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PHILOSOPHICAL

PRINCIPLES
O
F

Natural Religion
Containing the

:

ELEMENTS
O F

Natural Pbilofopby
And
the

,
ri

PROOFS

for

NATURAL
Arifjtng

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RELIGION.,
from them.
F.

By GEORGE CHEYNE, M. D. and

R.

S.

Printed for the Gol den Ball in Cornhill over againft the Rojal Exchange. 1705.

L N D N: U GEORGE STRAHAN at

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loun. My Lord. taming . and con- jw A 3. EARL ROXBURGH. as claim Honour of Tour Lord/hips Patronage. faing undertaken in Obedience to lour Commands..T O The Right Honourable JOHN. Cefsford. HE following Treatife may in fome ttte Meafure. of Lord Ker. and Caver- Principal Secretary dom of State for the King of Scotland.

. yet did hit the Performance. I had with your Lordflrip. when you allow d me the Honour. r&amp.gt. imworthy of Tour Lordfoips Protection.tfw/NaturalKnowledge. to talk with you on Philofophical Subjects. haw made you f ogreat a Mafter of Reafonwgs of this kind. Such . I Jbotid not think it. that I am not capable of offer ing any thing to Tou worthy Tour own Perufal. even in the more abftrufe parts ofGeo- metry. anfwer.gt. taimng part ofthofeDifcourfes.Epillle Dedicatory.**&amp. Thtf Tour LordJJitfs uncommon Advances. the Dignity of the Siibjeft.

that they left it to their Stars to de termine^ which of the two afford them Occa/iort.lt. What . Such has heen Tour Lord/hip* happy Genius. and doing good to Man ledge . to layfuch Foundations hoth for Know ledge. that Tour great Progrefs in the nobler -parts of Philofbphy. in the Know of civil Government nor Tour univerfal Learning rendredyou more unfit for an active Life. kind. to become Moft ufeful to Mankind. and for Buftneis. and Conduct m Tour Studies. has not retarded Tour deeplnqutries.Epiftle Dedicatory. It wa&amp.s the peculiar Wif- dom of the Antients.

And the ^tieeiis Choice. if others know not as I do. for the prefent Reign.Epiftle Dedicatory. ProvifwnTour Lordflrip has laid inforthefirft. pacity r\ i for /-v^ * Her Ma~t A* Tour Country. had refertfd to this . it is becaufe they have not had Occafion to Dtfcourfe with Tou on Subjects of Learn ing. in the moft difficult Times. It was Tour LordJJjip s Opithat the Providence of the Almighty Governour of the Univerfe. is an undoubted Proofof Tour Ca the other. I wotfd fay too. ifany thing could he reckorid fo.

Epiftle Dedicatory. on purlaft this Age. great Advantages . who from their vithas Practices . who are a Living Exerriple/Zw/- and Probity go Hand in Hand. by which the Se crets of Nature have been more than in happily unravelfd any former Times. being prone to Atheifm. the Oracles of Reafon to be on their fide. as well a$ an Ornament to lour Country. to expofe the Folly ofa cor rupt Generation of Men. have vainlypretended. And upon the fame account. . thofe &amp.gt. pofe. I cannot but look upon Tour Lordflnp a& a fingular BlefTing. and that Greatnefs and Honefty receive A 4 addl* true Knowledge.

hut Jliatt only make good Wifljes. or Breedingy&amp. hecaiife I would not offend Tour Lordrip s darling Vertue. / J/iall choofe to tranfgrcfs again ft to the common Rules of Dedica either tions. But. or Fortune.?r Tem per. that Probity and Candor that foincs in all Tou fay or do. Tour Modefty. as the Motives upon which you accepted . mention. Tour Birth. ) jnom J Si May Tour Jjwd { ^\ happy in your Adminiftration.fup- pfy tie Place of a juft Enco mium.Epiftle Dedicatory. additional Liifk e from one ano ther. andJJyallnot prefume.lt. or which is more valuable.

this fmall Treadle is the only Prefent . my Lord. . for the many Favours I have received from you and Thefe.Epiftle Dedicatory. has fecufd you from mean and nar row Prejudices. are the only Returns. May your Endeavours for fettling the Peace and Hapfinefs of your Country . I can make your Lordflip. May you lye as eafie in your Office. were Juft and Ho nourable. as l&amp.gt. May your In tegrity -protect you from unjuft Malice . the World in And your Temper.it. as your noble Mind. as you are to all ftccepted.e as your Love to it is fmcere. fuccefsful.

andthatyour Lordfiip woiid believe.Epiftle Dedicatory.W ^^ V *^j moft obliged Servant. that no one can Honour you more. CHEYNE. than My Lord. y ^ti CEO. Lordfliip s Your moft humble. frefent ll)ave to offer you\ of winch however.! beg your Lord- Jhips Acceptance. and &quot. . .

to they are infcribed. and aflert his juft Right.. I give every doing Juftice to Man Liberty to lay in his own Claim. I have made free with their Inventions. without their Names. by a little reflexion on my Sub. what gave the Occafion and Rife to them.e&. (bme of them I borrowed from the Works of thofe Learned Men. TH whom I E End and Defign and of thefe Difcourfes. If any one think. wi*. and the Contents-^ I have alrea dy hinted. As for the Ma terials.THE PREFACE. I have had Occafion to be converfant in . others had. for I induftrioufly avoided all Quotations. becaufe my Subjeft wanted not . the Commands and Converfation of that noble Perfon . may be gathered from the Title Page.

from thofe* who have written on the fame Subje&s with my felf. Newton s Store.. yet of a different If I have had the Misfortune^ to differ in fome few Philosophical points^ from fome great and deferving Men. and his Inven tions have fuch peculiar Marks. not Authorities^ but Demonstration... moft plentifully. That . with all the Candor and Regard due to their filer its j without mentioning their Names ^ and a mannerly Liberty in Philofopbical is allow d to ev ry Body. as will even in my rude Drefo. For what without particular Innuendo s. Borclli and Bellini^ that Friend to Mankind^ my conftant good Friend. Dr. befides. points. Archibald fitcairn his Differ tat ions fupply d me the I borrowed but little.The Preface. I hope the Goodnefs to pardon they will have me. both to avoid Re and bccaufe they generally went petitions.. having treated their Opinions. diftinguifli them... eoncern d the Animal Oeconomy . Some part of the Matter was furnifhed me from Mr. on Principles (tho juft and demonftrative) Nature from mine.

THE .The Preface.ArbuthnonPhyfician al Highnefs.. I ted^ wifh there ftill. If I am not over fond of my Subject. and Dr. I think I may a Treatife on it was wan fay. Friend of :&amp. is owing to thejudiciqus Corre&ions and Advices of the Reverend and Excellent Mr.gt. and the John 5 Craig^ I^zzmeA Oxford^ Dr.. I have obtain d the end of my Ambition.Wealth of Learning y not to want any Paneygrick from me. That thefe Sheets have not many more Faults than they have. to bis Roy Men fufficiently eminent Chrift-Church in the Common. may not be faying fo If my Occaiion of Performance excite others^ of more Leifure and Capacity to do it the Juftice it deferves.

as to the Mate r rial The Phyfical Lam */ Nature. and uniform Apfea* ranees of Nature. p. about 3. p. A Demonftration of the j| ture. The Introduction. ^ . 9 8. 2 the Philofophers . 3 4. 6 firft Law of Na p. and of ifs $ $ Laws. CHAP. can move in a curve of That no Body 9. p. $ 5. p. Part of this Univerfe. p.THE CONTENTS. That Bodies cannot ofthemfelves either move An or alter the Dire&ion of their Motion^ p. Definition A Pag i of Nature. The firft LAW of Nature.. p. Appearances^ confuted . 1 1 it felf. Rticle 2. Vis inertiae in Bodies. 8 and Demonftration Explication of the 7. The true Scheme of Nature. p. 7 & 4 & 5 feq.. Of the I. The Opinions of s it and Nature. I. 12 IP* S . 6. ?^ Phyfical Laws.

or iMpulfe. The Proportion of an Oblique. I/&/W Law of a perpetual Motion. p. and refolving Motions. p. p. That there can be no perpetual Motion to diftinguift A p. f 04 perpen dicular Stroak. 15 14.The 10. from one Jingle impulfe. when their Direftions wAkp an Angle. Tto ^ JEW)/ cannot move in an Orbit perpetit ally. 27 19. The Second Law of Nature. with one another. that neither of thefe particularly . in their Orbits. themfelves. 2O&2I 5 impelled at the fame time. p. with it s De14 monftration. p. brio. That the Celeftial Bodies. p. in its Motion. 25 Ibjd. drawing in Three different Directions a Body in 4quili1 8. The Conrfe of a Body The Method of compounding. That neither Motion nor Reft. by two different Forces. e. /?/ p. $ 15.6e Impossibility demovftrated. i88c 19 w/V/6 iVV De Nature. Matter. is eflential to p. Ibid. That the Influence of an omnipotent er. Mechanifm/razz what isnotfo. Pow $ The Necejfity of a Vacuum demonftrated. 2$ Rule . 28 2Q.gt. 22 17. 13 13. do not move of ibid. is the only Canfe of the Prefervation of a Body moving. 1 6. p. 24 Ibid. The T&amp. p. II. monftration. 7/6e Proportions of Three Forces. Contents. p. 13 J 12. i.

