain d.

From

all

which

duly weigh d, it s plain this World has not Eternally been as it is now. And indeed, the Accounts of our Emprovei? r 2 ments

f&i)tiofopi)tcal

mcnts anfv\ er very well to the time, affign d by Mofes for the Creation of the
r

World.

^ XXV.
led
tiling.,

Number of any generawhich we behold on this Globe,
If the
finite

does either encreafe or diminifli continu
ally^

in

any

great foever., fmall foever,

Number of Years how by any finite Number how then this World cou d not

have been from all Eternity in the prefent For had it enftate we now behold it. creas d in any finite Number of Years how
great foever,

by any Number how fmall

foevcr, long before this time their ber had been infinite j fo that this poor Mole-Hill of a Globe had not been able

Num

to contain

em: And had they decreased, their Number had been none at all^ i* e. the whole Race had been extinguished.
But of thefc has happened, the prefent ftate of things has it s plain not been for ever. It s not eafie to be that the Race of Man lieve., for inftance, kind has been ebbing and flowing without
iince neither
,

coniidcrabk cncreafes or diminutions/rom
all

of
all

^aturai

Heiigtott,

Wars, Peftiand the other means knees and Difeafes, of DeJftru&ion, have not been fewer for thefe 300 Years by~paft than ever they have
Eternity.
j

We are certain

beenfince we have Records^and yet it s plain the Number of Mankind has confiderably Sir William Pet encreafed in that time.
ty

from Obfervations on Births and Buri
difcovered that in

als has

360 Years the

Mafs of Mankind is doubled in thefe Coun tries. Had they thus encreas d from all Eternityin other Countries.,
all

the Placets

within our Syftem had not been able to have contain d them by this time yea if in many millions of Years they had but
encreas

d by an Unity

continually,

their

Number had been
But
it s

infinite

by

this time.

plain both the Number of Man kind, and that of other Animals and Vege tables-, muft have perpetually encreas d, if

the
is

World

has been from

all

Eternity as

it

at prefent. And fince their Number is but finite at prefent 3 it s evident this World has not been for ever as now it is.

And

indeed the prefent

Number of AniF 3 mals

70

^!)tiofopt)ical

mals does anfwer very well to the com mon Mr a of the Creation. Thefe two laft Arguments I have fubpin d, not as
conclusive proofs of the Produ&ion of this prefent Llniverfe in time., but as concur-

ring Confirmations of the former
ftrations.
Tsrf

Demon-

it

XXVI. Laftly, that this World ihou d
Eternity?
Is

How

improbable is have been from

all

there any thing we fee in any part of it, or ev n in the whole, other Quality fui table to that that has

any

Cardinal one of Self-exiftence

?

We

our

felves are certainly the nobleft part of are acquainted with- and this Syft-em unfit any of us., or knows

we

how yet God even our whole Race
travagant a
as

is.,

to have fo ex

Compliment beftow d upon us Self-exiftence., when as we can fcarce
faid to

be

be

at all, fo very a
as

nothing our

Lives are in rcfpet of Infinite Duration.

We

might with

much Reafon imagine
oz Omnipotent , (which

Mankind Onsnijcisnt

we know
flcnt.

too well he
qualities

Thefe

not) as felf-exicannot be feparated
is
-

where

of

Natural

Sfteligtom

where one is, all the reft muft neceffarily be. For whoibever Isjelf-exijlent^ muft ne~ ceflai and independently be. Neceffarily^ ily becaafe depending only on himfelf alone when and while he for Being^ he may be
pi cafes
^

independently.,
that
s

becaufe his Being
it

and

all

necefiary to

depend on
necelfarily

himfelf alone.

And whatever
cxifts,

muft Be in Oppofition of all other Powers., and whoe ver is fo, muft be able to preferve his Be ing in dcfpite of all other Powers, / e. muft be Omnipotent. Whoever is Omnipo tent muft know all things that are pofllble to be done or let alone for he can never be ftipos d to do that which he knows not how to do, / c. muft be Ofifffiftfent; and whoever is Omnipotent and 0;;/;;//r/>;;^ all things elfe muft depend on him ^ for be ing fo\ he may make all things depend of

and independently

.

,

him

if

already they did not fo.

Befides,

other things fnnft depend of him for the %. becaufe he can very fame Reafon,

w

makeVm
potent

do fo. As alfo., whatever is Omni and Omnifrient^ depending on no-

F 4

things

be true. can do all has no Reafon nor Caufe to de termine him to any thing that s bad. which poffeflcs all other Qualities fuitable to that of -Exiflence y has been from Self and when this it Eternity j was his Pleafure. This beautiful State of things. that immenfe Being. And this is the third Opinion about the Origination of the Univerfe.. neceffity ftent. this only poilible remaining Choice.thing... neceffity which muft of THE . fince nothing can hurt him. So that it s very plain... that whatever is felf-exijient muft poflefs all the other fui- table Qualifications. things. which I have is the (I think) abundantly confuted. And fince we muft of (elf-exiit.. nor any Power annoy him.. admit fomething to be how much more reafbnable is to believe that. him. as {hall abundantly be fhewn hereafter. *// *. which bears fo vifible Chara&ers of his infinite Power and Wifdom. and having all things depending on muft be fupremely good and wife ^ all becaufe he knows things. has created all noble Reprefentation of himfelf. fince after the other two...

that there were no fecret Ohferver. The Fool indeed may have faid in his Heart there is no God. may have hear wiflid within themfelves. III. CHAP. lewd and tily vicious Men. that the three Angles of a Triangle are not equal to two right ones.73 THE Philofopbical O F Principles Natural Religion. e.. nor that there might . Of I. can be abfolutely convinc d. there are r T^H AT no Speculative as. /.. that me feems as evident^ no Body who has confidered the Atheifts^ to matter. the Exigence of a Deity..

and has du ly weigh d the Evidences for the Being of a Deity ^ fliould at laft come to a full Per- fuafion of his None-Exiflence^ to me fccrns as impofllble. who has ferioufly fet about the matter. as it is for one who has the attentively read and rightly gles Bool^ of Euclid^ uuderftood what he has read. and to be.74 $i)tlofopt)tcal might be any publick Funifhment of their Crimes... becaufe it s their Intereft there fhould be neither but that a Man of an ordinary Underftanding . firft to be convinc d that the Sum of the An true of a right Imd friangle^ can be It is more or lefs than two right Angles. moft Men think nothing of the matter 5 and few give themfelves the Trouble to there be a God or not 5 inquire whether they think fuch idle Speculations become thofe only.. who know not to live. is make the beft ufe of Life that this in the may cer And of we kind of Atheifts there abundance World j for it s can never determine any thing about what we never^ or but very flighttain ly think of. and there are millions who live .

. which beft with my manner of agreed think- . the Demonftration of this great Truth ^ blind. I fliall here fet down thofe.. or not being of a Deity. can withftand fuch Now tho the convincing Teftimonies. can never be too many^ and fince fome are to be wrought upon by one fort of Argument.. has employ d the Care oi many wife and fo that none can doubt of it good Men. the neceffary Confequences there of.. is a Matter of that Moment to the Government of the World.lt. the Confideration of different..of Jive Datura! Religion. who will but give thcmfelves leave to confider yet iince the Evidences for it. &amp. tor want of fufficient Proofs. who made and governs this prcfent Syftem of things. fb fo conspicuous. and are fo many.vi% but the wilfully that there is a faprewe Being. 75 Self-evi and dye ignorant of many dent Truths. that none it. others by another. becaufe they never took the But the being Pains to confider them. do fo nearly concern the Happinefs or Mifery of every individual rational Creature and the Obje&s that inculcate .

. . the rather becaufe our modern Atheifls have taken San&uary within the Bounds of Natural Philosophy. cou d neither be produced by the cafual Concourfe of Atoms^ neither con d have been from all as it has been fufficiEternity of it ently prov d j and fince that it now is^ no Body doubts. fome time or another. All the Arguments of the pre ceding Chapter . nor have been from all Eternity of of- . II. felf&amp. by fbme preexifting Power. it muft have been produced or created. For fince this World. of Necefllty therefore.gt. are fo many Proofs of the Exiftence of a furpreme Powery who made and governs this prefent Syftem of things. in being but this World^ unlefs we admit that fnpreme Power we are now {peaking and fince it coud neither have been produc d from the fortuitous Concourfe of Atoms . And I have chofen this way of reafoning.$f)ilofopt)icai which are founded on the Prin ciples of a juftcr Philosophy ^ and a more genuine Explication of Nature^ than was known till of late. Now fince there is nothing elfe thinking.

phin. by faying that this Syftem was produc d.. and have been that great exift. Crea ture can have about the Exiftence of a to conceive his having for ever been of himfelf without a Beginning. andfince exifting independently... muft have created this beautiful Syftem of things. thefe three has been World produc d by the cafual Concourse of Atoms y then a Void^ Atoms ^ and Motion have for ever been.. But fince does equally lye againft Suppofitions. then the Cafe is as itfelf..... we might have fome Pretence for flight this all our Infidelity. (for if the Difficulty. of em(elves j if it has been from all Eternity of it is.. He muft therefore for ever be . without a Beginning. Deity.of Natural it J&eifgtoii* 77 have been produc d by that fupreme Power whofe Since then Being we now inquire into. of it felf-j muft of neceffity .) is neceflarily All the Difficulty any rational Powery muft now how Now if we it could avoid this Difficulty.. that we . by the cafual meeting of Atoms or by al. t\iis fapreme Power ^ of necefllty. ledging to have for ever been of it felf.

more reafonable to fuppofe that Being to have for ever been of himfelf. But fure I am 3 fince our main Difficulty in the Conception of the Exiftcnce of a be ing abjolutely ferfcSi. or his having for ever been of himfelf without a beginning.) Where fore I we fay. to whom we may afcribe. is his heceflary Exiftence.it is much . fince the very ianie Difficulty equally and unavoidably^ urges all the three Suppositions is it not more reafonableand congruous^ to allow that Being to have been for ever of it felf.78 muft allow fomething to have been without a beginning of it felf.. who neceflarily . fuch eminent and tranfcendent Qualitys ? I will not fay with DCS Cartes. ceffary Exiftence. without a beginning. that becaufe in our Conception of a Being infi there muft be included nenitely perfett^ thofe others . that therefore fuch a Being muft of neceflity a&ually exift. and who does neceiTarily poffefs all other fuitable Perfections. nor capable of. rather than either of which we know are nei ther endow d with.

it nor Colour . I believe no body doubts. or more Vacuity than is dill fufficient.of natural all $cli&amp. other fuitable Quathan thofe who neither poflefsj nor are capable of any of them..it cannot move ofitfelf. a plain Demonfiration of the Exijlence of a Deity. fince of all foever. nor when put in motion can it reft of itfelf\ nor of itfelf change it s Courfe. wou d we gladly now alearn how cou d never have been are certain^ that it a&ive Qiialities vvhat- of is it felf. celeftial out of which the Bodies were form d and terrejlrial our moft folid and tho perhaps in Bodies. is there now exifts a Quantity offolid Mafs.stoin 79 ccffarily poffeffes lities. that III. nor alter it s deftitute Direction Figure j it can neither change it s word. nor Situation^ in a is cnclu d with no Property but In- which is but a Negation. The Exijletice of Matter . How abfurd . there be more Pores than Parts. it firft exifted. Wherefore It fince Matter I ftually is.lt. not Solidity^ yet there t& jpermit us to doubt of the Exigence of Matter.

Befides. to imagine into Being ^ it cou d have when it can do We bring itfelf to become a pofitive Being. Difficulties. as conceive it poffible that Matter fhou d have been. fram d this wonder ful Syftem of Things 5 contrafts all the Difficulties of Nature into this one of For as to the Difficulties of his Exiftence. nite they vanifli quite. of itfelf Formation and Produftion of the prefent State of things^ as has been {hewn in the preceding Chap farther now and be {hall illuftrated. for Power Power a Capacity to to aft. and infinite aft every thing not involving a ContraWherefore fince Matter now diftion. ter.. Whereas the admitting of an infinitely Powerful and perfect Being to have for ever been. fhou d then.abfurd is it brought itfelf . ariflng in the Creation.. and to have created the folid Mafs y and out of it. a$ually before infi implies a Capacity .uft nothing of itfelf? may as reafbnably imagine that Nonentity. Power.. ad mitting Matter to have been for ever of itfelf yet this will not folve half the for ever .

are cftabliflicd in according to the Chapter. ties wou d that remove in the the Difficul Formation of this prefent Syftem of things. We fee all the now happen firft in this Changes that material World. to. Is it not much more reafonable then. It has been formerly fliewn^ that: *Univerfe was not form d by the it fame Laws now is govern d.. but on the contrary wou d multiplie em. coti Laws the Bat this Syftew of Things d never have been brought into it s G prefent . and prefcrib d Laws for it s Parts afterwards to obferve. in the con ceiving the Manner of the Produ6Hon of this Vniverfe. which form d this Syftem at firft.. all ^ this it s IV.of ^aturai Jfeligen* 8 1 a6hially is^ and yet it neither coti d have been for ever of itfelf.. to admit an infinite! v wife Being to have for ever been of himfelf? arifing -J ^/ whereby the Difficulties. nor had it for e^ ver been. do vaniih at once. that of Matter. and which feveral Parts in their A&ions do now obey j and therefore of neceility there muft have been fome Power fiiperior and diftinft from.

was the Num ber.. In a word. as to their principal Parts . ther. Gravitations Situations upon one ano and Order of the Pla nets adjufted 5 the Number. Diftance^ and Magnitudes of the Satellits of J^fi&quot. (ev n admitting Matter to have been eternally exiftent of itfelf) as I have abundantly {hewn in the firft Chap ter neither one. the Form and bulk of the Annuhts of ter. nor in the Separation and Situation of the fevcral Fluids thereof. the whole pro and ccTs of the Formation of the celcftial terrcftr/al World . J or Diftances of the Jfixt Magnitudes.prcfent Order 5 by the now eftabliflied Laws of Nature... the Figure^ Number^ ) Denfitics. and amafs d it in the Sun and Stars neither did fixt the Laws of fpecifick Gravities obtain in grofler the Formation and Situation of the inner Parts of our Earth .. ^ Laws that thin and rare fluid of Light ^ from the other and more denfe ones. Saturn limited. O Stars determin d. By none of the known Laws of Motion. nor all of thefe were fuffieient to have feparated.... and the other Planets-.

it is plain it has been produced by fomething fuperiour to Matter and it s Qualities.. tled ftate that now of things Laws had but a fmall Share in their Produ&ion. yet they are dire&ed. and Laws of Nature. and confequently obtain in this fet or at moft thefe by t\&tfupreme Being..of jftattttai Beltgtoa Parts 83 and Arrangements. was brought about by none of the Laws of Motion and Mechanism. Wherefore fince this beautiful ftate of things has not been for ever of d be cou form d nor the Powers itfelf. may obtain. by and Laws of Nature.. it is evident. And truly from what has been here faid. other than what we have of a Planetary Clock^ or any other complicated Machin^ form d by the Hand of a skilful Artift^ where tho the Rules of Motion. and a great deal more of the fame Nature alleg d in the firft Chapter. we can have no Notion of the Formation of this prefent State qf things. into whofe Ex- iftenc? we are tlow inquiring. and even iometimes contradifted^ by the volunta ry Motions^ aud the defign d Interpofings G Z ...

84 ^i)ilofopi)tcai of free Agents. can frame. yet it is the befc and moft adequate our Imaginations^ without runing upon evident Contradidions. demand the Impulfe of an almighty Hand. and imprcfs d Motions.. Heap been already (hewn that* no Particle of Matter. be but a very faint Rcfemblance of that noble and glorious Work. with a due Velocity of their feveral along the Tangents Orbits-^ other* . Movement. For fuppofing Bodies already form d^ and the celeflial cl a Being fo likewife did their Hand of rang according to their feveral Diftances from one another yet without this und Impulfej they had continu una^ive. V.. And tho this no doubt. nor any Combination of Particles^ can move themfclves and therefore it was abfolutely neceflary that fomething diGvrent Irom themfelves y ihou d put them in -a motion. to fet them firft a going.. did neceflfarily require the infinitely firft powerful .. Now it has of Matter moving. As the Formation and Difpofition of the great Bodies of this Univerfe..

. fet a it mov d from is plain.of natural saeiifjiott. infinite. and the Laws of Nature. did... and ftill do 3 require a bits } Power beyond that of Matter. firft Not only the Formation. Eternity of themthat they have been all going by fbme powerful Hand} and fufficient is what Hand but his for fuch a Work. it that thefe glorious Bodies have about thefe four or five and fince it hath been demonftrated that they are not felf-mobeing folid Maffcs of Matter-. both in Strength and Skill and confequently he who did fo great and glorious things muft ncceffa- who rily be. 85 otherwife they had for ever continued in the places^ and at the Diftances^ they were at firft fet.. along the Langcnts of their Or- but their Centripetal impuWes^ where by their Revolutions or orbicular Motions are perform d. fince that they has likewiie been fhewn^ have not felves. ving. and impulfe of the great Bodies of this Univerfe.. Wherefore fince it is certain been rowling thoufand Years.. to the prefervation of G 3 their . VI..

Mr.. But it has been demonftrated in the firft . Gregory y has dcmonftratcd ^ that to the Motion of any of the Ce/e/foz/ Boclies in an Orbit .. and all the Bo dies of this Univerfe tend toward one a- nother and by which the Sun being the of this our Syftem draws far greateft Body toward him the Planets^ and they their own Satellits .. there is neceffarily recjui/d two Impulfes. fo that it muft be re~ Now thefe peated ev ry Minute of time. and after hin&amp. and without which they wou d for ever wander in right Lines. Newton. The firft being once imprefs d ^ docs continually perfevere.their Motion. and needs no more to be renew d. jecovdary Impulfes arife from that *Uni-* verfal Principle of Attra&ion^ whereby e^ : very Particle of Matter.gt. that this Principle whereby the Revolu- .one along theTavgcnt of the Orbit^ another toward the Center. about which the Body moves. as is evident from the firft Law of Nature : The (econd con tinually draws the cekjlial Body from it s re&ilinear Motion. Chapter.. and forces it into a curvilinear Orbit. Dr.

* to but there Powers thereof. and only accidental (noways Matter. by quently (fince it muft be repeated every Minute) muft be perpetuated in it by feme uninterrupted Influence.. unfefs we admit that fu. but Matter and the rher&amp. And feeing is nothing in Nature.. of Animals does Exiftence neceilarily infer the Exiftence of a Deitor it has been demonstrated in the ty-j ^ VII. every individual Plant and Animal is a Machine of an infinite Number of Or gans^ that no Animal is or can be proG 4 duc d . therefore the Revolutions of the Bodies in their feveral Orbits do celeftial neceflarily infer the Exiftence of a Deity.of Natural Mtston. 87 of thefe glorious Bodies are perform d. preme Being for whofe Exiftence we con tend. implanted effential) and confein extrinfick fome Power.lt. is independent of the Laws of Mechamfm. The former Chapter ^ that all Animals are in their own Natures ferpetua mobilia^ that they have fome Principle above the ers Pow of Matter that governs their Moti-ons ^ it has likewife been (liewn that .

inuft fpring from a principle independent of. VIII. .&amp. The fyontaneons irrational^ Motions of and the voluntary Motions of rational Animals. into whofe Exiftence are now inquiring.. (that all Ani mals and Vegetables that ever were or fhall be. arid Liberty of choofing or refufing in the latter. and all it s Laws and Pro and confequently to that infinite perties once. were all created or formed at fhall be afterwards fliewn) and that all thefe are abfolutely unaccountable from the Laws of Motion.. to the Exiflence of fome Power fuperiour to.gt.. and confequently. or generated ter. and altogether above the Powers and Now when ever Properties of Matter.. we neceflarily muft have Recourfe.. . by the Force of Mat and Laws of Mechanism . fince there is nothing ly and its Properties in the World. the Freedom of Will. and indepen dent of Matter. we Perfect Being. unlefs we admit the Exiftence of befides Matter that fupreme Being. and the Laws of Mechanifm.cluc d. we forfake the Powers of Matter.

e. fore he that brought about all thefe glo rious things. Faculties both of the animate and inanimate Part of this Syflem of things. For fince this prefent Syflem of Things^ has not been from all Eternity and fince thefe are allow d to ofitfelf. and there.. be above the Powers of Mechanifm^ they muft have been produc d by fome Power Superiour to thofe of Mecbanifw.. but his who and marvellous things^ who adjufted all the Parts of this noble fabrickjjy weight and meafure. /. as we now behold it. For fince this Syftem of things has not Seen from all Eternity of itfclf.. Natural in a iaeiigtoiu all 8? and of Nature^ of Mechanifm (which are innumerable) are fo many undeniable Proofs of the Be ing of a God. fince . does neceflarily require the Power^ and confequently the Exiflence of a Being abfolutedoes great * .of latter. The Prefervation of the Bei/w flX. But no the Appearances which are above the Powers word Power alone is fiifficient for thofe. and ly perfeft. who alone does Wotrders y muft neceflarily be. of a Deity.

can never be ac counted for. which may be fuis no neceflary : ficient for all things not involving a Con- tradition j and therefore that Omnipotent Being indow d with this Power.. and fince we fee both have been preferv d for a confiderable time This prefervation of the Being and Faculties of things. may be deftroy d (by . in Ev ry motive Force (as all it s Motion : other Quantity) into feveral may be fuppos d divided Parts (the Sum of all which muft be equal to the motive Force firft motive Force being impropos d. muft neLet us take. tween the being any or of it s Faculties.ilnce there Connexion be of one Part thereof. the Prefervation. im- Motion prefs d.... for inftance^ ceffarily be. of a Body moving.. this prefent Moment..) This a giv n Body. Now the Motion produc d by any one Part of this Motive Force. or at different times. muft produce a prefs d on therein equal to the Motion pro duced by all the feveral Parts thereof. without having Recourfe to an Almighty Power. either at once. and their being the next.

nor upon the Nature of Motion. Now there franf* place into a- as the is no imaginable con nexion between a Bodies being in this place now.of $atuvtil afteitgion. docs not depend upon the Nature of Body. and confequently the Perfeveration of a Body in Motion.. (by the Oppofition of an equal Body ^ ima Force equal to that Part of pell d with the Motive Force we wou d deftroy. unlefs forced to change the Motion may be confidered^ lation of a Body from one nother..and therefore the Pcrfeveration of a Body in . perfevere in that reft they are put in lame by fome Moreover foreign imprefs d Violence. vi^ that firft Law of Nature (preferib d bv the Author thereof) wiiereby Bodies as 1 much them $ate of Motion or as in is. fince one can be deftroyed withreft .. and in another hereafter. but upon fome Principle cxtrinfic ^ to both. but with a contrary Dire&ion) the reft of the Motion remaining unalteredhave no out the therefore the feveral Parts of any imprefs d Motion neceffary Dependence upon one another.

.$t)ilofopt)tcai in motion.. thing diftinft from Matter and its eflential Properties ^ /... and it s Ef Jy.. is ficacy is owing to the motive Force. to God Almighty ^ the Author of Nature and all its Produ&ions. or any Number of thefe Impulfes may be deftroyed without the reft. e. fince an fpent that very Moment it is imprefs d 5 it is evident therefore.. that the Perfeveration of a Body in motion. and by that means ad new Velocity to the former. ding a and therefore the feveral Impulfes. nor But to that vis into the Body mov d. which is implanted therein by fomeercitf. Laft- imprefs d Force is not at all permanent in the Body mov d. is not %\\ effential to it. by which heavy Bodies defcend. but confifts in the meer A&ion. any one. Now. fince by contra* .. After the fame manner in the defcent of neither heavy Bodies the Acceleration of their Mo tion may be refembled (or is equivalent) to the Acceleration of a Body impelled by a conftant equable Force. a&ing ev ry Minute equally. do not de pend upon one another.

whatever any thing can be without. And the fame may be faid of the Being of. nor of any of it s Faculties.. the Continuation of that is not owing to it. (I mean of inanimate things) /.. whatever is not effential to a thing. e. there be ing .. that thing can be without . as has been formerly {hewn) or unlefs Time or Place cou d change the Natures of which is abfur d. have no neceffary Connexion one upon another.. and therefore muft be afcribed to a higher Power.of ^ntural Religion.. (and of all the Fa culties not effential to) Bodies. does by no Means infer it s being the next Minute. Continuation. And univerfally. and fo the Prefervation cehration of the of this Faculty of Attra&ion in Matter which is the Caufe thereof does not depend upon Matter. things. unleis the thing be felf-exiftent (which cannot be true of Matter. to quently requires the Caufe of it s and confefome Power above it. 93 ^ ry equal Impulfes they may be deftroyed ? and confequently the Degrees of the Ac* Motion of heavy Bodies defending.. for it s Nature. for the Be ing of any thing now..

is Things . this Univerfe cou d have been better contriv d or it is more compleatly infinite finiflicd. had Wifclom firft a&ually defign d it. e. than it is. Or which is the fame.. there are legible and Wtfdom^ in the Contrivance of the whole..i and it is altogether impot fible for the united skill of Men and An to mend any one Part. trive it better. or even to find out any real Defei therein... who made and governs this Syftem of things. and the Being or Faculties of and confequently their Prefervation is owing to forne Power above thofe of Matter... and of the feveral Parts of this admirable Fabrick of the *Vni*terje&quot.ing no neceflary Connexion betwixt Time or Place. i.. which of all others affe&s me moft. and then put the Defign in execution. that altogether impofllble. j X.) ino cue and have our Being. But that Argument for the Ex* iftetice of a Being infinitely perfect. due Regard being had to the univerfal Benefit of the whole infinite indelible Characters of Syftem $ . or to con gels. to him in whom WQ live.

and in it at vaft Diftances from one another.of 5$aturai Beitgton* Syflem for in the Contrivance and Adthis juftment of the feveral Parts of ble Machin.. which alone cou d bring. or which only cou d bring about the defign d E fed:. and r to treat according to it s Dignity re than the Limits I quires more Room have prefcrib d to my felf will admit. the fixt (huge luminous Bodies.. or indefinite in its Dimenfions.. keeping always the fame Diftances from one another. This is a very large Subjefr.. to be boundlefs in it s Extent. But firft of all it will be convenient to lay down a general Scheme of this noble Stru- Let us then conceive the Mundan Space. and fbmetimes infinite. However. no where the Choice is various. it . and moving about their own Axes only (perhaps) Stars - XL about ... I fliall endeavour to illuftratc the fame in the following Particulars. or the univerfal Place of all Bodies. the moft advantages to the w hole. like the Sun) to be plac d... that one is pitch d upon.

Na let us conceive the fixt in More glorious Body of the Sun. and about thofe Each of thefe Satellits of our Planets. and in the common .. And how many fuch there muft be in the vaft net-like ones Analogous to the Extent of Icfs Space. Our Num very fliort here. over. conftituting that which is caird a Syflem of the Celeftial Bodies. Glimfs^ Night. fixt Stars with their Circumambient PlaOrbs. a naked eye in a cloudgive us ibme faint which is bers fall tick^ d the milky way.. (or near it) the Center of Gravity of this our Syjlew.. may but much more a good large Telefcope dire&ed toward that Region of the Skie.about each of thefe let us imagine fe?veral Bodies like our Planets^ fowling in feveral Orbits at feveral Diftances lefler . and yet and they it s included in a bounded Extenfion- for Matter feems not capable in ture of being infinitely propagated. and our Arithmecall can fcarce give us an idea of the vaft Quantity of Syflems that adorn this ftnpenduous Piece of Architecture -^ no doubt are all their Number is fink...

with it s Attendant the a diftinft . Next to Mercury. and his furrounding Annulus QvKing. and concludes our turn Syftem. in the Light of the Sun. describes the remoteft Orbit. View of him Moon. Saturn with his five Guards. and laft of all. our Earth. perform their friendly Courfe. the meters. in going through the following Parts of this ^ Difconrfe.of natural Eeltstotn 97 common Center of Motion (or focm) of And then next all the Planetary Orbits. is our beautiful Morning and Evening Star Venus : next Venus ... I (hall fet down here the bers that reprefent the Periods. and meafure out the Year. revolves about the fame Center. Gravities. of Matter^ in thofe of the Num Dia- and Quantities H Cclejiial Bodies. For the eafe of the Reader.next to Mars. Diftances. Beyond our Earth Mars fingly and alone.. the with his four Sat ellargeft of the Planets. XII. which . lits round in concert. Jupiter. that we can rarely obbut fo near him. to him Mercury makes his oval round . * j tain he being fwallow d up almoft.

The Periodical Times of each Planefs Re volution about the Sun. Whifton has calculated them from the lateft Obfervations. as Mr.which have afforded any Grounds for de termining the fame. . Newton s Rules. Y. by Mr.

004941 002717^ H a . the Gra vity of fach of the heavenly Bodies (as Means for the determining the fawe^ at the fame diftancefrom the Cen ter of the Sun } is as The Sun s Jupiter Saturn s s The Earth s The Moon s 66690 00060 00028 ooooi ooooo * The Diameters of the Sun and Planets.of Natural Beltgioa and 99 The Quantity of Matter afford in. The Suns Saturns Jupiter Mars*s s 4^4100 043925 052522 9 Statute The Earth * The Moons Venwis Mercurys 002816 JMiles each 008202 5000 Paris 002223 Feet.

lt.: The Moon Saturn 00804 00630 00536 i.11.IOO The weight of Bodies on the Surface of the Sun and Planets. of I 2 h. 17^ 57. d. the Denfities of Celeftial The Moons 700 387 100 The Earths The Sun s Jupiter s 076 060 the Safeltits c Saturns The Periodical Times of Jupiter. The Bodies. r On the Sur face of The Sun The Earth Jupiter 10000 01258. 1 8 h. 4 h. 13. &amp. id.p 7 3 Hi 6 d. 1 8 3 281 3 d. Bf .

.Ol The Dtftances of the Satellits from the Center of Jupiter.of I. flamftcd by the Eclipfes of the Satel.

gt. j&amp. What a beautiful Scene of things here ? haye and yet how wonderful are the Works of Nature ? Such like are all the EfFefts of infinite Wifdom^ her Foundations are plain and fimple buthcrfuperftru&ure.102 middle diflance of the Earth and Tla* their Periodical nets comfard with e . 98 522520 152350 IGOOCO 72598 58585. Her Courfe the eafieft and ihorteft Poifible. XIII. The Sun in a 5 Days Jupiter in i o hours The Earth in i Day Mars in 247 hours The Moon in 25? Days Venus in 2 3 hours.) various and Her Caufes few. .4 152399 looooo 72533 38710. her Effe&s wonderful. and her Means the feweft fimple^ &amp. we How that . innumerable. The Times of the Revolutions of the Sun and Planets about their Sixes.gt.

and dquating^ we fhall fee there what Work their Concentricl^ and Excentrick^ Circles. in the celeftial Ap pearances : fuch a ftrange ungeomttrical - and contradi&ory Syflem they made of the Heavens whereas from thefe few 5 plain and fimple Pofitions. Cycles. . with wonderful Confiftency and Fa cility. a Fire. 103 that can poffibly bring about her Ends.. in this neat. and Epicycles. out Oceans of that active which is the Medium of Light.. and we will then have fufficient Ground to admire the frugal Simplicity of Nature. turns round his own H 4 Axe. Let us but confult the Books of -the old Aftronomers. the Stations and Retrogadationr. and the Caufe of all Heat.... XIV. perplex their with they made. The Sun being of liquid Force of his Heat. their folid Orbs.of j&atutai Religion. and the perpetual Change of the Axe of Motion . brought into fufion huge Body by the Fluid. their carrying. - compaft Syficw t forry. all the Appearances of the Heavens^ are accounted for. and thereby fending thin.

His greater Quantity of Matter. for drawing all the yeft qf the Planets and their Satellits to wards . Denfity Planets from refpeft of fome of his Fluidity.. as the Sun muft neceflarily be. and that all Bodies heated to fuch a Degree.. and will do. it has continu d ever fince. trify and larger Dimenfions Planets^ makes him in refpeft of the fufficient for all the Expenfes of Light. after his And paving been feated in his Place. as alfo. he lays out upon them. whereby his Bulk and Heat is conftantly diminifliing... there being little or no Refiftance in his Region to retard his Motion. lefler and in .. things ^ till the Consummation of by Virtue of that firft imprefs d Gyration^ and the firft Law of Nature. His Motion about his all own on his Axe^ has been difcovered by Spots his Surface..04 |^Diiofopl)!tai five from Weft to Eaft in about twenty Days which arifes from his firft Being put into fuch a Circumgyration. the folid (fome folid Bodies being more denfe than any Fluid can be) his Sphericity. muft certainly be vi d.

All the Planets re volve . has made em ever fince revolve in their their Ellipticl^Orbits.. in one Sun is fituated : And of whofe Foci the what is here faid of the Caufe of the Primary Planet s Mo tions about the Snn^ may be underftood of the fecondary f Janets Motions.. neceflarily of muft draw the Planets with their Satellits to him 5 which wou d have unavoidably come to pafs^ had not the Planets at the inftant they were feated in their Places. the Sun far..of ^amtai wards him} for ffitiigf on* i o$ been formerly infinuated. which drove em along the Tangents of their Orbits^ with the fmall Refiftance they meet in their Courfes . is : as their Maffes^ qf Matter tains a or Quantities Wherefore feeing the Sun con very Matter by greater Quantity than any of the Planets.. reciprocally. at the fame Dias has ftance. receiv d an impulfe. the Force of Attraction of one Bo dy upon feveral others. and the Force of the Attra&ion diminishing as the Squares this of Diftances increafe. about the Primary ones..

this Axe y of the diurnal them .06 $t)tlofopf)!tai volve about the Sun in Elliptic^ Orbits. turn round their own Axes from Weft to Eaft. are two diftincft Motions^ which never inter fere. the Reafon of which is evi a Sphere move about an Axe.. about an Ax?) which is inclin d to the Plane of the JLcliptick. the Earth in twenty four Hours. while in the mean time every Point in the dcfcribes a Circle about this Axey Sphere^ and therefore if a Sphere move either in a curve. as alfo Rotation obferves always a Parallelifm with itfelf. or fuch as are not very far different from moft of em.. and fa each of them niufl continue the .. dent. for if Axe fuppos d this no other Motion (there being in the Sphere) is immoveable. the Axe fliall continue parallel to that Line it was firft pa* rallel to^ for that Imprefllon which perit s s Axe^ and the petuats it Rotation upon impulfe along the Tangent of it s Orbit. and at the fame time always turn round it s Axe....) or ftrait Line. 66r: and in it s motion about the Sun.

Mars and Ve^ fturb it. they. if nothing elfe dilike wife..of ^latum 3&eitgton* . that we have the Vicifliudes of Day and Night. than once enjoy his for it is from this Rota .. Jupiter nus y and our Moon. like our Moon... do alfo turn round their Axes. turn that conftantly the the fame Face or Disk^ toward their p rimary Planets ^ and it is not improbable. and from the farallelifm of the Axil to itfelf. that the others in which we have not had the Occafion of obferving the like. may alfo turn round their Axes. and would Line. ter and Saturn do likewife turn round their Axes. retain this Paralleltfw. and at the fame time defcribing a Right or Curve muft of neceflity retain it s Axe parallel to itfel. from Weft to Eaft. i o/ the fame as if the other were not fo that every Body turning about its Axe . as is evident from hence. in the Earth s Re volution about the Sun.. if not difturb d by The Satellits of Jupi Foreign Violence. they may in all their Parts oftner Light and Heat tion of our Earth upon it s Axis. that in a Re volution about the Sun.

the Proportion of their Periods to their Diftances from the and mutual Center of Motion. Summer and Winter. and the other -Planets with their Satellite.. all thefe and many more Particulars are exa$ly the fame in our Earth. their Phafes. it is not impro- . Since^ I fay. Since their Solidity and Opacity.Sun. together with their diurnal and annual Motions . and their Rotati ons about their Axes. the Similar Nature of their Orbits . their appea ring and difappearing. thee^^/eDefcription of Areas in equal Times. V. their total and parEclipfes arife. From the Opacity of the Moon and Planets and their Satel lite. their Gravitations their hatellitiott-s Attractions. Spring and Autumn. wkhin one another. and fome of em revolving in Orbits.. and its being inclined to the Plane of the Ecliptick} come the beautiful Seafons of the Year. and the Obliquity of their Planes to the Plane of the Ecliptic^. and tial X Attendance^ their Revo lutions about the Sun.. which is of fuch comfort and nfe to it s Inhabitants.

. athofe in our Syftem. Water and Fire. Plants and Vegetables.of Natural JSeligton* be alike in other probable that they may and that they may have Inhabi things. and have Inhabitants.ah- Suppofitions. and thefe Planets have thefe Planets and Satellite Satellits. nalogous to On thefe &quot. what a noble and glorious Fabric^ wou d prefent itfelf to our Imaginations ? How is it poffible for any one who had this Idea of the Vniverfey {hall to think it poffible fuch a beautiful Syftem^ con d have been produc d without infinite Wifdom None but the w ilfol^ or ob ft-ina te cou d refift fuch a powcifel Impreffion of &amp. Water and Fire analo- of the very fame Na ture and Conftitution with ours. divine . which not only are not but on the contra ford or contradi&ory ry highly probable. as be afterwards made appear more fully. Plants and Vegetables gotis to. tants both rational and irrational.gt. . rational and irrational. it is very likely that they have Planets. and fince our fixt Stars are exa$ly of the fame Nature with our Sun^ as ihall be after tho* not wards made appear..

is it On the other Hand. poor Corner. how that immenfe like Bodies poffible to conceive that.gt. But allowing the Planets to be inhabited. great and noble Parts. who can think fo poorly of the reft of the Univeiie. or to be peep d at by fome poor Paltry Fellows Or can any Body force of Aftronomers himfelf to think. and of their own Habitation. or other pitiful Ac cidents were to be expe&ed below. and that the fixt Stars have their Planets and Inhabitants. and to their forebode what little by Afpe&s tendance. yet they are not of the fame Nature and Confticution with thofe of this out ... that all Animals and Plants.. while the other more glorious. are left deftitute and bare? Certainly they muft have a great Opinion of themfelves. Number of glorious and Sun- of the fixt Stars. have been exhaufted in furnilhing &amp... Changes of Weather.I I divine Power and Wifclom.. thofe vaft and huge Bodies of fome of the Planets (in reipeft of our Earth) with their noble At* were made for no other ufe but to twinkle to us in Winter Evenings.

Venus enjoys twice as much Heat and Light. The Satellits of the feveral Placets . and a Day of ten Hours. XVI. Mars has no Inclination in the Axe of his Rotation to the Plane of his Orbit^ and confequently enjoys a perpe tual Equinox^ but no Viciflitudes of Seafons j he receives but the third Part of our Light and Heat. and the Seafbns of the Year. and confequently enjoys nine times as much Heat and Light.... Jupiter likewife en joys a perpetual Equinox. Mercury is three times nearer the Suny than we. and her Courfe about her Axe is perform d in twenty three Hours. hundredth. but receives only the twenty fifth of our and Saturn but the part Heat. and fo her Day is but one Hour lefs than ours /he has all the Phafes of our Moony appearing fometimes horn d fometimes halv d.. he never remo ving thirty eight Degrees from that vaft Body of Light.of Natural Religion* as is of our Globe^ ferent evident from the dif Degrees of Heat and Light they en joy j as alfo the different Viciflitudes of Day and Night.

Planets fufFer many and various Diftur- banccs in their Motions from the Sun^ as alfo. defcribe equal Area s in equal times. Neither is her Orbit always fpecifically the fame.gt. &ed upon wou d about the Earth in defcribe a perfeft one of it s Ellipfe of the fame Species conftantly.. nor is the Earth in any of the Foci of her Orbits . whofe Plane wou d be immoveable.) more Curve about the Quaand lefs toward her Conjnn^ions and . Foci&amp. but fbmewhat larger ones in her with the Sun Conjun&ions and Oppofetions than in her Qttadratures. the Primary Planets fufFer likewife from the Forces of the Sun y and of the fecondary Planets.. Thus the Moon (ifa- only by the attra&ive Force of the Earth) wou d by a Kay from the Center of the Earth. or always the fame. for they are .. and whofe Inclination to the Plane of the Ecliptwl^ wou d never vary but by the A&ion of the Sun upon the Moon-y all thefe Effe&s are difturb d... for flie neither difcribes equal Areas in equal Times by a Kay from the Center of the Earth..

of Natural SMtQiom and in every Revolution ilie Oppofitions . upon the common Suppofition of the Law of Attraftion. Gregory s Aftronomy^ which is a furprifing Confirmation of the Truth of that Principle. and both the Situation of the Plane of her Orbit. ev n to a Nicety... and all thefe Uncertainties and Aberration^ are multiply d by her nearer or remo ter Diftances from the San.. as is evident from Mr. befidcs a Ecliptic^ Varies great other Irregularities too tedi ous here to relate.. from the A&ion of the Sun and Earth upon her. Newton s Theory of the Moon. it em in Numbers and yet thefe Irregularities are Wonderfully ac counted for. Upon the account of many all which.. defcribes a new kind of Curve. beyond which Gbfervation can not diftinguifli. Moon y difturbs the Motion of the Earth I the other hand. printed in Dr. and to exprefs all has been fo very hard for A to reduce her Motions to Rule. On Force of the Sun. ftronomers. the but efpecially of the as . and it s Inclination to the Plane of the every Mqment.

^pofopDtcai as evident from our Tides. that the Light of the Sun. with fome few collateral Circumftances. may be with due Limitations underftood. at the and Conjitn&ions of the Moon to the Sun. for it s plain they fliine by their own Light. cannot be ignorant of the latter j for when the Moon comes to the vertical Point of any Place.. fo as to it is make them appear fo lucid as we fee them.4&quot.re Bodies like our Snn. We .. fliou d be fcnt to them. which da fo exa&Iy follow the Motions of the is M00. all the late Aftronomers agree.^ and greateft of all at the Equinoxes^ efpecially if the Moon is then in her ferigeum^ the Reafons of all which ter. I have fuggefted is in the firft Chap And what here faid of the Earthy with refpeft to the Moon. as alfo on the Place this Tide is greater diametrically oppofite to it . of any pri mary Plajtety inrefpc&ofit sSatellits. XVIL That the fixt Stars a. we have a Tide there. fince altogether impofllble. 5 that he who knows the former.. than Oppositions at her Quadratures. and tranfmitted to us..

. inftead magnifying em above what they appear to the naked Eye fas they do any Obje&^cmov d by any menfurable Diftance... is to the Diftance of the neareft fixt Star from us. The Rays of the Sun wou d be fo diflipated before they reach d fo re^ mote an Objeft. which cou d noc were at my moderate Diftance be. Befides. from the Sun. as i to .. if they five .. that the beft of Telefcope. yet their Parallax is fcarce fenfible if any at all. difcover them* Their Diftance is faintly in refpe& of forae Stars ^ Saturn fhines for all his fo great.. allowing fand Feet to the Mile) one time of the Year than another..... : By Mr. approach nearer them fome twenty four thoufand Diaweters of the Earth. tho we in this Globe.of natural JHeitgion* We fee how of the jixt Bulk j and yet his Diftance is but a Point in refpeft of the neareft fixt Star. that the beft Eye of the World j cou d not by it. (or thou 188304000 Miles. the Diftance of the Sun -from us. Hngens Computation. how great foever) does con(b that they fiderably leffen them^ appear like lucid Points....

immenfe Diftances as the neareft of em m us.6 $4)i!qfGp!)icai 07664. both thefe are true. according to the be ft Calculations) Star from the Diftance of the neareft jfxf us. cannot be reduc d to their this Rule. when parted from the Mouth of the Piece. Let us but imagine our felves removed . that they Ihine by their own Light.. Now this being true. or we near them. that is (allowing theDiftance of the Sun from us to be 12000 Diameters of the Earth. (hew that they are at from one is fix another. wou d fpend almoft feven hundred thoufand Years to go thro*. and that they 3re at fuch an itmnenfe Diftance from us^ muft be Bodies like our it is plain.. Be- fiJe^j different as Magnitudes.. they Sun } which wou d be evident. is for it only the Diftance that creates our doubt. and a Diameter to be of 7846 Miles... Since then. is at leaft 2404520928000 Bullet Miles. which moving with the Velocity it has. it is impofiible they fhou d be all in the Surface of the fame Sphere j fince our Sun which is one of em . cou d they a Cannon be brought near us.

in that one lucid point of the Sun. Since then there are feveral probable Arguments. fo wou d all the reft be.. and knowing the Na ture of one. that if one was a lucid Globe of liquid Fire. (fome of which I hinted before) that they have Attendant Planets^ and no poffible I one 3 ..&amp. ly perceive . Cer tainly if the fxt Stars a&ually had JPA/nets y and they Satellits. In this Station.gt. we fliou d certainly conclude the fame of all the reft^ z//%.. yet at our Di ftance we cou d fee neither. and becaufe all their Orbs wou d be united.of natural Beitgion* 1 7 remov d at an equal Diftance from the Sun and fixt Stars. for as to all the Planet s^ that we fee now d not have the both becaufe leaft Glimpfe of themtheir Light wou d be too weak to affect us. we fliou d have no attend the Snn^ fliou we occafion to imagin any Difference be tween one Star and another^ but fliou d Stars certainly conclude both Sun and fixt f the fame Nature . and that they were at immenfe Diftances from one another. we fliould then certain no Difference between them ..

we have not determined the Returns of above pofitively one or two. but indif ferently fqme of em move one way. others ano- .. fmce in three or four Thoufand Years. that their Periodical Times are certain and invariable.. however. Revolutions are very long. its certain. there is another Species of Hea venly Bodies^ call d Comets. they do move in a re curring Orbit . that the Sun is in one of the Foci... that the fame Law of Gravitation obtains in them.. of this Orbit . and that their Moti ons are regular. that by a Ray from the5#// 3 they defcribe equal Areas in equal Times. only their Courfe in their Orbits is riot determin d one way. in very Oblong BUiptick Orbitsj approaching to Parabolic^ The Times of their Periodical Curves. which does in the Pla nets-. Befides thefe already men tioned. we may fafely conclude that the fixt Stars are fo many Suns in the Center of a Sy&em of Planets and their Satellits. that like our Planets . XVIII.. which re volve about the Sun-.8 one to evi& the contrary.

.. This Tail accompanies it through its Courfe over all the Planetary in its Approach Regions... which is rais d in its Approach to the Sun. which. intermixt with feveral an irre grofler Particles. and .. ex tremely rarified by his Rays. in many Thoufands of I 4 Years. as that is ten or fifteen Befides Times as long of its Body. They are alfo about the 1 1 9 lame Bulk with the Planets.. and fo rare that the Stars may be feen through it. Thefe Comets fometimes come fo near the Sun as to be heated . to fuch a Degree that they cannot be come cool again. . whofe Diameter. becaufe the thiner part of its Atwofphcre.Icflening in its Rcceft. by the Heat thereof^and extends fometimes to four hundred Thoufand Miles above its Body.of another: natural Religion. encreafing to the Sun. and uncertainly agitated Mafs^ which is call d its Atrno* fpbere. It is it is always oppofite to the 6V*. generally fpeaking 5 and like them are compaft folid Bodies ^ but furrounded with a vaftly large thin Fluid.. and compofing gular unequally difpofs d. it has a long lucid Train.

.2o 0Mofo$)icai This with its violent Motion in a which comes near to a ftreight Line. and we fo little feel the Effefls of thefe Returns (which of nemuft be felt^ if thefe frightful Bo ceffity Planets. the Reimbursement mentioned ? fince the Sun and Placets are recruited all fhort time. has pafs its Years. And 5 fo far as fome have thought it defign d. that are not in a ftate of Puniihment conceive therefore we can of the Nature of Animals. to fupply the Expence of Fluids in the $nn and the But as I have before hinted^ this does not feem fo very pro bable. Ciirv?j after it irregular Ferihelium. becaufe Nature always fupplies conftant and regular Expences after a conftant and regular Manner.. of all the at onc:^ or in a dies lois made very have fuffbr d in their Fluids for they many Years before.. Now the Returns of thefe Bodies are fo irregular and uncertain.) that I am afraid no fuch Benign Influeiices^ are to be expcfteel . and the Difpoiition of the confufs d its d Mafs of fit Atmofyhere^ makes it an un Habitation for Animals..

wou d be as in the Sun.of ^atitrai &eiigtcn* ed from them. it is uncertain of what Nature theie Vapours are.. Vapour will not become a Fluid unlcfs its Parts be of fuch a determin d Figure and Si^e as the Nature of Flu ids require. by the Sun and Planets as they approach them. it is more probable. that of Water. how thefe EfFe&s can anfwer the Defign. for every . But then. as Fire on the Earth r which wanted only more Water. the Earth. fincc d to draw all which wanted only more of the Fluid of Light. the other Yla: nets their proper Fluids fiippofs . provided it be fufficient to diffolve the Union of its Parts. that there may be feme Clouds of Vapours fweep d off the Tails of thefe Comets. or if they were prowifcuoufly. I think that thefe frightful Bodies are the Miniftcrs of Pivi/te Juftice. and increafe their Bulk to a neceffary Dimenfion Moreover its hardly accountable how the Sun fliou d draw from thence only the Fluid of Light. I readily grant. Now it s certain^ that Heat will raife any Body into a Va pour. and . Water improper a Gueft.

in their Vifits. Diminution of the Quantity of Fluids in the Sun and Planets^ it is certainly fo fmall and fo inconfiderable (tho ftill it be fomething) that it will never be fenfible in any finite Number of Years. according to the Defigns of Providence that they may have brought. changing the Figures ... as to the Diminution of Light. if it did not look too notional^ there are many Arguments to render not improbable.and lend us Benign or No* xions Vapours. : and may ftill bring about. I do believe it may be dernonftrated. it would not equal a Grain of Sand. that if all the Fluid which the Sun lofes in a Year were brought into a folid Form.. But as for the of Punilhment . and fo needs not fo magnificent an Apparatus ^ as the vifife of a Comet to fupply it . the great Cata- ftropkes of our Syftem. and the Pofitions of the Tlanets^ and the very Nature of the Orbits thenifelves: and that they may be the Habitation of Animals in a ftate which... by raifing of Tides. Now what is that to the vaft Body of the Sun ? And as for f the .

that fome infinitely powerful . for in all Animals and Vegetables . and try if Effbft of Chance. Scheme . Frame. by the. it does notever. the Matter is plain j and as for Minerals and Metals ^Idoubt much. So that tho there be fome lots of Fluids on our Globe y yet there is ftore enough to fupply all the Ufes of Life and Vege tation.. yet them upon Examination it of the fame is again diffolv d into a Fluid .of Datura! Beitgtom 123 the Fluids on our Globe. without fome considerable Changes. fince their firlt Production. as it is at of Opinion it is pretty prefent^ and I am near the Truth. XIX. And now let any one ferioufly refleft upon the Order ^ Vaftnefl^ Magnu ficence this . and make of this our ) feem defign d to laft for jlem. whether there be ve ry will be found that moft many new Productions or Generations of that kind. for any finite number of Years and . Beauty ... and Symmetry of he can think it the if he can fo much wife and as doubt. tho feme of be reduc d into a folid Form. or... Thus I have given a fhort View of this Syftew of things..

all^ we fhou d certainly con- . is reciprocally as the Squares is it at all of thefe Diftances. different Diftances from the Center of Attra&ion. all the &amp...z/r&. pro Now bable that fo Hm&erfitt a ful a Principle Law^ fo power and fo conftant a Rule j fhou d be owing to Chance ? If one with 10000 Dice. he fhou d always without failing throw the iame fide in ern . let us of this Divine Archtte&ure. that the univerfal Principle of Attraction or Gravitation obtains in all the Bodies of this Univerfe. and that the Motions of ces Planets.f^inciples: powerful Architect has rear d this noble But to drive the Argument far Fabrkk. And i* It is plain from what has been {hewn. we might pofifibly fay he did it by Chance. their Satellits and the Comets^ are govern d by one Condition that the Force thereof at thereof. but if with an almoft infinite Number of Dice... enquire a little into the par ticular and obvious Defigns and Contrivan* ther.lt. fhou d throw 5000 Si7es^ once or twice ^ or even 1000 Sixes once and again.

and of the fecondary Planets about the Primary ones.. fo far as this might have been with all the Bodies of the Uniwe can difcover^ are en* it dow d with it Principle ^ and therefore. as by Rays from the S/tf/j and all the Sate Hits.. the periodical Times is in a Sefauialter Proportion to the middle Diftances^ or the Cubes of the middle Diftances.. by Rays . he either did it ftrated that Gravitation is not effential to Matter^ and fo out it^ and yet verfe. are in all of them (Planets and Satellits) Mo the Squares of the Periodical Revolutions. in all the Revolutions of the Planets about the SHK. worth our Obfervation to take Notice. was defign d by him who laid the a. from the Center of their tions. All the Planets 3.. or that thefe Dice cou d turn up on no other fide.. how conftant and beautiful a Proportion^ the Times of the Revolutions of all the Flatlets^ and their Satettits y keep to their middle Diftances for univerfally.of jfcatutai Religion. Now I have demonelude. by Art and Contrivance. It is Foundations of the World.

e.r . and their Diflance by their Slownefs: Al ways making up equal Areas in equal Thefe two fo umverfal. they move fafter.. by their Swiftnefs. and depending upon beautiful Proportions. approach to the Center of their Motion. Rays from their and when they recede fo as to compenfat from it .. and regular Effeftsy fo much as once queftion whether they are the Produce of infinit Wifdom? Cer lefs cou d be fufficicnt. are not only difcoverable by Obfervation.. of the Motions of the regular Affe&ions. to tainly nothing make the Calculations. Can any Body now.. juft now feft^ Celeflial Bodies^ mentioned to be the Principle of the Heavenly Motions. who confiders how many things are con thefe curring to. but are the neceflary Ef of the Law of Gravitation. the dreas defcrib d.. adjuft theF0ra..f Primary Planets.and determine the Powers } neceflary towards the .. are always proporti So that when they onal to the Times. defcribe equal Areas in equal Times^ /. and fo Times. flower their Nearnefs.

. their Diftances adjufted for this very Reafon by the bye. . And confequently. done nothing in vain. of fuch exa& and regu All the Planets are fo lar Effe&s. it is fo obvious no Body can mifs of it for it is plain the more Denfe Matter requires a greater De gree of Heat. in refpe& of the Suny that the Denfer Planet. is farther remov d from him and the leaft Denfe of Now can any is the moft remote. * 27 the Produ$ion.... Body think this was fo ordered without him... And therefore fince thefe . is ftill neareft and the lefs Denfe. is a very good Argument for the Planets being inhabited.. they are fit ted with Degrees of Heat neceffary for natural Produ6Hons. wifely fituated.of Natural Religion. 4.. fince were and this according to their Denfities. - 3 Defign ? No certainly. if there nefit were no Creatures to enjoy the Be of em and we all know Natiire has :. now this Adjuftment and thefe natural Productions were ufelefs.. needs only a Degree of Heat. all. -. to fit it for natural Produ6Hons lefler and the lefs Denfe. for the fame End.

. for fince the nearer Planet enjoys more of the Heat of the Sun y than the re moter . floweft of all.$i)ttofopi)tcai thefe Accommodations are provided for li ving Creatures. which is neareft the Sun^ moves fafteft. that the Planet And fo in the Satellits ^ the neareft to the primary Planets^ moves quickeft. there fore the Velocity of the nearer. as the Forces. is grea Now this ter than that of the remoter. floweft. than the fquare Root of the nearer. and the For fince the Centru remoteft. is a wife Contrivance of the Author of ces Nature . as from the Center . Squares of the Diftances from the Center^ and the Celerities in that cafe^ recipro the fqnare Roots of the Diftan cally. and thofe more remote^ lefs faft. 5. and fince the fquare Root of the remoter Diftance is greater. petal are reciprocally .. it was fit the Viciflitudes of the Seafons . and the fartheft. there are fuch certainly to enjoy em. The Velocity of the Pla Motions j is fo adjufted in refpe& of the Sut? y and the Velocity of the Satel* nets lits y in refpeft of their primary Planets.

and their Velocities greateft. by fome Angle or other with the Plane if of their Orbit. it is doubtlefs moft convenient 5 the Viciffitudes there of fliou d be quickeft. there Heat is leaft. for whatever Effe&s the primary Planets pro duce on the ^econdary ones. fhou d be quicker. and where the Heat the Conveniency of natural Produ&ion.. there the Seafons ihou d be all thefe EfFe63:s are taken longeft: care of by this adjufting of the Velocity to the Diftance..of Seafons. And this K . And what is here faid Now of the Seafons in Refpeft of the ?lanetfy Satellits Influ may be ences 5 underftood of the from their primary Planets . in the nearcft^ and floWeft in the remoteft Satellits.. it was neceflary the Seafons fhou d be fhorteft. they not all of them.. where the greatefi. making there moft. that are nexc the Sun^ their Periods muft be fhorteftj all move about their and fince Axes. they muft admit of for Va is riety of Seafons. natural &eli0ton. that anfweof natural Produ&ions ring beft the Ends for fince their Diftances are leaft.

$i)itofopt)!c ai this. yet ftill their Or bits are nearer Ellipses now among And tho than any other Geo- Metrical Curves^ and may be reduc d to theie and that the Planes of the Orbits of the Y lands coincide with the Plane of the and with one another nearly. All the Planets defcribe about the Sun in . is a convin ^ cing Proof of the Planets being inhabited for ii all this beautiful Contrivance is loft ? there be no Inhabitant in thefe Celejiial Bodies to enjoy the Benefit of it. not exaflly Elliptical^ yet that is from neceffary Caufcs. and is not owing to Chance.. the Satellits are Orbits of that the fay. they Aflronomers. and with the Plane of the Ecliptic^. 6. as well as the former . one of their Foci^ Elliptic^ Orbits alfo and the Planes of all the Orbits do very nearly coincide with one another.. That the Planets defcribe Elliptic!^ Orbits about the SMI 3 there is no manner of doubt . one of Elliptic^ Orbits of one and all the Satellits Species or another defcribe about their primary Planets in their Foci^ :. but to the already eftablifli d Laws of the Univerfe ... is matter ..

of Natural Religion. which cannot but be of fome ufe to thofe Places. the colder and more Northern Places of our Globe. But this change is not now to be taken notice of fince it is a Qiieftion if thefe Irregularities a K were any .. nable. Now is it imagi and conftant Order of Elliptick Orbits^ the Situation of the Sun in the one of the of the Planes.. 1 3 1 matter of Obfervation. the other is not du rable j but temporary. are evident. for Advantages thereby arifing to our* Earth in particular..for there by. arc depriv d of the benign Influence of the Sun at that Seafon. are brought fome hundreds of thoufand Miles. that by the natural Courfe of the Earth. Now this Benefit wou d be confbnt if the Place of the Pvrihetium did that is the not change ^ but fince not conftant.. with that of the Eclipcou d have been the EfFeft of Chance and Cafualty? Or that it was without Defign or Counfel ? No certainly.. nearer the Sun in Winter. this beautiful of thefe three things.. and the Coincidence of the Orbits . than in Summer . Foci..

fmce it is of notable life to one of the Planets. The Sun. is : firft Contrivance of in the reft this Now tho of the the Situation of their Perihelia.12 3 any part of the Univcrfe Planets. againft this Ar gument^ fince we know not the Nature of their Inhabitants^ nor of their Natural Produ&ions . Jnpiter. almoft coinci dent with one another. it is matter of ObferVation in the Sun. and that in Planes. and that of the As to the Rotation about their Eclipticlq own Axe. yet the conftant Order of thefe things are a fufficient Proof that they were not Cafiial . it cannot be amifs to any of eni. and their Satellits. not the fame^ yet nothing is to be concluded from thence. Venus.. they agreeing in moft things ever be the : But what Defign thereof. 7. the Axe of this Rotation is dwxy parallel toitfelf^ and they revolve all one way from Weft to Haft. Mars. But this we may conclude. all the Planets.. but the work of Infinite Wifdom. the . the Earth. Co far as we have had occafion to know^ move about their own Axes.

and Beauty. and with the Plane of the Ecclipticfyj is wou d fo very near the Truth. fmall Difference from is not to be regarded. it is demonftrable a priori^ as I have formerly fhewn. Now can thefe Conftant and regular Efte&s be afcrib d to any thing. uniform and regular Appearances. nothing fible. let us now coniider. a nd be nicely exa&.. all thefe con ftant and immutable all thefe Effe&s. if the fame were not difturb d by fome collateral Caufes j as alfo the Coincidence of the Planes of this Rotation. but an over-ruling Providence ? Can Jum ble. Farther... cou d have brought about fo uniform 5 and fuch conftant Effe&s. that all thefe beautiful and comely Proportions . not to a few things. and Confufion produce regular and invariable Efte&s? It is altogether impoU and but the Au therefore.... which agree. that the it. or in fome K 3 particu- . with one ano ther.of natural JRcitjjion* 1 3 3 the Moon^ and it is very probable in the other two ^ and as to the Parallclijm of the Axe of their Rotation.. thor of Light^ and Order.

the Planets from the Sun ^ the poflible s of their Reyolntioxs.. their poffible Gravitation. becaufe this is the Eftci of the Law of and on thefe two.. and the univerfal Benefit of the whole Syftem ^ as thefe already fettled. rable proportions^ befides the Sefquialter^ yet none of em had fuited us fa well. em fitted fo well^ to the prefent Irate of things.?//. to -all s. Celerities^ .*34 Wiofopljtcai but in particulars. Thus there might have been an infinity of different ^ poflible Laws ^Gravitation^ yet none of them wou d have fitted our Syftem^ prefent Circumstances. the Planets. all the fubfequent Advantages from the prefent efhblifii d Motions of the Placets depen different from thefe ding y any other wou d have depriv d us of thofe Advan The various poflible Diftances of tages. to all their Sate!lit to the Sun . and the Comets^ and our word ^ to every thing in this might have been varied. and the in a M0&amp.lt. feve^and yet none of ral and divcrfe ways. fo well as to the There are innume Reciprocal Dnplicat. moft of them..

and to the Plane of the Ecliptic^ .of j&atutAi Heligiom Celerities. feeing every thing and Meajurc j and Proportion. and the po and yet as I IIble Changes of many other Affe&ions ^ are in num ber infinite- have fhewn that are at prcicnt ? bring very confiderable Advantages with them. were they Add to difpos d atter another manner. thefc. and conlequently the poifible Varieties of the Bodies might Celeftial have been infinite among cmfelves. and their Bulf\S. their pofilble Derifitief.. by weight feeing they obfcrve Order is 4 the . J 1 3 &amp. But at all. Orbits j of their the poiliblc Figures O I and of the Inclinations of their Planes to one another. to the Syftew in general.. . which moft of thefe they confequently wou d be lofi . and that every one of cm is difpos d in the fitted Order. the prefent ftate of things will admit ^ ilncc both the whole and the feveral Parts of rr K ad jink d. and different from thofe now mentioned. that all thefe Affeftions of the Hea venly Bodies ^ might have been in no re gular Order 5 nor conftant Proportion..lt..

&amp.. like our Sun. who that con- fiders all thefe things... and (hewn fome of the Advantages.. rang d and down the immense Vaft . who weighed the Mountains in Scales^ and the Hills in a Balance^ likg a Curtain.36 $t)ftQtopl)tcal is the Celejiial Fabric^ ufeful. Stars can all glorious Bodies. whofe right hand.. arifing from their prefent Order and Difpofition.gt. of the Heavenly Bodies. and ftrong Arm out. ^ XX. and of their Motions. and lip femov d at Diftances from one another not to their Diftance from us? This. Bo I come now to confider the Celeftial dies a little more particularly. and firft as Having confidered. now to the any thing beget a greater Idea of the Univerfe. does wonderful things paft finding fome of the more general Affe&ions.. both very gooda and convenient. . or of it s Creator^ than that frodigiom number of fixt . who ftretch d the Hea~ and held the Earth in his Hands. dares fo much as doubt whether he who did all thefe things lives and reigns for ever and ever ? or who can forbear to admire and adore him..

it is not alto gether poffible to determine their num ber. then imnyfxt Stars of the firft Magnitude ^ as there are Syftems that can ftand round ours.. does evince. As for the feveral other Magnitudes..of ^amrai laeligtcn. but on firft ly for things being nearly fo. is Supposition.. that every fixt in like our Sun^ and governs a Portion of Mundan fpace. as the firft and fecond are. becaufe they are not fo diftinguifhable from thofe of the other Magnitudes. I do not . equal to our Sythere muft be only as flew. For upon the Star. Befides. and fecond Hate.. for.. 137 not only their different apparent Magninumber of thofe tudes^ but likewife the of the firft. I do not plead here for Accuracy. that can ftand round a middle one^ equal to em j and fo many are the Stars of the Magnitude. but there are but about twelve or thirteen Spheres. Again^ if we examine how many Spheres can ftand round this firft Range of Spheres we will find their number betwixt forty eight and fifty two 5 and fo we find the number of the Stars of the fecond Magnitude.

. and makes force their way.. fions : it is impofilble for any Body.. y is the Sun. or view with his about thcfe glori ous Bodies. to hinder himfelf from being ravifh d with the Power and Wifdom of the Great God of Heaven and Earth.. fcrioufly to confider in his Mind. How beautiful and glorious a JXXI. for gularity.. is what certain Vegetables all ! doubt. or that are all of the fame Dimentheir Syftems. theie things being nearer any Re* gular Proportion^ than they are to Irre is diffident for my Purpofe . for it is Heat alone. that rarifies the iizy Juir ces about their tender Roots. rife to Vegetables.. the Liquor in the Thermometrjcal Tubes^ and drives tjierri through . it is beyond that without him they cou d As never his above the Ground .not think that the fixt Stars^ are either all of the fame real Magnitude. to difplay all the and there Foldings of the {lender Seed^ them by to augment their Parts raifes juft as we find his Heat.. and of what abfolute Necefllty to the Being of all Animals and Eyes..