y . 30 22. The Hypothefis of other Philofophers. p. Ibid. and Do&rine. That the Attra&ion or Gravitation of Bo dies upon one another. 33 23. 34 feq. 24. his Opinion. 29 move in ibid. one /ingle Impulfe^ 21. 42 feq. Des Cartes his Hypothefis confuted at large from the Arguments adducd by Dr. p. Mr. p. 49 Ibid* intt from Matter.3 2. 30. 27. and the Des Cartes Caufes ofthe Celeftial Motions. 3 7 feq.3 1. produced and confuted. or retaind in their Orbits by a central attra&ive Force i p. or imprefs d upon Matter. That the Celeftial Bodies. Ibid. 41 feq. about the Formation of the Univerfe. to Matter. p. by fome Being p. Leibnitz s Opinion about theCzuksof the Celeftial Motions. in his Aftronomy. do not their Orbits from one /ingle Impulfe. That the Attraction or Gravitation p. about the Mechanical Production of Gravitati on. not fufficient^ nor fat if- fatiory. is 47 of Bo dies upon one another. $ p. & & $25. 48 & 49 Ibid. 26.The Contents. That the Attra&ion or Gravitation of Bo & & dies upon one another . This Hypothefis. That the Celeftial Bodies muft be either turnd round^ by a circulating Vortex. is a Faculty communica ted to. Gregory. tial not a Property effenp. is the only Principle to account for all the Appearances of fuffident Nature.

the and feq. 28. 59 and the Nature the? arts. and Properties of Air explain d y p. The Flux or Reflux of the Sea. Contents.?/ p. . The Motion of the Celeftial Bodies. p. anfwcred. 72 & feq. the infinite Vari eties of compounded Fluids may be accounted and feq. JF/VA 2r/&amp.lt. and the Conditions the necejjary to conjlitute p.. The Nature of Cold.lt. 62 Freezing explaind. tation being JMpreJs d on Matter^ and the man ner of it s Operation.?/ for from this Principle. p. Appea 30. 68 How from fo feiv Primitive Fluids as. p. material Suba or is a T/ta/ 35. accounted Principle &amp. p.gt. and the manner of p. Fluid of Light is projected from the Sun fixt Star. 7^ & 38 . of the Fluid of Light. agzinji Attraction. 69 for. 66 the Nature $ $ Properties 33. 67 Mercury explain d. p. accounted for from this The Objections. jlancc. Light Body 34. 7/fc Nature and &amp. 55 Ibid. ^ 37. That the Quantity of Earth^ denfcr Fluids producd^ does continually decreafe. jHW ticles extreamly fmall.The Ibid. 74 & feq. 50 Sc feq. p. p. p. The Figure of -the Particles p. 56 $29. /Ae covflituent Par*re. or Gravi Attraction or Gravitation.^ ^ prodigious Velocity. Air. Water. The Nature and Caufcof Fluidity explain W. Mercury and Light. 32. ThcFigure of rances of the Element of Water explain d. $36. the on Water Ibid. 61 $31. and the Perpetuity thereof.

82 Colours are. 96 in accounting for the Appearances of Gravitation. Ibid. we Nature. in the Obibid. by Mr. in themfelves. What Colours are made by the leaft refrangi What $ ble Light. and reflexible. Summary. *# mutually upon one another. That all Bodies have p. jeft. The Appearances 99 & feq. The Caufe why different Co lours. and Solidi- . p. That the Quantity of Heat and Light. p.?/Cohefion 44. T&tf Bodies.?/ quire. A perties down as they are fet . That p. in that admirable Treatife at full length. is & constantly diminishing^ to Light. 86 proportional to their Denfities. That Light ^w///?/ 0/ Rays differently re- frangible Ibid. Ibid. 79 Ibid. 95 Mr. and Light. Ibid. 0/Opticks. p. p. of of Light and Colours the Nature and Pro p.lt. p. and in our Seniatioris. Bernoulli s Experiment on Barometrical Tubes relating J 43. p. and RefraftiReflexions The the 40. Newton. ibid. 81 What the Primitive are y Ibid. and the Bulk of the Body of the Sun and fixt-StafS.The Contents. Caufe of ons ef Light. 3&. &amp. 89 feq. their refraftive 84 Powers p. and Original Colours p. 41. and what by the mojl. exhibit Bodies $42. 78 39.lt. from the Principle are not confin d to one Jingle Condition thereof\ but muft alter thefe as the Appearances re &amp. ftwrt 88 Ibid. The Nature of the Sun and fat Stars.

with which this Hypothefis. I and of I/ the \He Introduction. 104 Ibid. Of II. general Principle of At p. which fam to require dif ferent Conditions of the general Principle of Attraftion. and /hewn to be one the flanenefs of the Cohering Surfaces. p. 113 46. p. 5 & 6 . 2. of ral principle of Gravitation. 114 CHAP. The Appearances and Caufe of Elafticity. tewufe Motion ejfential to matter. $ That Matter has no other gnxlity anfoerable to Self-Exiftence. Ibid. explain d from the. about 2 Origin of the TJniverfe. coud not have Lccit 3. 3 4. if not p. the Origination of tint World. Inquiry into the Condition. That there ^arefcveral Degrees of Cohefion obfervable in Bodies . tha t feews beft to An account for the Appearances^/Cohefion. p. Mankind in particular.. Two different Demonftrations. Contents. 101 the gene 45. traftion. Condition -of the Caufe thereof* $ p. not being ejfential to Matter. pag. fttppofes Matter end?wd y p. Mechanically froducd. I JL TtaEpicareaa Hypothecs.The ty. This Syftem of things. 4 of Motions p.

and Jo p. All the Celeftial Mechanifm. to one another. p. p. coud he prodncd. p. ^ Ibid. Self-Motion. yet nothing but fluid or/olid Spheres. 14 or the Gravitation of Bodies one upon another. from this Principle of Attraction. Mechaniim. wcer p. The Production ^/Animals above p. Ibid. . Ibid. Allowing Matter a ibid. is to makp it a free-will d coud produce no Agent. 15 and Terreftial Appearances that have been explain W. Ibid. Self-Exiftence. apowcr. That Solidity or Cohefion.The 5. to be perpetua Mobilia. and an 5 oblique Direction. I? 8. Attraction. That to afcribe to Matter. Animals dc wonjlratcd. are unaccountable from meer Me chanifm. in- confijlcnt with. and in- cwjiftent with meer 9. 17 of Mechanifm. in confident p. 1 1 7. 9 7. to change it s Dire&ion. and unaccountable frotn.. it Obliquity of Dirc&ion . unaccountable from. yet farts (confijlcnt to their Nature} coud only move in Lines Parallel. 7 s Suppofivg Motion ejfential to Mutter. Allowing Matter. 1 6 the Powers 1C. ^ There are federal Appearances in Nature. coud never have ar if en from one or all ofthefe Properties^ p. and therefore above the Powers of Meibid. Contents. the Nature of Matter . p. 6. 9 Body*. Self-Motion. yet it coud not have producd thisprcfent Sy ftem ofthings. and an oblique Direction.

. 1 6. A Demonstration p. and involuntary Mo tions of Animals arc perform d^ p. The voluntary Motions. of the p. 42 That every thing in this 1)nivcrfc has an end. That In the Production of Animals. 24 $11. above the Powers of p. there was a Neccjfity. -aStt- That the red Organs. Ibid.The Ibid. inconjiftent with above 12.) of which jkoud have been ^ they conjift. Ibid. of tive the Senfi- Kingdom. that all the parts (liquid and folid. Contents. How the voluntary. is above the Powers of ally infinite in Ibid. 37 14. The Ariftotelian Scheme. and therefore the Prodn(iion of Animals.. 18 Mechanifhi. of 28 Mechanifm in the Brutes. 27 the Icing offowethittg. p. The fpontaneous Motions. frefcnt Snbfip. 29 0/ Mechanifm. requires^ an Extrinfick Principle for ftence. are above the Powers of Me chanifm. of the Origin $f the Univerfe^ p. Mechanifm. p. Several Demonftrations . p. of Rational Crea tures above the Powers p. Ibid. 36 Freedom and Liberty of Rational Creatures. Liberty. in Animals arc Number. 40 $15. 30 &c feq. Mechanifm. Freedom and $ 13. That from all this TJniverfe^ coud not have been bccaufe its it Eternity of it felf. an life or Defign^ that every thing is ne+ other th}ng y which is an in$ fa Hi It I? . injlant. is formd at the fame and therefore the Production of Animals.

5 6 Since the material Part of this Univerfe.the Attraction of thefe Bodies one the World been. of the Sun and the Stars all conftantly decreafe. no Liquids extant in our Syftem at frefent. and have not been for ever of Mark. That all p. fixt p. and Light. from all upon another had al World ^ tertiity. 53 Idfled from 21. Since Motion is not eflential/0 Matter. fequently had there had been. p. Jiefiftance to their but fitch as make fome fi Motions . and the celeftial Bodies do not move in their fence Orbits by Mechanifm.The fallible Contents. 17. 44 Eternity fons. P- 5^ 2 5. which wiift have eer now. Animals. the Celeftial Bodies had been all amafs d in the Center of the materi ^22. $19. by . theft Animals have wufl the frft of every Species of . and conthe World been from all Eternity . themfelves. had 51 been all Extingnifoed e er now. 20.have movd from all Eternity. they coud not. in all the Planets has been conftavtly decreasing. 47 That the Quantity of Fluids. is not infinite in his Extent. 1 8. they p. fome that they have been Created by wife Being. World been from Eternity. 49 and Bulk. That the Celeftial Bodies. coud not have been from. Had the World UftedfroM all Eternity. That ftnce had ft the Heat. had the World them qittte deftroyd all Eternity. p. do not move in void or emfty Spaces. of themfelves for both thefe Reap.

gt. III. Number ofTears^ how great mall fo ever^ foever. 70 ertafed^ in anyfinite Ibid. whett was his Pleafure. p. 26. 73 Arguments of tie preceding Chapter. p. of the Exiftence offowe fupreme Power. p. 2. Ibid. 7? . 63 the Number of any generated thing on If Globe had either constantly encreafed or de &amp. the Exiftence of a Deity. a 4 3. That this World has no other Quality fttitable to Self-Exiftence. Introduftion. it of the Deity. is a f lain Proof p. Arts and Sciences. 68 Eternity. by any finite Number\ how f then this World coud not have been from all p. of the Being of a God. p. p. A Demonftration that Self-Eixflcnce involves p. 60 Had the Word lifted from all Eternity. Contents. That this World 7 1 have been created^ by the mnft Supreme Being. 7 2 C H A Of P. and confequently that whatever is Self-exiftent muft neall the other Perfections ce/arily be God. 2 5* this than they have attain d. and particularly Mathematicks had arrivd at a greater Degree of Perfection. arefo many Demonftrations. That all tlte p.The been infinitely big^ 24. 76 That the Exiftence of Matter.