. it s 1 39 winding Branches. and Heavinefs in his Abfcnce^ foul Weather. tint by the Heat of the Sun^ and the Aflion of his Rays^ that infinite Number of the cxcre* cretory Duels of Perfpiration.... and he who underftands the Animal Occonomy. all the fuperficial Parts of the Body are open d. how neceffary the Sun is to pur fie our Air. is a Difeafe alone. and to exhale the noxious Dews. are more apd plentifully xieriv d. and a cloudy Day. and enlarg d.. and cou d through all be of no long continuance .. which Nature has deilgn d iliou d be carry d out of the Body. knows the Reafons. for we know. might make a forFood cou d be fupry Shift (fuppofing his Influence) in a ply d em without perpetual State of Darknefs. plac d along. yet it wou d be a very miferable fort of Life. freely which muft needs .of natural Eciigton. z//%. and i the we Vapours of the Ni^ht feel a fenfible Joy in his Light. baleful thing ev ry Body knows . and tho* perhaps -Animals. and fo thofc Exha lations. and the Mechawcal One Necefiity of all thefe things...

and of the fixt Stars. altogether impoflible to ac count for the Appearances of the Planets } i... any other Suppofition. upon And 3. For It is their Satellits. in any tolerable manner. more afterwards. happens in the Abfence of this Benign Star. It s being fituated immoveable in the Cen ter of our Syftem^ no Body who has been But of this at the pains to confider the Matter^ I be lieve doubts now. a.needs give a greater Freedom to the Blood and Spirits 5 the contrary of all which. Flamflead has obferv d. which is . without admiring the Motion of the Earth. and confequently the Stability of the Sun ^ there are fome other Argu ments that will have fufficient Weight to fettle the Matter among thoughtful Men. for not to mention at about the Paral prefent the Controverfie lax of fome of the fi xt Stars^ which Mr. and whereby he the Motion of pretends to demonftrate the Earth. It is likewife for the Motions of impoflible to account the Comets. that Analogy of the Periodical Times 5 to the midk Diftances ..

e&i- s Motion. ter of their Revolutions. what an Inftance of Wifdom and on Now Contrivance tain his is this. Add to all that there is no tolerable Ob.. 1 4* the neceflary Confequence of the cftablifti d Law of Gravitation.. thefe. but has againft the Earth had a full Anfwer. to have fet him in a Corner.. in a duplicate Proportion reci to their Diftances from the Cen then the Earth (and not the Sun) moves. in the Center of unartful wou d it have Syftem. fo that fubvert the whole Syftent Motion of Aftronomy. when How he was to have giv n Light and Warmth to all the Bodies round him befides.of is Natural ffieifgiott. For if the Celeftial Bodies attraft one another procally . to the confervation of any fuch Suppofition (fuch as the TychonicJ{ or Ptolomict^) there are requir d fo many different Laws of Gravi* . and difprove the Caufes of the Celeftial Motions^ we fhall never be able to prove the Stability of the all Earth. of Light and in placing that Foun Life. been. and a plain Solution. does demonftrate the Earth s unlels we wou d a priori ...

and that in regular and . accounts for all the various Motions and Appearances of faft.. fpeak the Om nipotence and Omniscience of their Author. Moreover. with how much Artfulneis his Bulk and Situation... that the Vaffals.. and that fo equally. in w i(e r as clearly the flanets^ refpeft of juft Qiiantity is contriv d to have enough of Matter to draw round him thefe Maffy Bodies. Thus then this great and glorious Body is fixt. Thefe are fuch great^ Ends.2 f Ijtlofopljtcai that any reasonable Perfbn by inquiring into them..... and their in their Bulks and DiSatellits^ fo various ftances from him .. neareft have not too much.. and Life in to all his furrounding plentiful EfFufion. wou d cafily difcover. nor the re- moteft too fuch little.. let us confider. and look d moft like the Effe&s of Wiidom and Defign For here one fingle Law. yet this Pofition of ours : the Celeftial Bodies. Warmth. like a powerful and a kindly Monarch on his Throne ^ diftributing Light.. that whatfoever was Matter of Gravitation^ was the the moft fimplc and eafie.

by the Force of the heat. have here fign to enforce upon us the Belief that is a being infinitely perfeft thereof. but I am rather inclin d to be lieve it may be the neceffary Efteft of the Fluidity of his Body. d . fenfible How Diminution^ tho there are conftant . circular Motion of the whole Ho.. perhaps it may be for the better propagating.Emanations thereof upon his AttenAs for his Rotation about his own dents.. are turn d innumerable different ways 5 and io by their Oppofition and Inare at laft determin terferings. to be able to laft fo many Years without any Orbits. and emitting this Fluid of Light through the Planetary .. the Author XXII. into a one way...wever fufficient Matter Inffonces of this we Wifdom and Debe. Axe^ it is no doubt likewife^ for wife Ends and Purpofes... how fully it has been faturated with the Fluid of Light. that the Particles of all folid Bo dies running into fufion. it being very well known. Kegions . .of and uniform exa&ly his Body is rounded.

Ambiton and neceffary. to Earth.. The by fuppofing the may reap rejpe&ively. but to direft us in our Courfe..... We can no the Benefits we of the nalogous. now made it only to guide our Steps. 2. fome part of Mankind iliou d be travelling by Land how pleaor Sea. Now comfortable and delightful a thing this is. for at leaft three fourths of the Year. fome thing A~ fupplying of the Sun in the Night time.44 otherwife gather the ufefulnefs of the fecondary Planets. not have . which are i. She raifes our fides. twice in twenty four Hours. how our times wears out ? For a very lit us reap both thefe tle Experience.. in the Night Seafons fant then. to their primary Ones^ but reft XXII. and joyful a thing. which how abfolutely neceffary it is toward the fubfiftance of Animals and Vegetables. how Curiofity . we (hall .. is it to have a Light held us forth from Heaven. and to point out to us. Travellers and Voyagers can beft tell.. makes laft Advantages from the Prefence and Motion of the Moon. receives from our Moon. that Luxury.

and then the firft Effcft wou d be ? that all the Places toder it s Stagnation. the conftituent Particles a /linking rotten Pu-dle.. Every Body knows that a Lake or Loch... the heat diffolving their Union. Earthy. and combining em in new Forms. turn into fending forth naufeous and poyfonous Steams . for tho* I do not think. and Vegetable Particles^ than of pure - lement operates. will by the heat of a few Months.. Now frefh tho there be ma daily Sea are the into y yet they very inruning confiderable in refpeft of the vaft Ocean of Salt Water. alter is d by this yet no Water abfolutely pure.of /hall Natural ffieitgioti* now {hew. and its Stagnation. and fepathefe noxious Particles which by rating pix&amp.. but contains a greater Quantity of Flefliy. and wou d by no means hin* ny thoufands of Water Rivers... But admit the Ocean once ftagnated. Salio. of Water themfelves.. and it is upoti thefe. are Stagnation.. that has no fi e(h Water runing into it.. duce this EfFeft.gt.. Bony. Metallick. L ward . and confequently it s Corruption and Stinking..

are conftantly fethis AcHon of Wa Wa cur d from Stagnation and Corruption. the as by ters are lifted up in a heap. d to a Mephitis . Now what a noble Contrivance have we here by appointing an Attendant to our Earthy all the Vegetables and Animals arc prcferv d from certain Definition. and the begining Malady ftifled.46 ^tjtiofopljicai ward the Shores. This of new Water on the perpetual Change Shores.. and then by Degrees it wou d get farther till the whole were become more baneful and poyfonons than the Lake of Sodom and Gomorrah-. keeping any one Portion thereof.. the Salt of the Sea I does . af terwards the Plants and Animals where ^ the Moon.. and by the noxious Steams thence arifing. whereby the Fifties wou d be firft deftroy d.. as it were^ and then let fall again ^ whereby the ters near the Shores. (but I am of opinion that to the full effe& of rlns wife Defign. expos d to the heat of the Siw. and . to have it s mixture corrupted. wou d be firft wrought turn upon by the A&ion of the Sun. too fbort a time.

) Befidcs this.. ly tear em afunder. one Moon attending receive it. that the Particles of Heat... and in their Quadra* lures we fliou d have no Tide at all. ftick the Parts of Bodies fo together..of does very natural much Keltstotn ^ 147 have contribute for as I and may obferve afterward. that we fliou d moreDamage than Advantage from perhaps thereby our Light in the Night (provided {he were of any Bulk.. it And con* here perhaps fider that if will not be atniis to our Earth had any more than it. or at any Diftance near to that of our prefent for tho Moon) might be augmented^ yet at Conjunctions andOppofetzons with one another. or can continue in Unbelief. and Harbours. we fhou d have Tides that wou d raife the Waters to the the tops ofour Mountains. if our Earth. can ceafe from wonder. the pointed {lender Particles of the Salt. and with the Sun.. how many Conveniences in Rivers for our Navigation. at any L a tolc- . Moon were biger or nearer the or if we had more than one. fn ihort.. cannot fo cafifaid before. does this ebbing and flowing of the Sea afford ? No Body that confiders them.

has been contrived for our Purpofes. or feparatcd Forces of (6 many Moons. and the fre quent toffing and turning over of then*. we by the fliou d be in noxious were none hazard of being Steams arifing ftiflcd the from it s Ocean . J O all. for xve fnfKciently know.. be not in fo great hazard of corrupting from the Heat of the Sun. or at a greater diftance.. fince our Moon fuits us fb well^ and tho the Fluids of thefe Planets. which it wou d ftagnat more than evident now does.48 ^ijiiofopljicai tolerable diftancefrom us^we fliou d be every * now and then. by the united.. yet they may pot be in hazard of being congeal d by fibly the Violence of the Cold. However the thing be^ we may here obfcrve . they muft be reafonably expe&ed to fit the Neceffities of the Inhabitants of thcfe Planets. may hinder this EfFeft .. As for the numerous Attendants of and Jupiter Saturn. From all which how wifely our Satellit. in hazard of being drown d and at if our prefent Moon were or if there lefs. how ftrongly Fluids in Motion will refift the Efficacy of Cold.

which is of exceeding ufe in Navi gation.. From our this d by her Name pro ceed. in placing other. for by them the Differences of Meridians. where-evcr there was any Quantity of Fluids. L 3 upon .. one very Bodies at (uch a Diftance from each the grcateft at the greatcft efpecially Diftance} for had they been fituated much nearer to one another. which by prudent placing the Heavenly Bodies.And Moon the Eclipses call . they wou d have caus d prodigious Diforders in very diffe rent Manners. ... and the Longitudes of Places are dctermin d. 3. are intirely prevented. that neither Animals nor Vegetables woiul have been able to fuftain their Fury . Of the fame ufe are the Edipfes of the Sun.. at fuch a Diftance from one ano ther.and of the Satellite of the other Planets which laft being fo frequent. and in particular fuch dcftru&ive Tides .of ferve ^attmtl ifteitstotu 149 and and of Wisdom fignal Inftance the Heavenly Contrivance.. are of wonderful Affiftance^ toward the Solution of this fo defirable and fo much defpaird of Problem? . . or great Oceans.

o $t)iiofoptical jipon this Agro in comes other without the which nomy 3 were meer groping in the Dark.) there . but the World is already fo fenfible of the Ad vantages arifing from the Motions and Appearances of the Heavenly Bodies. As fo the Comets. that the Aftronomy of the Planets themfelves... but loudly pro claim Author. Motions. in this great Drama of the World. and theitSatellits has been brought to any tolerable Pcrfeftion. their Natures. I have lit what tle more to fay about them... and much la* ter Hncc final Caufes have been cultiva ted. than I have already (aid.. with that Care becoming fo noble and andMifcful a Part of Philofophy. that I fhall infift no farther on this Tofick^ but from this whole Seftion about the Ufe of the At tendants of the Planets fhall infer. and Situations. (indeed it is but of late. that they are not mute Perfons. the Head of Navigation all Wisdom and Being of their XXIII. have been fo lately determin d. Orbits. in the Matter of Navigation.

that we have Icarce any folid Foundation to bout .expenfe of a new Creation. have vifited us twice. upon the Planets^ they long come nigh of j and if what be is commonly faid em by Aflrologers vifit us without fome true^ they (eldom fuch direful Salu tation. To few of em our Rcafoning upon. from vinejuftice. without being put to the . Only. to wander in thefe long EccentrickjOrbits^ through the World. L A . fending their Trains. nay ev n fcarce of Animals not under a State of Punifliment.. few accurate Obfcrvations al that extant.. there are fo em we know of. But moft likely they are the Minifters of-dibaleful Steams. However^ from them we may learn that the Divine Vengeance^ may find a feat for the punifliment of his Difobe- dient Creatures. they may be the firft Rudi ments of Planets ^ not as yet brought into our Syflem^ or rather the Ruins of fome banifh d thence.of jjtiatutai Religion. theie blaming Stars feem not defign d for the Habitation of build Animals in a ftate of Happinels. as I have before hinted.

. if the Analogy hold in general. Come we now to enquire the Wifdom of the Contrivance of But having already (hewn the Analogy between them and our Earth. that once in fixteen or twenty Hours at rnoft. And firft let us confider the Advantages. and that. arifing to us by the Rotation of the Earth about it s own Axi*. hoping the Reader will reafon fame manner (bateing particular Circumftances) of the reft. and becaufe. the Planets. and how probable it is that they are in habited by Creatures fitted for fuch Habi tations^ I fliall content my felf with point ing out fome of the moft confiderable Inftanccs of Defign and Wifdom in this our flanet .52 ^i)tlofopi)icitl into XXIV. We the Inhabitants of this Globe are fo made.. we require a Time for Relaxation j all ing 9 in and generally fpeakhealthful People this time is pretty . as the Subjefi deferves.. both becatife the defign d Brevity of this Treatife will not permit me to be Ib particu lar.. the parti cular ones (with allowance for Circumafter the jftances) will eafily follow..

and Education. pretty equal. 1 53 fix and nine Hours.of r natural ffieiiston. without Injury about the Time of fix tionSj and much Hours is required to fill em is again and neceflary that generally fpeaking^ it an Alternation of Application and Relaxation^ fhou d It s true Cuftom be once in twenty four Hours. and too quick raifing a Mo* . or ev n while the Sun is above the Hori^on^ the worfe for it j the we Sun and Heat exhaling the natural Perfpirations too violently. between the Store-houfes of our Spirits will not permit any longer Application than twen to our Conftittity Hours. may get the better of thefe natural fropenfities^ and a very ftrong Conftitution may bear out with harder Meafures for fome time j but the Young.. It was likewife ncccffary^ that the Air fhou d be at leaPt cool and temperate... once in twenty four Hours. for generally find thofc that deep in the open Air. during the time of this Reft. and the Weak. and almoft all at their own Liberty.. natural ly run into a Relaxation^ and recruiting their Spirits by Sleep.

to afford us time to recruit em. to af is moftly.. becaufe the Blood has too rapid and quick a Motion. thefe things are won for by the Rotation of derfully provided the Earth about its Axis j for thereby we Now all have the the and fpending our Day about the Neceflities of Life.54 a iWofoptjtcai Motion. Spirits in. and more accor tural^ and ding to the Necefllties of our ConftitntU on. And tho we generaly perfpire more in the Night than the Day. that of neceffity.. the Darknefs is lefs fubjeft to Noife and Difturbance.. the Ex of the Spirits are too great. and more difturb d.. than the Day.. the Night by its Coolnefs and Quiet.... for Bones. Day } the Expenfes of the next as alfo for nourilhing the Mufcles. yet this is more na lefs violent. whereby the Sleep is lefs calm. Befides. and the other Parts of the Body ^ for the Bufinefs of Nutrition perform d in the time of Reft.. Viciffitudes for Application of Day and Night. Channels.. if not altogether penfes ford . in the Night than the Day. in the Blood. and lay up in ftore.

. and are more fed by their Sleep. and thereby forces the folded Branches to expand and en large. to thofe that live under the equatorial fartsy without which Life wou d be both ex ceeding fliort. Now were the Sun conftantly... we have before faid.. and we than any other Animal Fnn&ion. fhining upon them . and to fettle em there ^ generally find that People reco vering from a Difeafe^ and Children. at the Roots of the tender Seeds. or Materials for nourifhing Be* the Parts in the time of Application : fides that a gentle uniform Motion is re- to the quir d to apply nourifliing Parts. and very grievous. More over. neceflary Places. or for any long time.._ of natural Eeliston. deep more. what a comfortable and refreshing thing is the cool Breezes of the Night. and grofs People naturally fleep longeft. and confequently raifes the fizy Juices. Likewife. thefe Juices wou d not be at liberty to fettle .. i $? ford Leifure. let us refleft upon the Nccefllties of our Vegetables^ which are the Support of Animals. that the Heat of the Sun rarifies.

the Leaves of Vegetables Countries that have moderately cool fix. whereas by this Viciffitude of Heat and Cold. which wou d be the fupervening Heat. and very hot Countries. and the other Excrefcences of and generally.fettle^ and confolidate but in the fit Places ftill of the Branches. they may be heavier y but not fo tough or hard. we Nights. by exhaling the watery Parts harden and (which This are now brought nearer the Surface of the Plant) does evidently fee in Nntgals.. and confequently cou d produce nothing . has time to fettle and confolidate in the and it s Cold runs the thin Juices Night.. produce Vegetables of the firmeft Union of Parts. firft into thick. fuddenly bring up their Seeds^ but their Parts are lefs firmly ftuck together .. and higher. fizy 3 Subftances.. and firft On the other Hand^ had rot the Earth much upon the make of the Seed. mov d . till at laft rifing higher they burft the Tops of the Canals. what is rais d in the Day-time. tho* this too depends Conftitutioo.

. which by in the Channels. as neither of thefe cou d poflibly bear. which wou d have ftiflcd all the Animals^ or had they furviv d that.of Natural ^elision. Spirits of all the Ammals^we are acquainted with for as I have fhewn before^ there is a faline Body conftantly fwiming iu. exceeding Rains wou d have been pour d down (as the Vapours became cooler) next Sleet. by Degrees.. that firft baleful we and fulphureous Damps (by the Forces of the preceding Heat generated and rais d. if not abfolutely neceffary to the Being of our Animals and Vegetables^ but we had fuffered alfo fuch Inconveniences. then Snow^ and Ice.for then.gt. the . the Confeqtience of which wou d have been... and Froft. which wou d of nenot only have lock d up all Fliiids cefllty. we had not thefe Advantages.) wou d have fafl*h. our Air. only loft all which are fo beneficial. the Sun in its but only turn d round annual Period. mov d upon its Axe. but wou d have frecz d the Blood and &amp.. . for very near one half of the Year fhou d have been in perpetual Darknefs.

Again.. which ftick together the Parts of all Bo dies... we fliou d have had. from the preceding Snow.. they flioot themfelves into oblong {harp Wedges . is fo attenuated and reduc d into fo (lender whofe Points (being eafieft bro ken) by the Force of the Fluid of Light are firft beat off. which likewife wou d have produc d fuffocating Mifts .158 i&tHiofoptical the Prefence and A&ion of the Sun. Damage.. Snny what Abfence of the and with how much firmnefs wou d thefe Saline Bodies haveform d themfelves! Certainly nothing that moves^ whether Animate or Inanimate^ wou d have been able to ftipport fuch a cold And all this is is not only demonftrable a fait. as not to be able to do any Particles.. during a much (horter Abfence of but this Matter of gloriom Star.. Now in in a half Years Quantities. -priori^ and a&ually happens in thofe Places that are under the Poles. but in hi* Abfence. huge Deluges of melted Waters. next all our Ground^ wou d have turn d into a ftiff in a manner dif{linking fuddle y (being folv d by the Force and Quantity of the Snow . in the enlight- ned half of the firft Year.

which is a mighty Relief. than the Depree of . tho they are fupply d with conftant Breezes.much a far harder part. fultry 3 $9 Snow Water) then wou d Heals and a burning Air have gall d us. that we fliou d have found reft. ha ving as long a Night as they have a Day. neither in Houfes nor Dens ^ till at laft the Heat encreafing without Abatement. and let fall by the fupervening Cold of the Night. falling by the Plenty of Vapour.of Datura! Religion.. ariiing from the Earth s Kotation about her Axis. the continued rais uninterrupted Aftion of the Sun. It s there are fome People live under the &quator^ yet they have but a fcurvy time on t.. d by the Days Heat. for it were abfolutely im- fhou d true. wou d be quite exhal d. and prodigious Quantities of Rain. poffible. that any thing that has Life refift fuch a Degree of Heat. the Blood and Spirits of all the Animals of our Globe. or they turn d delirous by the violent Agitation of the Blood and Spirits^ and then dy d in Convulfions y like fo many Puppies in the Dog-Days-. being by ...

that which makes the Cafe much worfe than in any part of our Globe... feeing Air to fend it Plants or we cou d have no freflt we cou d have no cool down: If we had any Vegetables. and there cou d be and Cold that no Rains nor Winds becaufe it is the cooling of the Cafe. Air. but it .. they wou d be but &amp.. or turn d into Defarts of Salt.vi*^. and fo. iSj that the Rays of the Sun wou d be both direft.60 $i)iiofopi)tcai at ftated Seafons. The extreme Degrees of Heat happen there^ being in But compatible with an Animal Life. thefe. upon this Suppofition.. but Waters. not only our Fiflies wou d be deftroy d. of one particular kind. that is the Caufe of both . that few if any at all^ inhabit near em. thofe which require the greateft Degrees of Heat. that our Seas even not* withftanding our Tides^ wou d either be Add to all exhal d. which by no means cou d happen in our every fucceeding Hour heating the Air to a greater Degree than the former.. of the Heat for the Poles ^ And as we have very certain Infor mation.lt..

of Snow. and Winter. demonftrable we fliou d kave Occa- none . fuch as we have on our Globe now. g XXV. that can be imagin d. and of fion for 5 all thofe delightful Changes^ w hich r are fo . and the Yaralleltfm of the Axe. cou d bear fuch an excefliveand uninterrupted Degree of Heat. for any body who underffonds the Animal Oeconomy. and again of longer Days. about its own Axe^ with the Annual Revolution of the fame about the Sun. and Harveft. Next let us combine this Diurnal dotation of the Earth .. that the prefent Rotation of the Earth y about her Axe. Upon all which Accounts it is very plain. of the Diurnal Rota tion with itfelf: And from thence we (hall have the beautiful Seafons of the Year. Winds and Calms. the comfortable Viciffitudes of colder and warmer Periods.Seedtime.. and (horter Nights. and Rain.of it is Natural Beligmn.... is one of the moft fignal Inftances of Wifdom and Contrivance. of ihorter Days. and longer Nights. Summer... will eafily fee that no Animal.

but our other Seafons wou d have been un certain. we enjoy our Sea fons. yea. nor Vegetation... had the Earth only turn d about her own plcafant.. once in twenty four Hours. then all our wou d have been of Viciffitudes Days. we might have had Days and Nights... If the Earth had made a Period. which are of fo great ufe to US. once in the Year.. we fliou d have had but one long Day . and the other confequent Changes of the Year. and Nights ^ which by no means wou d have been fufficient for Vegetation. . and neIf ceiiary in our prcfent Circumftances.^ittcipies ib comfortable. If both thefe had been united without the third of the Parallelism of the Axe of the Diurnal Rotation to itfelf . neither with Life. and another equal Night . Axe. and in fome Places none at all} and fo theEfteft of the Annual Revolution wou d have been defcroy d in fome Meafure. wou d not have agreed. without any Rotation. which as I have fhewn. But by this wife Conjunction of all thefe three Modifications. about the Sun..

. there is requir d (befides a certain Degree of Heat and Moifture. then our for had we Ground had been out by conftant bringing Vege tables^ and wou d have run into Weeds. firft M feparate their a . whereby their Particles are ftuck together. porous Parts. natural &eit0totn 163 enjoy d a conftant uni form Seafon all the Year round . exhaufted. for toward the Produftion of the more ufeful Plants..) a Lixivial and Nitrons Salt.. and entry of that Heat and Moifture.... and afunder.. which confifts of folid .of us . by very Reafon^ for their Particles them entry into themfelves. and moft Heat only fo that in a few Years the Earth wou d have been reduced into a Wildernefi of unnfeful Herbs. flippofe of Summer Weather . which keeps the Mould loofe (for re for the ceiving the moift Air. and forth of worn and thofe other Plants that require thd leaft rich Soil.) For tho Salts confblidat Water. yet they keep the Parts of Mould or Sandy Clay (which has little or no Water) the fame not allowing they get betwixt em. and loofe...

as is evident in younger Twigs and Branches.. Now We wears out in a few Years.. Stubble.. fee the beft Ground quires. Excrements of Animals^ or thofe new Mould. and turns into wild ufelefs Weeds ^ and all the Materials for enriching Ground. this Nitrous Salt are : im Such and the Dung. .. wou d by a Now fhort . fuch are burnt Wood.. things which abound with Lixivial Salts . are ga thered from Places . all thefe. by conftant Growth and Vegetation. whereby they pregnated with are old Turf. burnt Turf. as well as Animal ones) and endows the re Juices with the Qualities the Plant their union.....!M)iiofopDicat and then keep em from coming together j and perhaps both forward the Motion of the Liquors in the Vegetable Channels (which are certainly endow d with fome Degree of Elasticity and To capable of being ftimulated. thefe are either quite exhaufted. debar d from the Aftion of the Sun. and the like. and the Expences of Vegetation 2 but expofs d to the Air^ and Weather. or dcftroy d..

and performed with more Vigour.. even cou d not con veniently bear a perpetual Summer. than in the Summer fix Monthsin and yet fix .. violent M 3 I mean .. uninterrupted Vegetation have been quite fpent. Add to thefe. are ftrong. to moiilen and foften the Mould. that the cold of the Win. the Blood is the natural Funftions... the (enfible more Excretions .. tity lefs whereby there Spirits Warmth more a greater Quan of rarify d^ generated. ter^ by ftoping the Pores of the keeps the is fenfible Perfpiration. in Time s a that perpetual fall Summer ^ there Quantities of Rain.. for we find there is more than twice or thrice as much Rain falls the Winter fa Months. Moreover. more natural. Animals themfelves. for we find now. from September toApril. within. the Digeftion is better.the all this is but fufficient for one Months Vegetation. and lefs and the Crudities of the pre~ ceding Summer are fettled and digefted.of /hort Natural Eeltfiion.. to that Degree that is necefiary for confufficient would not ftant Vegetation.

anfwer. they may be much J the . all the Conco&ions lefs thoroughly perform d.petual Summer^ ceff^iry meer fliQii perpetual Winter y d turn Dull.1 66 $l)tlofopi)tcal I mean. yet are found to be not at all difpos d.. So that it is evident we cou d bear more violent. neither of thefe States perpetually. who inhabit this Globe of ours. that there are rational Creatures. as I To this I pretend they wou d be.. that tho as to the Prefence or Abfcnee of the Sun. in healthful and found Animals is quite otherwife in Valetu (for the Cafe dinary ones ^ asofnecefilty kmuftbe) and in a moderate and not over tedious Win* ter ^ wheras in Summer the Blood is more yarify d. unaftive Droves* Skeletons ^ if a we db- Now perhaps againft all thefe it may be je&ed. who are and perpetually in both thefe Extreams. the Change of the one being abfolutely ne- to qualify the Errours and ExIf we had a pertreapis of the other. the fenfible Perforations and the Digeftion worfe. and lefs natural. we fhou d be reduc d to . the Spirits more exhaufted.

Let any one confult Varenius^ and he will be fatisfied that thefe Southern Countries have Winters^ though not of Snow.of the fame as Datura! ^elision. rais even the Clouds. there are other Circumftances.. and Rain. and there fall Befidcs that. impregnated with thefe nitrous Salts^ which are driven (by the Force of the Winds) from colder into thefe hotter Countries ing. yet. . to moiften. in the more Southern Countries..for there are conftant Seafons of Rain.. do enrich the Ground.. the when defHIPd into for as I is fufficient for this end Air every where of fuch Salts j as is known by Experi ment. yet what is abundantly fufficient to ftop the perpetual Vegetation.. which fall for fome confiderable time. before.. which arife of the Seafons in the other Parts of the Globe which alters the Cafe quite. that both hinders the perpe . fattens it for the next Crop there and are Clouds of Snow.. tual Vegetation^ fofcens the Mould.. I concurring from the Vicijjitndes fuppofe. are have faid full d from thefe hotter Countries themfelves.. Rain. M 4 foften ..

as dations and eafie Steps. nor overflowing Rivers. ences of a perpetual Winter^ every Body is fufficiently feniible. and other Fluids of the Ani mals. nor conftant 5 and Trade. fuch as require a Summers Heat. unfit for the prefent Conftitution of the Animals and Vegetables^ is.. they are not fo much diftinft Sc^- fons fioin the two former. without an Annual^ or an Annual without a Diurnafy there wou d not be that variety of Rains. that upon fuch a Suppofition getable thing that this Poetical ftate of a Perpetual Principal Now the we &amp.^titiofopijtcai foften and fatten the Mould..gt.. that in fuch a ftate (either arifing from only a Diurnal Rotation. which are the Effe& of this Combining thefe two Motions to I need not fhew the Inconveni gether. and to cool the Blood.. for their Growth j and as for Spring and AHlumn. and cool Breezes. makes Summer. and fuch like Circumftances.winds.. Gentle G^whereby the one flides .. fliou d have neither Ve nor Animal in a very fliort Time efpecially of any confiderable ufe^ or va lue.

to cool.. to lock up the Mould from being wafh d in and either the away. Come we now to confider the Obliquity of the Plane of the Ecliftick^ to .. adventitious Heats. for the Benefit of the Inhabitants of this Globe j for by thefe. we have Rain. keep natural. and to flop conftant and we have Froft and Snow Vegetation in others^ where the Heat is not to {pare. we have fufficient Heat Modifications... and cooling Breezes in the Winter^ of thofe Countries. to transfer the Pro* dub of one Country to another.. to have the produd of the Ground brought to its Vege tation* XXVI.of flidcs into Natural Eeitsion* From which 1 69 the other.. and made capable of Induftry. foften and en rich the Mould.. dent.. where Heat is not wanting. have in Summer^ to ripen the Fruits that are the produft of every refpe&ive Climat^ and we are furnifii d with Reafon. or . till the time that all Circumftances concur. through the inter ail it is mediate Degrees.. evi how wifely thefe three fo different been link d together.

or of the Axe of the Diurnal Rotation. had not been at all and what a hinderance this wou d have been to Life and Vegetation. and even in the Tewperat Climats. Befides that in the Torrid Zone. the Heat wou d have been intolera ble. and all the Confequences thereon depending.. dred the Annual Revolution of the Earth if the Earth had mov d quite ufelefs j for about its own Axe. to the Plane of the Annual Orbit of the Earth. and this Axe had been at right Angles with the Plane of the Ethe fame Appearances as to the cliptick) of Day and Night. and not to have been endured j and in the frigid Zones.to that of the /Equator. the one half of wou d have made but a very Vm comfort- . had hapViciffitudes pen d. whether the Earth had mov d round the Sun. I have . already (hewn. which makes an Angle of 66 J Degrees. that if the Equator and Eclipit wou d have rentzck^ had coincided ... I have alrea dy fhewa. the Cold wou d have deftroy d both Animals and Vegetables-. or not j and the Alte rations of Seafons.

. who are rather too much expofed to the Heat of the Suny than too littl^. John Keitt.. that we be yond the -forty fifth Degree of Latitude. But God who is wifer than Man.. by my very learn d and ingenious Friend Mr. had the feartb -obfcrv d a right Po- of his fition . for by tures. have more of iti.. le(s Heat. and that is. take the whole Year about. than if the Sun haePftiov d continually in the Equator j and they that live in the Torrid Zone. and five fixths at leaft prefent Obliquity of the Ecliptic^ to the Equator we reap one very confidcrable Advantage. and the adjacent Places. even to the Latitude of forty five Degrees. a tolerable Seat for rational Crea of the whole Globe. wou d have been rendred ufelefs.. and who confequently have the greateft need of the Suns Heat. have by thefe Means..of ^antrai Beitstom comfortlefs Habitation.. than they wou d have had. for fuch Crea fo that but tures as we now are only the other half. which is taken notice of this . wou d have been any ways. has contrived the Matter much better .

To thefe add. and bring em to Perfe&ion..) the prefent Heat of the Torrid Zones ^ ve all the Kinds of Animals ry well fitted for and Vegetables that inhabit and grow there^ the Cold of the Frigid Zones ^ very tolelerable to the Inhabitants and frodtiffiiovs of thefe Places . Thofe who defire to fee the monftration of this.f ^requiring different Degrees of Heat. and Nouriftiment. that can . Burners The ory DeMr. of vari ous Tempers ) Conftitutions and Dijfofitions^ and for Vegetables of different Natures and Fzrf #e. that fmce this Globe of ours.. 71.. of the Earth pag.. and the like Animals and Vegetables. (to {hew the manifold Will dom of the Author of Nature in the Va And fince we find riety of every thing.fition... & has been defign d for a Habitation of ra tional and irrational Creatures. and the Temper of the intermediate ones. and the Vegetables that require a greater Degree of Heat^ not having too much. feq. fuited to theirs thofe Animals that cannot tranfport themfelvea. to ripen. may confult Keill s Examination of Dr.

of the for had the Diftance between the Earth and the Sun. or moft of the mention d For all Advantages which Reafons we the (iifficiently admire. And fince it was impoffible to have ac with Reafon and Means } to commodated. (or in one. tranfport themfelves where they live moft at eafe. all of and that cou . been the fame with the Diftance between confpicuous. XXVII. all thefe fo various and dif ferent Animals and Vegetables in a place an equable and uniform. Earth in refpefi of the Sun j in the Situation Her- . Alteration. who has provi ded fo liberally. and the rational Creatures being endow d cold.. 1 73 not having too little Heat... d for our prefent Circumftances confiderable for by any other very would be can never loft.of can fufter ^atutai Religion. The fame is divine Wifdom. it s evident that the the Axe of the Earth prefent Situation of . in the fame) Climate. and prudently for his Creatures. to the Plane of the Ecl/ptick^ is the beft (of that infinite Variety pofllble) be. Wtfdom of the Author of Nature.

and what a Condition we fhou d have been in then^ we the other Hand. and the Flui of the fuperficial Parts of the Earth. wou d have been hotter than red hot Iron. be the neceflary Refult of the Earth s Rotation about its own Axe. or with a little our felves againft their Inju Induftry fence as to the Figure of our Earth .. who are put in fuch a Mediocrity. On Day had not afforded fo much Heat. as under the very Polar Star (if any fuch there be) of our Globe Are not feel in the midft of Winter... to the-Diftance Jupiter or* Saturn are remov d.Mercu ry and the Sun. yet it . our hotteft Summer may eafily guefs. thofe that live now then very wifely provided for.. i.. but that thefe em.. ries ? we may either endure tho Again. or we from the Sun. were three times nearer the Sun we brought than we are. had the Sun been remov d from us. between we two extream Diftances. or the Sun brought three times nearer us than he is.e. our Ground in Winter.. that neither our Heat nor Cold isfo violent. at it dity the Commencement of this Rotation .

if the Matter of any of the Heavenly Bodies. and accumulated at the Equator. 1 75 very s By the Parts en as Earth Motion about its Axe. by deavour to recede from the fame Axe much as a centrifugal Force. af- with a good Telefcofe. and therefore. below the Surface of our Earth. was fluid. it wou d neceflarily have rifen from the Poles. its plain is that at the Commencement of the diur nal Rotation. at the Com mencement of this circular Motion . particularly^ in that the Diameter at the Equa Jupiter. convenient for us. the Surface of the Planets has been covered with a Fluid which -. fince it is evident to our fight. and fo in duced a ffheroidical Figure on the Planets Body. arifing from the circular Motion . the they pofflbly can. generated by the Circumvolution of an Now fifted tor is Elliffe about its leffer Diameter. Newton has demonftrated that Earth at leaft feventeen Miles higher at the Equator than at the Poles. . and fince Mr. gives an Account why at every forty or fifty fathoms. than that at the Poles. longer..of it is Datura! Religion.

been either fpherical or oblongly fpheroidical.$f)tlofopi)tcai It is Earth.. is very confide- the Surfaces of the Polar Regions. and the Production of the nobler Sort of Vegetables. are colder... and univerfally in every fluid Body revolving about an Having fhewn fome of the Advantages arifing from the feveral Mo tions XX VIII. fo that the Advantage of this Figure Table. which by reafon of the oblique Incidence of the Rays of the Sun upon them. likewife evident from this Figure of the Body of the Planets. we never mifs of Water. which are moft comfortable and ufeful . that the Surface of the temferate Climates is larger than it Xvou d have been. and their Satellits but likewife in the Sun. The fame in the Earth. and Figure obtains not only the reft of the Planets. had the Globe of our Eartb^ or of the Planets. and lefs convenient for the Habi tation of Animals.. are {hereby confiderably enlarged. . are hereby confiderably leflened^ and the Surfaces or Space about the temperate Zones.

that it being more eafily rarified and heated by the A&ion of the SM$. and N .. heavy. have in fome manner (hewn But fome of it s ufes I lhall now I firft point out. which are common to the other Planets. cou d be any confiderable time without it. This Atmojphere is a thin that neither. . Fluid.with Particles of different Natures. furrounding our Globe of about forty or forty to the heighth. five Miles.of tions Batumi . and lefs fpringy.thofe that poilibly may be more particularly be longing to our Globe. and as to Vegetation^ Dr.. The Nature and Properties of this Fluid.growth of Vegetables.} come now briefly to confider. is fitter to ces in promote the Afcent of the Jui the {lender Channels of Vegetables... and are not the im mediate Confequence of its Motions ^ and the firft in order is our Atmofybere. intermixt . it is Grew and Malpighi have fliewn a principal concurrent therein. of fuch Necefllty toward the fubfiftence of Animals. Elaftick. Fluids. 3&eltgion* 1 77 of the Earth and the Combination of thefe. and the .than other more compaft. already.