85 Thai: the Exiftence 0j Animals. are fo God. and consequently. rangement of the great Bodies of the Univerje. 84 That not only the Formation and fir ft Itxpulthe in did reLines. by different Laws. but alfo their centripetal Irnpulfes. p. quire the Power ^/Omnipotence.The 4. nmft ofnehave been fomtd. Contents. of rational Creatures^ their Freedom and Liberty and Nature . necejjarilj in fers the Exiftence of a Deity. which is God. 88 and Being. 8. 87 7. did. p. nor of Motion. 89 Demonftration. 90 . of right great fes. p. and confequently the Exiftence of a Deity.. 6. require a Power above Matter. that. p. along the Ta gents of their Orbits. does ttot depend A on the Nature of Matter. not only the firji Formation. did require the Power of an Almighty Being. many Proofs of p. a moving Body in it s motion. but alfo their firft Impulses. of the p. and therefore txitft have been producd by an in p. of Ibid. anddofkill. The Preservation of the Faculties of Things. That the prefent State of things. neceffarily requires the Pow er. That the Spontaneous Motions. all the Appearances of which are above the Powers 0/MecbanifilL tie Being of a g* y. and ccjjity Principles. of irratio nal^ and the voluntary Motions. that the Prefervation. it Muft flow from fom Power from thefc. Bodies. from what they are now govern d. 81 telligent Being. and Ar That 5.

pittance 1xt Stars. Diameters. in thoje of the Celeftial Bodies. Reflexion on the Beauty. the der.The IO. of this neat and com$a& Syftem of things. 108 JJ 1 6. The Nature of the Sun. The Motions Moon. and Rcfcwblance of the Pla nets. That the Argument f-r the Exijhnce of a Deity. ^ and a Reprcfintation of the whole Syftem of things. Of the Nature. 94 II. to our Earth. p. Contents. from the Wildom and Mdiority of the Creation. Irregularities of the the Affions ari/ingfrom of the Sun and . J/jcwing how the Celeftial Bodies are rangd. 12. from the moft accurate Obfervations . through the univerfal Space. p. 98 & feq. Earth. p. A general View of the Worlds of Creation. with their Ufes. p. r and Light of the p i?4 t . the end of their Creation. in 17. A $14. 95 that represent the Periods. detaonjlrated. Gravities and giitwtities of Matter. and of their Satellits to our lyloon. the Motions of the Bodies in our Pla Celeftidl Range and Or the Diftances and $ netary Syftem. IO2 15. Diftances. 103 15. is that which produces ^ihe nobleft Ef fects on the Minds of Men p. their Periods and Moti ons. which have afforded Means fir determining the fame . The Analogy. p. Order and Simplicity. The Numbers. Vicijjltudes of Seafons. and p.

135 ?bid. the Comets. From the pitching npon that Proportion. p. From Times Ibid. 125 the fame Principle. 129 Ibid. that of Gra vitation. of and Meliority. p. 128 refpett of Ibid. viz. 127 Ibid. From p. between the Times of the Periodical Revolutions. of cj J their Atmofphere. p. and their widle Diftances. the Laws of the Caufe and Magnitude Motions * . in an infini over or under. the Sun.The j 8. of all the Celeftial Bodies. p. 19. they might have been irregular. 126 the Diftances of the Planets from the Sun. 135 particular Refle&ions. uncertain and in* From $ 20. in refpeft of their Denfities. and one Condition thereof. 118 the Demonftration Wifdom Beauty. hatie fitted the whole Syftem fo well. when portion. p. the conftant Proportion. in their Diftances from the Sun. p. in all their Affe^ions. upon the Meliority of the Frame and Conftitution of the Celeftial conftant. Some more . by a Raj from p. producing the conftant Motions of all the Celeftial Bodies. with a Conje&ure of The Nature of their +J * $ and dejign. From which fuits the whole Syftem beft. between the and the Area s defcrib d. Contents. their being in a conftant regular Pro in a fettled uniform Order. and Tails. of this our Planetary Syftem. &quot. Ibid. which woucl not ty of others.From the conftant Proportion. 123 their ufe A Ibid. From the Velocity of the Planets Motions. p.

or of one half of the Tears being Day. the dreadful Conferences of her not having been.e f the enjoy. or offewer than ty V&amp. whence the Alterna Some farther Conjectures Deftgn of the Comets. about the Vfe and tion of Day and Night proceeds: the fatal In conveniences of a perpetttal Daj. Ibid. Ibid. immenfe Diftance. 133 Necejfity of the Sun. the Difadvnntages of any one perpetual Seafon. to the Animals and Vegetables of the Earth. $ p. The Wtfdom of the Combination of the Di urnal dotation. of and 22. p. TheWifdomof the Earth. the Vfe and Necejfi Seajons of the Tear. the beautiful the fixt Stars. 161 . the other Night. the Vfelejjnefs of more Moons. with the Annual Revolution of the Earth about the Sun. of the Magnitudes of $21. 144 23. The Vfe and mals and p. the Nccejjity and p. ADewenftrationofthe Motion Mo p.gt. p. 136 Number. The Vfe and Neceffity of the Moon. to Ani Vegetables. 152 25. or Night. the Caufe and Neeejfity thereof. p. p. 24.The Celeftial Bodies. the Necejfity and Vfe of her Revo lution about her own Axe. Diverfity. 140 Reafon thereof. the tniferable State of thofe who are deprivd of his Influence . the Stability of the Sun. his tion about hw Axe. 1 50 the Contrivance ofour Globe. 138 the Earth. The incredible Contents.

of the prefent Obliquity of the Equator. Ibid. for our Ships. the fewncfs of the Original ones. and of a greater Degree of Heat and Warmth in thofe it mo p. in the wantoftheSeafons of the Tear . The Nature of Vegetation. The great Advantages. 186 The Caufe and Necejjity. p. and give \m thefe beautiful Turnings and Windings. 31. the and the nolle fluid of Light. and Beauty of our Fluids. p. 169 places which want ft. for failing Vapours. Diftance of juftment of Planets the from the Sun. and Rain and frejh Water. * tains^ that they are an indifpenfible Condition of our frejh Rivers. p. of our Atmofphere. 164 $25. the Inconveni ences of a Coincidence of the Equator and Eclip tick. p. of the Law of their Preflure. and the Caufes offertility. many Advantages $28. Subtilty. with great Diver/ity of theuniverjal Condition of their Preflure. and the their fpecifokGravities. it s Necejjity for Life and Vegetation. ihe Viift Ufe. 189 The and Sim wonderful Beauty. plicity of Idea . which r/idkgs \m fat* ten and enrich fo many Countries in one Courfc. Necejjity. of 27. 163. 182 $30. 155.The Contents. extent. for the fupport of our Clouds. 176 29. and a Demonftration a priori of the Figure of their constituent Particles. to the Ecliptick. the the and the Earth. The Dejign and Advantages of our Moun . on the Sides of the Containing Vejjels. and drying our Marines. p. the Adnice The wonderful Wtfdom. 173 reft of and The Nature. p. 156.

the Courfe of the Aliment till it is mixd with to account for the the Blood. and 34. as 3. Some Conjectures about p. the Opinions of others about the manner thereof confuted. qre naturally and moft eafily ex Secretions in plain d* p. Of the Animal Oeconomy. 214 J 37. commonly receivd^ with an Account of a new and a more considerable ufe of them. and of their feveral Coats. the Mamter of their Operation. p. whereby mofl of the difpaird of Appearances of the Animal Oeconomy.5. 202 the Animal Oeconomy. the Nature. Laws^ and Mechanifm of Secretion in general . 197 of the inthe the Hypothefis of Philofophers. 203 34. 204 &: feq. 207 The Stru&ttre and TJfe of the Lungs. Efficiency of 33. with a general Rule hoiv . The true and Mechanical Account ofMufcular Motion from demonstrative Principles .The Contents. and A $ Animal Appearances^ p. the p. eftheufe of Saturn s Annulus. Idea Mr. p. general View of p. The Structure of the Glands. and The manner Caufe of Digestion . 221 The the Mechanical Motions $ 38. Nzwtoris latter Difcoveries of itsNatttrCi $32. and an Account of the more particular humane Bodies^ p. Caufe of of all the bhiids in the Httwan Eody^ the Strtilfttre of the Vejftls. 191 Nature of the in ternal Parts of the Earth. and of his and JupiterV Satellits. prefent us with.

in the Order and Dijpofition of the Mufcles. p. we are obliged to undergo. general Reflections upon Wtfdom and Contrivance of the Animal Strufture. and the the Expenfes of Animal Spirit s. in their Mothers Belly. and of the Nerves. and Strength of the Bones. of Nature in the Fabrick of the Eye. p. Animals. 228 the Some 40. The admirable Structure of the Brain. with Nutrition. the noble and amazing Fabrick. and the admirably wife Adjustment of ofthefe Coats to kpow. of the Backbone. 233 41. in the Strufture. . Vifion. 249 $ 44. p.The how from Contents. p. the Difference of the Texture of this Organ in. p. 2 23 The and wanner Nature of Senfation in 39. Ivfiances of great Wifdom and Meliority. furprifing Infiances ofWifdow. and the true manner general of the Generation all and Vegetables Animals and Production of the Nature and Manner of dentonftrated. with the manner and Organs of Feeling. The wonderful Contrivance of the Skin and Skarfskin . p. 235 Some 42. 240 43. Mufcular Fibres the Direttion of the $ $ how they operate. $ Bodies about us. the noble Fabrick of the Heart. the Nceffity the Nature and Manner of and Advantages becomes after they are born . and the wonderful Strength all this Senfe to the the Bones have in proportion to their Weight^ p. from what it $ the great and wife this and end necejfity of Diverfity. . Articulations. proportionating to the labours. 254 noble the The Author Geometry of 45.

. and the Inconveniences of a different Stru&ure from the prefent. impojflble for us to attain a perfett Of. 272 79. Contents. the great *Ufe and Neceffity with the manner and Mechanifm 0/ Hearing. of this . That Magnitude. the Nature of Finkenefs and InfiniteHumane Know ne&j and the Limits of I/ I A H Introduftion. That there are fome which p. or Quantity in the Abftraft is that of which we have the juft eft Notion. things. pag. 276 CHAP. 260 The Contrivance the 46. with the wife Adjuftment thereof for the true Magnitudes diftinguiflring of ObjeQs. IV. and wife Contrivance of the Organs of fome irrational Creatures. p. and the nice Ad- juftment \ofthis Senfe to the Motions of Bodies about us. p.The Vifion. Know 2 ledge 2. Of ledge. i JL it is Ibid. p. with the Conclusion of this Chapter. p.^ and about which we make the exalfcft Reafovivgs^ with the Reafon. with fowe Reflexions on t/js Eyes of other Animals. wonderful of Ears. 5 .. Some Reflexions on the Fabrick.

one re and that finite is a midle proportion al^ between iniinitely many fnch finites and an infinitely fmall fart of that finite. abfiirdity. That Infinitenefs implies no Contradiction . J 4. 8 6. tftintf and Representations of Quantities. p. and a the one from the dijiinguifl) A Dcfcription of finite and Mark other whereby to p. with the manner of the Generation of fmall or great Numbers from one givn. and mnjt be for ever. $ infinite. p. in it s Import or Signification^ p. Contents. 15 That Finitenefs and Infinitenefs in themselves hardy without an Adjunft^ are incomplcat Ideas. p.The 3. p. or that the univsrfal Space is Bonndlefs. p. no is in there That Ibid. infinite. mujl be&f0r ever.eprefentation of nation of an infinite Number + which confifts in $ a perpetuated Addition or Subftradtion. 1 3 . That thereby two Kinds of lative. Ibid. fuppofing fome created Beings endow d with fame Properties infiuite in their Degrees^ provided thefe Pro as mceffarily imply others that perties be not fnch^ dcftroj the Nature of a Creature. \6 grees of the Properties of things. and from thence a the manner of the Genefain$ R. 9 the Extenfion of the TJniverje is That 7. the other ablblute. 5 Infinites. II have Duration That ibid.18 . 6 are the d Numbers Pictures That mojt 5. That Quantity // infinitely divi/ib le. and with an Ad]un& imply nothing but the De* p. p.

with a Method of find ing an infinitely fmall equal part. of owe Por tions of the Area / ofthefe figures. p. their Svms^ Ratio s SUMS may be equal. n. Differences. and the Number of the $ p. about Quantities going on in a Geometrical Pro Terms. *$&amp.tinft whofe f 1 p. The Divi/ion of Infinites into thofe whofe &amp. An their p. wit ha Method offinding the mfrmtelyfaall equal part offilch.tre A fmall Parts are all unequal . 44 . 20 IQ. and offinding different ones. Th$ fame illujirated in the Quadratures of Exterior Hyperboloids.lt. The Method of an infinite number finding of different Geometrical Progrejfions . 38 Ibid. Ibid. Sum s. Several Difficulties that might be brought thefe Inferences . gV ^15. the po/iiive Nature and Properties of Infinites. and thofe whofe infinitely fmall Parts are all equal. rvhofe Sums may be equal. portion continued. That Finites and Infinites Difparata and Natures and of quite different Properties. p. o ^ The in Geometrical Pro* 14. oi p. fame illitftrated grejjions afcending.lt.The 9. avfwered and clear d.. Contents. go 13. p. and the number of their Terms. 29 of this Arithmetick tnfiveral Problems ^/^/Arithmetical Proportionals^ Infinites. p. The fame illuftrat&d in fever al Problems. 16 infinitely new Aritfametick of Illtijiration $12. 22 ii. That it is ivtpojfible ever for us to under-? jiand or comprehend. p.

That Infinites of all Kinds. which ought to quiet our Minds. mmaHd to cut offfrom infinite Space p. 17. equal any givn finite 4t This Arithmetick illuflrated in fever at Problems about infinitely fmall Quantities . and particularly in thofe about the Angles 1 8. Space.The 1 6. an to A Method an inter Space. in our Difficulties about feveral Subje8s y both in Philofophy Religion. Contents. p* and 53 t HE . in their pojitive Nature. 0/ Cen p* 50 above the Compreheto/ion of Creatures . and affirmative Properties are equally . tal of Paraboloids.

THE Philofophical Principles F o NATURAL RELIGION. nothing a more Subject of Difics courfe than Nature and however life has made few that The Notions about them agree in their Reafon of which feems to be. ^TP^HERE is A Law. CHAR Of the *PhyJical L A w s 9 I and the Vni- form Appearances 0/ NA Tu R E. that thefe Terms imply Notions fo compounded. and thefe common yet. and fo far removed from the Knowledge of familiar. there are : Words B : roof a .

not infinite Macbin of the Un tyerfe. as .moft Men. and which they inviolably obferve in all the Changes that tural State of things. Words in their utmoft extent it will be enough to the Senfe I to prefent purpofe. if Nature. confiding letter Macbins. for not only the great Bodies of this Univerfe. the II. give to them in the fol fhall my apply lowing Diicourfe. Simple I Compofition tend to fectle (hall not pre the Signification of thefe . but the inferiour Macbins thereof. I underftand this vaft. that there are fcarce any that Ideas that diftindtly conceive all the encer their . By Almighty of of an Number infinite God. thofe Laws of Motion by which natural Bodies are goVern d in all their A&ions upon one ano ther. every one of which is adand Meafure. were created by a different Law from what they are now governed. I mean. By the jufted by Weight Perfect and Wife Production of Laws of Nature. happen in the na But here we are to between the Laws of Creation diftinguifh and thofe of Nature.

will plainly fee. Thele are Allegorical their to conceal pofe meer Terms coined on pur- Author s Ignorance. When the Pbilofopbers cou d not account for the appearances of Nature. III. they were fo far from owning any want of Know that to ledge. nor any Plaftick according to Scaliger. nor any Subfian* tial Forms according to Ariftotle. nor any Hylanbic Principle ac cording to Henry More. that they really meant nothing by thofe ama- B ^ zing . nor any Omnifcient Radical Heat according to Hip Virtue pocrates. which neither had Foun dation nor Exigence in Nature But who-* : ever will give thernfelves the leaft trouble to confider the Matter. is evident from the following Confiderations $ i.as fliall afterwards be is more fully ex- plain d. That there no fuch thing as an Univerfal Soul animating this vaft Syftem according to Plato. keep up their Credit with the choughtlefs and credulous part of Man kind. they attributed thefe unaccountable Effects to unintelligible Beings of their own Contrivance.

to falve which they were gible contrived. and lefs be by more intelli indirect Principles accounted may for. . and laid down Rules. unlefs we endow em culties above the Dignity of fuch fecondary Agents. 3. Thefe very Beings will with Powers and Fa not (ewe the defign of their Creation. fome meafure (hall be afterwards 4. IV. Natural Bodies are govern d in their A&ions upon one another. Laftly. con formable to which. by more di* iet and eafie Methods. is (fuppofing the Syftem of the Umverje already created ) that he has fettled mod Laws. as in fliown. but to difguife their own Ig ^. Thefe norance. the Changes in the material pan of this Syftem are brought about. The Scheme of Nature which feems agreeable to the Wifdom of its Author. this who doubtlels can govern Macbin he cou d create. and according to which. than employing thefe fubfervient Divinities.zing Terms. Beings are derogatory from the Wifdom and Power of the Au thor of Nature. The Ap pearances themfelves.

my principal Defign to demonftrate his continued . and are particularly determin d by the Configuration of the feI (hall veral Pieces of which it confifts. may in fome degree be liken d to a finifli d Piece of ClockWork. according to which. ( long naturally. This Great Ma- of the Univerfe.about which all Bodies inviolably obfer ve. which of it felf as d by fome external Force . and which of chemfelves naturally a&ing. that have a Power of Free-Willy nor even of thofe that have Self-Motion. and as the Parts are kept together) will go on in the fame conftant tenour of Motion. the Movements of this Clock-Work de unlefs difturb pend upon thofe General Rules. fuch as are all Animal Agents . they never tranfgrefs whilft God Almighty preferves Faculties chin in the leaft degree. is On B 5 the contrary. nor do I in the leaft degree exclude the Government of God Al mighty in this World. noc here confider the A&ions of Beings. them in their and Operations. one Part communicates its Mo tion to another. form d upon Geometrick Principles.