. Moreover. that they may more ry eafily pafs through the Capilla* and for the Propagation thereof in the wider ones. the firft ItnpuHe of the Juices upwards. and the fides of their d together. does thence arife.. and probably that which fo fuddenly kills thunder-ftruck Animals. and terminating We have . lodged up and down among it s Parts...and drere being no Fluid without a confiderable Portion thereof. for the l^ungs of all fuch found quite deftitute of Air. as to Animals it is well known. that the Blood is fent from the upon opening.. that they cou d live but a few Minutes without this ElaftickJFluid.. by the Air. are right Ventricle of the Heart to the Lungs y and if the Veficles thereof be not diften- ded or blown lation up. It s Vejicles quite clap certain. Veffels.. is the quick and violent Rarefaftion of the Air about them .. and the Animal and both for the Comminution periili of the Particles of the Blood.. there is ntceffarily d a Fluid of a requir determinate Gravity^ and Elafticity. the Circu muft ftop there..

neither too much^ nor too little eUftic^ for the tifes of Refpiration. Another Ad vantage we fc-eap by our Atmosphere that by it our Chuds and Vapours are fupported. Portion of Now ElaftickJFlmA. great Difficulty a thin as in a thick Air and ev n in as es y have F//Z&amp.. rifics firft its Soil. and makes it s flight in Vapour s. and Steams Pr-ogrefs is yet conti * by the Aimofykere^ nued to the upper ted when it is Regions. which are al ways found in Water.of Batumi fficlifltotu.. yet if you draw out all the Bubbles of Air. and enrich our Vegetation.. nor Rain . and fnppof there/ to be afterwards N 2 . is neceffary* how well is this Fluid fitted for the ge this of the Inhabitants of this Globe ? it being neither too heavy. nor Snow.- where the Water in feme meafure fupplys the want of Air. and make it it it fit for raits For tho be the Sun that take the Water. they will languifh and dye fo that ev n to them. nor too light.. nor any of thofe things..gt.gt. 179 ia of breathing. without which we flieu d neither have firefli Water. which moiften nerality ^ is&amp.. a certain .

ever the fupporting Afwofphere becomes lighter. and Rain.. no Atmofphere. wou d not be able. by its Tendency toward Now then.: than raife the thefe Vapours ^ that greater buoys em up in the Air. .. if there were no Atmosphere. or Soil whofe .. that if there were perfeft Every Body knows. that forms thefe Clouds and Vapours into Snow.. when. the Vapours cou d rife to no fufficient heighth... or Hail. Rain.for it s the Coldnefs of the upper Regions. (being dcftitute of thefe refle&ed Rays) and the length of of their Defcent../. into SnoWj or Rain for at a fmall diftance from the Earth s Surface. from its Surface. or carried into other Regions.form d into Snow. . does want it more. around the Earth . but a Adion Void . ib as to be form d the Center. being fpecifically heavier. make the places fo warm. and fo cou d never be cool d fufficiently. or Rain. the refle&cd Rays of the 6V/. to I Vapours above a few feet. that no Vapour cou d be turn d into Snow. there. the of the Sun. and that its only the Atmofpheres.

it s our Atmofyhere ly. more in one Place. or Cold. our Breezes which carry our Ships and ferve for for the other Purpofes^ Accommodation of Humane Life. one of the principal Means of our Dews. and purifie our Air. Laftly.. than under Ground. than thefe accumulated Vapours. and the Combinations of the Earth s Motions.. they fall down with the Temper of Heat lighter. and dry our Ground when over-moiftned . fo many nothing but a violent Motion of the Air^ produced principally by its Rare* fa&ion.. N 3 Our . A third is. Advan tage of our Atmosphere and our Winds . and all the BlefUngs^ that is that follow upon thefe. which (with the Concur? rence of the Sun ) melt our Snows.ofjftatutat Religion.. upon the Sea. from aoxious Steams. Without our Atmosphere ^ we fhou d have no more Wind above.. or Rain according So that its plain... they had in the iipper Kegions y and fo become Snow... than another^ is Wind by the Snns Beams . and Rains. the Attractions of che Moon. and fo be deprived of all the Benefits arifing thence.

The Vegetables grow. they being one of the principal concurrent Caufes toward the Produftion . from the vibrating fofcorous Body. all I leave the Reader to judge. ev ry way round.. Mountains^ without which it were almoft impoffible to for Animals to fubfift.. Without our Air we fhoti d not be able to hear the Report of a thoufand Pieces of Ord nance difcharg d at the fmalleft Diftance.. we fliou d have nb fuch thing as Langua w hat a comfortlefs ges or Mufick. and propagated of found. next thing in Order to be considered is. our. but a Modulation or Percuffion of the Air^ communicated by an impulfe. that there which it s very plain w as Counftl and Defign in the Contrivance and Produ&ion of our Atwofyhere. and r fhte this wou d From r be. or : XXIX.^i)tlo(opi)tcal Our Attnofyhere is the Vehicle and Medi um which moftly diftinguifhes us from Fifies^ and the infe Sound is nothing rior fort of InfcBs. that vSenfe in Undulations through the Fluid of the Atmofpbere..

buoy d up by the weightier Atmof* phere) in fuch Quantities. and fo to little Bubbles of are expanded in larger . as is fufficient to make Streams of Vapours. Diinenfions than they formerly had means become fo are fpecijically and by that and lighter . by feveand particularly the inge nious Profeffor of Geometry at Oxford^ Mr. e. the Portions rarifies its thereof. 1 83 on of our frefii-water Rivers. It has been fhewn from Calculation . Ed. to rife firft. Fire under an Alembick^ by d (the Sun a&a ratifying the /.. Now as thefe Vapours being rais ing upon the Surface of the Sea. freflieft it makes the the lighteft. and it Water by Particles the Infinu- ation of active among the porous Parts thereof. whereby they are put in a violent Motion innumerable dif ferent ways. fame. where the Air is N 4 of . Halley^ that the Sun raifes Va pours from the Surface of the Sea. Year.of natural Religion. which refting in thofe Places. in a ral Perfons .. fufficient to frefli fupply all the Rivers with Water for that time.

. but that afterwards in their Bow els they arc preferv d.. till they at laft hit againft the fides of the more eminent and Moun tainous Places. and Dew. that by the Shock thefe Vapours get in their Courfe from them. are carried up and down the Atmojphere^ by the Courfe of that Air.. fo that it is evident the great Benefit of thefe Eminences is not.. Rocks. and then Rivers ^ for doubtlefs our Vapours wou d fall in Rain. and by this Concuffion are condenfed... they are condens d^ fo as to be precipita ted thereby through the Chinks of the Plains. and fo gleet down the rocky Caverns of thefe Mountains^ whofe inner Parts be ing hollow.. and thus be come heavier than the Air they fwom in. tho there were no . and ftony^ afford them a Bafon^ till they are accumulated in fufficient Quantities to break out at the firft Crany ^ whence they defcend into the and feveral of them uniting. and many of thefe Pvivers . form Rivulets..184 of equal Gravity with them. of the Globe*.. till they be of fufficient quantity to form Rivulets..

the Rivers make innumerable beautiful turnings and wind ings.. and fo or wou d be fuck d up in the Ground. whereas by thefe Mount a ins... for tho there had been Rivers without Mountains^ (which in that cafe is hardly poflible) yet only have run in a ftraight Line. whereas. plac d Globe. they .. Another very con fiderable ufe of thefe Hills. fatten. if they had run at all. make the Tranfppr* tations and over Lands more eaCarriage fie and manageable. by the afliftance of the tides . and water the Soil of feveral different Coun tries in one Courfe. Globe at wou d over confiderable Places of the once . and Eminen is the Determination of thefe Rivers* ces. by thefe Eminences. (at leaft a Nights) pouring down in fome particular Places^ and there treafuring up ^ for a conftant Supply to the Rivers.. and at laft difembogue where in . feveral Mouths into the Sea. make an ttttiverfal Fuddle-. equally.. the Rivers cou d up and down the whereby they enrich. they are perpetually almoft.of Datura! Eetigton* but then they 1 85 fall no Mountains.

The . is. The fewcipally nefs of the original and primary Fluids. feeing they are a very ef- XXX.and Ports y for the they from Harbours convenience of Shiping and Navigation.. nor cou d thefe Rivers have 5 fuch delightful turnings. (tho Nature feldom is Luxuriant in diverfity of Caufes) yet without our Mountains we cou d never have Rivers. of us^ that which I (hall prin fential part take notice of .. Next come our Fluids to be confidered. which are indeed numberkis. nor thofe ufeful falls ^ which gives them an impetuofity that may be improved to fo many delight ful as well as profitable IHes. i. in of that vaft Number of compoun refpeft ded ones. Thus we fee of what Advantage thefe unfightly Mol s (as fome thought them) are to the Accommodations and even Neceffities of living. without which we cou d ne ver have been. All thefe Advantages we have by our Mountains^ for tho from other Caufes^ we might poflibly be fupply d with frefh Water Springs.

For the Lewdnefs and Debauch ery . and of Liquors^ fo frugal is Nature in Principles . Now not to mention the ma ny ufes of this laft Fluid in Artificers Works. vaftful and ufeful varieties r l. I do not know xvhat a great part of the World would have done.. and fo fruitful and various in EfFefts and Com2.. vi^. had Air been as heavy as Mercuryy it had been altogether ufele(s in refpiratiODJ on the contrary. three of which are but feldom much compounded with others^ fo that it is Safes the parts of folid Bodies floating in this Fluid. a collection of exceeding fmall... Airy Water. and had there not been a Fluid of the fame w eight with Mercury^ i.. or Lymphy of all our Mixtures. The pofitions.y heavy Spherules .e. that produces all our delight it is that is the Water alone. Mercury and Light-. Mercury being about 8000 times heavier than Air. great Difference be tween the ffecifecJ^ Gravities of our Fluids. in the prefcnt Circumftances of Mankind. it had choaked us immediately..of natural 3&eitgicm 1 87 The primary ones are only four..

in the extreme extreamly beneficial.for no neceffary.. which I am fatisfied are more than two or is three.. thorough Cure cou d be made of em.j that I fcarce fee a how and not the Serous part cern d... ny Difeafes to that degree of Malignity. capillary Veffels. a Remedy is provided for thefe Maladies.. that this Fluid.?lves.. is is principally con* if not abfolutely this thing obftru&ion.88 $f)iioCopi)ical has brought a great ma ery of Mankind.. wherever any Diftemper arifes from an obftruftion of the Blood the Globules Veflels. is. moft wonderful in thefe 3. fuch as the Particles of Mercury certainly are. The univerfal condition of the dire&ion of their Preffure upon the fides of the containing Veffel j for in all Fluids of whatfoever kind or nature^ this is communicated in Lines perpen dicular .lt. has fufficient force to take away but a little weighty Sphere.. But that which Fluids. and to feparate thefe Globules from one another... wherein themf&amp. without this Fluid j for it s certain.. cificl^ Now by all this difference of the Spe- Gravity of the Fluids.

5Hon through that point of Contaft j Dire&ion through the point of Con* do not likewife pals through the Cen taffi^ ter of the Sphere. feeing a right Sphere. if this Flam. can only touch a in a point. confequently the fides of the containing Veflel preffes the contain d Fluid. Law of Nature. 1 8? dtiular to the fides of the containing Veffel.of Natural JSeitsiou... but is contrary to it. rily revolve upon the Plane till the Dire&ion of its preffnre. is which of their fo beautiful and uniform. if a Plane prefs two .lt.. the nece fary Confequence of the Sphericity conftituent Particles . the Sphere will nccefTa-. is Now this Property of Fluids. for fince by the Rea&ion or Repulfe is always equal and contrary to Impulfe or A&ion. as much as the contain d Fluid preffes the fides of the and this preffure of the containing VefFcl fides of the containing Veffel y is direded in the fame right Line with that of the contain d Fluid. Now third . and can prefs it in a dire&amp. from the point of Conta& pafs through the Center of the j Sphere juft fo likewife. in the fame Direftion.

plain that all Fluids of fides of ftion perpendicular other hand. And fo if there be any number of Spheres whatever^ prefs d by a Plane in the fame Dire6Hoa&amp. is perpendicular to the fangtnt Plane .gt. But a Line through the Center of a Sphere from the Spheres. it is do prefs the fides of the in a Direction perpendicular containing Veffcls.. two in the point of Contaft. it is alfo the Dire&ion of the the Spheres upon the Plane. infinite it is Number of little univcrfally true. the Line of this Dire&ion will neceffarily pafs through both their Centers. preffure of Since alfo the Particles of Fluids v are5jp/?ericaly or nearly approaching thereto. . the Line of this Direction will neceflarily pafs through all their Centers. and fince they are fuppos d exceeding fmall. and fince this is the Dire* ftion of the preffure of the Plane upon the Spheres ....fame Dire&ioii. prefs the the containing Veflels in a Dire* thereto. as alfo fince curve furfaces are compoun ded of an furfaces .. And on the what nature foeve^ that Fluids by demonftration. fince true.

. and Almighty Power of God. have rounded thofe infinite numbers of fmall Particles y whereof Fluids confift ? or cou d any thing but his Wtfdom^ have afiign d them their true dimenfions. Now cou d any thing but the Fingers. it s certain that the Par ticles of all Fluids are Spherical. their exal weights and {hall allow him to requird Solidities? continue in his infidelity who can demonftrate by what Laws of Mechanifm^ all the Particles of Water were turn d of the fame Diameter^ Solidity and Weight.. and thofe of Air. or nearly thereto ^ fo that this is now approaching no more Hypothecs but Demonstration. XXXI. but all of the fame Diameters y Solidities and Weights We among emfelves..of Natural JReitgtou* 19 dicular thereto. What a noble reprefentati* on of the Divine Wifdom does our Fluid of Light afford us! how wonderfully are its parts fram d gious velocity and with what a prodi are they feat from the Body of ! .. Mercury and Light . turn d all of different Diameters^ Solidities and Weights from one another .

and uncon ceivable velocity . we are not able to comprehend nor ima gine a Number fufficiently fmall.a fifth Tellow^ a fixth Orange. millions of different ways.a Indigo. its fubtility . And thefe are the primary and ori ginal ... .. in every Pulfe of an^fr- fome hundred and thirty thoufand Miles ^ what an amazing. muft this be nothing it runs ! but the a6Hon of the Mind. without interfering ev n in the ftraiteft Pailages- in one Word. ter is Discoveries prefent us with. can anyways And then what a beautiful reprefent it do Mr. third Blew.of the Sun clude it ! itsSubtility is almoft beyond imagination.. but fingle Point may no be congregated into a Surface fo finely poliflied.. a fourth Green . as not to fcatter almoft one half of it.. and its and Reanother One Ray Violet. evYy its Ray endow d with own is Colour ^ different degree of Kefrangibility flexibility.. and the laft Red. its Rays traverfe through one another. Newton s la Idea of this Fluid : .. no Pore fo fmall as to ex no Stream of it fo greafc. to exprefs tery. .

but the Light that falls up on -them.. For the firft degrees of Intenfentfs^ in all the primary Colours ^ feem to arile from fome determin d degrees of den fit y and ^ and the fubfequent degrees from. are coloured. and tranfmit all thofe of another.of Natural 3&eligt on.. lour too. is lefs or more intcnfc.. pafs through their Pores. from the final! quan of them being refle&ed on. accord are of diffe ing as their prominent parts rent denfities^ or are thicker or thinner. and White from an equable mixture of the whole j Blacl^on thecontrary. Rays of one and of one degree of R... according to their different De grees of denfity and thinmfs^ are apt to refleft back upon our Organs. and their Colours arife from their Aptitude^ to refleft Rays of one lour. Their prominent little Parts. O the . upon their Co Surfaces. tity of any mcaliire all of them in a luffo* great being So that now it is not Bodies that catcd. 1 93 ginal Colours find from the mixture of thcfc^ all the intermediate ones proceed.efraj7giand to let others bility and Reflexibility.and this one Co Colour.

.... the Sines of the Angles of In cidence j are to the Sines of the Angles of Refra&ion in a conftant ratio ^ and both thefe Properties proceed from one. of the prominent little parts. and the rcfte&ed .. to the Plane of Incidence. diffoland puting their parts in a vibrating ving. and that in Lines perpendicular to their Surfaces All the dif : ferently reflexible Light. aHng in different quities Circumftances y viz*. as alfo Bodies aft upon Light^ in drawing its parts to them. that Bodies attraft Light in Lines perpendicular to their Sur faces. Light a&s upon Bodies by heating. that all the different Angles of In cidences are refpe&ively equal to the gles An and all the differently Refrangible Rays of Light . obferve one of Reflexion likewife ? . obferves this one Law.. Law c/z-x.. of the Surfaces of Bodies. and the fame Principle .. that in all the obli of the fame Ray. Motion. and that this attraftion is equal in all the Incidences^ and Refractions at equal Diftances from the fame Plane.the other different degrees of denfity or thicknefs or thinnefs.

it has already made the Sine of the Angle of Incidence y equal to the Radius . fo there muft be different degrees of attraction in Mediums ^ fuppos d^ to account for their different Powers y in bringing the reframed Rays nearer to or farther from. then muft of the that its enter the Body Plane. the perpendicu lar^ for it s well known y all Mediums have not the fame refra&ive Virtue. together with the degree of attraction in the refrafting Bod}% And as there are neceffarily generates. and proceed in the Line.of refie&ed Natural 3&eiifjton* 195 Rays are turn d back before they : arrive at the refle&ing Plane reflecting Plane. dire& impulfe. and fimple Theory of Light is here ? this is fo very ^ like the frugal fimfltcity^ and vet the ma- O 2 infold .. uniform. For if the have fuch a force of at- tra&ion. that before the Ray arrives at it... different degrees of Attra&ion in Bodies ^ which produce their different degrees oi Elafticity and Cohefion. the Ray muft refleft... and not fall upon the refleding Plane at all 5 if it a leffer degree of attraction. Now what a beautiful.

that a Ray of Light. Now I appeal to . Hugens in his Treatife of Light. and particularly. e. in the produ&ion of the Cohefwn of Bodies. pafles^ and confebut through / ... in paf- from a luminous Point.z.. I might like wife iliew here the Art and Contrivance of Nature... vi&amp.lt.. to reflior- takes the way poflible. that one would be afoioft tempted to believe it true. through two differently refracting Mediums^ to illumi fing nate a given Point j fpends the leaft time (the redrafting Powers of the feveral Me diums coniidered) quently pofllble. teft it when a Point. Mr. I (hall only (uggeft one very remarkable Inftance of the wonderful Contrivance and Wi dom of Nature.196 ^Jjtlofopljtcai infold variety of Nature. Ray paffes from a luminous fled upon a given Point. were there no Democrat/on and Expert ment to confirm the truth of it. very ele gantly Page 40 and 41.. This the Geometers have demon ftra ted. in the propagation of Light. But having been pretty copious on this Subjeft already .. when the Ray one and the fame Medium.

becaufe they faw that Springs run fafter in Froft and Snow. than juft what is neceflary to do the Bufinefsj which will not go about.. O 3 within .. XXXII.. Earth. if be not an Infbnce of Conn\d and Dcfigny is not this like the Methods of Pru dence and Wtfdom^ which will not fpend more time on a thing .. that nothing certain can be determined about thefe Inner Regions.of jaattttai Religion.. will never be convinc d. Others have thought that being kept in. to the Reader. and our accounts of this matter. fo lame. but take the fhorteftCourfe r poflible 5 fign d? that will bring it to the Place deHe that can refift fuch pregnant and powerful Inftances of Divine Wifdom. this 1 97 how incredulous focver. than in hot Weather y but that might proceed from (bme of the other more narrow out lets of this Baft/is being ftopt ^ by the Froft and the Vapours that the Sun raifes thence. I fliou d next proceed. to fhew the wonders in the Bowels of our but our Difcoveries are fo few. Some have con cluded that there muft of Neceffity be a Central heat.

to whirl within the Bow els of the Earth. that a Sphere (hou d be made.gt. pi . there diffonce. One might as probably expect a different turn and figure of internal Orbs .. and that there was fucceeding this.caI this outer Cruft of Earth for muft be a rable D ifcontinuity^ .98 within 0!)tloCopi&amp.. to make a feeble turn it this or the other way above Ground.. fome confidequite round. after a certain moving manner. well as the Loadftone does. count for the Effe&s and Vertues ral others to ac of the Metals^ Minerals ^nd rious and of many other Fofftls^ Bodies. yet it s after another manner. to account for the variation of the Magnet . a large Sphere.. as the whole. and from a different Law. but I am of Opinion the Caufes of this variation is to be fought in the Magnet it felf 5 and not in fo remote and fo far fetch d a Caufe - for feems pretty odd ... different from the Loadftonc as &amp.gt.. If the Earth were an univerfal Magnet ( as it s commonly but erroneoufly believ d) then the parts might follow the Nature of But tho it attracts Bodies.

allthefe Hypotbefes have not that fimplicity .. befides. the one a whole Sphere. that the Works O 4 Truth . may be defign d for the Habitation of fome fort of Animals. (hou d be fo ruinous as this Suppofition wou d make that Planet to be. becaufe this Ring appears to be regular and uniform. fcarcely probable that which like ours.. Laftly. and that of the Annulns of Sa turn. I believe Hypothecs may be form d. of an equal breadth quite round.. that is fall n in upon the Body of the Planet. but: this is not a proper Place for thefe things. this and th0 cwr^/tf. it is thefe Planets . and at an equal diftance from the Body of the Planet . for the analogy between thefe inter nal Orbs. the other a King only Neither can I think that this Annulns can : be fome remains of the Ruins of a Cruft. the one be ing exteriour the other interiour.. I cannot think it As holds./ of its dire&ion might be accounted for . whereupon by the figure and llze of its parts in regard of Bodies attra&ed. and of Nature and artfulnefs.of ^aturai Beligtotu 1 99 an of their Brother the Magnet.

that the Multi tude of the Satelltts of thefe Planets may ferve in their vaft diftance from the Suny to hinder their Fluids ( by frequent and various Difturbance) from free7ing.fM)ilofopl)icai Truth carry along with them. and revolves with a greater. then it s very plain that when ever a lefTer Body (however figur d) attends the Motions of. or diforder the Motions of their refpe&ive Planets-. and I have fuggefted before... or may never 5 come to difeover. the Confequent of this Attra&wn..and the greater number of the Satellits of Sa turn^ than Jupiterj feems to favour this ConicSure. Thus raiie it s our Moon was defign d to and regular Winde^ and to difturb the Motions of our Earih^ for our TfefeJ^ Purpofes that poffibly we may. Now this Anvnhis may pofllbly lerve fome fach purpoie as this^ fince it .. and fo the Satelhts of Jupiter and Saturn. that that lefier Body is defign d by it s is that produce fome effeft.. the Fluids. If it be true that all the Bodies of the Univerfe attract one another. were defign d to attraft. attra&lion^ to plain.

. and the fubfervience of Medicine from the depths of the Sea. and the Bowels of the Earth.. wou d require. If any one had but occafion. . and Vulcano s. Minerals. Ores. for the Accom*. modations of Life. to look over.. .of it Natural Religion* moves differently from the Body it fel But all thefe are but Conjectures on both It s cer fides j and as fuch I leave em. and Colours. tain that Earthquakes. which do us fo great and manifold Services. It s likewife certain . it is likewife certain that its Strata are not of fuch Gravities as a regular fubfidence according to the Laws of Gravi tation of Bodies. in any considerable moft Places diftant from the Sea its Water at we have from and Minerals. Bowels. by that we have frefli depth. and Stones^ which .. all our Metals with all their Varieties . the variety. we haue all our natural Salts . which fhews it has not been compounded thefe Laws.. beautiful Figures. which is of fo much ufe. of Shells. pro^ ceed from fome Motion and Mixture of different Particles within the Body of the Earth.

XXXIII. Having dwelt Dentation of the fower and Wifdom of the One of Democritus or Author of Nature. to give fome faint and imperfcft kind of Explication of the Celeftial Ap from their Principles. or Ani mal^ they are perfe&ly at a lofs.. they can produce nothing coherent. Inftances But of Counfel and have fo many other I things to fugged that I muft content rals.202 $l)tiofopDtcai \vhich Induflry has colle&ed^ he cou d not but admire the manifold Wifdom of the Author of Nature. on the Head am about. . tho how pearances... wretched their accounts of this Matter are^ we have in fome meafure already fliewn. This were a very large and copious Field. and I wou d afford very demonftrative Contrivance. But when they come to a Plant . Des Cartes s Ditciples 5 may perhaps un dertake. I come Kingdom that noble and manifeft Repre* .. my felf with Gene fo long up on the inanimate part of this Syfleme of now to confider the Animal things. or of a are like the peice 5 their Schemes tjien .

that they clearly argue.. is fo exadly adapted. by the Conftri&ion of its Meat | XXXIV. give lhall confine my Speculations. of the Animal Fabric]^ and economy and Philofophy. to its own proper ufe and -thefe Ufes ^re fo manifeft and evident. to the H//- mane we fily Structure.of the cafual concourse of Atoms. an exaft and exquifite Knowledge. as I did in the Ccleflial fome general Scheme. but a Being abfolutely per- fe&. an odd inconfiftent Mixture of things. follow. an infinite Wisdom. The Fibres. part of thefe.. in the Laws of Geometry and Nature. as being the moft perfcft^ are with. thrUft into thfc Stomach j . ev ry thing is fo fitted. that For ev ry has neither Form. is through the Gullet. to fbme wife Defign.. that nothing is efFefts - fufficient for. I (hall here. divided^ by the Saliva.. the reft will ca- begin with the proceis of the Aliment and the Circulation of the Blood. and which once acquainted fully underftood I (hall being . being grofsly the and foftened by Teeth. nor Beauty..

the other to dilute the Chyle^ by the vermicular Motion of the Inteftins (arifing from the alternate and Longitiidinar of the Midriff and the Fibres) the preffnre the lower Belly the groffer Mufcles of deriv d downward. its and their inti this And by preffure of the at its fides of the Stomach upon it is the contained Aliment... farther ibftned by the Sncciis of its Glands^ and the Liquors taken in. where being fwell d and. Inteflins 5 thruft into the it is irri entry into which. are the narrow of the fqueez d into Orifices la&eal Veffels^ which open into thefe inwhence in {lender Chanels they teflines^ are carried into the Glands tery. of the Mefen* receiving firft a foe thin Lymph frpm the . fhe Mufcles of the gainft Midriff and Abdomen employed in refpiration. to be thruft parts are A&ion of their Spiral . aone another.Stomach . mate parts are broken^ Coheiions diffolv d. while the finer. gated with the Bile and Siveetbread-juice r the one to fweeten. by the perpetual Motion of the Coats of the Stomach.. out of the Body..

it immediately unites again.gt. and creeping along the Gul to the left Subclavian it let^ paffes on Vein 5 where in one or two Mouths. it opens into that Veffel. and there mixes with the Blood.. re ceives the Blood from them.of Batumi Bciifiiotn 205 the LpmpbaticJ^ Du&s which dilutes this Chylom fluid. and fcours its containing Veiled which from the Mefenterie\Glands unite in larger Channels^ and pafs dire&ly into the common which is nion of Veflels Receptacle of the Chyle ^ a Bafon. it afcends into the Thorax 5 and about the Heart fometimes dividing. and Lymphatic^ in one Dud. which in its Relaxation or Diajlole. The Veins (in a continued Channel with the the Blood from the Ex Arteries. form the Vena Afcendens and Dewhich two likewife join at their fcendcns. and all uniting in two large Veflels 5 whofe fides diverge..lt.. and in its from thence Ca&amp. and circulates with it. which Circulation is thus perform d. form d for it by the Uthefe La&eal.. con- .&amp.) entry into the right Ear of the Heart.*) bring tremities of the Body.va.

the reft turning down again. forms the defcending Trunk. it is difcharged in to the left Ventricle then likewife dilated. and is carried into the left Awri cle of the Heart. by whofe contra&ion it is pulhed into the Aorta. XXXV. then open to receive it j by \vho(e conftri&ion. by the Vena Pul~ monalis. dy. carry the Blood to the feveral parts of the Bo upwards. from the Arteries into the Veins ^ and from thefe to thofe^ and in this Circulation . and thefe dividing into innumerable leffer Channels. an uninterrupted Channel. .. drives . where leaving fome of its Particles proper for their ufe j the reft is fent into the Veins. thrufts it into the Rcrnidlon it : which is then its ftate of which when contra&ed. which bending a little fends forth the Cervical and AxiUary Ar teries. Syftole. which are nothing but the re turning Arteries ^ and thus the Blood is carried about in a perpetual Circle.conftri&ion or right Ventricle.. through the Arteria Pulmonaltt j into in the Lungs whence it is receiv d.. duly perform d^ Life and Health confift.

has been faid. in its windings.. fometimes run into a common Bafon. and may be feen in all the reft if they happen to be obftru&ed. are derived. This Stru&ure is evident. the Tefticles.. that all the Expences of living are furnifhed. in all the larger and more confpicuous Glands. and that all the Secretions of what kind foever are thefe Secret ions. fends out feveral little Du&s. the La&eals. of is of the Glands.. fo is it likewife evident from thence^that it is only from plain from what is only the Blood. And therefore the fame is reafonably to be concluded of all the Glands . which fometimes unite in one common Pore . fnch as the Inteftins with their Secretory Duds. and fome of the Conglobat Glands . that it that is recruited by the Chyle. and a Gland but the Convolution or various the Evanefcent Artery . and fo fwell to become vifible. whole laft Bran ches muft be Cylindrical. fince Nature . As it is XXXV.of Natural Religion. Now made by the afllftance nothing folding. This Cylindrical Artery . the Blood. of equal Diameters.

with the Trunk of the Artery The different Angle9 already demonftrated.Nature is conftant and uniform in her fimilar Afi- &ions. It is likewife evident that the Blood is urg d for ward by the Force of the Heart.gt.. when the Fluid is at reft. are excluded.5b. of the longitudinal Motion is yet it is not in the proportion of this Ve for this prejjure is always fomewhat locity even. Now . and is - 5 then . greater...&amp. fo that the Motion of Secretion muft be compoun is this pnlfation ded of both Velocity. thefe Motions.. that all Fluids the containing Veffel^ prefs the fides of and that in a direction perpendicular to it is thefe fides and this is evident in the fince it is. which this Du& for makes. is Now when s tho the fo. Particles this of a Diameter. this lateral preffure. i The different Dia~ meter of the Orifice of thefe Secretory Du&amp. Effeb by the Nature of the Secretions themfelves depend upon thefe three things. greater than that of DU&. Arteries^ to that owing.lt. whereby 2. and produces milar Inftruments. puL of the fation prefigure.

of the feparated Fluid muft be Homogeneous to perform the uniform Fun&ions of Life.. nothing elfe being in this Fluid to produce this preffure. as the Blood is in the Arteries y this lateral preffure. that the Blood is zHetrogeneous Fluid^ and contains parts fities different Specificl\ Gravities. different and of different Denfides^ and Cohefions&amp. feems altogether the poillble Diverneceflary to account for of fecern d Fluids . then in proportion. to be the fame. and in a Fluid urg d by a Longitudinal Di re&ion. yet they will not both pafs 5 becaufe their Motion of Dire* So that this Diverfity in Skion is different Particles : the Angles ^ thefe Secretory Duch make with the Trunl^ of the Artery.gt. both 5 compound Proportion of whence it is evident that if two in a of equal Diameters D but of une* qual fpecificl^ Gravities^ arrive with the fame Velocity ^ at an Orifice capable of ad mitting either of em.of natural Religion.. 3.. For it is not to be doubted. The different Velocities\ with which the P .ev n admitting their Diameters^ and Figures. to the Specifick Gravity of the Fluid.