V. It is not ray Defign here to ex plain of the Laws of Motion* and of Bodies upon one ano A&ions d it be well done in fo nar ther. nor cou row a Compafs as I have propofed to my all the particular felf. he has referv d fall to Pieces. when he pleates. but that continual Influence and Sup the whole Movement would (oon port. and of its feveral Parts in his own ples. to himfelf the thefe Power of Difpenfing with Laws. as 1 find mod neceflfary for clea- parts of the following Dif- LAW . that he not only has the Springs of this Great Machin. and infer fuch Conclufions Laws from em ing feme courfes. and without his is the firft Mover . I fliall here only fet down the Gene ral of Nature switch virtually include thefe others.6 iMjflofoplncal continued Providence from evident Princi and to convince the World. Hand. Befides this.

brought it felf to Reft j Nor that ever any Body in Motion. that State i. unlefs fome external Caufe put em in Mo And all Bodies in motion will na tion move forwards for ever in the fame turally : Line. or of moving for a ftraic Line. by fome outward imprefs d Vio all e. 7 LAW ward lence I ALL in Bodies perfevere in the fame State of reft. ftrait Courfe by forne lence. Law is (hew how inviolably this obferv d by natural Agents.of Natural Religion. but that where ever fuch Changes happened. bring from Reft to Motion. Bodies at reft and of themfelves for ever continue in reft. nor that ever any Body in Motion. we To need only confider it never has been obferv d that any Body did of it felf. differently dire&ed Vio VI. unlefs they are ftop d by fome or turn d out of their oppofite Force. there B 4 were . it felf of it felf altered ics Courfe. unlefs forc d out of will naturally.

all Things wou d run into Confufion. the put em in Motion. changed their places of themfelves. Natural Bodies confifl of a Mafs of Mat ter.8 If Bodies were always evident Caulcs. whofe parts. on which they move. in the fame right Line. by their Cohefion. lame Energy will continue cm in Motion and drive cm forwards in the fame DireP dions. their own Gravity. or the Ruggednefs of the Plane. did not the Air. late the are certain Projtftils wou d for ever move on. A Top wou the Air. they muft continue io. and if Bodies are once at reft. which by it felf can never alter its State. s . hinder one anothers re&ilinear Motions. ftop or did not fome Body their Motion $ with a different Direction alter their Courfe. unleis fome new Force if in Motion. nor wou d there be any certain Laws to regu We Motions of the Univerfe. d never ceafe to turn round did not gradually impair its Motion.

it can never change its State of Reft. different to Motion or Reft. is the dion fame thing as to move of it felf another Matter then of it felf is fo far in way.of Moreover. as is required to put it in Motion. and e contra 5 And therefore fince the fame Body equally refifts the contrary of its State. very well exprefles by the vis inertia. either of Reft. is And this Refi- always equal in the fame Body. this Refiequal Changes Body in ftance will operate as powerfully to keep a Body in Motion as to keep it at Reft. irs Motion. Newton VII. tQ . orDirefor to change its Direction. any change or alteration of State. Motion. Force to ftop a Motion. which Mr. and docs no leis Refift a change from Reft . there is in Matter an unadive Principle. whereby Bodies refift to the utmoft of their their Power. whatever it be. and confequently of it felf. proportional to and the in different Bodies quantity is of Matter as There required much they contain. or ftance is Direction. that it is no more inclined to the one than to the other.

IP Motion. at firft the Liquor feems to move with a Dire&ion contrary to that of the Veflel full of Veflel. Motion to the Liquor in its State But the Liquor perfeveres of Reft whiift the Veflel makes forward and fo feems to move a contrary But when once the Liquor has way. Motion of the Veflel communicated to and begins to move with a velocity to that of the Veflel. if the Veflel equal be fuddenly ftop d. than from Motion to Reft. the it. but endeavouring to con of Reft. the Liquor continues its Motion and dailies over the fides of the Coreflary . This vis inerti* is no where more con (picuous than in the fudden Motion of a to Liquor upon a Horizontal Plane. not that there is Motion imprefs d upon that the vis inertia Liquor. the Veflel its really the any fuch tinue it in its State ean t immediately communicate .

Hence i. Matter is not endowed with Self motion. can either move V1H. IX. Body. and indeed. nor any Combination e* no of Particles. that no Body put in Motion will naturally. can never can t move of felf. is naturally forward in the fame ftrait Line with the Direction of the moving Force . . nor with a Power to alter the Courfe in which is is it nieerly paffive and muft for put. Hence it is Evident. or of themfelves alter the Dire&ion of their Motion . that Courfe that if it it is fettled in it . no Particle of Matter. it alter its Courfe of ic felf when in Motion.of Natural Religion* Corollary i . for to alter its Courfe of it felf is only to move of it felf after a particular manner. K Corollary &quot. and of Ail Motion it felf move in a Curve Line. 2. it is evident that of themfelves. but . ever of it felf continue in that State and it.

Matter is indiffe rent . Corollary attractive Force. which are Curve. 4. e. Corollary 3. their SatelKts Comets do not naturally and of themfelves ( of this and the their tho at firft put in Motion ) move in repetitive Orbits. Hence the great Bodies Univerfe the TUneis. fel^ no body move in a Curve Line. cfferuial to Matter. which if once fufpended they wou d for ever run out in turning into themfelves. i. ( I Hence neither Motion nor Reft mean not one of era particularly ) is XI. of thefe Great Bodies in their Orbits lutely Motions do abfo- depend upon this whencefoever itarifes. and confequendy the right Lines.Lints re but are kept in by fome attractive Force. . X.but what ever moves in a Curve Line muft in every Point alter and therefore naturally of it can its Direction.

of
rent as to either of thefe

docs as

much

refift its

and being chang d from
particularly,

Reft to Motion,

as

it

does

the

being

And as chang d from Motion to Reft. any Force will imprint fome degree of Motion on a quiefcent Body, fo the fame de gree of Force impreiVd at the fame time with a contrary Dite&ion, will bring ic
to Reft again, but ic is not to the neceflfary emg of Matter; that it be in Reft or

Mo

tion,

for Matter

will

be

ftill
it

Matter in

which ever of

thefe States

be.

Corollary

5.

^ XIL
it
is

Since then

it is

not

eflential

to

Matter to be either in Reft or
evident
that the
in Reft or in
)

Motion, prefervation of a
(after the firft

in

Body

Motion

Inftant

docs abfolutely depend Almighty Cod as its Caufe, no part of
ter

upon

Mat

can
is

move it
this

felf,

nor when put
ic

in

Mo

Motion abfolutely tion, its being nor does depend upon
therefore the

effendal to
(elf,

prefervation of this

and Motion muft

$ttflofopl)icai

muft depend upon fome other Caufe , but there is no other Caule but affignable,
Omnipotent Caufe of the preiervation of the Being and Faculties of all natural Now this Corollary does in no Agents.
that

manner

interfere

with the preceding

Law,

as perhaps Law, the

from

its

think, for by that inability in Matter (arifing vis inerti* ) to change its State of

fome may

Motion, Reft, or Dire&ion is declared, whereas by this Corollary, the immediate Caufe of this vis iwrtiA is referr d to, vi%.
the
Influence of the
)w>

though by this State of Motion, Reft and Direction, yet this vis is not effential to Matter, but a pofitive

Divine Power, for Bodies perfevere in their

Faculty implanted therein by the Au thor of Nature, as (hall be afterwards
explained.
6.

more fully

Corollary

XIII.

Hence the

Neceffity of a

va

cuum, or fpace diftind from Matter, is for fince by their clearly demonftrablej
vis

of
vis inerti*)

Natural
all

aaeitsiott
refift

Bodies

to the turned

of of
is

Power, any Change or Alteration their State, whether of Motion or R eft.
their

And

fince the Refiftance in the larae

Body

always equal, or the fame, and in dif ferent Bodies is proportionable to the And Quantity of Matter they contain.
fince confequently,
if

two Bodies con
and
contrary

of Matter, taining equal Quantities

moving with equal

Celerities in

Dire&ions, impinge directly will one another, certainly both reft upon or flop at the Point of their Concourfc, as alfo fince it is demonftrable, that two Bodies moving contrary wife with equal
Celerities,

fo that they

and both refting

at their

meet

Bodies containing equal of are Quantities Matter, equally fkavy,

ing, are equally lows, that two

Heavy

;

it

neceflaiily fol

and therefore were there no Vacuities in Bodies, two Spheres of equal Diameters,
Chould contain equal Quantities of Mat ter, and confequently be equally Heavy,
i.

equal Diameters, one of Gold, another of Wood, fhou d have
e.

two Spheres

of

the

1

6

ffinlofopfnra I p^nciptcs

the fame fpecifick Gravities, which being contrary to Experience, there is a NeceP

of admitting Vacuities in the latter Sphere to anfwcr the Difference of their
fity

Gravities.

L A
>

W

;

II.

;

;

;^
the

$XlV.

Changes made TpHE Motions of Bodies

in

JL

arc al

ways proportional
Force, and

to the imprefs d moving are produced in the lame Di-

rc&ion with that of the moving Force. Effe&s are alway proportionable to their adequate Caufes, and if any Degree of Force produce any Degree of Motion,
a double Degree of the fame Force will produce a double Degree of Motion, and
a
triple,

a

triple,

and fo on

rnuft proceed in ftion with that of the moving Force, fince from this only the Motion arifcs ; and be-

Motion

and this the fame Dire;

caufc by the former
tion

Law,
their

Bodies in

Mo

cannot

change

Direction

of them-

of Natural ftettgion*
themfelves, fo that unlcfs

17

fome new Force alter its Courfc, it muft proceed in the fame Dire&ion with that of the moving Force. And if the Body was before in Motion, the Motion ariiing from this imprds d Force, if in the fame Diredion, docs fo much increafe the former Motion if ic
$

has a contrary Dire&ion, ic deftroys a to that part of the fofmer Motion, equal which is imprefs d j when ic has a Dire<5tion

oblique

to that of che former
;

Motion,

it

is

either

added to

or fubltradkd from

the former
tion

Motion, according as the from a Compofition of arifing
is

Mo
chefe

two,

decermin d,

Corollary.

evident, that in the prefent Conithution of things, there
ic is

XV.

Hence

can be no perpetual Motion,
tual

By

a

perpe

Motion,

I

mean an

uninterrupted

Communication of the fame degree of Motion from one part of Matter to another in a Circle, noc as Bodies put in Motion C do

8

ffrpofopptcai

do

for ever continue in the fame, but in fo far as they are refifted or other d

Bodies,

but

a

ftop by Circulation of the fame

quantity of Motion, fo that it perpetu ally return undiminifli d upon the firft Mo
ver.