different Velocity of the Blood. of the Kidneys^ Liv-er and Tefticles. as the Blood is. Now tho upon this iuppofition of only different Diameters^ ..10 the Blood Secretory made in arrives..) Diameters of the Secretory Du&s.. for the ftmilathe fecern d Fluids from fo Hetero* rity of geneons a Fluid. 3 *Urin.. For fuppofe^ (as my worthy and lear ned Friend Dr. And tho* fices the Diverfity of the Diameters of thefe Du&s. but this .from this alone.. at the Orzof the feparatory Duds. and Union of folid Parts. there is no po ilble Reafon can be afngn d. eafily others of an harder. and why one part of the Body is of a tender. loofe. feparable Texture firmer. why fome Animals are of a foft loofe Texture. it is certainly that which is of greateft Moment in this Affair of Secretion^ yet is impoflible to account. and more clofe Cohefion. the . Du&s^ at the Orifices of thefe for fince the Secretions are form of a Fluid.. muft be in the fame Proportions. Cockburn has very juftly reafoned) the Dtaweters of the Particles of The Gall and Semen ^ to be as i ^ .

to every part to be nouriflied. view of the Nature and Manner of Secre tion s^ the particular ones may be underflood. the Diameters of the Particles of thefe Fluids.. The Blood being brought by P a the . for the Homogeneity or fimilarity of the feccrnecl Liquors for all the Particles of whatever : kind.. that are lefs than the Diameter 6f the Secretory DU&. muft be indifferently But from this general feparated there. arifmg from the terminating Artery. muft be the termination of a Secretory DU&. which carries a fuitable Portion of the Blood. through which a proper part of the Blood is brought.of Datura! JMujion* the Particles of Gall and Semen cannot be feparated in the Kidficys . fo that ev ry point in the Body. lefs than being by fuppofition. So that upon fuppofition of only different Diame ters^ it is impoffible to account. of the Diameter of the Excretory that Du&s of this the Tie/tides. Nutrition is perform d by a Secretory DU&.... yet the Parti cles of Vrine and Gall may be feparated by the Excretory Dufts of the Tefticles.

they are only the Secretory Du&s of thefe little Glands. the Capillary &amp.lt. of thefe Arteries by innumerable volttiicns^ form innumerable little Glands^ of which it s C^rf/r^/part confifts. arifing from thefe in* finitely many little Glands of the Cineri* lions part of the Brain.?#. and by the fame Mechanifmy the Blood circulates through the Ar teries . which are the beginning of the Nerves. the finer... and the Secretory Pores of the repositories of the Animal Spi rits . O of the Evanescent exceeding .gt. Thefe Nerves are Bundles of fine fmall Pipes. and terminating in all the points of the Body j fb that properly .. they are hollow but extreamly fmall^ fo that tho* the Spirits move in them after the fame manner. yet by reafon of the many convo lutions form to which they are TLxcretories^ And the ilendernefs of their Mnfcular Coats ? the Arteries. are feparated^ and log d in the (lender fmall Tubes of the Medullary parts. which Glands in the Brain r their original .the Arteries to the Brain parts .. and more fubtile. ^aW Particles of the Blood. in thefe Glands.&amp.

fo that it is needlcfs ^ to infift on thefe. and when thefe Tubes are quite full of this nervous Fluid. is in refpeft of that of ... thence by proper Tubes into the Bladder. this very much abated however flow Motion keeps em very near full. and the immediate Organ of Senfat ion. the Animal is a6Hvc and watchful. Much after the fame manner ^ are their proper Fluids feparated from the Blood in the Liver and Sweetbread.. . the Blood.. the Veloci ty of their Motion. when they are near empty it is languid and dro wfie for this Fluid is the 5 principal concurrent in Mufcular Motion. the Blood is brought to the Kidneys^ and is there freed of its Se* rnm^ by their little Glands^ and is receiv d into the fmall Excretory Dufts of thefe Glands^ to be carried into the Pelvis and . I eft ides ? the other and Conglomerate Conglobat Glands of the Body.of Natural Heltgtom exceeding fmallnefs of their Cavities y and their diftance from the Heart . P 3 XXXVI. By the Motion of the Heart y through the E- mulgent Branches.

but as foon as this .fetu s enjoys the benefit of the Air3 by its weight and elaftick^ Force. and Magnitudes ^ hut fo join d as to leave but fmall Vacuities between *em.4 $i)iiofopijtcai Lungs are compos d of an infinite number of little Lobes. The by the Coats of the fmall Branches of the Trachea . Vehicles y is the fetus whereby they fhnd of thefe little ereft upon the Trunks Wind-pipes^ and give a free paffage to the Blood through thefe Vcffcls^ ipread upon their fidesJ. of different Figures. thefe Velie flat upon one another 5 and by fales their freffure upon the Blood Veffels 5 hin der its progrefs through them . And wlien by the weight of the Thorax^ and the . fo that they (when blown up) as may be confidered fo many fine Tubes ending in little hollow Spheres . this Air ifufhes in through the Pipes of the Tnacbea into thefe and blows -ern up.. the Blood Veflels in a fine Net-worl^ are fpread. Each Lobe confifts of an of fmall fpherical Vefides. upon the fides of thefe Vefides . form d infinity g XXXVI. Now before brought to Light.

feparate the Globules of the Blood^ which had Pvoorn and Liberty* to unite in the wider Channels of the this Veins j and by reparation of thefe Globules of the Blood. paflages of the Capillary Vefif I be not very much mifta- ken. It is un doubted Matter of Faft and obfcmtion 5 that the Blood confifts of a Lymph ^ which is the common Vehicle. But. from one another. and Aliment) and thefe red Globule s. and Midriff\ thisdttjtzcl* Fluid is thruft out of the Vejides. (which is probably the unform d part of the Chyle ... feveral Salts ^ K&went a of a thick confidence .. ind confequenrly. renders it more capable to circulate ^ in the more narrow fels. on the Blood Veflcls fpread thereon. and that is to form thefe Globules of which clafticl^ the Blood principally confifb. of P 4 which .. through. with thoi e of the Abdomen. the Trachea in Expiration. fti cfy thefe Veficles preffing againft one another.of natural A&ion of the Mufcles thereof. and the ela- Fluid a&ing upon the fides of them. there isftill a more confiderable ufe of this natural Fun&ion behind.

And fince it s cer tain that they are not folid Particles 5 both by ocular infpeftion and touch. Blew and Purple ^ thefe any body may difcover with an ordinary Mzcrofcope. yet wherefore it is of neceflity. and by the neceflity they are under to change their Figures into oblong Spheriods .. that thefe Glo bules muft be form d fomewhefle in the Body from the Chyle. as White. j Place in the Body. in the capillary Veflels. that thefe Globules may be or may be all burft. blown from the viicid it is part of the Chyle ^ more fubtile by the force of fome Now no Elaftic^ Aura. they may bubles. but the Lungs. and that Acids do ahially de{troy their Figures .6 ^Dilofophirai are we now fpeaking but fometimes they are of different Colours. as in obftru&ions . and be all recovered and recruited again. as alfo from their Colour... can the Afford tbis elafticl^Plmd and this may be * . Now certain. and coagulate thefe Globules be little highly probable. it s exhaufted^ as in violent Hemorrhages.

. that thefe Globules are form d there after this manner : The vifccws Chyle being by the fhorteft and poflible. and is fpread upon the fides of the Vejicles there tricle of .. there is conftantjuft returning ly loged.. may through thefe Vefides.. which is the principal Agent.. For fince in our grofs Eliment of Air.of the reafon Natural Religion. a finer Elafticl^ Fluid. by that vaft Force u(ed in Expira in thruft be the fides of tion. yet this finer Fluid. get through but in theLfl/Tgj. to be fent into the Lungs. and feeing thefe Blood Globules muft be gene rated fomewhere^ and fince there is no can be fqueez d with fufficient JForce^ to fides the of the Blood Veffels.. in all the fubcile fe&s commonly afcrib d to the other. to the Blood Veflels. is fent from the right Ven part of the fafeft courfe of the Heart to the Lungs.. Veins 5 the Chyle enters into the and thefe too only . it feems to me all part in the Body.. which are why immediately ro the Heart. tho* the groffer Eliment cannot. this fubtile E/^/V^ Fluid beyond doubt. brought into the returning part pf the Blood.

r. which is runing by in the Serwt. in little fine Tubes.form d again. in the Aft freffure the Blood Veffels. this lit tle bulk is broken off from t\\ePorey and carried along the Artery y and the Cohefwtt of the parts of the Shell of this biiblc^ being than the force from without..nefs of SWl^ from whence it has its Colour. For fliou d thefe Globules be all . through Pore^ continued through the Veftcle of the Lungs y and the fide of &amp. and by the force of the fucceeding Fluid. $pofopi)tcai of Ex being fqueez a piration. it is preferv d in its figure in all the various Motions of the compound Fluid of the Blood and if it little bubles fhou d be happen that thefe moft certainly are by a biirft^ (as they j thoufand Caufes) when ever they come to theLtfflg.gt.8 of. whereby greater the thin Serum ads upon it. this fine Fluid d. whereby the circulation is rend red conftant and uniform. and th.. and by its ferfendmilar it upon the fides of that Cavity forms^ produces a fmall little buble^ of a certain magnitude.ick. they are new. is forc d into the wfcow part of the Chyle.

in mixing Oil with Vinegar. into litJ But from this one Prin tie Shells of Oil.. but various in the effecfo thence But it being both foreign to ari- my d Peilgn.. and unfit for the Limits I have prefcrib .. a general teries. And this makes it look the more like truthj Nature being frugal in her Princi T t 4^7. when view d. 2 1 9 deftroyed. the Subftance of which Mixture . many of the dcfpair d of Appea rances^ in t\\^ Animal Oeconomy^ may be made eatie. bubles. and the manner of the Operation of Medicines vanifli. and a thoufand Difficulties about the Gaufes of Difeafcs.of all natural Eelt sicn. to be but an appears nothing infinity of fuch like little bubhs^ form d by the im* niiftlon of the Air. in the forc d Blood by the Elathrough the fides of the Vefides } and Blood Veflels in the Ltivgs^fo obvious^that I fliall infift no farther upon it^ fince ev ry body may fee an inftance of the fame Nature. but with an ordinary Microjcope. there muft oneceffity arifc Obftru&ion in all the Capillary Ar The manner of the little Produfiion of thefe ftick^Flmd.. J7 ples^ flag. ciple.. and Vinegar.

foft and part in the compared.$i)tiofopi)ical __ prefcribM to my Corollaries thence felf. and are call d Membranous Fibres-.. the firft and fecond. ted is A Mufcle. inftance reft but in one Particular. and leave the as I XXXVII. form d of thofe of the other.... enter an Artery. Vein and Nerve. the Fibrils of the one are di which are always inferted into fome folid as to thofe of the Bel places of the Body . to bring and carryback the Blood. is only the flefhypart lax} the tendinous. vided into innumerable little orbicular two concave Segments of a Cells. the latter to let in (upon .. only a bundle of Fibres. an infinite number of little Fibrils. the fleihy of the Mufcles is fpongious. have hin XIII. of the preceding Chapter . to another Gccafion. of which all fame Plane run parallel-. each Fibre confifb of ly of the Mufcles. to deduce I fhall all the arifing. ty d tranfverfe fmall Threads y together by which go from Fibre to Fibre . into thofe orbi cular Cells. folid^ thefe make the Head and Tail. are hard and Sphere-.

thefe little daick^ Cells of the Fibres muft of neceffity their thereby Longi tudinal Diameters. John Head. by which means. and confifts fo leave the imprifoned Elaftic^ Aura. Bernoulli s DoSrine on all this And metrical Theorems he the Geo confequently^ has difcovered a- bout mufcular Motion.of jfratttrai Belision. and agreeable to the learned : Mr. to efcape.. own proper Juice. from Cell to Cell ftrait- be blown up. and fo move that Organ to which one of the tendons is fixt. the Globules of the Blood may be a&ually broken. And ned which wou d contra& the length of the whole Fibre.. This is undoubtedly the true manner of mufcu lar Motion. Now it s it) of Particles which are pointed and fit to break the Shells of the Globules of the Blood. are now a&ual But I fliall Theory^ and Matter of Fah have an occafion of fpeaking of thefe after wards . 22 1 (upon any Impreffion communicated to its very proba ble from its Acid tafte 5 that this nervous Juice. into the orbicular Cells of mufcular Fibres. And upon an immiflion of this Liquid of the Nerves..

are carried back by the Veins to the Lungs. to be new-form d. which has been long thought uncapable of being d. which is the reafon that muscular Motion is fb conftantly and uniformly perform d... Only now..place of theProduftion of thefe Globules.. is faftned to fome folid part. the moveable Bone. accord and Determination. and the other to the Bone . and the one Extremity of the Mufcle. of ing to the Manner the Articulation. are ar ticulated one into another . For the Mo tion of the Joints and Limbs the Bones which are the Pillars of the Body. . fo long as the Blood Globules. The broken Shells of thefe cxplam Globules. Thus the Motions of all the . and Animal Spi rits are in fufficient plenty. that is to move beyond its Articulation. and their Na ture being thus determin d^ a priori is a Xvards.that dra\vn toward the fixt Extremity. the length of the Mufcle being fliortned. muft be So . The very evident demonftration of the true Caufe of mnfcular Motion .

a& by the Longitudinal Diameters of its Mujcular Cells being fliortnedy and fo by the win ding and fpiral Dire&ion of its feveral Orders of Fibres^ the Cavities of the Ears and Ventricles are leflcn it is And d or conftring d. and the elaflicl^ Force of the the Heart is containing Veffels. ad af manner already explaki d. Now confifting of feveral Orders of flefliy FibreSj of different Dire&ions^ it has two little Ears and as many Ventricles.. Fibres of the The Body are principally propelFd^ by the Adion of the Heart. fels.of the ^atutal of the Body are perFluids of the more d. a Mufck. But the Membranous Coats. or is to be driven to different Places. meerly by their own Elaflicity^ being ftretch d firft by ex ternal . The Fibres of this Mujcle... all obfervable that thcMufcu/ar Fibres of the Coats ter the of the Veflcls. like other Mufcles. which are Cavities for receiving or holding the as it comes from the feveral Ve Blood. iblid parts form XXX VIII.

. tendinous and mufcular^ of white {lender Fibres diverfely interwoven.ternal Violence. Ration or Nutrition. when a conti nued Membranous^ Tendinous one. that this Coat a&s as a Mufcle for Na ture does nothing in vain. it is a fure Indication . The Stomach has .is more capable of a&ing by its own Elafticity. together with the Range and Di- liquely re&ion of thefe Fibres^ it is eafie to know the manner of their operating upon the included Fluid. the third. excepting thofe for Senincluded Fluid. the outermoft Membranous^ the fecond flefliy and Mufcular^ turning ob from the uppermoft end of the Oe- is fophagus to the Stomach .. and wou d ne ver have diftinguifh d a Coat into Fibres^ but for Mufcular A&ioo. The Coats of the Gullet are three. branes are Thus the fides of all Mem bent or prefs d outward by fome but reftore emfelves by their own natural Elafticity 5 whereas when ever a Coat confifts of Fibres of whatever kind.. bring known. So that the Nature of the Coats. and of their conftituent Fibres^ of the Channels.

... and ferve the dy . The Nerves y as I have before bundle of fine. ding perpendicular upon which is nervous and extreamly fenfible j the third isfleflry and Mufcular.. and are terminated in all the points of the Bo faidj are a ten pairdefcend immediately through proper Holes of the Skull. Vertebra. the third is common and mem branous 3 arifing likewife from the Peri toneum. fmall.of Natural Beligion* the innermoft (liort is *2 5 has four Goats^ like. of white Carpettendinous Fibres ftan* the next Coat. The G///^ con- of three Coats.. of ftraight - and fift circular Fibres 5 the fourth Membra nous from the Peritoneum.. the fecond is of two Orders of Muscular Fibres^ Longitudinal and Spiral. ad jacentParts^and particularly the Organs of four of the Senfes the reft in a large bun dle^ are let down by the Cavity of the Q. flender Pipes j wherein the Animal Spirits are treafur d up for the Expcnfes of Motion and Senfation-^ they arife from the Glands of the cineritious part of the Brain. the innermoft is of the fame nature with that of the innermoft of the Stomach .

wou d tear the The Veins have only the Mujcular Spiral Fibres are thinner.$i)ilofopi)icai idnnaples Vertebra. The Arteries have three Coats^ the outermoft is a fine of Nerves^ Web and Blood Veffels. . the fhort erefted Fibres ferve for the at eallly may be trition of the Aliment. .. which is thefe other Coats made up of feveraly?r^ta of Spiral Mufcnlar Fibres^ Artery. for the nourishment of and for the Mnjcnlar A&ion of the intermediate one... From this of the Vcffels. the fame Coats with the Arteries . oi the fttu6hire general account their Aftions upon the in- clofed Fluid underftood. gainft the than thofe of the converging Arteries. becaufe of the IcfTcr force of the Blood afides of the diverging Veins . and for firaitning the the Cavity of the Guts and Stomach . and at fit Places are fent forth to a&uate the feveral inferiour parts of the Body. according to the bignefs of the The third is a cloie tranfparent Membrane very ftrong and compaft. to keep in the Blood which otherwife upon the dilatation of the Artery ^ Mnfotlar Fibres afundcr.

? after the propell the Blood in a continued Stream. through the uninterrupted Channels of ^ the . be equal to the force of this Impulfe then that Elafticity of aft. and fo encreafing or leflening it in breadth.of natural few turns oblique Fibres. in a dirc&ion parallel this by encrcafing Diameter ..5Hon manner already explain d. which make but ferve to propagate gently the included Fluid. Thus the Blood being puflit by the contrafiion of the Heart diftends their Coats atill into the Arteries.. long their whole length.lt. the force of the natural of the Membranous Elafticity Coat . up or down to its length. And both thefe Forces a&ing at once. the Longitudinal ones to move the Veffel. and the included -Fluid. the tranfvcrfe the Spiral ones by fqucezing it it in length tranfverfely. dimenfion and thereby /. this Coat be feme time the ner vous Juice is {queex d out from the Nerves by this dilatation of the finall Arteries. and fo brings the Mufcular Fibres into Aginning to at the &amp. leflening the other. e. among the Originating Nerves in the Brain..

and congregated upon the Retina. And call d a Pulje or Puljat/on of the Ar~ All Senfation is perform d by the immediate A&ion of the finer and more fluid parts of Bodies.&amp. in the lame mdnner it was rcflcfted from the Body.. by thefe fubtile parts of Bodies^ fifly is difpoted . . is tranfmitrcd through the HUMOWS of the D Eye. flrikcs on the -tympanum ^ which mo ..gt. the Sound after- ving .. in its diverfe Modifications. ing. Organs upon the through them appropriated and contriv d them for fuch a Senfe^ and to the Brain. through thcL/g/j/ from the Surfaces of Bodies. propagated only by the Membranous Coat. is the Veins and Arteries. tranfmitted to the Nerves. Thus in Vifwn. XXXIX. and thereby an Impulfe modi reflected fied after a certain manner. firikes the filaments of the Optici\ Nerves which con In Hear vey this Impulfe to the Brain. upon the Or gans of Senle the Impulfe communicated -. paffage through the Meatus Anditorius.. is that which when feltj lery.$!}ticibpi)ifal the irnpulfe of the Heart.

to be im~ there is no poifible and unconceivable thing in an Animal but an infinity of bran ching and winding Channels ^ and their contain d Fluids. fince all the parts m lift be form d together. and no Difpofition or Arrangment of either. that all Generation is from a preceding little Animal lodged in the Male. ration is Gene it is nothing but Accretion.of jsatnvai Religion ving the Bones of the Barrel.. I have demonftrated the Me chanical produ&ion of Animals. can produce an . In Smelling. with the Advantage of a better qualified and gentler Impulfe than they cou d have had otherwife. 3 . Tajlittg. Animal. all Sensation is nothing but : Touching. the Auditory Nerves there^ the fame manner they are mov d. the Effluvia and more fubtile parts of Bodies. Q. after wou d have been. had the common Air afted upon them. and they communi cate this A6Hon to the Brain So that in fome manner. aft immediately upon the Nerves themfelves. all for beyond doubt . and they the inclofed Air of the Labyrinth . and Touching . feveral ways diversified.

the flen- folid and fince thefe .. Now. we find fame little bubles. which can never reach to that wonderful Number. if they did not move in the wou Channels of thefe fmall Animals. and lodg d in the Loyns of the Ori ginal pairs of all the Species of Animals. cv ry Generation of an Ani and that thefe Animals themfelves are all confpicuous in Male Seeds ^ it is plain that they muft have been all created at once:. Like wife the Fluids. and Difpofition of parts. iince itisabfurd God Almighty \z in confin d to a new Creation. mal.230 or together. d corrupt and deftroy their contain It s ing Veffels. Blood Globules ^ may be form d out of the and one kind of Li quor may be feparated from another^ out of the Blood in the Glands^ and thefe are all the Produftions an Animal is capable of. evident then that they muft circulate after a manner proper to etnfelves. tho doubtlefs the Velocity of their Motions is perfectly accommodated to the fmallnefs of their dcrncfs of their Bul^ and parts. an^Chyle in the Veffels^ nimal confifts to think of.

with Branches and Leaves duly folded up. move. are that the Eggs of Animals only an Vie* rns for a little Animal ^ furniilied with . and involv d in Membranes^ or furrounded with Walls proper to defend them in this ten der Eftate.. in know the (lender Tubes of the Plant. is not improbable they in may fome lurk fomewhere the Male. in till they be fitted to proper Place.of natural Religion. to be afterwards log d in the Female . thefc Fluids cannot Wherefore it . tain that the Seeds of Plants arc nothing but little Plants. by the Force of Juices rais d by Heat. pcrfe&Jy form d... till they arrive to *// *. We We Q... where they are fitted with Accommodations. be carried off in the foft and tender Fluid of the Stolen . 4 proper . from external Injuries j and that Vegetation is only the unfolding and extending of thefe Branches and Leaves. fuitedto this Degree of Growth and Perfection. to the next Period of their Lives are cer bear the Light and the Air. without fome infenfible Evacuations and Secretions^ this Lofs muft be repaired fome way or other.

. We the feveral Transformations of InfeSis and other Animals^ is nothing but the Expansion of their parts. and the fure^ that all breaking of the Membranes that folded em up by the Augmentation of thefe parts ^ the feveral Figures and Shapes they put on. who confiders the fimplicity and uniformity of Nature in all her Works. are . Injuries and fenc d from external and we know likewife that all the Effeds of incubation^ isfupplying a fit to make degree of Heat and Warmth the congeal d Fluids flow. and the more noble Animals . Now were that all there no other Argument. produce the fame very Effe&s with that of the Females. but the Analogy between the manner of the Generation and transformations of thefe lower. But this. and more eafily pafs into the nourishing Channels of the included Animalcul^ and the Heat of the Sun or of our Culinary Fires^ when duly adjuftcd. it were fufficient to perfuade any one. with thefe already men tioned . is owing to the feveral Mem branes they are involv d in.3^ |M)itofop!)itai proper Food...

tions.how juftly our Fluids are contriv d and difpos d. From Stm&ure of the this parts. to make thefe uninterrupted Circulations wherein Life confifts . and yet how fuffi- cient. are. general view of the and of the manner how the Animal Fun&ions are perform d evVy body may fee how wonderfully we are made. XL. theCaufes of all thofe various the Animal performs. how wifely our (everal parts are fitted for their Ufes.of j$atttrai Heiigtott* 25 3 tioned put it beyond all doubt. how fimple. and have been ever fince / grow^ ing to our pretent Eftate. that we are all deriv d from one Seed. and were once all actually in the Loyns of our firft Parent. Mo It i$ impoffible duly to confider thefe things without being rapt into admiration of the infinite Wisdom of the Divine ArclnteB and contemning the arrogant Pretences of the World and Animal Wright s y and much more the Productions of Chance or juftling Atoms .. for fince even Mechanifm^ affifted by fome kind of Art and Contrivance^ does fo miferably blunder in the Undertakings of ..

Cou d any of our pie and mechanical Undertakers . and form d fo all things both ani juftly and exaftly^ mate ^nd inanimate^ muft needs bt. with all their skill and cunning. Put .. Wherefore of unavoidable Neceflity^ He that for id the Eye waft him felf fee. and he that indnd Majj with Wisdom mnfl and he that contriv d hitnfclf ^tnd^rftand^ fo wonderfully and wifely.34 0!)ilofoptical of this Nature (as we may fee in all the Schemes of the Projectors upon t\\ck Heads) we may be afliired blind Chance and JHWble cou d never produce fo beautiful fimuniform Effects. and he thai made the Ear mufl himjelf hear. from that. make but an ItifeSl or a Plant y with the fame Faculties and Qua we ihou d begin lities that Nature does But they are fo far to hearken to em. that the moft exaft and nice Performances of Art^ come fo far fhort of the dead Organs of Animals^ or the inani mate Productions ot Nature^ that a weak Eye may difcover the vaft Difference.

Thefe Glands fecern an Animal Body muft be. The Skin with its parts is what offers itfelf firft moft. 500 fuchDtifts may lye. is Scales^ lefs. Number a prodigious of fuch Glands muft there be on ! Now what the Surface of the whole Body Into ev ry one of thefe Glands an Artery^ Vein and Nerve do enter ^ fo that we may guefs how prodigious the Number of Organs in from thefe that are vifible to the Eye afliftcd with an ordinary Micrvfcope.. .of atural 3&eltsiom *35 But I proceed to make fome reflexions upon the particular Inftances of Council and Wisdom in the Animal Fabrick.The Scarf d of feveral Lays of fmall compos which cover one another more or thicker. g XLI. according as it...is thicker in one part of the Body than another ^ between thefe Scales the Excretory Du&s or lye of the Miliary Glands of the true Skin open.. and that a Grain of Sand will cover 250 of thefe one Grain of Sand will cover 125000 Orifices of thefe Ex Scales^ fo that cretory Dufts. skin being upper. Lervenhoecl^ reckons that about one Cuticular Scale.

in And paffes 24 in skin arc the Papilla fyramidales..^ .. to convey the Impulfe more immediately for the Senfe receiv Nerves to the Brain..36 ^i)i!ofopt)tcat cern the Sweat and intenfible Perfpiration. -Scarf they are the finite like wile in Number- Extremities of the Nerves of the 5%. protru Dufts up. is composed Scales of which the Scarfskjn a Hair is . and in each interfeftion In the Summer the planted. by reafon of the heat coinpaft The and cold of thefe different Seafons. d About and ferve of Feeling.. Skin is thinner and fofter. fyramidalcs //&amp. in Winter more and hard. cous Subftance. along the other VeiTels make thefe the Nerves and all cover d over with a miia fine Web. that fince San&oriu* obfervcs ^ through a of Fluid them fifteen Ounce weight Next under the Hours.gt. to the Surding their Secretory which there face^of the Scarfskin^ upon Lines. to moiften thefe Fap/U* and then under this the M/- Glands thcmfelves are placed. and thefe interare many by parallel fefted others.. of NecefTity they muft be many .

. without our Knowledge.of is Natural Iteiigiotn a 37 defign d to fence the Orifices of the 5Vthe Mtliary Glands and cretory Dufts of ^ making too pain ful and cxquifite an Impreffion on the Nerves... to receive the Impreflions of external Obje&s. contriv d than this exterior part. and the Miliary Glands from being difordered. ry point and Atom of the ABod is taken care of But that . if the Tyranridaks or the Miliary Glands had been few and large. to the danger of the whole and thefe Intervals had not been freed from the noxious parts^ which are here thrown out of the Body but by their infinite by thefe Glands ev N timber. and to skreen them from exter rhe Skin it fclf is nal Injuries defign d to to hinder Obje&s from wrap up the whole Body. and to be the Organ of the Senfe of muffing and Feel Now what can be more wonderfully ing. to fiiftain and to keep the Papilla Fyrawidales in their Places. then the Inter Pap ill vals c had been without any Senfe of Feel and fo might have been deflroy d ing..

ev ry Hair had been a Dag ger. the touch of a Feather. For had our Senfe of Feeling & fliort. we had loft fome of the moft exquifite Plcafures of Life.. we can live in indolence from the Difturbance of the and AHeffluvia. our tendereft parts had been as infenfible as our Hairs or Nails. A6Hons and Impulfes of the Bodies among which we live.. we fliou d not have dar d to have approach d our Cloaths or our Beds^ in t . many times duller. without our Knowledge or Concern. is the ap: proportioning this Senfe of Feeling^ to the which is r been ten or twenty times as exquilite as it d have been in perpe is. Whereas by this nice adjuftment of the Senfe of feding to the Impulfes and A&ions of Bodies round us. to hinder . or in more callous than it is. had made us cry out. ons of little Bodies that are ncceflarily in Motion and we feel fenfibly enough. then we fliou tual Torment. or of the Wing of a Fly.yet moft wonderful . we had it liv d and had been as perpetual Mifery. and might have J O been torn away or confum d.

Scale. is rendred more exquifite and or more dull and imperceptible. and guard the Organs of this Senfe from being violated. and the Skin becomes the thicker. and fo a caUoiijvefs quently . that thisSenfc of Feeling fcnfiblc. the more of thefe Seal s are form d. which there becomes a irnall and therefore the oftner the Mouths of thefe VeiTels are preis d upon^ or the oftner we life thefe Organs of touching. by which forae drops of a vifcid Fluid is that the Scales which forc d out. which is a notable Inftance of Council and Defign in the formation of thefe Parts. drying and hardning. for it is as it is more or lels ufed highly probable. And univerfally indeed in all Animals whatfoever.. this Senfe is adapted to the Circumftances wherein they live.of Natural ffietgtotu hinder us from hazarding the Ruin of our Fabrick. grows upon it.. compofe the Scarfsk^n. do arife from the preffitrc of touching Bodies upon the Mouths of the Superficial Veffels at different times. And confethe more moderately we ufe the ... And it is worth noticeing.

the Pleafures of Senfe (the moft exquifite of which lie in that of Feeling) the more lively and fenfible they are life ^ and the more immoderately we the full lefs r they are fo . either in on or Insertion. XLII. fo diftra&ed is the moft part of Mankind. w ife Contrivance of the Author of for thefe Pleafures. they are not kept from Excefles that way.. to that learned .. I For tho ev ry fingle Mitfcle. yet feeing Borelli has written a whole Book to fhew this. and to inftance in all the Particulars. that Head. my Reader for his full Satisfaftion in this Affair. or to write a whole Syfteme I fliall refer of Myologie. Having already fliewn the wonderful yet fimple ftru&ure of the have little more to add upon Mufcles. Figure. which is a wonder- were it otherwife. Situati has fomething that fpeaks its Defign and Council. prefent Punifliment. fince we fee where there is both Sin and Nature-. were to tranfcribe it. that they wou d certainly deftroy themfelves.. of which there are about 446 in a Hu mane Body.

they wou d have aL ufes Motions^ and made thefe Places foft and fpungy. {hall Then only fuggeft a few Inthe maiiner of the Dif- of the Fingers and poiition of the Muftles know that for the Toes. the Arm or Leg. is admirable* We of Life 5 thefe Mufclcs were to be ftrong and large. up and fill Places with their Bodies or Tendons he has ty d them to the Bones by Annn* lar Ligaments ^ and alfb that one TLendoit might not be interrupted in its Courfe by another. and and going confequently unfit for grafping their * together difturb d to avoid this^ the Infinitely wife An*tbor of Nature. i ... he has (lit fome^ that other s might this is through then! undifturb d^ fuch a wonderful Inftance of WiC pafs R dom . that they might be fufficient for the various 5 and forceable Motions of thefe Organs . and that ev And n there. has plac d them at a conft derable diftance from thefe Organs. learned and furpriflng 24 Book De motit malinm. now had they been fituatcd neat Or about thefe Parts. and ftances...of ^attttai BeWgion. they might not rife in bending thofd .

the And Difference becomes moft fcnffble between thefe Animal Spirits and the fuftain d weights^ when thcfc Spirits are expended in greateft Qtiantities.$i)ilofopt)tcai dom and Defign . Bernoulli in that Curious Meditation &quot. has demonftrated that the Expenfes of Animal Spirits^ are in a much lefs Proportion. that none can pafs it over without Admiration. than the ele vated Weights j for fuppofing the Animal Spirits expended. in burfting the Blood the veficnlar Cells of the then a Mtifcnlar Fibres^ to be as 8. the like or the other Propor tions of the Animal Spirits-^ efpecially. Weight four times as great r as when they Globules j in are but as 5. may be to 4. Mr.. a. derful wife Contrivance Now what a won and compendium of . So that when t\\e Animal Spirits are but as $ to 8 r the Weight fuftain d by em fhall be as i lifted.about Mufcular Motion. Lipfirf 1 printed in the ^ ASla 694 . It is very obfervable that in Mnjcular Motion the Expenfe of Animal Spirits^ is not in Pro portion to the Labour the Animal is at.

we live.. we that the Spirits are the moft precious things in all the Animal Body. and all Sensation perform d. a Subftance. has taken wonderful Care. the Animal Spirits which are the Subftance. and without which. as one that is under no neceffity to work. the very ElTence of the Blood. and our Blood circulates. that no Expenfes fliou d be made therein that cou d be avoi ded. we are languid. are fav d as much as is poflible . and agreeable to the Neceflities of Life. or rather.of Natural Urttcjtom of Nature is this ? Here in great Labour. by which we have that Livelinefs and Agility. and No\v dull. io that a is obliged to hard Labour.. that Chearfulnefs and Tran quillity. of Mo3. unaftive.....by which all the Pleafures of Life are reliflied.. this. e.... What a ftrange variety R a tions .. not reduc d to the necefllty of having is Man who twice or four times as much Vi&uals.. that aftuates all our Enjoyments... by all know which we move. and thoughtlefs.. and we fee the wife Author of Nature. /. fo neceflary and ufcful was to be fav d by all means poflible.

by which means we are kept from tum bling. And in thofe Animals that live with the Water. and two Lines drawn by our Toes and Heels. the various Motions of our Head. and fo be in hazard of our Arms. and if at any time we chance to rhrow this Line without that Space. immediately bring it back within that Space. whereby they are kept in the fitteft Pofture for fwiming or fo difflying. and falling. that might be ufeful and how wonderis the whole Machin adjufted ? For iully our erc& Motion. Thofe Animals that are defign d for flying or fwiming on the Surface of to us that we want..^44 tions are our Organs capable of? There is no poffible one. the Center of Gravity being pofed as naturally to keep their Heads creft. the Center of Gravity is fodifpos d. by a Line drawn from it to the Center of the Earth . and Rreaft. ftrongeft Mufcks upon their Breafts. al ways in fome part of the parallelogram form d by the outer fides of our Feet.. have all tjieir in the Surface of the Watery there is a Bladder . as to fall..

and by let and fo neceffarily emerge ting out fome. and fb fink. they become heavier. from the preffure of the full Mufcular fides thereof. which is under fome Degree of Condenfation. which being cut out...of Bladder Natural ^elision. to render them Specifically lighter or heavier. by which they let out and take in the Air.. or as they pals to a Specifically lighter or heavier Element j for by taking in more Air. naturally lay their Heads linger their Wings. with that kind of Fluid they in. and fb fink fill or emerge as their Occafions prompt them. But this Bladder is commonly of Air. as renders em in an /Equilibrium without any Pain. either fwims on the Surface or finks to the Bottom. d with Air. that fo the Center of R 3 the . than the Fluid they fwirn in. by the Comprefllon or Expanfion of this Bladder.. Birds moft and Fowls that fleep^ refting on one Foot to eafe the other. live and they commonly alter their Equilibrium.. whofe Orifice isendow d with a Mttfcular Sphintier. the Fifli ever after. they become lighter than they were. fuch to wit.

without any Mufcnlar Contra&ion. are either hollow or and both fpongious^ forts contain an oleaginotft Subftance. that their Claws by the Gravity of their Body. after the manner of the Mnfdes ^ they are nourifhed by Blood Veflels which enter their Subftance at feveral Pla ces.. ty d together by Tranfverfe ones. which upon the compleat growth of thefe Bones. may grafp the Branch more ftrongly. find to their Satisfaction. incline a little backwards. XLIIL The Bones compared of hard Fibres...the Gravity of their whole Body. may fall upon the Foot they ftand on^and the Animal be preferv d from overturning j and thofe Fowls that deep fo on the fmall Branches of Trees. are fo ftraitned as to admit only what is fufficient to repair their De All the considerably thick Bones cays. a thoufand fiich Inftances^ relating to this Head alone of confift Mufcular Motion. Thefe are wonderful Inftances of Divine Wisdom and Providence ^ but thofe who pleafe to will confult that noble Work of Borellfs.... prc- ferv d .

Thereby the Arti ftronger^ for had they been leffer.. or equal to the middle. /. whereby . The Tendon of Motion-. but this cou d be obuiiVd.. and thereby grow brittle... There are fevcral and ter R various . no other Contrivance pofllble. in the Articulati*OHS of the Shoulder and Knee efpecially.. By the largenefs of thefe TftJfirr&r^ it comes to pafs. that in all the Revolution of the is kept at the fame diftan-ce of the Sevridiaweter of the Tubercle from the Center thereof. and that for very wife Ends call d the Periofteuw. is exhal d through the po rous Subftance of thefe Bones y to fupple and anoint their Fibres. And 2. All the Bones are cpver d with a very fenfible membrane din little each large Bone. and Purpofes: For culations are i. our Limbs had been in hazard of being dif- made jointed upon ev ry Occaiion. more than a Semicircle which by.. e.. 247 which by the Heat of the Body.. is capable of moving round. the Cen joint. that they dry not.. is considerably bigger at the Extremities than at the middle.of fefv natural Veficks. the Arm and Leg. JaeiiQton.

and that the mechanical Ma~ chin might not become a Burthen to now the wife Author of themfelves N&amp. ought to have been as light. snoft convenient that might be.lt. for he has made em light. by evacuating their middle Subftance.gt. Now all thefe dif ferent Articulations are from the Neceffi- or Motion of thefe ty of the Situation The Bones in order to be the i$ones.. that the Inftruments of Motion.. cpmpos d . wonderfully ted for the Motions of the feveral fit Mem ber^ one is like Ball and Sockgt. by which the Bone can move equally any way ..348 ^t)ofopl)icai various manners of Articulations of the Bones into one another.. as was reconcileable with a fufficient degree of Strength. as the Radius with the *Vlna^ a third are only ty d to gether by intervening Cartilages 5 as the Vertebra of the Back. might not re quire tpo great an Expenfe of Spirits.&amp. and yet they are thaji if th?y ha4 (iranger by very far. as the Thigh-Bone with the Ifchium^ others are by way of Charnal. has wonderfully provided for this.. .*~ ture. to move them.

.. Order^ and Motions of thefe fiUars of the Body. is as 2 to i. two Bones of and of equal Number of that of is to the Strength of the other. to a clofe one of the fajiie Num ber of Fibres. BoreUi hath fhewn that thefe Bones are fo many Ve&es. There is a wonderful. as their Diameters fo that a hollow Bone of ^ double are -.* of the Mttfcles elevate. of which the Center of tlv* Articulation the Fulcrum. the Quils of their Feathers and their Bones are^ and this wonderful wife End. how light and yet how ftrong. cou d no othcrways be obtain d but by this Contrivance. and move a- ny weight. Diameter. This is moft confpicuous in thofe Animals that are form d to fly .of Natural Religion* folid Cylinder. the Tendons are the Ropes. or the firfi is twice as ftrong as the fecond.. compos d one has demonftrated. equal lengths. and exactly nice Geometry ufed by Nature in the Figure. or overcome any Rcfiftence.lt. Connexion. by which the Vires Moti~ is v&amp. ^nd pf their Cover the . the Strength of the one Fibres -... it is wonderful.

have If it had we .. had it been compos d of a few Bones only. but have gone forward like a Poft or a Pillar.. and fo the Spinal Marrow. had bcei* perpetual hazard of being depriv d of the Inftruments of their Motions^ befides that the able. i.. then the Articu lations of thefe Bones in bending our Backs. and then Then..the Muftles-. what can be more wonderfully contriv d than the Backbone. the wife Contrivances3 and prudent adaptati ons of thefe admirable Machines for the I (hall inftance benefit of the whole. to {hew all the Necejfities. without Articnlations ^ we cou d not have ftoop d or turn d. which made lends Nerves to all the Inferiour part of the Body. it were alone a fufficient work. muft have it been all a large Angle upon their innermoft edges.. whole wou d not have been pli- for the various Poftures to put our felves in. had of one entire Bone. Particulars. only in two or three proceed. had been in hazard of being bruis d at ail quently in every ftooping j and confethe inferiour Parts.

we had not been capable of thefe Varieties of Motk ons that we now are. ty d by the Back for the Se common Cartilage. from being thruft backwards or forwards. or had thefe Articulations been after the manner of fome others of the Bones. is bent after the manner of the Catenarian Curve. to hurt the Spiral . of the Body is the for by thefe beft that can be imagined as it Hulk many and what a plain fmall Articulations upon {bmeand fmooth Surfaces. if each Vertebra had had its own proper Cartilage. the Ar* ticulations might have been cafily disjoin ted. *5 * of various Bones without inter d have had no vening Catilages. the Contrivance of were..of corififted natural Beligion. keeping the middle.. the oblique greateft degree Proceffes of each Superiour and Inferiour Vertebra. we fhou more Benefit by it. and brings the of firmnefs . by which it obtains that Curvature that is fafeft for the included Marrow. than if it had been entire without Articulations. that Medullary Subftance. this So that we fee. that curity of runs down its Cavity .

whence the dilatation of the Thorax proceeds.2 Wlofopl)icai Befides Spinal Marrow. then there fon why have been no more reain Inspiration . As I have obferv d be? fome Bones are articulated after the manner of Ball and Socket as the Humerus with the Scapula and that for this wife fore.. the Ribs fhou d wou d have mov d upwards and forwards^ than backwards. thefe Proceffes force the Ribs to move upwards. to keep the intermediate Vertebra from being thruft backward or forward. and fo lift upthe-StowiM**. it cou*d not have giv n a more pregnant Indicati on thereof.. might have all man ner of pofllble Motions j but the Vint and Cub it us is join d by way of Cbarnal.. Now can there be a more manifeft In* fiance of Council and Contrivance than this.which cou d not dilate^ were there no Tranfaerfe or they otherwife difpos d. if infinite Wifdom were fuppos d to have fram d this part. But as they are now contriv d. Tranfaerfe Proceffes are.. Proceffes . had not the been fo plac d as they . Certainly. End. 2. that the that Arm . .

. fift with the good of the whole. there was a hazard of bringing the direction of the A&ion of the Tendons of thofe Mufcles . for that Articulation of the Shoul der. becaufe thereby in grafping or fqueezing. takes off the Neceffity of another having all the Motions.. that it could have by another of the fame kind in this other Articulation j and we fliou d have loft the Benefit of fiich it. and by this fmalnefs of thefe Tubercles. manner^ we fhou d have had no Benefit thereby.of ^atutai ffieligiotn a53 that this Articulation might be the more for had it been after the former ftrong. that can con. Thus we fee. Be- caufe the Tubercles of the Bones of the Fingers and Toes. thefe points of the Fingers which are at the Articulations^ cou d only come into contact cou d not be conveni Proportion to the middle with the Body fqueex d ^ and fo the Aftion cou d not be uniform. here . 3. Nature in thefe Motions lofes no Benefit in the feveral Parts. the Hand by the greater Strength in this Joint. ently fo large in of thefe Bones as they are in others.

How wonderfully is the Brain contriv d. by means of the P at ella thefe are wife and noble Ends. to ferve as fo the Tendons many pafs. had they not obferv dons. Pullies. of. are ^ XLIV. The fame Artifice is us d in the Knee.. which the Wit of Men cou d not have thought d them. and two very clofe and compact Membranes? What an infinite Multi- . the dire&ion of the whereby Motion of thefe Ten remov d always at the fame diftance from the Center of Motion. the Ojja Sefamoidota (call d fo from their Refem- blance to the Grains of Sefawntn) are plac d at the Articulations of thefe Bones. or almoft deftroy d. to prevent this Inconvenience.which contract the Finger and Toes. how carefully and ftrongly is that principal Organ of the Body. quite through.. by a thick Wall of hard Bone.. or very near the Center of Motion whereby this A&ion wou d have been quite. fcnc d from external Injuries.. of the Articulation. Now clcs. about which at fome diftance from the Center of the Articulation ...

.. as they do .. to the dcfhu&ion of the whole which by thcfe different Entries hlachin and Exits of thefc VciTels is prevented... or any greater Quantity thereof than ordinary . then upon any violent Motion of the Blood. are in the Cortical and of begining Nerves in the Mepart. at Arteries enter ^ for if do not they did. their dilatation and pitlfatzou wou d cornprefs the Veins againft the bony fides of their Paflage. Thcfe Veins alia do not run along by the fides of the Arteries ia the Braio. Channel. log d in the Arte ries . and fo occafion a ft agna tion and extravasation of the Blood in the Brain.a Bony able..of Datura! 3&eit giott* ^$5 Multitude of Glands. dullar Part. And it jin. a hundred of which do not exceed one fingle Hair? How commodioufly are the Nerves. that ferve for four of the Senfes y and all the parts of the Su per/our Regions 3 feat out the ihorteft and fafeft ways through proper Holes in the Head? And thole that ferve the Infericarry is our Regions of the Body. d down very remark that the Veins the fame Holes the pafs out.

. and with what are its Columns and Furrows clofer is Contra&ion of turn d a little its Ventricles . its point to ward the left fide. Judgment for the difpos d ! Fibres arranged. for thereby like a reclining inverted SiAuricle becomes lower that! pbon.. Next how ftrongly is the Heart built. pa and that 350 Pound weight of (es through the Heart ev ry Hour. . Boretti reckons it equal to the force of 3000 Pound weight^ Blood. How are its varioufly vmfcttlar and effe&ual for its end. for the more eafie a cent of the refluent Blood in the Cava . for the Arteries here..do through all the reft of the Body. into the Mufcles of involuntary Motioi^ which wou d have been hindfed if the Veins had always gone along with the Ar teries for thefe Veins wou d have receiv d the impulfe of the Arteries^ and thereby in fome Meafare kept it from the Nerves. which is alfb another wife Contrivance of Nature ^ were by their dilata* tion to prefs out the Juice from the Nerves. and with what a Force does it fqueeze out the Blood into the Arteries . the left the ..

upon the equal prefjureof the Blood on all Hands^ and the Rcfiftance of the fides of the Vet (els. to the Trunk of Arteria Pulmonalk. in this which is moft wonderful the different Stnt&nre of the Heart in the Fatus . Batumi EcitQion. and iscall d the Foramen Ovak^ there is likewife a Paflage. Now the Blood which is receiv d by the Placenta from S the ..of the right.. w hich r runs from the Tmnl^ of theAorta. fame the in from that of the In the Heart of adult Perfons. that opens into the Vena Pulmonalis. which wou d to the Ruin of the Animal . 257 All the Auricles and Ventricles have Valvs . in the Places. is feveral different for wife is Ends and Purpofes. juft oppofite Y&tW) to the Mouth of the Cava afcendens^ there is a Hole from the Cava. by and Situation of Contrivance prudent And ev n the Figure of the the Valvs. whereby the Blood has a in its true courfe forward y but paflage the fame wayis hindred from returning frequently happen. But that Affair. is which Inconvenience this entirely prevented. Valvs themfelves.

fo that the Blood that comes from the Cava afcendenf.. cle./ obftrudHng that Courfe^ neither indeed. which carries it to the left Ventricle of the Heart. pa-ffes only through the left Ventri is The reafon of which caufe the Blood Paffages. from which it is fent to the Cava. is diverted by the Ifthmns of file Cava from the for amen Ovale. Blood that comes from the Super iour Parts of the Body.. from whence the communicating Canal. which throws it .the Mother. it is imme diately carried into the Aorta.. is by the umbilical Veins car ried into the Port a. in the FoetiM cou be- d not go through the Lnngs^ their Veficles by their coHipreffure upon the Blood Veffels. by which it is fqueez d into the Aor The ta. to the Tntnl^of theother^by the Cava it is thrown through t\\eforamen Ovalejnto the VenaPultnonali*. by a Canal which goes ftraight from the Trnnk^ of the one. whilft that which comes from the Defcendens. to be difpers d over the Body.into the Arteria Ptilmonaltf. by pafles only through the right Ventricle. did . and falls into the right Ventricle.

. it all comes into the Air .. the F&amp. by : the communicating Canal And fo that dries up. Now wifely are thefe different Channels for the Blood contriv d. after the manner already explained. that neceffities ! S a can .. is fuflicient for. and is no longer nouriflied from the Blood of the Mo is taken off from ther j this preflttre the Blood Veffels . And this is certainly one of the moft con vincing Proofs of Defign and Conafel.lt. but when ceiv d. that the Blood can no more pafs that way from the Cava. And through the Lungs fo finding a free Paffage it runs no more . whofe Fluids had already rethe Advantages they cou d reap from the Air. before and after its Birth This is a plain Indication of fore-knowledgej and of fuch an one as no thing but Omnifcence. by the diftenfion of the Lungs. and by the current in the /Wmonary Vein. the Valve of the foramen 0* vale is {hut fo. in her Lungs . for the different how of the Foetus .of Natural 2Mi0tom 25 9 did the Blood need to pafs through the nouriftied from Lungs.xtw being the Mother.

that in the natural Courfe of things. What Animals cou d not provide themfelves with Food. and the Provifion defign d. all the feveral Steps of the growth and Vegetationfioth of Animals and Plantsy have been forefeen. cou d not guard againffc it^ without the Benefit of Light.can pofllbly be wifh d for . without Houfe or Habitation^ and . and the manner of Vifion ! Without this XLV. nor be forewarn d of approaching Danger. and fore-deffgn d. for thefe various a noble piece of Get?metry is manifefted in the Fabric^ of the Eye. by the wife Author of Nature rent Provifions are made. muft happen a long time after^ is an infallible evidence.. by fome intelligent Being. for to provide for an Event. that the thing was forefeen. and confequently. diffe and different Circumftances adjufted^ Periods of their Lives.. feeing.. for it s evident. the animated part of this Syftcm^ wou d be but fo many PupfetSj tofs d up and down by Chance and Organ ^ Fortune. But this is not the only Inftance of a Precaution.

they feem of fuch a Nature as fcarcely to allow any other Method. and refle&ed from the Surfaces of Opake ones . to be confined to per petual Darknefs. what can be more amazing. and never to behold the chearful Light ? the Mifery of fuch a Life is beyond Exprefllon and Conception And on the other Hand. and depriv d of all the Pleafures and Con What a mifcrable veniences of Life. Thefe things are not only contriv d and fram d nited with fo great Wifdom and Skill y as not to admit of a better j but to any one who attentively confiders them. andfubtile Fluid. which is emit ted from luminous Bodies.of Natural Religion. State wou d it be. and u- on the bottom of the Eye. and Colours of re Diftantes. for feems impoflible that Light fhou d reprefent Obje&s to us^ at fo it 83 . than that the Particles of Matter fhou d be (b fram d^ as by their means to {hew us the Shapes^ Portions.) Motions^ yea mote Bodies ? How wonderfully muft the feveral Coats and Humours of* this little Ball be difpos d. to tranfmit through them : that fine.

And it feems impoflible that any other Compofition of the Eye. than the reft of the Globe of the Eye. that upon any toucli 3 the Tears might be fqueez d from the la chrymal Glands. Opake behind . to wafli and clean it. -. The fecond Sclerotica. d the ConjunQiva^ and jnakes the white of the Eye. fhou d be equally fitted for that end. but Tranfparent before . from the Qbjeft upon the Eye. it is thick. and fmooth. hath little !&quot. as to It is of obftruft very little of the Light. which the internal fide thereof (which Sclerotic a. hard./- is . where it makes the third Coat call d the Cornea^ from its Refemblance to a piece of Transparent Horn^ it has a greater con vexity..fo vaft a diftance. it lies under the Glands which feparate a black Liquor. but by the trartfmifll- on of fome fine Fluid. it is compos d of fix Coats and three Humours. firil Coat is call r The fourth Coat is the Choroides it .. confifts of feveral Lamintf^ w hich are pourifli d by fo fmall Blood Veflels. an exquifite Senfe. The the Globe of the Eye is fpherical-.

to contrafl: or dilate. its On Rays... otherwife of a whitjih Colour) for dring the re$e$cd Light from difturbing the Pi&ures of Gbje&sthis Coat has a fifth is Hole before. Circumference which rifes the Ligawemum forepart of the Eye is by whichthe d outward. that their Force hurt not the Eye ^ and when it is weak. according to the ftrength or weakfor when the rtefs of the Light.of is ^atumi Belfgion. which is called the fupilla^ for admitting the Light.the Retina backwad^ or the Axe of the Eye lengthned. IJvea...) The the which is nothing but the Circum it is ference of the P tip illa compos d of circular and ftraight Fibres.. to let in more the more diftinft. The fixth Coat is the Kttina^ which covers like a Net the bottom -of the}^ it is only a fine expanfion^ of the ^Fibres of the QpNerve $ upon this -Coat. apd.. at the approach. of too near Objefts.Vifion. th^ Pifturcs of 84 prefs . Light is 5 too ftro ng^ the Circular Fibres contraft the Papilla. for the infide of the TiJvea from joins the Choroides^ Ciliare. the ftraight Fibres dilate it.

the ChryftaUine^ next the convex on both fides^ and refembles a double convex Lens ^ it is co vered with a fine Coat y call d Aranea. it is The it lies is fir ft Humour immediately thin and liquid^ and of a fpirituous Nature. calFd the Aqueous^ under the Cornea . is The fecond . upon its back part^ is the F^etina fpread. which it keepeth at a diftance from the Humour. it is thicker than the Aqueous . infide in the of the Optil^Axes^ whereby the middle point of ev ry Objeft is diftinftly feen^ for the Center of the Reti na is infenfible. Aqueow it is The the glaffy Humour. the in^ midle point of any Objcfr. with that of the Retina. as Monfieur Mariotte has fhewn by Experiment. in fo much that it will not freeze in the greateft Froft. Nerves are inferted Objefts. had been vifible . And confequently y had the Center of the Optick Nerves coincided. and thinner third is than the ChryftaUine^ it gives a Spherical Figure to the Eye. reChryjlalline quifite to receive the diftinft impreflion of The Optick..of Obje&s are fram d.

with that the the Obje&&amp.gt. d fall on the infide of Rays both Eyes at the fame time. vifible in the other j fliou for it is impoflible. isforefra&ed (by the Cornea and ChriftaUineHumour principally) as to meet again upon the Retina. the point of the Objeft which is invifible in the one Eye. are the Caufe of Vifion. for looking then upon the back part of the Retina. The Cornea .. of Room . and then placing the Eye a darkened in a fit Hole. we fliall fee through it. becomes vifible . from the Eye of any dead Animal..but by this lateral Infertion of thefe Nerves. dent by the Image thereof. the Figures of external Obje&s painted upon its infide) and thefe Piftures propagated by Motion^ along the Oftic^ Now Nerves. The light which comes from the feveral points of Obje&s. which covers the backfide of the Retina.. and there to paint in the fame Order and Proportion. what can be more admirable than this ftru&ure of the Eye . (as taking off that part of the is evi Dura Mater. ev ry part contribu ting fomething toward its Perfe&ion.

he Ligamentum or both the the Bulb of the Eye... The OpticI^ Nerves are inferted on the infide of the dxes of the Eye.Eyebrows. eafie black. that the Rays that pafs through it may not be reflected back again upon the Retiaa. to pafs through the Pupilla. produc d by the of the Opticl^ Nerves.break the dire$ Rays that ..Cormais more convex than any other part of the Eye. render it oblong.vea*.. Ciliare contra&s. the Fibres of the IJve. according to the De grees glajjy of the Strength of the light. when t. queouf its Humour being either thin... for the Expanfion more conveyance of th? Impreflion The Choroides is tinl:ur d to the Brain. by which all the Rays are ga thered.. eafily changes oblique Figure. the Images are painted upon a Skin. and fo confound the Obje&. to Mufcles protrude. and few of em loft on the The A*U&amp. The Humour keeps the Retina at a due diftance from the Chryjlallin. when Obje&s are too near .a contract or dilate the Pupilla. the Hairs of the .lt. that the whole Objc& may be diftin&ly view d.

that they hart not the fight thofe on the Eyelids defend it from filth and light Bo dies that fwim in the Air^ the continual Motion of ty j Eyelids the Cornea^ elfe it it is moiflen and fweep woit d dry or grow dir . Befidcs we cou d not diftingtiilh the diftance of Ob)efi:s by one Eyc^ for our two Eyes are like two the different Stations in Longimelryy the diftance by affiftarice of which. and fo cou d not guard our felves from the Dangers. however one Eye were plac d^ we cou d not diftinfily perceive them that fhou d be fituated toward the fides of our Body..of natural . to keep it from more pow erful Injuries... between two Obje&s is meafurcd. funk in a Hole. when one Eye accidentally rendred ufelefs^ we enjoy the Bleflings of this fo neccflary . Our Eyes are double^ to (ccure both fides from Danger ^ becaufe if the Objects were near. The feveral refraftive Vir tues of the Coats and Humours^ ferve to correft the Errors arifing from the diffe rent Refrangibilities of the Rays of Light. wall d with a ftrong Bone. As aL is fo. thence arifing.

through ga ther their Food from the Ground the Pupill is Oval or Elliptical. coming In thofe Animals that Water. by the Benefit of the It is obfervable that the other. thefe ceffities two of thefe Animals. and that becaufe of the different refraKve Air. in the fame diftance. for that Vertue of Water from convexity which wou d unite the Rays of Light coming through Air 3 \vill not unite the fame fo perfe&ly at a point. than that great deal of Land Animals . Figure of the ChryftaUin Humour of Fifties^ is a nearer to a Sphere. the greateft Diame ter going tranfverfly from fide to fide . and thofe that feek their .. for oCreatures that by their ther reafons. have a Clufter of Semifpberical Eyeballs all Thofe Figure. in thofe that feek their Food on higher Pla^ ces 5 its greateft Diameter goes from the top of the Head towards the Feet perpen different Figures be to the different neing wonderfully fitted dicularly.. and living which fend in the Piftures of Objefts around them . have no Motions of their Neck.neceffary a Senfe..

or had the Di ftance . whofe Organs are found they fhou d have been fb nicely fram d in all the infinite pofllble &amp.. and this we are certain of by our other Senfes. are of the iame real Magnitude our Eyes reprefent them. of Forefeght and Connfel in that Being that fram d thefe Organs but that which to me fair^ is is moft furprizing in this A that in rational Creatures. or brought nearer the Chriflallin Humor.of Natural ^Religion* the dark. have their Retina coloured white ... and under y as to reprefent Objefts at a due Diftance of their true and real Magnitudes.gt. which Varieties over concur to demonftrate that Objeds at a due Diftance. or (keeping the Retina at the fame Diftance from that Humor) had it confifted of two Segments of a lefs or greater Sphere^ the Vifion had been indiftinft or none at all . which refleds the light and enables them to fee beft in the leaft their ifi Food light j thefe are wonderful and furprizing Inftances.gt. the Laws of remov d that had the Retina been pricks farther &amp. Now all we know from from.

we cou part of them at once.. but had it confifted of of Segments of Spheres^ leis or greater^ than thofe of our Chriftallin Humour^ that are at prefent.. the Precipice that perhaps was not many Feet from us^ might have appear d at Ibme Paces Di- have tumbled down^ ere we were aware.. wou d have ftancc 3 and we our View. and twenty dange rous things might have been in our ways.. and hindered us from taking in any other Objeft} in a covered all Word.270 ftance been fitted exa&ly in the Focus of the Chriftattin.. any thing confiderad have feen but a very fmall bly. either bigger or lefs than the Truth. we had feen Obje&s ev n at a due Diftance.. had our Eyes magnified Obje&s. which we cou d not have difcovered. bcfides that thus we fhou d not have difcovered the true Magnitude of Obje&s ^ which wou d have had a thou fand fatal Confequences. or the Atom that we now fcarce take Notice of. which wou d have expos d us to a thoufand dangerous Miftakes^ for Example. but by .

our Eyes might have poffibly been form d 5 none of which cou d have brought with it^ the Advantages the prefent Strufture does. wou d have been able to have damn d up. than thofe ofReptils.. we coti d have feen them but faintly and iridiftin&ly all mi nute Bodies wou d have vanifhed.as not to acknowledge the Bounty and Wifdom of the Au. and we might have been deftroy d by thofe which we thought at a difbnce.. Can there then be a more pregnant and convincing Evidence of the Being of an infinitely wife Power ^ who out of the infinite pofllble Varieties. the Blefllngs of his Eye Sight^ whofe Mind is fo deprav d. he certainly deferves not to enjoy . and then ev ry little Particle. there are Infinities of different Ways. .. thor . that was beft . In one Word..of by a great deal of Pains . and obftru&ed our ObSight ^ and had our Eyes diminiflhed jeb confiderably. likewife. fo that our Promuft have been flower greffive Motions. of difadvantagious Fabricks of this Organ^ has fingled out that only one..

in Feeling a general one. this of It is by Means Senfe. our Eyes cannot inform us of. we enjoy the Benefits of Converfation ^ and the Pleafurcs of Mnjick^ and by it we are forewarned of thofe Dangers. to be there form d into Snow or Rain. fhou d ferve us for fo ma By it ny different. XLVI. is perform CircH* by it Sounds are convey d to our .. and what can be more wonderful than that the fame Medium of Air. and buoy d up to the higher Regions . it s which fail our Ships. according to the Exigences of different Climates^ by Motion our Winds are produc d.the ravijbing and aftonijbing Stru&ure of this noble Organ. Hearing is the next Senfe in Dignity to Seeing^ (for I reckon his thor of Nature. and purifie our particular Modifications) wou d : Atmofyhere ^ by drawing it in we fitted to live. its and our Blood lations . of which the reft are only without which be our Lives very Comfortless. yet neceflary Ufes our Vapours are fupported.

and then are many Glands y which feparate a vifcid glutinous Matter. In Bony Barrel there are fevcral Holes. or any hurtful thing. a thin Membrane^ like a Drum.. from corroding the Tynrpa?ntt& y which is a fecond principal Part of the internal Ear. The Internal Parts of the Ear are thefe. the Mouth. that have no Communi cation with the Air. ftretch d upon a It is behind which is the Barrel^ in the Cavity of which there are four little Bones call d the Hammer^ the Anwily the Stirrup. The Meatus Andit or his ^ which is a contorted Paflage for the out ward Air. and the Os orbicular?. one of which opens. riming firft downward . behinds the Palate of this and receives Air to fupply thefe Cavities. 273 Ears. Next to the Barrel^ is the Labyrinth.of Natural Bciigioti.. the Head of Circle. i. and other Mcns Thoughts to our Minds. here upward. Paflage refembline m it T . which ends in the VejiibuhtM y and is follow d by the Cochlea^ which is a a Snail s Shell.. coming in by the outward Ear. which hinders Infe&s.

mov fo the. to ftrike the in-* ternal Air after the fame manner.. after the fame manner is the internal Air mov d by thefe little Bones and this internal Air. after the manner any heavy Body thrown into a (landing Lake. raifes in the Water..atus Andit or ms or to the . Tywpanuni Drum.2/4 it Auditory Nerves terminate. and carried through the Me. and as k is accordingly is the Impreflion inade upon the Auditory Nerves. or ex ternal Ear. through the Air (the Sonorous Body ftriking the Ambient. excites thefe undulations in it. on which beating. to hinder d. Waves in a Circle round it) thefe are gathered by the Concha. and all Apparatus feeins intended.. Air by many repea ted Vibrations. are thereby mov d and as the Drum is ftruck by the external Air. Now when any Sound is propagated in Undula the tions. in the Labyrinth and Cochlea fo that as the ex-r . thus mov d. makes $ anlmprdlion upon the Auditory Nerves. . tcrnal Air ftrikesthe Druwfo does it move the Bones in the Barrel. the four little Bones that are in the Barrel..

Hearing^ is nicely adjufted to the Gonvcmencies and Neceilkies of Life^ which is a of Deftgn in the plain Inftance the fame might two remaining Sen.of Natural ffidigiotn the Sound from coming -with too great Violence upon theib Nerves. Fabrick of this Organ be demonftrated of the fes. which for Brevities fake I mult now omit. is ftill able to difturb thefe (lender Tubes. for the Conveniences of Life Had it been more exquifite. Wou d have pirc d our Ears like a Peal of Thunder. the buzzing of a Flie^ or the Noife of our own Breath. deprived of all the Fleafures and ! Advantages thence arifing : fcl that it s e- vident our . T 3 . for we find that too fudden^ and violent a Noife. then every little &quot. ly is this neceffary and plcafant Senfe eontriv d.Noife had been capable of difhirbing us.. and fometimes to diforder them fo^ as to Now how wife deprive us of this Seuje. we fhou d have been in proportion thereto. and the Morion of every little Atom wou d have rob d us of Reft and had this Senje been any thing confiderably more dull..

Thefe Valves are but in vifible. that by the Pulfation of the great Artery.$M)ttofopl)icai all have before obferv d. of thefe Fluids. in their Courfe. It is likewife remarkable..and that for all unite again in this w ife End r . do one Trun^ whofe Branches communicate with one another.. when any fmall Artery is obftru&ed or cut. by which their Fluids are per mitted to go forward. the Blood may . and thereby obftrufting that backward Motion. at any fmall Diftance from the Trunks. that all the Branches of the Arteries which go off. that . Valves. the La&eals and it is DuStus Thoracicus-. as before... not only in the Veins the Lymfhaticks.. upon which it immediately the Chyle may be propell d upward. all thefe Valves^ opening toward the term of the Natural Motion. lyes. that the Canals except the Arteries have I XLVII. and with others... and obfervable that this laft Channel always goes up the left fide. but hindered from returning back... but fhuting by the Preflure of the Blood in a contrary Direction..

to the primary Branches of the Ar and doubtlefs the odds is teries .. whereby it appears the Diameter of the Aorta^ does not bear a greater Pro portion. has Nature been in the Stru&ure of the gal How Veins ! . . or its Entry into the Aorta^ becaufe it is of thefc extreme Ar teries the Glands are form d them the fccretions Velocities are made. The Velo in the extreme Arteries city of the Blood is confiderably lefs. than that of the fame at the Heart.. (to whofe of the Ac Trunk.of Natural ^Religion* the 277 may be brought by Branches. before demonftrated in the Blood require different to fecern the ^ different Fluids in thefe Glands minution of the Velocity is the Proportions Dr.. ftru&ion.. greater in the fmaller Branches. Ke/ll. and by which as was . Di* evident from : this curate Compendium y Anatwiy of Human Bodies I have always had recourfe where my Memory fail d me) has giv n us all the Branches of the Arteries to the ateat .than ^ to 7 : fru. to the Parts communicating below the Ob- which muft have otherwife been depriv d of Nourifiiment..

but the foreward Motion of the pres d bv Blood. Occafion to the Blood to pufh back give no and not ward. Veins. Veins ! for becaufe of the lefs Preffure proportion the Arteries. for their widening Channels. are are tornits fill d. I can to fpeak of the containing Veffels.. large .. Branches of thefe linall the Horizon communicate with one another. which when the Blood prdfles back. that the for the fame ends and purpofes and having now Occafion Arteries did -. and foftop Pailage. it s Gravity afting laterally to the as in thofe . Now thcfc Valves were ufelefs in other Veins. againft the fides of thefe wi the thicknefs of their dening Channels. perpeud/cnlar backward. not omit here the wonderful Contrivance feveral of Nature in the Pofition of the the Vterns j the Parts of the Ftfns in in the iirlt part of the time Skyll whereof and of its Geftdtioti being Very thin. that only thofe Veins that nin perpendicular to the Hori-j^off. which flick to their Sides like fo many Thimbles.&quot. are endowed with Valves. than thofe of Walls is in lefs. Bcfides.$fttlofopi)ical of the Blood.