For by this Law, the Motion produc d is but proportionable to the genera

ting Force,

and

all

Motions on

this

Globe

being performed in a refifting Fluid, vl^. the Air., a confiderable quantity of the

Mo

tion

Communication, it is and medium, confequently of Motion impofiible the fame Quantity fliou d return undiminifhed upon the firft which is neceflary toward a per Mover Moreover, the Nature petual Motion.
on
this
,

muft be fpenc

in the

of Material
is

no

fuch, that there avoiding a greater or lefler degree

Organs

is

of

Friiftion,

according

though the Machin be form d to the exacted Principles of

no Geometry and Mechanicks, there being nor exa6l fmoothne(s in perfect congruity Nature ; the manner of the Cohefion of
Bodies, and the fmall proportion the folid Matter bears to the vacuities in em ; and the

Nature

of

^amtai

Beiigtom

19

Nature of the conftituentParcicles of Bodies,
not admitting the fame. Befidcs, how very finiflied Mechanick Per imperfedl our moft

formances

are,

a,

very ordinary Micro/cope

will eafily difcover

Now

thefe

things

muft very confiderably diminifii the com municated Force, fo that it is impoffible there fhou d be a perpetual Motion, unlefs the communicated Force were fo much
than the Generating Force, as to recompence the dimunition made therein
greater

by ail thefe Caufes, fo that the imprefs d Motion may return undirninifh d to the But that being contrary to firft Mover. this Law, it is clear that the Motion muft continually deacafe, till it at laft flop, and consequently there can be no perpetual Motion in the prefent State of Things.
:

-

-

^
C
-$jfiM Lecn (d
?fii

LAW

$!j<lofopt)icai

LAW
XVI.
ls

III.
or

E PULSE TJ always J^L

Reason
to

equal

Im-

pulfe

or

A&ion, or the Action of two

Bodies upon one another is always equal, buc with a contrary Dirc&ion, *, e. The

fame Force with which one Body

ftrikes
firft

upon another, by that other
prefs

is
;

returned

upon

the

but thefe Forces are im-

d with contrary Directions.
pteffcs

or draws another, is as much prcls d or drawn by that other ; a Stone with his Finger, the if one prelfes

Whatever

If a Horfc Stone preflcs his Finger again. draw forward a Stone by a Rope, the Stone does equally draw back the Horfc

for

the

Rope being

both ways one ftrike an Anvil with a Hammer, Anvil ftrikes the Hammer with equa The Steel draws the Magnet a Force.

equally diftcnded a6b upon both equally, li
th<

much

as the

evident

Magnet does the Steel, as by making both iwim in water

i\

3freligtom

Jb

Barge to Land by a Rope, the Bank pulls the Barge as much as the Barge does the Bank j and in the defcent
in pulling a
attra<5ls

of heavy Bodies, the Stone
Earth as

the
;

much

as the Earth does the Stone

the Earth gravitates toward the Stone, i. e. as much as the Scone does toward the

Earth.

And

the

Motions produced by

both thefe Gravitations, are equal in both, only the Scone is altogether inconfiderable, and in refpeft of the Bulk of the Earth,
consequently

Motion
in

the Velocity of the Earth s toward the Stone is inconfiderable,

refped of the Stone s Motion toward the Earth ; and therefore the Motion of the
Earth toward the Stone
Itniverfally
if
is

infenfible.

And

in ail

the

Adions of Bodies,

Body aft on another, and change its Motion any manner of way, that other will make the fame Change in the Moa
tion of this

a contrary Direftion, fo that by thefe Actions there are made equal Changes, not of the Veloci ties but of the Motion, for the

Body with

Changes

made on

the Velocities in contrary Dire-

C

12

ff

P

B
a reciprocal proportion to
,

<SHons,

are in

the Bodies.

Corollary

I

.

XVII.

If

a

Body A, be impend by
one
in the Direction

two
fty

different Forces,

with the Velocity 3/j

another ia

the Direction \AC, with the Velocity ?vr? make to /fC, as A/ to compleac

A

N

the

Parolelograni

ABC

Dj

the Diagonal

of which is A 2). The Compoficion of both thefe Forces will make the Bodydefcribe the Diagonal At), and in the lame lime as it would have defcribed either of
y*n

the the Sides; for becaule the Force, whqfe vx
v

-J

..-

-

v-

.

>

j

.;

,

V elocity

but it cannot be found in S D and C both. and confequently.5ts fB D. 2). whofe Ve is or not. &r. whether the Force. a&amp.gt. and therefore will not hinder the Velo city in the other Force in and the Body fame time.of Velocity parallel is Natural &eltgt om N. XVIII. by which it tends to the LineS D&amp. the Force. and their aeccffary Confecjuetices. a&amp.lt. Wherefore the Body will reach !BD in the fame time. but at the Pome 2) therefore. all the Rules of Bodies C 4 .lt. From thefe Laws. whether the Force. be iraprefs therefore in the end of this time it muft be found fomewhere in ner. whofc d or not. ads 2). and Velocity isN. it in the Direction A C. locity in the end of the fame time. k rnuft be fomewhere in CD. in like is man whofe Velocity as M y in the Direction Jlfc^ parallel to CD.5t T&amp. to will not ia the leaft hinder or deftroy the Velocity in the other Force. A/.gt. C proceeding to will reach C V in the Corollary ^.

into any ob and S 2). as alfo. as the Geometers have ftiewn. to that of the fame Force coming with a perpendicular Direction to move the fame Body .Bodies afcending or defcending in verti cal Lines..5t a per and from A let fall a per pendicular CD. the Rules of the Congreffes and Reflections of two Bodies. fuch as A lique the ratio of an Force to move a oblique Body.lt. as A C be imprefs d upon the lique Body E in C.gt. may be deduced. the C . let an ob Force. C D. From the in preceding Corollary. for Example. fuch as A*B and D. and another upon pendicular upon then by the former Corollary. for Example. at the Point C ere&amp. Force A may be refoved into the two Forces . the direct Force AT&amp. the Method of compounding and refolving Directions Morions any given may be drawn. the Competition of of any oblique ones. as alfo ones. as alfo the Refolution of the dired Force.

The fame is true of the Energy of an oblique Stroke upon the Body to that of the fame ftriking perpendi.lt. and A&amp. fo that Body yields to none of em.lt. if it follows that drawn by the impelled or three different Forces in three a Body A be different Directions ^B. but con tinues . AC.of ^attmrt ffcty&fim* Forces AT&amp.B has any Energy to move the wherefore the oblique Force as Body A C is fi. of which only A&amp. AE. to B the lar s fame Force coming with a perpendicu &amp.gt.lt. as A C.* or as the fine of the Angle of Incidence Al$ to the ^ Radius AC.B. From the fame preceding Corollary. 11 cularly.B to Direction.

to which the other impelling from A to D. as AT) impelling from to A to T) is equi E. AT) reprefent the Force by which the Body ^is impell d from A to !B. So likewife pollent d:ions A C. $). then will the fame AT) reprefent it is the contrary equal Force. and AE or CD.equiKbrio y thefc three Powers Lines ter are to one another as three right parallel to minated by their drawn their Directions. two others.lt. and If mutual Concourfes.finttes in &amp. whereby impell d from A to But by the former Corollary a Force. ailing in the Dire- A two Forces acting in the Dire(5lions . is as AT) to AC. refpeftivcly.

and being equipollent to the Force A&iflg in the Dire6tions A 2). q. we . d. or not future Inquiries.gt.5ting Dirc&ion. and tually the Rules of Me- confequcatly. it is not to be Me So then in outchanically accounted for. Body be ailing in the Direction or to AD. from A to to the will be didrts fi ? ^ C. AE to ^X&amp. AE. as CD is. fo vir that ic is plain.gt. have nothing to do to (how any thing is Immtchanical. and the Foundation fingle Propolition is of all the Mechanicks. AE. and in the adting in the Diequipollent to the a&amp. AD are to y Force urg d by three different equi pollent Powers in the Directions JB. three Laws do if comprehend chanifm. AC. that AT&amp.. as this feveral Geometers have exprefly fliown thefe all -. ^ D Force afting according to the Direction AD.lt. AC. any appea rance concradidt thele Laws. 2nd from A to D. thefe three Forces fhall be to one another as AD. as ^C. or their neceflfary Confequences. therefore the Forces ic&ions Force this AC and AE. e. if a CD refpective- ly. AC.

and the Body will be Corollary at reft. Orbit. that it of thefe Laws or their contradi&amp. with can t move conftancly the fame Degree of Motion from one finIf it move in an gle imprefs d Force. muft continually decreafe by a Body s moving in an Orbit. (fuppofing the for thefl^ftfais always the fame) by mer but every Orbit is equivalent to a Polygon of an infinite Number of An Corollary j gles. and fo muft at laft be quite fpent.not according to the eftablifh d Laws of Nature . Hence it follows that a in Body an Orbit. let a Polygon be inicrib d in it.lt. muft decreafc at every Angle in proportion to the Sine of the Angle of Incidence. but clearly to evince. then fincc the Angles of this ^Polygon are Ob the Degree of the Motion of the lique. and confequently the Degree of Mo tion and Velocity arifing from one fingle Impulfc. ^ XIX. Corollary 3.5ts fome Corollaries. . Body moving in this (Polygon.