I now come to make a few general Obfervations under one Head. but I haften to thickens.. the Thorax and Abdo men with the Limbs are fo dispos d as to make Fluid the Head always emerge out of the or at leaft preferves it is ftill it lies in. a Cloib. diffidently to wit that are wonderfully wade.. though I have at a few of thofe Inpointed only ftances that we the Animal Fabrick and Oe~ conowy affords. and acquires that Pofture which is fitteft for its Deli Thefe are fignal Inftances of very. and fo the Head becomes the heavieft place in the Body whereby it tumbles over. it in a Direction that upward. in the Formation of thefe Organs and parts... with its Face to toward it s Mothers Belly.already fwell d to a far greater Bulk . and fo to put a Clofe to this Chapter. has . XLVIIL Having I think made out that great Truth. Counfel and Forefight. but about the time of its Delivery the Skull and hardens^ the Limbs and Members ft retch out...of natural Beiigiom only Membranous.

while other more curious and nice Plants will only thrive in their proper Soils: Thus Hens^ Gecfe. that are of moft life. are fuch as will grow almoft in every Soil and Climate. and the Pheafatit hath fifteen or twen and thofe which lay fewer. and Turtles are more produHve than Crows or Jackdaws. What is more admirable. two Eggs. Plants. and is are found in moft Places. the Infitiency of the Cawe!.. nioft value for for . and Advantage to us.280 Bulk than I at firft defign d it. and Minerals.. than Foxes or Lyons-. thus a Crane. and are of Food. whereas the IV tridge ty &amp. which is but fcurvy Meat. Corn is the Produft of all Soils.. and Hares.. and Climates.. as the Woodcol^ and the Dove. and are more produftive of their kind than others. lay oftner. than the fitnefs of ev ry Crea ture for the ufe we make of him ? The of the Elephant. and Conies. and the Alka and fome lays but other Sea Fowls. Thus Iron is found almoft every where. that thofe Animals. fo long employ docility ed in War.gt. It is very remarkable.. but one.

of Natural SRtltgien* for travelling in the parch ferts^ d and dry De- the gentlenefs of the Sheep. when the cumftances of the Animal wou d haverendred ern Fo ? Thus thoFe Animals that are (low of their Nature. whofe Breath * Foam... tl iifelefs . the Cleannefs. Beauty^ Strength. that have no Ears have no Organs for making a noife with^ becaufe \vanting Ears. Thofe Animals alfo. have no very quick fight. and ev n Excrements are fwcet. thofe Animals which have Teeth on have but one Stomach.. Expcnce of Organs. and there by fo well fitted for our life frugally and Service ! How ufelefs has Nature avoided any Cir-. b* caufe thefe Teeth render more Stomachs both Jaws. it being ufclefs to fuch. fince their (lownefs allows them time to dwell as Snails and Moles longer on an Objeft. as Fifits and other Inhabitants of the watery Element. Sd alfo. thefe other \Vou d beufelelk. but thefe that are enclow d \vith a quicker Motion..... have brisker Eyes^ and a more as Hawkj and quick piercing fight ^ Hares. and Swiftnefs of the Horfe.

. A Man which has a bigger Brain in prq. Thefe. may be gathered by any one who will cpnfult the V/ritings of natu ral Hiftorians. thcPattch^ the Read and the Feck..^i)ilofopi)icai ufelefs and thofe Animals that have no upper Teeth or none at all. and a thoufand fuch Inftances of Wisdom . have three Stomachs to fupply the want of thefe Teeth. the Echinus and the Gi^^ard.fe who I will not be canvinc d by the Inftances that there is have brought doms of parrs. has a better and more eafiiy manage able Hand ^ whereas a Mortice that has littie . and in all granivorous Birds.be prevaiKd upon by thofe behind* THE . who numbered all our a and appointed them out their feyeral Ends and Uies v I am afraid will flpt.asinBeafts. and confequcntly can have no has not fo great Ute for much dexterity^ well q. fiiap d nor eafily applicable a Hand. Bat tho. partiqn to his Body than any other w* mal. the God who rules in the King Earth. the Crop. Counsel ^ and Meliority in the Contrivance arid Fabrick of the feveral Animals .Brains..

are as really bounded and circumour Bodies and chat it is as imis . beyond all Difpute. TT 1 T as JL fcrib d.lt. CHAP. the Eyes of our Underftanding are capable of but a limited aperture^ and of receiving but a bounded Obje&amp. for us to extend poffible Faculties. attain to are fome we Labour. our Intellectual as it is determined Limits. in vain things. There can never by a perfect Comprehenfion of. in vain we Struggle. the IV. we perceive nothing. r . Of Suture ) of Finltenefs and and the Limits of Human \.5t If we drive to enlarge it. that our Minds and Capacities. for us to add a Cubit to our beyond their Stature . that we all our Endeavour. but Darknefs and Confufion : We may (boner Aaa be able to accem- ..

and comprehend. we are forced it becomes a Wile Man to diftinguifh between what he can really underftand. in a proper Method. The Reaion agreed in their Conclufions ot which is. to allow 5 and fince it is fo. that the Notions and Ideas* of : rhefe things. II. and moft diftindt. to our Reaionings 5 and yet all this. who have apply d themfelvcs diligently to difcover. the Proper have ties of Lines. and not . whofc things can be. are both the fimpleft. than be able to con ceive. Magnitude or Quantity in the Abthat of is which we have the clearis eft Apprehenfions. Figures and Numbers. as it dent from hence. in a Circle of a Foot Diameter. that almoft all jufteft and evi Men. leaft compounded. and have the lead Influence on our Paffions. how fome Exiftence notwichftanding. our Minds can never concei^ Interefts.accommodate a Line of ten Feet. and where he muft be contented to be ignorant. Preju dices which generally give the for Byafs.

or a that right Line. e. there is a Non pita ultra. as to be able to reach Heights that may feem furprifing to thofe that do not apply themfelves to fuch Matters . cotnpreheads a a a . but $ i. Circle of a given fide A or Radius. tremities is not the other given. that. both whole Ex finite right An itremities arc determin cl or given. indeed improve either of thefe Facul by Study and Induftry fo far. all. to fcurity. III. that Bounds or Limits are given is or that j whofe which bounded on all poffibie (ides infinite chac which is bounded or limited no way thus a Line is that. infinite An which is both ways a Line with no Extremity at i. We may ties. indefinite. but ftill there arc which we can never at tain. We may call finite. Thus an equilateral Triangle. beyond which all is palpable Darknefs. and profound Ob- fome things. one of whofe Ex definite right Line. .of Natural aHeUgfom nor our Imaginations form an Idea of an unlimited or boundlcfs Quantity. . e. a right Line with but one Extremity.

in al- low d an to fpeak fo) an Cone. from its /?o- Jitive Properties. thing diftindtly a bout the Na what ture ofFiniteneJ* or Jnfinitenefs. is more than this. . to diftinguifli is have the one none. be Infinite. from the other.e But ^ecaufe it Infinitenefsis of that Nature. nor apprehended. think. makes a an infinite fide or Radius. fince we great foever. equilateral /zw&amp. ( if one may be finite &amp. rather And feeing before we can is. an nt/wil* Solid. [cribe fpeak any not. muft how can have no Notion of any real Quantity but with the Degrees thereFinite and Infinite ot IV. that neither can be defin d by us.gt. but of fide or Radius. how great greater loever 5 for whatever Quantity always ex ceeds. of a given Solid . that infinite always than any -finite Quantity. telling its effential we are forced to it is de- by than what it it.gt.4 but of an hends a given or finite 4re a fide or Radius. all poffible Degrees of Finites. by Attributes. there certain. infinite Area y asalfo or Sphere. we muft I tome Mark or Rule.

than circular ones. is tho infinitely Little. fmall *Porlions of in refped: is infinitely Little. and a Line par olid thereto. lin d dngky is infinite in refped of the cir And there are ocular Angle of Contatt ther Curves in infinitum. we the fliall afterwards demonftrate. infinitely Lefs : thefe there are Gradations in infinitum.. of one In* or infinitely lathe. of the projeflile Force. of an infinite A a a 3 .of IV. whole Angles of . The other Alfoiute. each of and of themof right of which. yet infinitely Great. %- re/ped: another Quantity. how refped: of foever : great in any thus finite the Space contained between the Jfymptote of fome Hjperlokids . which only great Quantities in Infinite . Quantity. ^Planets. CwtaEi are as in infinitely Lefs. Thus their Motions of the is the Centri petal Force. is in* in refped of the finite Space. finits. or this infinitely Grcat^ in refped of that. refped: Thus any thofe infinitely Lefs. finite at a Diftance finite from it. in infinitely Orbits. in in felves. There is are two ICinds . which is infinite.

and infinitely Small. to an infinitely fmall Part there fo is finite of. for if an in fmali Quantity. or^fprefentatkns. we muf confide . alfo Small ones. comprehended between the the Curve. diftinft (Pitturet. in refped of other in Greater. as finite to an infinitely fmall Part thereof. and become the fame may be quently will then finitely Great. and confeinfinitely infinitely Great. Thus the ExpanAfymptote and of the Univerfe. fo is that.infinite fion Length. and therefore Univerfally. infinite an Number were thing. or Smaller. of infinitely And what is (aid great Quantities. is infinite. is affignable j Bu feeing fuch a impoffible. to an infinitely fmall Part of this infinitely fmall one.lt. o\ Quantities. correlatives. and confequemly the] would be fo likewife of infinite ones. in refpedl true of infinitely Lefs. Numbers. as infinitely Great. may be a Relative finitely of an infinitely infinitely Great one. Infinitely Small . in or Space refpeft is of the place of Body. is to finite. as alfo. ^ and finite V. are the moft fimpl&amp.

and if we con finite tinue thus adding in infinitum. is a Mul equivalent to tiplication of fuch a Number. of fuch a Number. tiplications. we (hall have the Progreffion. how finite great foever . eafily obtained. i. fo many times. join d together. And becaufe a conftant Addition. becauie But Virtually. confider thus frame our Notions of infinitely how great unity otfmall Numbers . by fuch ano ther Number. a a$ by perpetual Subtra&ion. whofe Sum at laft would be equal ties. Thus. not actually. is increased or diminifh d.of any finite determined Number. a* Number as we defire. we (hall at laft have a Number greater than any finite one. we can never actually go thro thefe infinite Additi e. or the Repreientation of -the Nature. therefore what be had by a perpetual Addition. Aaa from any finite 4 . we fhall have an in* Number. and go on in and or diminifliing in incrcafing. may may be more by fome one or more Mul Like wife. of a determined Number. to an infinite Number of Uni or other finite Numbers. ons . if we add we fhall have as great perpetually to icfelf. i. e. infinitum.

can a&ually compleat or exhibit the infinite Numbtr re But that thefe continued in infiniquired. tum. VI.8 finite Number how Great unites. in any time. would at laft exhibit them. i. whatever Cafe by Subtra But ction. therefore. fmaller then any finite Number. of one or more we fliall at laft obtain a re finite mainder. that the whole may be obtained in this Force of this manner of generating an infi nitely great or fmall Number. e. how fmall foever. if (uch a thing were to be obtain d. equal to any Number. . how fmall foever. may be alfo had by Divifion. finite upon given Numbers-. an infinitely is fmall Number. And becaufe Divifion only a perpetual Subtra&ion of fuch ^Number. lies in the infinitely perpetuated arithmetical Operations. here it is to be obferv d. fb many times as the Divifor implies. loever. finite not that thefe Operations. we flhould obtain a Number. fo by fiich a Subtraction per petuated in infinitum.

thefe. plications^ itfelf. it may be again added to itielf. in nerating an infinitely great or (mall Number &amp. if any finite an infinite Number. at leaftic implies no Congain. in being added ta and the Sum of all itfelf. in infinitum^ third time. or Quantity may be once added to itfelf. tradition. of ge tradi&ion. Number greater Number.of $atut ai Religion* Vf. implies no Contradi- fhould be again. itiliouldbefomultiply d^ and after an affignabie N^m^roffuch MultiAgain. and if a finite Number. (as fome have thought) is evident from both the ways juft now mentioned. it may be ftill i mulciply d or another Number and To it by im plies . and again. e. how great foeverj a than i. 6tion it and confequently it implies no Comradiition it fhould go on conftantly. you may do it atiply and again. which may reprefent any infinitely great or fmall Quantity whatfoevcr . for whatfoever has once been. That infinitenefs implies no Cqpits Import or Significarion.gt. and a would make you can mul a Number by itfelf.

are ~ 5 ~ ? 5^c - Befides. greater ver. equal to Unity . affignablc. . thus be twixt ~ and o the Sum of an infinite we Num ber of to is i mean (Proportionals. how great foe- Number. infinite an fince can affign their Sum . Sum is and the mean themfelves. which depend upon thefe Sup- positions. of Geometrical mean Proportionals. the whole abjlraEl Geometry . at the rate fince the of 2 is and Sum can imply no Con* tradition .one. the depends upon and fmall gveat. then any finite. and the Sum of all which Products. Likewife it s certain that between any two given Terms an Infinite Number. and the Truth s difcover d by poffibility of infinitely Methods. i. infinite Number of mean whole Proportionals Proportionals in the ratio of a to i. can imply no Contradiction. the Parts there and an &amp. Quantities. would make a Number . and univerfally betwixt -and o. it fliould be ftill the Produft of going on in Multiplying all which Multiplications.gt.io plies jtMnlofopiiiral no Contradiction. e.

there muft be Extenfion beyond thefe Li mits. thefe things. of the ble for. need not be told VII. But that its hfinitcnefiy involves no Import or Signification. from the Limiting Poinc.of by other which have other Foundations and they are too well fupported. Univerfe from hence. the other backward. i Contradiction in . and Quantity to That the Extenfion. fince whoever does underftand this. the end of one Part of it . in thofe that are throughly ac with this Science. that whereever we flop. fame yet a little further Reflection. and whereever our Imagination may place the Limits of the Extenfion y of the Univerfe. for every Limit is boundlefs. for in Extenfion. to allow of any pofitions. is evident is the termination of right Line. arc confirmed $ Hefitation. two Diftances in the one going forward. will convince us. Inftances arc quainted needlcfs. there muft be ftill further Extenfion . of allowing is evident from the neceffity both Extenfion and Duration to be boundbe infinitely Divifilefs. .

and fo it go on without Bounds or Limits. if the muft Extenfeon of the Univerfe is then a Sphere of a finite Dia finite only. is the Product of the fide of of a finite the Cube multiply d. as is well known . for a Cube meter. may be found equal to any finite Content whatfoever. into the Cube ^oot of -| of the parts & ratio of the^^w to the Grcumi ference. nite Let us then fiippofe the whole fi to the Exttnfion of the Univt rfe. and the Radius of a Sphere equal to this Cube. is ffiijtiofoplncal the beginning of another. equal Sphere. equal fide. . to it.2 it. may be found Moreover.

Sphere.of Natural Religion. evident^ tharit both has been without a beginning. and muft be without an end. of admitting fome real Being to have been for ever. the reft falling without it whence it s evident. of every main. that there muft be Ex. . and the Se&ion. fince a plane paffing through this Tangent. for whether thisUniverfe had a beginning or not. tenjioH without this Circle. finite Extenfanhow Exttenfon. of which only the Point A falls upon the from Circle. by which there will an extended Diftance re between the Circumference of the Sphere and the Tangent in all their Points ex cepting one. it s certain from the Elements of Euclid. or che Sphere by the Sedion of which it is generated . yet time or Duration muft have for ever been 5 there is an abfolute nccefiity. is ic s evident the Extenfan of the Univcrfe finite greater than it any is 2. 1 5 whofe QfaJiiM is A ft. may be drawn. will only touch the Sphere in the Point A. great foever. let this Sphere be cut by a plane through its Center. that to any gi ven Point At a Tangent A C. be the Circle ADFE-. As to Duration. and fince this is true.

yet rime could not be faid not to exift. is the common one. therefore the Duration of this thing muft for ever be . the very Suppofition. The infinite Divifibi5. lity were there of Quantity it ftrated upon moft perfect and unavoidable Proof of.have already demonftrated. as I ly the Duration of this Being. Duration muft be infinite both a farte ante. fo many different Principles.Philofopby we go upon. in the preceding Chapters . &amp. fo that it s evident. whatever Scheme of &amp. has been for ever . is. the is fo and demon there incom- menfurability . from the that from were plain.& poft. wherefore Time or Duration. and muft be infinite. and fince fome real thing muft for ever exift. as the Schools fpeak. when time was not.lt. destroying itfelf. for we cannot fuppofe a time. needlefs to dwell it. and confequentever. Befides. nothing actually exifting.lt.

fmalifoever divi how fliall T p.lt.of Bdigion. as be to Mm.gt. Since the 7H- 4H/w is ^D. any . whofe Diagonal is !B theft is the fide 2. that ding the fide AT) into Parts equal.gt. 5(A/w are Similar.BD. CD be a Square. fo that impoflible before an adual infinite Divifion of the fide A to find a Part in D&amp. thatfhould have to (P/&amp.gt.I(m ^ 2. i yet to ftill or &amp..lt.lt. Aft Z&amp. let men/urability of fufd Quantities.. y^D to tht Diagonal &amp.Pp &amp. as i: V from whence it s plain.

involve and Conception. fliould equal if DS exactly. yet !B ftill on. that taken a certain finite. involves any Contradiction in their Import or VIII. does not imply a real Idea. fignifying finitenefi unboundednefe of the Property.any fuch Proportion as either Integers.gt. in being further divided. divided in capable of is and confcquently AD. were T&amp. and / Mcalures of the Affections of Things thj is an abftrafl jfenw. Things in themlelves. ever fo fmall Parts. Finitude and infinitude. it is abbefore an adtual infinite folutely impoflible Divifion. nothing in their Import but the Degrees of the Properties of Things . Signification. or they do not fignifie really Beings. or even infinite Nunber of times. it s very evident. to find a part Tp in the fide AT). I e. or Qua lity of a real Being. infirittum j that neither Great. but like all oiher till JdjuhBsj. or frattions have to one another. but the Modes. and that from all which. it is to fame Subfttntive j thus jjoyn d in finite . nor infinitely infinitely Small.

that nothing could be capa ble of having Infinity afcribed to it. I have fhewn in the two falfity infinite becaufe whatever was in former Seffions. unli mited Exttnfton. fince there infinites I of feveral Kinds. may be which may have no B b b .. they thought muft neceffabe io in ieveral others. . \? or infinite Wi/dom. tion of a proper Subject (brine Perfons have thought that Infinitmfs was a contra dictory Term. and endlefs Duration. Import is determined by the Addi . of the firft. are of things. that there no Creature. that 5 any Quality. that there no I there fhould be fuch. and belong to a Crea ture.of Natural Beltgtom finite JKjiotffledge. or paint an Image their Imaginations j others have thought. infinite in is Degree tain it is. but Infi intelligible Properties nity is till its a vague and undetermined Notion. but upon immediately it muft belong to thefirft Be fo could not ing. which deftroylily cd the Nature of a created The Being. irs prehend thereof becaule they could not com Extent. endowed with yen cerabfurdity. is and tho I am of Opinion. any one Property.

and Length. perty. or the mundan Space. as Extenfion does no way . either finite all or infinite : Wherefore there is no Impoffibility . one Extremity.8 no Relation another : nor Dependance upon one Thus a Line may be limited at to. and Breadth. lidity all does Impenetrability. may be eternal. and yet have no other real Property and Time. nor Wifdom fome Proper as So ties involve fome others neceffarily. may be boundlefs. but thus alfo a finite Thicknefs or Profundity the Extenfion of the Univerfe. but when a finite Degree of any one Property. nor im ply any Degree of that other. but unlimited at the o- ther. imply Thought. does not at imply any Degree of another. a Parallelogram but of a may be of an infinite a Solid finite Breadth. may have infinite Length. fome do not at imply others. the infinite Degree of that Property. nor Motion. j . or Du~ ration. Knowledge and when a finite Degree of any one Pro a finite Degree of another. does not at all alter the former Cafe. and have neither Knowledge. implies the infinite implies the infinite . .

As alfo this World may have been from all Eternity^ and yet have been created. implies many have fhewn in the laft Article of the it . nor any of the Extenfion Properties of fpiritual Beings. which other fuitable Qualities. fecond Chapter Time and no real things. they are only the Modes and 0Vcumftances of other things.dce.. but in effect. for the neceffary Exiftence of a from as I thing other Qualities. a created Extenfion. that a created Being in their Oiould be endowed with fome Qualities Degree. unit to have been from all lefs we fuppofe Eternity of tt felf.of bility. infinite Duration. for eternal Dura tion implies no other poficive Quality. fdf.gt. which quire alters the Cafe . and yet be fince infinite in its Knowledge implies neither nor Reflexion. may be the Immenjiiy and Eternity is of that firft with all great Being. Natural ffiel&totu or Abfurdity. nor compleat SubS/&amp. Being.are fiftences. provided thefe do not imply others which deftroy the Eflence of a Creature And this Univeife may be infinite -. I do not here deand eternal tcmine 5 whether Extenfion. tho per* B bb 2 haps endow d .

are Difparata. is. that finite $ is no part of infinite. finite conceivable. infinite incomprchenfible. only kind are capable of Addition. that Abfurdity in admitting Creatures all I volve thofe others. haps. different Nature.not has finite to infinite any for thefe only have a aflignable Proportion. Finite* and or things of a quite Light and Sound^Coloun &ndMufick.which do not neceflarily in maintain. can mutually exceed one another from whence it is evident. IX. infinite boundlefs. exhauftible ? infinite inexhauftible.20 ^pofoptncai $?inctplcs be abundance of Reaion to . there may lead one to think fo there is no to be endowed with fome Qualities. no/* nite Addition norMultiplication of fimtesj&n produce an Proportion infinite. that deftroy the Being of a Creature.Extmfion and thought. infinite in their Degrees. which by finite Multiplications. like Infinites ones finite finite $ and very many quite contrary is bounded. they have few or no common Qualities. or Subtraftion thefe and that finite can nei nor fubftra6fced from w/zthat are of the fame things . ther be niteJiQi added to. to one another.

3 But in Bbb . in refpeft of thofe of a lower.as no parts of the Qjt&fitum . the other. The fame little is true.of you cannot add Cows to Horfes. ( mtdy Small) ?n infinite of the lowert kind and a then in the Arithmetick of fuch either infinitely Great or infi* is the fame. fo like- wife in the Aritkmtick of finite*. for when the Proportion between any kinds of infinites. &amp.lt. can make you can em from offinftef. the lower to be rejeacdj in the Aritbmetick of the higher kind j thus the Root. of any infinitely great or Quantity. becaufe no finite Number make an infinite^ nor any finite part of an infinite make a finite.5tion. is to be thrown away. as no parts of the thing we fearch for. wherefore in the can drithmetick of the one. ib likewife not zddfidites to. of is fquare An infinite Quantity. nor fubtradt infinites. and fo in the higer Powers. the other is to be neglefted. in that of the Cubes. nor pare of the one. becaule no Number. of a higher Rank. and the Squares. all infinites are to be thrown away. as that between finite^ infinite*. in the dritbmetkk of the Squares of infinite Quantities .

nor form a Notion of Infinity our Me mories and our difcurfive Faculties. fo we can neither exhauft the Con tents . we can neither frame a Picture to ourfelves. and therefore is no mean in Arithmetical Operations. nor any of the Operations of the Mind. arc li . mited. the laft is always to be rejected in the Arithmetical Operations of the firft. by reafon that the Produdt of the of two Fractions. wherethan lefs to ob ever the Proportion of infinite finite tains.gtfjiiofopitfcai $tfncfpies in infinitely fmall Quantities. is always Multiplication of the But either Fa&amp.gt. X. I the latter. be- caufe no finite Multiplication of Part of that. can we in a attain to the pofitive Properties. isabfolutely incomprehenfible.lt. ginations and Apprehenfions are finite. the contrary obtains. or cffcntiaJ . nor run over the Parts of Infinites^ word. this can produce the former. by none of the Faculties. both our Ima pacities. The pofitive Nature of Infinites. fo&amp.5lors. by finite Ca fuch as ours are. of Addition and Subtraction of thele Quantities.

or Force. as our Minds enlarge. Bbb 4 far . but we know very commonly. when we are Children. of their Nature. flies little and that is all that Study and Application does. is the laft thing we attain to. as we well do now finite ones . at the and Capacities. We fee for Ex- emplc ftinft lities. fo that they are very &amp. to the natural of our Minds. and that a di(Quantities ) of their pofidve Qua Relations. came at hft to be infinite. and us with variety of Objects j but adds Vigor. that the natural Enlargement of our Minds. and our Undcrftandings open. as eailly.of ffiatutal Beligfon* tial & 3 Attributes of in Infinites. we then fliould conceive. as we now do the leaft.gt. the pofidve Na ture of infinite Quantities. come diftinftly to conceive as the greatcft finite Numbers. Numbers all finite ( the moft adequate Pictures of Apprehenfion. we are capable to advance. cility with much if Fa and our CompnlMnfions. in to give us a furniconceiving things. ends . time of our Maturity Facility. we might per haps. and if our Capacities did conftantly enlarge and encreafe.

i t.gt. -.. which we can attain to. an as n.. Parts fuch as Unity. fince we can never comprehend the pofitive Nature of Infinites. i.-. the relations of neceflary to one ano the Parts. we fliotiid diftinguifli Number of which.._. ______. and that is their relative Nature. $J)Sofbpj)fcai .&quot. Pro* +1 +3+4 +5i &c. an flitutes the infinite.. con* infinite Now thefe may be ei unequal. nother. far from arriving to that Strength. it For is the more diftind Appre Infinites hending. with any probability of Succefs. i4 . the Proportion that n has to XL ther. for all the Proportions that finite* have. Since then thus is. io as to it be able to conceive. fince it is abfolutely impoffible for us to ftretch our beyond their prefcrib d Limits. ther all and that in a regular. . for it s certain. or the finite Relations of infinites to one another. Quantity of equal Parts. the pofitive Nature of Infinites. that infinites have to one aCapacities. we muft be contented. fuch has to an infinite Quantity of equal infinite \&amp. fuch as greffion.. to improve that Part of infinites.

who(e Parts infinitum are 2. as turn. where the Pares that at laft con&itute. when I do not exprefs its in fmall finitely Parts. infinitum j for Diftinftion nify finitt oo an infinite Number ( reprefenc or figof Unities or /#- I would be underflood always. are as Natural bers ? or thefe Parts may be as che&fftirif. and CXD a Numinfinite of indetermin d equal Parts 5 then | will m .2 4.&c. or they may go on in any Geometrical Profinite. an infinite Number. laftly. conftkures the infinite. C0fej. ininfinior QQ 2 ovoo x ^ in fignify er an infinite Number. the infinite. i. or as the Roots of fucb Powers. Or the Parts. &c. fake. let 2. infinite. or z 4- i -^ i -}- . regular Progreffion : all thefe Varieties may happen in the Parts. or any other Powers of Natural - Num Numbers. this I here declare once in general^ for fo for all) or oo turn i = 4.o &c. in infinitum.. i at laft con- ftitutes or reprefents the i quai. grefiion aicending or defcending from or the Parts may have no in- of which the infinite Number. i + f y alto let 2 QO 4. &c in may be e- in infini- +z 4. of which.

having firft reduc d to thole.16 ^DflofopDfcal Wnctptes will be equal to*. + + oo oo 3 likewife oo x oo Infinite or the Cube of an oo * is Number and fo of Unites. S C H Article L I U M. = oo J oo ^ + ^ = 00 .or the infinitely fmall part of an infinity of Unities.-^^^ the Ninth. IDO+OO 2 5 = oo 2 4-2^=oo.. this and the whole dritbmetkk of and of Finites deduced . oo e. whole infinitely fmall cjual : with one ano with Infinites. oo 3 4. From ther. oo = oo a -}- 20Q K) = . Number of Unities. may be Infinites all Infinites Parts are e- thus. alfo oo x oo = oo i * is an infinite i Number x of oo or V+ &*c. 004 oo z . and infinite the indefinite Power of an forth. Addition. 5. which is i. i? r= \j^j z and ^= \J*J a.

MultipKcatton. = oo ]. 4^004 aO ? C0^~.=:00? let 004 ^ then oo ? -^. oo 5 -f oo 00 z ~ oo . z 3 -|- oo 4-x Z 4. oo oo ^ x 4. Let be than n by any finite oo Quantity. 1 4X. oo P~^ oo ? . izoo .00 = 00 1 . co i or oc 700 _ 5 oo = 1 oo -a /? 900? 500^= 400 x *. oo 4 x ooe = 4eoo 3004x400^= = oo 6.Batumi aaelfgton* 2 = oo 4. . f = oo &quot.oo 104 17J * 024=007^. ^oo 3 00=003. 007 ^ 3. co * -|- oo = OQ lefs n and ob * -}- oo *~&quot.006?! GOJ 004^=00 2. then Subtraction. 5 .. 00 ^ 5 _7zz:oo ^00^ _400^=:^_^00^. 00x5 oox oo^oo 1 and o * 00^x00^=00 ^ +1. oo x 4 -J-oo 3 oo a.

~ oo or oo ~. ^=OO P ^53 ^.&quot. Q ^ X OO a P M f O^f e ? -. f ^ oo ^ oof JtHt -2 ^ J 5 ^7 5^5- . XII. 00- ^ Thofe who are ever fo little acquainted with the Speeious Arichmetick.&quot. 2- oo P * I *&quot. will cafily Underftand the Truth and Realbn of theie Operations. 5 * ct ^ = oo 2 ry&quot.&amp.gt.* J 5* k OO ^gr = 59/ 4-1* oo i* ft C3 Fractions.lt. QO * =* f ~ &amp.28 fiivifon.5 | + co A = co ~ A ^oo ep .!? ~l ^ 00 /I ? &quot. oo 2* f 7 = &quot. Now to illuftrate this Ariihne- in Tome few Problems let the firft be th^c of the Sum of an arithmetical Trogrefto j from having the firft Term in y y = a* . O 4. tick.

lt. } Lee \si fignify. in infinitum =^ 4 i oo i x oo i = ( by the Pvules of .gt. the fame for pens the = o and ^ = oo &c. infinitum) is e- qual to ~\ or the natural Numbers. hap or oo ) if ^ (^ f a or oo ^ . and Roping at M/zwte may be allowed to (peak fo) vi%. giventhe Difference of two Quantities equal to e. of ^9 Dif ic ference.x&amp.i or an Infinite Number of U- nities. by the Rules of Addition ) And the infinitely (null equal Part of fuch a t Sum. If ^ ==oo. be ( if I ginning at a. 4- 4. Sum i of a whofc or firft i Series. laft is cxs ^ 4. then y = #* -f- v e -\- TT&quot. which as is greateft. all i . o 5 &c.and v ( = o} then j-== ~l^^i^ ^. when uncertain &amp.. i Exemple. is u* ^atnral fttUgfon* and the Common theiaft = &amp.gt. and the i Numbers. of natural Term is d.= d.

. if 0. where a be put to a equal finite Quantity. fhould have their Sum . ) or &quot. given.gt. between i ^ and o. for Example. infinitely Rules of Addition) fmall and the ^ ^ = co ( or oo i ) equal part of fuch a bum. = Difference.= -&quot.= oo 5..^=^0 = i f then &amp.the infinitely is fmall equal infinite part of fuch a Sum. Number of halves. if (by . had been then had been equal to IfJii^. If inftead equal to an of the common the Number of Terms &amp. f. is equal to an infi nite Number mean * of Five s. for Exemple.the. i =: ~ . (by. or Five is the infinitely fmall equal part of fuch a tical Sum of Arithme 01. we fuppos d. if a 0. v = and* = oo i.Multiplication. t henj=^-.. d ootfj V = = oo = oo /?. thus if in^f might be in an Arithmetical Progreflion.gt. or the Sum of all the poffible Arithmetical mean Proportio nals. t Suppofe * + ** Proportionals.

the laft o. In let a Geometrical the firft Term be Progreffion call d a y s the &amp. or tht in finitely u/que ad a.. let r co s be as z then a Geometrical at oo Series continued. the Series oo m wputum.gt./ . ginning at fuch a on ing CO OO OO i and ending rate.. continued. - and go -Ji 7 -]- 7 + s ? &c vi%. If rto . = ( by to 5 the Rules ofDivifons i.lt. ~ 31 ^ XIH. if it be required to find the infinitely fmall equal part of fuch Prothat let part be called * the greffions. firft Term * of the Terms r to sy r * * * then J where y r s = &amp. And universally. f i. .o be oo . If r be as 2 to then i ^-^ 2. = ^~= part oo 2. to 1 3 for Example. oo * r s and confequently / * ) = cor^oo/ . y be comes -^y. the la ft &amp. fmall equal of fuch a Progrcffion is 2.I(atio and if their the Sum s y. be at 0.lt.of ( Natural meltgtom 5 and the by the Rules of Addition) fmall infinitely equal Part of fuch a Sum. ..

if and confequent*. and of the &amp. to find the infinitely ftmll equal part of the Sum of fuch a Profinite. and confequent) ly * = ( by the Rules ofDivifan -^-~^ s . then jp 7^- =~ finite. be required. y ~ If ~^. be and the and gteffion.^ laft nothing. the firft be and firft the laft nothing. may have Term its Sum being a at laft. the firft Term of the Series. Geometrical Progreffion. of fuch fmall equal parts If it bt to 2. then OQ = -- -. whofe firft given Quantity. and fo in other Cafe.-iH ii^rh f . then x = $. an infinite is Number. as i to then * 00 00 for = i. as the it alfo if the thelaft finite y firft = ~ x be nothing. = J i.i^. continu Terms of a ally defcending. be t .gt.gV r to If tffytio i i^DaofopDicai be as | to i. r ly = if of the Terms be the fame. equivalent to find the tifytio of the required. and : rt . e. if the firft Term of the Se ries. ^. and of the $(atio of the Terms. equal . and r to *. Example.

a Quantity firft than the Sum.-. the Sum of fuch a Procollecting C c c grcffion. for Exemple. and of the (Ratio of the Terms. D z Progreffion. Sums an are at laft equal And thus s Infinite Number of different Series may be found. r to T fuppofed. be a^ and therefore the Geometrical i continually defcending. begining at different Quantities. laft all equal lefs . j. and going on in whole Sums. may be at for if you pur. fuppofe the firft Term of fuch a Progreflion ~ . different fl^f/Vj.-i 4- 8 j becaufe both their to 2. and put the fecond and then Term of the *I(atio unknown. a to i . begining ac a different given Quantity. ^TY r * a . then in that Cafe. i to ~ then a = -}- f f ~ f r^ 4 5. and going on in a different ^atw. both their Sums mufl at laft be equal. the 3{atio Sum of the Terms. .of Natural fttUgtott* equal to the 33 of another Progre/fion. W^. for the Term of the Series. + r* as r -~^. and confecjuently if .