and do conftantly move . Corollary y. it muft conti nually decreafe. that it may return upon gated in an Orbit. that thefe Bodies do perfeyere in their Motions. and if fo.of ffiatwai aaeitgtotu Corollary 4.lt. the firft Mover . Hence there can be no perpe tual Motion arifing from one fingle Imfor this Motion muft be propa pulfe. that the mis and their Satellits. but are kept kept in by iome other Powers. the Comets and the it is &amp. evident. Let us then Enquire how it comes about. their We fee thefe Bodies do continue Motions without any fenfiblc Alte rations.Pla~ XXL Hence other Celeftial Bodies their *0rbits do not move in (tho we fliou d fiippofe em folid ) by the Force of one fingle impulie. XX. and at laft flop.. which they cou d never do if they mov d only by the Force of one fingle Impulfe.

or by fome Retentive Central Force em from tuning out in yvhich hinders when they are 0rgit Lines. vi%.4a equal Degree its own proper Center. and that theie Parts being made round by produce ITJ * fuch inteftine Mptions. with out making the leaft Deviation j now. XXIL Celeftial In order tp- account for the Appearances. of Motion. Globule*. of Different . both ^iv. and feperat- ng themfelves. that can happen but one of thele two ways. (c\d z Vortex) which carries em about. Des Cartes fuppofes fylatter of this Univerfe to have beea ividcd ie by Almighty God. Either by the Force of forne Celeftial fluid. the Fingers of him Motion by this once put in who frani d marvellous Machin of a World.move round in the fame Trails. into ip r each endowed little jecjual Parts. fo as to compofe dif ferent Cortices. were endow d with a Motion About as common different Points (at equal Diftances) Centers. Fluid i fo as to constitute as alfo that feveral Golleitions of thele Parts.

lt. Sun being thus fram d.out fome Parts of through the Vacuities of the which conftitute fecond Element. and ntoviqg abo its own Axe with the Motion of i. that fujppofesdrivep -fowir. farily wou d lylatiq Globules 6f .tick y Vnd this wQu d be able tq carry rouiid witli 1C . Element violently many different did make up the Matter of his firjt .he.d 1 remaining part wou d Center t% 1^ by the Circular Motion^ of the(e which did for that rqa%i bules. and feeing there Element than wou d was be uiqnp tp of fill this firft fiifficieat the Vacuities between the he be Globules of the fccond Element. it much by as receiving by .gt. Places which are efpecially at thcfe the^r^ diftan^ from its Poles. from it . Fileings Globules driven and ficond fmall the that as alfo Rafpings of thele Points of the Angular calls the M^ter of his ways. and being there amafe d in the Center of very.thefp foles z% loics about the Ecdif&amp.h of the Matter of the fartex.of which he Element .tl^ its throw . r^ 5 Gl&amp. Sphere wou d in tex produce a Body Jike the Sun .

and capable of the fame Degree of Motion with it. then defcend toward the Snn. of which was : . with Velocity. they wou d by reafon of their Velocity. be for without either approaching from the Sw. have a greater centifrugal Force. towards the it wou d extremity of the Solar Fortex. and it wou d for ever be car being fixt there. it happen that any of thefe Sun-like Bodies in the Centers of the feveral Cortices fliou d be fo incruftated and weakened. leaft. and the remoter with were they greater or equal. as to be carried about in the Cortex of the true Sun 9 if it were of lefs Solidity. till it met with Globules of the fame Solidity. ried about by the Motion of the fortex.it chefe Globules the greateft a leis and that fo of neceffity thefe Globules t that are nearcft the Center of the Sun would which are nearcft. or lefs capable of Motion than the Globules. to. or receding and fo become a Planet. and there Now (hou d fore recede from the Center. we may imagine Suppofing this true then. our Syftem to have been at firft divided into feveral Vortices in the Center.

tivm thole. thrown of to another.. and yolving . ic- they Were Sun like. is fomewhat more folid than the other. moves with greater Velocity the Farts of theFo/tex. that are &amp. lucid. except away by the biggefl fome few that were from one Fortex Comets.- of ffiafttral JMtgfon* Body. As that is alfo that the Matter of the firfl which makes up the Body * of. D XXUL . ic appears that the Tlanets that are neareft the Sun. becaufe that Hemt/pkere oppofice to the Sun and Earth.Pla- remoter.Bodies before. fwaliow d up by others. fpherical of thefe jj? lome and bigger. which is the reafhn why the nets next the Sun. the Sun.lt. and the Rodies fwirhing o therein.was a lucid. which is 3)es Cartes s Reaforij why the Moon fliows always the fame Face to us. Element. finiOi their Periods fooriei* than thofe that are thefe ^lamts ^ecaii fe more remote. in right Lines and became Hence. ftroyed and till at lafi they were all de- carried Solar Fortex. are lead folid. that are neareft it. more powerful .and ihac their move about own ^xes. and that were being gradually incrufhted.

Now not to mention the many Defeats in the Mechanical Produ 1 ction of this immaginary Syfttm^ Appearances it fhall only take Notice (as Dr. i. which is abfurd and contrary to that Conftancy and Limitation obfervable in the Celeftial pearances. will prefs upon the exterior thereby perpetually part of their communicate and Motion to chem&amp. and fome fore there . and every Particle wou d be adted by a Motion compounded.. they Parts.34 XXIII. certain that a Vortex Wou d be as propagated it . Ap the is Since the Motion of the neareft the Center of more remote. Celeftial contra- dils and the Abfurdities wou d follow. many fuch Vortices as there are one Vortex wou d neceflarily run into ano* ther. in infirittum. Gregory has) of the known . And. of the Motions of all the Central Spheres. Parts of the Vortices fwifter than that 2. It is produced by the Re volution of a Sphere^ about a giv n dxis. if nothing did hinder and feeing there muft be fixt Stars.gt. tho we fliou d allow the Author all that he wou d have granted.

whereas the Squares of Times of the periodical Motions of the Planets. to this fJypothefa. wou d certainly from the Center. of Bodies. folid did hinder fomething the and it. greater Diftance there were. only concreted parts of the Vortex : the times of the periodical Motion. are as the Cubes of the Diftances and confcquently the Pla nets cannot be carry d about by a Fortex.gt. dcfcribe a perfect Circle.of fore thefe interior parts of the Vortex. and is as it New were. each Tlanet f$ is of the lame Denfity with the parts of the fartex in which it (wims. in refpeft of th Orbit ^ of unlefs D . therefore. \jvill be continually loiing Tome part of their Motion which never being reftored. carry d about by a Cortex are in duplicat proportion of the Diftances from the Center . thefc pares muft gradually move flower. 4. laft the Motion cording 5. Ac quite deftroy d. and is governed by the fame Laws of Motion. or the larger the Bafon be which contains the Fbrtex. if a Portex run out in infinitum.between thefe folid Bounds. till at &amp. then a Body carry d round by it.

carry d about with it. the nearer Circle. muft neceflarily when enlarg d in a wider the Planets muft move fa* than in their ^pbelia. Moreover. wou d be perpendicular j but there . but this too is fame contrary to Likewife the Matter of the Obfervation. the Axis of the cen Body which produces the Circulation of the Fluid. would be lefs than that of thole more remote. 5. the contrary of which is true. Bounds. . fter in their Perihelia. for that of Mercury is greater than that of Saturn.fity in a Vortex A Body of the fame den- wou d neceflarily defcribe a Circle to tral whole Plane. it wou d follow that the Ophelia of all die Planets (een from the Sun. fince the Pla nets in this neceflarily move in Orbits nearly fimilar to that of the fides Vortex wou d of the containing Bafon. be directed towards the Stars . e. which contradids Experience. the Sww. The Excentricity of the Planets j. than Channel i. nearefl: wou d this Orbit approach to a e. as of Vortex ( every Fluid ) when bound fixt wou d up within ftrak move fafter .3 6 of the Body carry d about in it.

efcribe a Curve-Line. defcnbe right Lines. Laftly. are mov d by the Fluid. and makes it agree more exadly to the Rules of Gemetry. and nothing but the Fluid concurs to turn them out of their D 3 way: . for of themielves cl wou they XXlV. The Comets have not only oblique. but (bmecimes at righc Angles with the Plane of the Ecliptick. iometimes the Courfe of thefe Comets metrically oppofite to that of the Sun in is Dia they . all which is impoflible. if the Solar fortex rnov d round with Force fufficient to carry thefe vaft Bodies of the Planets along with their ir. Suns Axis is perpendicu their Orbits. they defcribe equal Areas by a Radius from the Sun in equal times.of Natural Beligtotu there is not one Planet to the Plane of the whole Orbic lar. they enter into the Cortex of the Sun. He firft of ail (hows. This Hjpotheps is fonoewhat altered and mended by the famous Mr. Ltibnit^ he accomodates it better to the Celeftial Appearances. that all Bodies which in a Fluid d. Motions without any perfevere change.

than by fuppofing numerable conccncrical Oibs ot exceeding thinnefs to make up the Cortex. He v/&amp. for thele Areas are in a their ^adii compounded proportion of or Diftances from the Sun. &amp.lt. (paracentrical Motion of accefs to. that every Tlanet is about by a Motion compounded of carry d two other Motions. ever part of Vortex in equal it is. and the way. and a reciprocal of the Arches or Lengths of proportion the . defcribe equal Areas Times . or recefs from their the Sun. which will neceffarily make the (Planet in what fafteft..Planets Now this the Sun.3 8 f^Dttofbpitfcal l^nciples next fhows. The (planets ddcribe Areas by a G(adiw from times. the muft of circulate fo as to produce which cannot in- be done otherwife. proportional to the Fluid that carries necelfity effect. the Hannonical Circulation of the carrying Fluid.lt. viz^ thofe Orbs that are neareft the Sun circulate and the Veloci ties of the Circulations are every where re to the Diftances of ciprocally proportional the refpe6tive Orbs from the Sun. every one of which has its own proper way of Cir culation.

and by a Ra from the Sun defcribe equal drea s in equal Times. whereby all Bodies moving in a Curve y endeavour to recede Center from the by the Tangent^ and the Attraction of the Sun or the Gravitation of the Tlanet toward it and this Lelbnlt^ is of Opi nion. the Circulating Fluid. Motion compounded of two the Excujfory Impreffion of the Harmonica! Circulation.of Natural aaeltgtom 39 the Circulations. Attraction of the Sun. may make the Orbits Elliptick. V/^&amp. The Paracentrical others. in one cated by Now of whofe dius foci the Sun is. arifes from an Impulfe communi . fince the (planets move in Elliptick Orbits. which no other Law of a Circulating Fluid. The Excujfory Impreffion of the Circulating Fluid. but the Harmonical Cir culation can Account for. which in this cafe will make a proportion of equality.gt. wou d throw off the Planet from the Center by the Wherefore the Tangent. and the Vortex this Law of Circulation of he calls is Harmomcal. or the Gravitation D 4 of . we muft find out a that Law for the Paracentrical Motion.