^. for 9 2. then Progreffions. begining at different Quan tities. & of cwo Terms. + - i - infimtum. but to form an improper Fraction (as it s calTd) whofe Numerator being any Number fuch. * confiftins. r Sum -^-=: (in s this Cafe) * rAb^fesss v 3 - 9 9 17 f := a. Term i of the Q(ajf tio^ i/i the Sfnw it felf is. and going on in different tifytioSy We have no more to do._ . their Sums fhould be equal j you it greffio^make which all will find the unknown Term Excmple. and having ~ to j. which Series (hould be equal. wherefore._ 01 .14 to ^I)tiofc|)!)ical equal to the Quantity given.- . if it of the Series {ought . that ks Denominator. = ^ . to the of either of the two preceding which were equal to 2. rrr *7 . for to find & Series begirjing at its Q(atio were required ~. 9 fo thatnow 3 fuch to find an infinite Number of Geometrical Progteffions. confequently 5 the firft Term of the Smes^nd of the ^at\o } = being and the fecond ^-. . i. and ~.

laft thctifytio of Terms : i to j. for then per forming the iDmf/Joif.= -^ equal afterwards all 9~5 15 65 Reafon why all thefe &n&tj confiding of at laft Terms to io different are one another. the the . % Ccc . Again . join d by the Sign us Value may be equal to 2 . Numbers. $ we fhall have the 7 4 Series s fought ]0 &quot. Suppofe the Geometrical laft Term&quot. fhall be fliewn. of a Progreffion infinite r then x or the infinitely fmall Sum of (uch a Progrcfequal part of the lion.gt. according to the Arithmetick of Cojjick Quantities. continued the firft finite. wfiwtum. ~. for Exemple.let the fitft + \ + f &c m * &amp. Let 00 . XIV. of the Sum this infinitely equal fmall of the Progreffion Hull the be | Or Progreffion reduc fliall d to ics equivalent. in equal parts be ~ 4.of ffiatutal aaeltgtom or ? 5 . part. Ihall be (by the Method ufcd in the preceding Article ) the firft Term be /. thus.

the the laft c* 5 the of the Terms i. If it be defied to find a Geometrical Pro greffion.firft Term be * . of any given equal parts. and infinite j thus if to the Progreffion. fliali 3. and having the alfo.. gining at and ending at oo and going on . Term ot its Term of the Se . which begining firft at Unity. of the Sum of fuch a Progreffion. means. fhall be or the Progreffion it felf. begining at the Unity. be i. finite may Number have Term of its tf^atio its Sum equal to Unity an in- fuch as 4.lt. and having tffytio firft ries the laft Unity. going in any affignable Progreffion. then5=|. and s ifd 4 ^^ ^. &c. you if &amp. infinite.*~ 5 then 5= By fuch may have an infinite Multiple or to any other on Submultiple. be equal to an ^ infinite Number of in infinitum. three s +3 4-3 +?&amp. the infinitely fmall equal part.gt. we may Quantity. to an infinite Number of equal parts. to ~. ~.. and ending at oo . And thus reduce any Geometrical Pro begining at a finite greffion afcending. =a.

infinite con finite fiding of of Terms can. a then s and r = ~ Ccc = ^Vo . in have a Progrefllon. then is 5 = -^-^ = ~ Number obcainU fo that no fuch an Geometrical Progreflion. Unities. and having qual to the the firft Term of the Quarto. cTerm of the Series. find an Geometrical Series finite Quantities. having its Sum in any given proportion to any other Geometrical Progreffion and affigned 5 confecjuently you may s. &c. whofe Sum you will had it you would have a fliould be equal to an If &ritt. begining infinity of at different tits all ~= and having different 3^ Let r *a* equal to one another. infinitum + -f 4 you fliould be triple of this. infinite Sum Number of whofe oo . poffibly be unfaerfall)) And you may find a Geome* tried Series begining at any given Quan lefs than the fecond Term of the ^atio 9 tity. firfl you may thus find luch a Series. I fay. i 8 -f- would 16. vi^. = oo 2.of Natural met&totu on -|- 37 1 in the ^(atio of i to 2.

fo that fuppofing one of the Terms of the afTum d at pleafure. A. 4K^. let 336 .F. you may find gratia the other . Huofc H T 5 sr Let there be a Curve dlfciffes 2&amp. you may have Progreflions. infinitely all different Geometrical whofe Sums may be equal.lt.H(atto. in are the fixt point computed from the ^xe A1H.gt. and making the firft Term of the Series begin with the firft Term of the &amp.

i infinitum&amp. that the fpace adjacent. Unity. t ac Cafe) as alfo it becomes i _TI. Now if n i then the Equation of the Curve will be y =3 i . n n 1 is that i ^re&amp.of ffiatutal aaelfgiom 39 = then tiires.gt.e* AiBCDELfi^ indefinite will be :*!_ and will the be . IE be i. then ( becaufe 71 D^~~~^ AGLFGf^l x = y~~~ m where ~ | be &quot.*/ = Crt&amp.gt. to c c 4 C . x. (b that (mall equal part. that evident. .^nd I j~ i. is the continued infinitely in infinitum. .lt.* becomes in =~ fo ^r 1 4it + + + i^&c. of the Area of the ^polhnian Hyperbola. * 9$ J and the Area AftC DELI^ will W be equal to** i = i i i i = + + + i i i i + 1+5 &c. If the Indefinite Area required.gt. e and the Equation of the be ) = -^^ Area by the common Methods of Quadra* the indefinite &amp. ~ 1 .

in this Hyperloloid. i. would be equal to an as alfo infinite Number of two s.40 to both the is Hyperbola. A CD Lf^. fince the infinite its fmall equal part. &amp. = ~ =^i =2.lt.lt. or ( computing only to the Area * where 4- 1 6. this Space would be double of Space. by the preceding Arti will be x cle. Afymptotes of the Apollonian infinite $ and the whole Space on both If n = A/ywptotes 2. Now this firft is is a Geometrical Prois greffion. or oo 2.lt.?c. and t 3 if it be continued only till its Q(atio of the Terms ly be oo to 2.B . becomes I.BEFH the Space i = __ a z i . r and fo the interminated Space. whofe Term laft i i. and the Apollonian And y = i like wile. n 2. contained between the CurVe and its Afymptote. Hyfcrbolick when becaufe &amp. the Area oo 2 &amp. * .

equal Progreffion were only Infinite or eo If i. of the Terms i -i. whofc firft Term fl^if/0 1. and the i.1 4.1 4 J &c. =~. and if ABEFH and the &amp. 4 is i 2 4.Crc. would be oo 2 4. or z to the therefore by the is preceding Article..= (by the Seftim f + f + f + | O^c. = + j +i + ^ ^w hoi eAfymptotick Space of this is Hyperfoloid. 1 3 And Univerfally. and jf=i a i only op the ^re^ is i.gt. and to laft o.6rc.of Natural -I. 5 equal to oo | =| +| +| +| 3 &amp.2 upon fupthat the = pofition that the greateft Term of its un* i. = So whole Jfymptotical Space of 2 the Hyperbola whofe Equation is jf x i. oo z. ) .) only by the pre ceding . then the ^r^ and 5 n= = ^= preceding 1 x= AlEDC + 5 + j + i7. .&c. upon i that Suppofition.lt.o Bcligion&amp.gt.lt. when n the laft Term = i. Sum of the Terms ^ = i.C= ifx= = + + + + Term of the Series then the Space w4 n n M j^ infi laft whofe nitely fmall equal part ( fuppofing the oo i. A1ET&amp.

atid -f ~-^ &rc and = i i . i. thus the Area of the Apollonian Hyperbolaj confifts of an infinite Number ot Unities. of fuch exterior Hyperbololds. had the equal parts of which rc. and both Ajymptotes. * is jfx = f. whei^thc laft Term of the -Series was only oo . ( putting - A &amp. ^-^j-. then the the Sum of which is ^ n ~~ . that iome of thefe HyferMick Spaces. the Area of the Hyperbola. comprehended between thefe Curves^ in infinitum. of an infinite Num ber .lt. i -f- +w+n + ? upon fuch a Suppofi* Hence it appears in fome part.gt.B = ?i AI= 4 4 w . . in certain Ratio s to one another. ) is equal to.ceding Seftion. is is ~-^ to oo this Series J[- ^ equal ~ = ^ + -~ confequently if &amp. which in their Language were call d plufquam Infinite or more than infinite. whofe 7 Equation. what tion. fo that the whole Space. which might be. thofe Geometers meant by the Area s of thefe Hyperbolc ids. ^ == oo they confifted.

be required.ber 4? of ffiamcal aaeltgton* the Area of the Hyperbola. to exhauft thq whole Area of the Afymptotick Space. let the given quation be y ^. then it s plain that muft be equal to fl and confequencly H- 7 . multiple required. let the Hyperbola. as fliall be afterwards (hewn.x of an infinite infinite Number of ~ j but here the Num ber of equal parts. of two s $ whofe Equation s is 3 i &amp. be y = x~*. that fhall with the AJymptote If it AftCDEL only oo fymptote. A the given infinite Space. i Suppoiing the laft Term . 4.gt. muft be much greater than the infinite Number of two the former of which equal parts. confifts. as every Body knows lefs. Expreffion of the given which contains with the AC. for the whole Space in this. Let the Multiple or Sub. for Exetjiple. $ fo that though the Parts be the Sum muft be more. of which the Area of this Curve confifts. be a. to find the Equation of a Hyperboloid. and confequencly the given . is greater than the whole in either of the other two.

i -j-i^ Space and let ic be required to find another infinite = infinite Space. and perhaps falfe. the Sums cannot be equal the fame Objection parts are . whofe Terms have begin different at different and which given Quantities. aor fcending defcending to oo or o . to an infinite Number of equal parts. for fince all the fuppos d to be unequal. If it be objeft- ed. takes place in Geometrical Progreffions. afcending. i -j-i J|-i -j.44 given Cfrc. and yec &amp. their . to fave the trouble of Animadverfiom ( if it be poffible ) I fliall here obviate fome Objections. fome of thefe Inferences.lt. in to OQ or o. may appear a little odd. whofe equal parts i triple r of this. or defcending. it is infinitum impoffible. and j felf = + +3 + ? ? 4-?&amp. thcnw~ a and fo the Equation a -part of the infinite Space = will be y = ^ it may i be = ~ z 3 ~~ . that of an Arithmeticaly or Geometrical Progreffion. the Sums fhould be equal. that might be made againft them . &c in infinitum* Now.%atios.gt. becaufe. to fome People. and i .

as above an infinite Number of Unities.&amp. lee fuppos d to have. i. equal to o &amp. i. the Number of the Terms become 001.lt. for Exemple.lt. equal to continued till equal to &amp. or in a given to one another . of i +1 +~+ all continued to oo . as Well as above Exemple. the parts of the firft and the parts two Equations of the third. to oo . whofe Sums may actually below an infinite Number of Uni infinite. continued the Terms be Sum oo i of 1+1+4 + 8. &amp. continued i fhould l be j_ss + ssj_2_LS2^ ~ i ^ a * c. .&c. continued to oo fliould be equal to 2 till +2 + 2+2 + ber of O*c. of three s.of Natural their fyttio afrcligt om Sums fuppos d equal. of is an infinite Number folltt . how are i the Series +1 + 3+4+5+6. it 5 for ties.lt. that there an infinite Num ber of Series s.&c. us Confider. Num How the continued to jfliould be but the third part of the Sum &amp. How 5 1 + 1+4-1-8 + 16.lt.lt. have no fuch Proportion. Since are unequal. j]. there of two s.&c.rc. as their Sums arc In Anfwer to thefe.

.gt.^f. Exemconti i-j-2-j~4-}~S-{-i6.c. Greater. = + + J 4. 6^c. vi%* as i i 4.ffrpofopfrtcal fours.*&amp. ^c. * j &amp. they may be different infinits. becaufe. 1 -[- 1 j e^r. below an infinite Number Number of Unities. all whofeSums above is &amp.^ &c. oo z z 3 0&quot. may be the Sum of another infinite Series parts be all infinite 5 equal tho 1 their unequal. there . and (b \ on. in fc&amp. infinitum. all the Number of Se ries equal to oo i. the other a Leis ple. and oo 5 = + V+ ? -f 5. nued to oo be may be equal to 2 till + * *H * firft 4.lt. tho* Number of parts in both. be infinite. of one thirds of one In fourths. and fo forth fo below oo i there and oo i -4.2 r i + 2 i are actually i Infinite. becaufe the . there are an iw/zwrt of halv s. the one a thus for &*c.5- infinite Quantity and therefore to Sum of minjwite Series. conunued pares.lt. O*c. of makes the air finite Quantities whatfoever.gt. . for all which infinite- are real infinite Quantities an Number. and both have an the yet Number of parts. infirittunt . i.

more particu in the fecond Serai. it v = oo 11 becomes than oo the ^.gt. . the and cheleaft a. and fo quickly arrives ac oo i. in the fecond for let the Number of Terms of a ed. be.gt. therefore i + 14-5+4+5 &c.. and a is t ~^. Now is certain that infinitely oo theLogarithm of lefs. begining bccaufe the Sum of ending equal all fuch is to the half of the Rectangle of the greaccft. Geometrical in this Cafe. whereas the fecond on at the goes fame equable Rate. z. is con- fiderably left. Sum of the . i . fo that there is not fo encreafes faft ? great a as Number of ^ Terms in the firft Series. in the Arithmetical Progreflion at i and tural Numbers. becaufe both the laft.bf jgafttral meligiom n&amp. larly.$ 4? and always doubles the preceding Term. = where r = . of na at . then r V ar f . greateft t &amp. Progreffion continu the fytio of the Terras r. only. in firft Series. into the Sum of the Terms . not therefore the Number of Terms. continued to oo =: and the -. than the Number of Terms But 5 .

ufque ad oo . with all the preceding. then as for the Geometri in cal Progreffion i Afcending infinitum. and becaufe the laft Term is oo i . where it is obfertrc. is infinite. is Sum of the is laft. than +2 + 4+8 i -]- +9 3 . vi^ + z -f 4 + is i dent. that the Series i continued to eo i. K^. and therefore the laft. in like manner in the Geometrical from i Progreffion continually afcending. + ) ( by the Rules of Addition to oo z.the Terms is oo . oo + ^ oo i = ( by the Rules of Addition ) \ . there equal to the Sum of all the foregoing Terms. vable. therefore the Sum of all the Terms except the laft. i 15 and confcquently the and of all the preceding Terms. is greater. and fince the laft Term fore oo _ i fuppos d i. every of all the former 8 &c. i + 3 o . is equal to ao i oo i _ = . ufque ad is double of all the 1 Term preceding + 3 Terms. or oo i . to oo in the^dft oof i to 3. becaufe every 9-1-17 &c. it is evi Term here is equal to the Sum + i.

is --^confequently the Sum of the the _ . /. arrives at oo i /ooner. as for the two. therefore the Sum of Crc. *. then i is of all the Sum every Term triple of the preceding Terms.of ffiatutai meltstotu + 9+27.%atio. continued to GO i. and of all the ( 00 1 w = ~i i -[ preceding.lt. _ i -[- n -f n* all preceding. caufe firft. if the Series be i 4-4 16 643 &c.. continued to oo & Odd and . be- there are more . Terms in the than in the fecond the fecond di- verging fafter. viz. &-c. after a fewer firft. an a laft. continued to oo j. i isi=I Every Term Sum of all the preceding. Number of Terms than ihe bo likewife. the -}- of i to n. Series s tsrc. and becaufe the laft is oo i. and confccjucntiy the Sum of all oo 4 and + ~ = - univerfaily. the Geometrical Progreffion and going on continually to oo &amp. +1 +4 + 8. and at a greater Rate than the firft. j n the n -f n\ times. begining at i i. is by the Rules of Addition oo ) to Laftly.

and confequently the Number of Terms in the firft. taking AB= i to the Infcri- bed fquare) yet the Area of the Infinitely is no more than B A FG long Tarallehgram i _p i -|- i ^it i from whence the jfrCt continued in infinitum. ~!&amp. To .i -J-^c con equal to i -jtinued till the Number of Terms be infi 1 4FDCB and ( may be objected. than that of the fe cond. both which have the fame Numerators. for the much Number of Terms been fliewn. 7 Log..lt. is t = ^-^ Log. nite.gt. and 2. Number of Terms It is much lefs. would feem to follow that Space ^FPCS. a r* which fecond in the Log. in the on ^TT&quot. is fewer than in the fecond. than the in the fecond. it is evident that Number Terms in the firft. becomes ^-^. Area ( fee the following Figure ) is found -].&r. but the Denominator of the firft is much greater.50 and the i +1 + p+ of as has firft &amp. were equal to the which is abfurd. that the Hyperbolick i .

gt. than J*G with^S. i. d. chat tho each of to an infinite Number of Unities. is becaufe (kho* both FCand FG meet at sn in both. Not only but a Pwallelo- gram. than the Hyperbolick Area. yec the Spaces are not equal. Diftance.gt.of Natural ic ffieugtotu To thefe. AFGftt? AFDCft. whofe Breadth is i. And i = AFDCft^ + + + i confequently i we i+i. yet) F C meets fooner with Aft. is not the fame infinite and the reafon why that infinite Number. make this yet more Ddd plain. a. is not the lame in both. e.. c = oo AFG=\-iri i/ x 1 5 where than and therefore fo. is oo c fi x . i ? and H-i-l-i greater crc. infinite fuppofing the Diftance between A and B oo a and Aft) (the Concurfe of . this is be equal anfwered. let A^ To = GL (fee 2 . be greater than (hall have C^c. and the Diftance between A and ft ( the FD =&amp.\(l may be al~ oo low d to (peak fo) then b will FG = /&amp. Concurfe of with Aft. with Aft. and whofc Length is oo a ) (or the Diftance between A and the Concurfe of FC with Aft) is greater. becaufe that Number.

vi%. 3 jx GL. exprefles the Nature of an this infinity you have x = ~ of Hyperboloids.= -^- flhews. be. then y = oc~ . of two Curves y x* AG . which GL 5 3 in refped of the fame Abfcifs i Exemple. and Al be i. at an Diftancc from A. than the point ^ : L the fecond (yx in ) wheg you and take AG the fame therefore the greater you the it will before the fuppofe w. the longer will the ordinate be.e. integer preceding Figures ) be call d x. when GL infinite is o. for i . which has i confequently the point i) fliall L in the to firft (yx*=: i approach nearer in ^C. and . G L. longer Curve meet with the Afymptote AC. and (hall have a ) longer Orthan the former. from i. that the greater you fuppofe n to be. = ( of which the former gives GL =~ y x == the other GL = 3 ~~} v^J^ that which has w 5 ?i = 2.5* ( ^pofopptcai the fee KiLy. j both LED But they all meet with AC. Let n be an =1E n Number.

is which Cafe the i. meet with it as alfo infinitely produced. in infinite Parallelogram^ refpe&amp. duly confidered will remove all the Diffi culties arifeing in the different Expreffions. and confequcntly of i any two . note by 09 ^ I a fay that 3 iis lefs than -v/&amp. i is the becaufc y x ^ Equation for the = infinite Parallelogram^ it may be reckoned Thefe things the Hyperboloids.lt. = b.5t of the is for the Unity the the Came in both. which n ByferMtidt y x = i .of Natural and therefore thefe infinite Diftances AC muft be different according to the different Values of of n . meet with the dfymptote /L.gt. . n Suppofe rr = oo in then GL = K * ^O 1 *^CX5 f GL.gt. z = . among of the Hyperbolick Spaces. only the d d Number of D Terms . AC&amp. Ordinate conftantly which is the proper ty of the Parallelogram fhews that all the ACXGL. AC^ before .of thefe Hyperboloids y x whofe Concurfe with the Afymftote A Cy we ftiall denote by oo a and y x i we fiiall dewhofe Concurfe with 3 .

2 + i + 2. and yet. in fhould be m/tfH mto.*x z. of the Hyperbntoidj whofe Equation z is j/x = i confifts.54 Terms all in all of them lefs is different. may likewife feem odd. And Area of the whofe Equation is yof == f.. and in of them. &c. in than the Number of Terms It the infinite (parallelogram. why for Exemple. ^-\-^-\-^J^ ^-\-^) &c. (where n is an in infinitum teger Number. the thefe )aft are than the greater firft. whofe equal parts are 2 -f. the equal parts of which the Area of the Afymptotical Space. But the Difficulty will raniQi. if we ap has been already faid to this Cafe. ply what for it s certain that the Number greater firft. muft be Number of Terms in the we fuppofe that theie equal parts exhauft the whole Areas t ) for if the Number of Terms in the firft. the equal parts of which the Areas of the dfywftotical Space. (if of Terms than the of thefe laft.) Areas of yet its certain. be equal to oo ^ ? the Number .. of the in others bormAj (hould be leis. for Exemjplej^.z -J.

then e muft be greater than a.of ffiatutal ^Religion* 5 y Number of Terms w i in the others. for Exerru all Series in -f- n -J. in their at oo i . equal parts are J JL e&amp.gt. and greateft Number) Ib by thefe means an infinite Number of the this Suppofition. they muft be all fuppos d. tr where 2 ^ be or the Ground of . the Invention infinitely fmM part ^-^ depends up . that the Invention. Tv^. ni whofe . which expreffes the 4/ymptotical Spaces of its AlEDC. But the Truth of the Matter is. equal parrs. an equal Number of in Times* Now fome of em. pie. -j- flop. on the Suppofition. whereas to give the true Hyperboltck Spaces. to go on. than others.n* J- n* -}-n* n\ &c. jI u yfer -f K j n i equal to oo e. obtained upon cannot be equal to the iw^i^Number of un conftitute the Area . thus equal parts which Dd d 4 i + . that all thefe Series s flop at oo i and go no further. (chofe. equal Parts in is of theft thedfymptotical Space of thefe the Difcovery.c. infinitum. Hyperbohids. diverging finite n is the fafter. where arrive at QQ t fooner. in the that they i unequal Progreffions.

but the reafon of this divcrfity is.gt. whereas the parts are lefs fecond Area is greater than the firft . and as the Area of this laft.&c. and 1.^. firft fo are the parts refpe- dively is . than the nitely Denomination of the infi fmall equal part. fo that the Quicknefs unequal part. reduced to equal parts. + i + + 1 -h 2.gt. is greater i -f + + 3 than that of the firft. as they fliould do.have the leaft infinitely mean when fmall equal parts.equal to -f 9 the ^red of the Curve whofe Equation is jy x E= i . whofe Equation = I . they make the greateft Area j an equal infinite Number of parts are taken. becaufe the fe cond Area firft. is equal to the Ais yx&quot. arrives fooner at oo i .of the l Spaces. than the former . 1 rea of the Curve i + 4+8 5 1 6&amp.which diverge tafteft.7 *9.&c. cho in the time. is taken from its ar the And oo i without confideration of the . riving at or Slownefs thereof. whereas the febut | + \ +& +~. &c.s. which cond i is &amp. from the Number of Terms .56 4. but the 2. If it werepoffiblc to find the fmall infinitely equal parts.

but one of thefe two. fuppofe the Exponent of the AbJclfs of the one be /?. Infinite equal in the Relati is ons. even of the Relative Natures of thefe infinite Spaces. in it s pofitive Nature. I know no way. gible nent. do not at all extend to the whole to an Alfcifs. have the Relation of one another . to n+ n l . with- Terms being = oo i out knowing what the Logarithm of an infi nite Quantity is. then thefe i Spaces i fliall be one another. for thefe equal parts. can be exprels d. J. which I have uied to reprefent in fome manner their Re* lations. of the other n. . then we Qiould infallibly. are equally unintelli to find the Expo whofe fuppofe/?.of Natural Beligfon* given 57 or oo a . f as to j . Space veil Qtytio. ever to arrive at a compleat Comprehenfion. f n both p i i which Expreffions. but which them all. but if we defire (hall be in a gi fuppofe i to m y to . oftheO^w. but to thefe Spaces to me. Spaces. or as r p+ . of thefe J/jmptotical Spaces to one another. at leaft. it feems impoffible.

= 2.f then -^ n .and n = 2. becaufe thofe Terms the ter in remoter. in the firft is 2.iftt . i. and if Exponent Power . = 7. that the Equation have its infinite of that whofe Expreffion is y x *. Term both.. is from the begining of comes equal. become firft than the fame after the firft Terms of in num- bred from the begining.. and p then /? =~ _= -i. which fhall Jfymptotical Space. is -2.gt. and the Spaces are (puting isj^l x i) i ^-2 of the Cwwe. is fon why is this laft Space the double of the of the lat greater firft. double = = = +4+8^16. if /&amp. w=== where 5. which happens.to the other . equally dithe Series. and the the of the Terms of the afcend refpedively in the Powers of thefe Numbers. i.and this in always an affignable Term. be thefe Cafes. ftant the fecond Term for Exemple. in the reft fecond. = ~. m =2.

^ = Log. the Parallelogram A FG B would con* x \ tain an w/witfe Space = oo =. and Leg. and = z^H!the s . ^ x ^F. is . its own Multiple and Sub- XVI. fb that it muft be the firft and lowed infinite Space its . It . that if AB. 5. ^ A draw draw infini- at ereft a y perpendicular AF i. FG. were produced turn. which renders in other Cafes 3 If both equal. is Cube ) O*c. and fo on then ~ Multiple^ or Submuhiple which (hews that no of the Jfymptotkal the Jppollonian Hyperbola^ can be Space of found but it felf. or own flfyof fo the rf/ymptottcal Space of the dppolhman Hyperbola multiple.lt. F in 3n indefinite Parallel to It is evident.B.- that as its Unity.Power of i and | be required that fhall make them 2 both the fame 2** Number 2 w then _ L and = 5&quot. Term. own Square. and from A&amp. from n i ? which gives the beginning. From the fixt Point the Indefinite right Line ^.

which with the Afymftote A.e y FX&amp.gt. x^/x-^x* where putting x =? and confequenly /x . contain an interminated Space. multiply d into any Number whatfoever. be d a y the ordinate E D be /x the Abfclfs E A. or equal to a finite Space. let this finite Number called y. of fignify the Logarithm then the Equation of the Curve (hall be x. and l let y= x^7~ equal to lx- for Exemple^ ^ let a be 4 then the Equation becomes y is = X-* /x.gt. x.It is required to fiad the (hall Nature of a Cun&amp. and the Area i.C. reprefented ABC DP given call by any finite Number. finite equal to Aft.

for Exemple.) this Area = AFC. alfo 9.i) = 4 . which.) and let 6fi be produced i. = we have d. let a 3 . and confequently intermediate . becomes affum 4.gt. If a 9. from the Hyperbolical Curves ( fee the Figure of the let A&amp.B=Al be i. let the Num ber to which we would have the intermi- nated Space equal be a. for the whole o. and = ~n. cuts the Axe (becaufe the Curve continued. AfcEFG I is x = dfymptotical and given calling i^the^r^is i.-~? Space j. the and fubftra6ting Unity (nzto Square A ft El) from the ^ra* thus found.i the infinitum^ The fame may general Equation for the whole j&amp. = 9 A F x AF Area + theruhat Space is 9 ~AF\* be obtained. the Exponent of the Curve fliall be fought + n=-^r.lt. and ktm=:a i .4. preceding Article . we fhall have the remaining Area I E FG a. then = = ^^4.

Al/dfs with the Radius AC ks AD Equation is = x7 =r.A*BG be defcribed.**- =. let us now apply the fame.gt. infinitely to fmall Quantities.- infinitely metical Operations of relative Infinites. from the fixe Point A. in ibme few Problems. &c. i/i from which fubftra&ing Unity (= have the the interminated Space 76 IE EG is = +f + two + Hcncc k H&amp..lt. for in the and 9 former Solution. the Areais.B &amp. of the Circle which may have at the ftrtex A the fame De AlE. 9 4 c r Sum or Difference of + 4=13 XVII.gt. may be equal to any finite Space. Having illuftrated the Ant\&amp. whofe Qrdinate its being y m ji x.g.lt. that involve Quantities Great. C&amp. gree .=4=1 + we * + f6 4.? evident that different two interminated Areas of Curves may be whofe found. let a Semicircle and let it be required to find the Radius r. to the Axe AH y let the Curve.\x defcribed.

= C. AF. tnuft likewife coincide beis . coincide. But if A and C the Circle fuppos d to have thcfe Points .lt. will be Equation z i r x ^. x t j the an&amp.of 6 ^G.e JF = i= Equation of the then I and cauft.z. gree of Curvature. with the Curve defcrib d whofe Tangent to the Vertex is 4 or Let C. be the next Point in the Axe to and fo AC (hall become infinity fmall /= equal to the Fluxion of the Abfclfi x \ and then the of the Circle.

I - is infinitly Radius AD is infinitly fmall. The 3(adiiMo[ that has the fame degree of Curva is with the Apollonian Parabola. and confequently common with the other 2 %r* # = xw y - =x!j^l = 2. or between the Tangmt AF? and the ^ . If to one half of its Latns rettum. If m ti r. is ortheC#minfinitly fwiof fuch Cr^w ^@G. when is a Wherefore the flowing Quantity.64 Points at the Vertex Curve. no GVcfe can fall. equal j? m l9 then r x . great at the Vertex. ture. for in that Cafe x is x fmall in refpeft of i. and i to be fuppos d o. Cm r then = JClldlJi-= oo. and lo to be thrown away and Circle. 1 + * a So 2 ifm= i. in refpedt of the Curvature of the GVc/e. or infinitly fmall. ^ 2 * == o.X yW &quot. the Cn* r becomes * 2 Parabola.e. and =^Il= JL + 2 but in this cafe finite # is infinity fmall in refpeft is of any a quantity. For in that Cafe . r becomes ~ i.

If m = then r ==Jr!i if = 3 r = two Curves* = &quot. = ^ = ^-=o.gt. = ^ then r &amp. tex y equal fo the Curvature of fuch Curves. Wo. and fo the Curve A*B will fall within the GVcfe ^/.of $atttrai Cafe the Exponent of i in the fitftTerm of the Value of r. and j&amp. 2 v. at their Ver* is = fmall (for in the Curvature at the Vertex infinitly all is fuch Cafes.gt.. or the Circle will cut the Curve. being fuppos d infinity to ~ r becomes ao. X ~7 oo . And fmall. Exemples. ^r -. Let let m be any Number^ iwf^ger or fraftion. becomes Negative^and i in the fecond Term. =- ^3 the E e . If m 2 . reciprocally proportional to the G(adiu4 of the Circle which couches the Curve at that Vertex) in refpeft of the Curvature of a Circle. there be whofe Equation* are^ = x&quot.

of which the Curvature.Hadiuis of their Curvatures at the will be. than Curvature of the immediatly following. that Infinites of all Kinds.-.. XVIII. of the Exponents of fuch Curves. for in that Cafe /y little. is infinitly great. integer. in refpcd of that And thus infinities s of Se of the fecond. And infinitly firft therefore the Curvature of the Kind of Curves. of the be infinitely Greater or preceding.gt. y and - m be an or a fraction the &amp.gt. may ries s Smaller.gt. : . is w- of the in refpeft of the Radius Curvature in the fecond . or o to i. v/^&amp.. fmall. as to their are epofitive Nature. nothing.66 the ^po(bp!)i(cai &amp. I dull only fubjoin this General Reflexion upon the whole Difcourfe.lt. or 772 1 .gt. qually . in refpeft of as x to i. But&amp. may be found. 2 is A: 5:^ 2 :: &amp. Relations of Having Infinites thus explain d. cal Point if ^~ : A&amp.2fy- dwj of the Curvature fzrtrt in the firft Cwm. the to one another.lt.

tho they be an various. we ought to pafs over all thofe in which Infinity is concern d. in quieting our Minds. adequate for fuch ^e/erches . it is the fame thing as to us. as being without our Sphere. but to leave the Matter as we find it . if not infinitely different Diftances from us. or infinitely infinite. their eflen- and pofmve Proprieties are equally be yond our reach. and pofirive Qualities. is involved. there we may la bour. whether they be firnp\y tial infinite. this Reflexion may where the pofitive Nature neceflary to be underftood $ of Infinites. but where ever Infinity in its absolute Nature. arc and fuch are fe- veral .of qually Natural fteuston* 67 above our Ccniprehenfion. And ture therefore in our Inquiries about the Na and Proprieties of things. and be of u(e to us. God Almighty having given us Capacities. all ftuck into the fame Concave Sphere. and not belonging to our Province nity is : where Fi- only concerned. and hope for Succefs. as it were. there we have nothing to do. as the fixt Stars feem to our Eyes. about the Difficulties in the arifing conception of thofe things.

nor be difquieted at what he can never JF I * I & . impoffible he fhould obtain. and fo ic for him to make us unis impoffible even derftand the pofitive Nature and Qualities poscl to of Infinites. both of Philofophy and God Almighty cannot be fup- workContradi&ions. we muft partake of the efTential Natures of (uch. and if we be Creatures. Religion. be of finite Capacities and Faculties. and by confequence.Veral Subjects.. And no it s wife Man will at tempt what help.

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