XXV. have their Orbits. This to Cortices) which is very abiurd.40 of the to fflantt* towards cienc to deftroy this muft be fuffiEffect and befides. nay. inefficient for tlicle Reafons. well as the . feme of them very oblique. iometimes at right Angles with the Zodiakj and fometimes the Courfcs of thefe Comets are quite contrary to that of the fplanttsi Now the Comets deicribing about j^j the Sun Anas^ rnoft be carry proportional to the times. . d about by a Harmonically as circulating Fluid.this Head. metS) The Co- was formerly fa id.lt.PlamtSj and thus we fiiou d have Cortices contrary 2. make them move in Elliptick which cannot be brought this Orbits.&amp. nor is there any thing in the Mo tions . unlefs Attration or Gravitation be recipro cally as the Squares of the Diflances from the F@cus r which is the Sum of Leibnitz^s Dq&rine upon . But even is CeldVui Motions as Account of the undoubtedly faHeand this i . is not only unreafonable^ but Suppoiicion cable to the uniform Simplicity of dilagit Nature . about... it..

as this very Hypotbefis. and in an Harmonical Circula tion.explain. but is interrupted. and is reaches only from Mercury s (Perihelium to his dpfaliuin. In the Times are equable Motion.of ^atwai fteugfon* fb 4* difficult tions of the Heavenly Bodies to . as the Spaces directly. the Velocities are as the Q^adi i recipro cally. and not a Duplicate Proportion of the Diftances from the Center or the Qfydii. the Spaces in one Revolution are as the ^adii. 3. . that this To this ic may Harmmcal not continued from Mer Circulation cury to Saturn. and reaches gins again to her dpbtliuM) and is there again inter rupted. and confequently the (planets cannot be carried about by an Harmonically circulating Fluid. and therefore the periodical Times of a Fluid circulating Harmonic ally ^ are in the Now Duplicate Proportion of the tytdii. and be at Venus s ^Perihelium. which is introduced to account for them. Befides. the periodical Times of the Planets are in Sefquiplicate Proportion. but in a Circular reciprocally . and there breaks off. al ways and the Ve locities Motion. be anfwer d.

being thus prov d. circulating Harmonically according to uniform Law. which is the fame thing. Be fides. fincc it rauft be mutual by the This Gravitating or Attract third Law. or by fome gravitating Power in them towards him. as if they were carried by a Fluid. the Comet t moving forward in the Zodiack. fome Tbilofoin their Orbits. pals through all thefe Chafins and Interftices. move in the fame manner. means of any be kept circulating Fluid. this is not like the unform and fimpleMeafures of Nature. fophers endeavour Mechanically to account for. . they tnuft by fome dttra&ive Power in the Sun. chat the Celeftial Bodies do not revolve by the Ic XXVI.4* rupted. ing Power of the great Bodies of the Univerfe towards one another. and notwithstanding. and fo on through the whole Syftem of the (Planets : But what a ghaftly and unfightly kind of Deformity there wou may d happen on thisSuppofition^every one eafily fee. neither do their fome Appearan ces fliew the kaft Sufpicion of thefe Inter ruptions.

4? from the Adion of a Subtile Matter. but without entering into the particular manner of the Explication of Gravitation do according to this Scheme. or Gravi tation in from che Circulation of a general Subtile Matter. not only Bodies within the Sphere of the Earth s Activity are impell d towards it.ofjl^atutal fteiftfon* for. but allo the Planets gravitate towards the Sun. and acquiring there by a Power of receding from the Center. Planets in particular. firft impoffible from the Part of this Hypotbefis. for the . which violently whirling round the Sun the Earth and the reft of the in general. which is leaft refilled by the inter- pofition of other Bodies. It is Bodies gravitating towards a Poinc . or being driven with an immenfe Velocity Lines according to all poffible Dire&ions. And thus. impels the Body according to the Direction of that part of this Subalc in right Fluid. there be three Objections againft all two or the poffible Ac counts of Gravity in particular. impels Bodies towards that Center abouc which the ftrongeft Circulation is made . to account for 1 .

2.44 the Motion quaqua verjutnm a great Circle of the Sphere. muft admit its Motion without any Caufe. of Matter. 3. Bodies from the ImGravity which Abfurd of a Fluid can only gravitate in pro and not accor portion to their Surfaces. which is alledged to (alve is a Contraction to this Nature. and its Gravity to be always proportional to the Quantity of its (olid Mais. Caufe of Gravity. which ding to their. Ii is ihipoflible to explain Motion of this fubtile fluid comes. or elie we vity. there muft be conceived ano ther fubtiie fluid Moving after fome cer tain manner to produce the Motion of of that Flaid. which is the Caufe of Gra and fo on in inflnitum. or by whole Motion whence the Circular it is produced in all the poffible Mechani cal muft be without Explications thereof. 4. no luch thing being either concdveable or poifiblc. Difficulty.Quantity pulfe is . is Matter being to be fuppos d of every where in realon the fame uniform Nature. which is harder to conceive than Gravity That Matter which is the it fclf..

which arife from the Diveifities of the Texture and of their Figure conftituent Parts.. being nothing. Difficulty may be rernov d. the (ubtile Fluid Quantities of Matter they contain.. and confcquemly. Accounts. And tho this Quantity of Matter. But that which in my all overthrows inch Mechanical Opinion. finee the Surfaces of the original Particles of Bodies are this is as their folid Contents. .e. which by the Addon of this wou d are as their Surfaces. the Gravities of Bodies._ is of Natural Bcligion* 5 4* all for we find contraray to Experience Bodies gravitate in proportion to their i. a Yet the fo very . e. be alfo as their Solidities/ /. their I only ic by Lengths of linders.to hard ^Po/lulate^ to require Bodies be diveriified. be to one another (Safes wouM thrir as their Surfaces. primitive confticuent Cy that can account for ail can poffibly the varieties of Colours^ t fee how Taftes and Smells^ and other fenfiblc (Dua lities of Bodies. Solidities. their by fuppofing Bodies of Cylinders of to confift originally fmall fta/es^ for infinitely thele Cylinders on fuch aSnppofition.

as fhail leftial account Mechanically for thefe different Conditions of the General Law of Now. Newton it from certain Experiment $ and there are other Appearances in Nature. neccffarily to be fuppos d.Accounts. is that. 5. and Caufes the inflexions of be afterwards fhown. to move after different Manners. as Mr. that fecm to Conditions different from that require the the Motions of the Cewhich governs Bodies. which ther accord eafily together. without fuppofing different Syftems of this Fluid. nor fcem like will nei the Limitations and Simplicity of Nature. fcveral different Conditions of thisUniverfai Law of Gravitation. to Gravitation. feems evident from the Na has explained ture of Light. That there are different Conditions of the Univerfal Law of Gravitation. which cannot be Mechanically explained. There feems to be neceffary to ward ces of a full Explication of the Appearan Nature. and ac cording to different Laws. however artfully contriv d. there niuft of neceffity be fupof this pos d various and different Syftetns fubtile . Light.

and fince it has been likewife fliown. that may hereafter bedifcovered neceflary to explain the various Appearan ces of Nature. it is a Principle no ways effencial to . not as yec known how many and how different thde Syftems muft be fuppos d to account for all the various Conditions of this General Law. Laftly.of Natural 3&eiig?atu fubcile Fluid. Motions in without the Suppofition of it is fuch an Attraction or Gravitation. that odd. that this mud nex d to Matter by the Creator be a Principle an* of the World . is not to be Mechanically accounted for. evident. that the Planets cannot continue their their Orbits. 47 which looks a is little efpecially if weconfider. 6. this whole more Naturally and Simply to be accounted for from Principles now to be laid down. Affair is Corollary XXVII. that the Attraction or Gravi tation of Bodies toward one another. it From what has been faid appears.

it is not a Refult from the Nature of Matter. Contact. fes as far as the Limits ( if any luch there are) of the Univerie. Befidcs. fince it is the Source and the 6rigin of the Celeftial Motions. or . becaufe parts of the odorous Body touch the Nerves of our Noftrils. and after And Dr. by the firft Law of Nature and it5 Co him rollaries.Newton. as Mr. Matter is entirely paffive in its Nature. by the firft Law of Nature. and can no more tend to. and it can for we fee at a diftance by no means an Obje&. Gregory has demonstrated. no kind of Motion is eiTential to Matter. be caufe the Matter is communi efficacy of by immediate. and therefore Attraction or Gra vitation cannot be effential to it . gans of Vifion. we fmell. becaufe the Light reflected from thence ftrikes immediately upon our Orcated a&amp. and univerfally all the other are tural Effe&s of Material Na per- form d by the another.lt.5t . things raeer Impulfe of one this Body on any Meand paf- whereas Power of Gravita tion adts at all Uiftances without dmm or Inftrument to convey it.48 to Matter.

whereas impenetra or any other of the effential Proper of Matter continues with it. it could not be (aid ro have this Property. and having refpeft only to other Parts which icattrads . it s plain that this is Univerfal Force of Gravitation the ef- kt by which the Operations of Material Agents are And this Power ofGrwitapreferv d. and the other effential On Attibutcs of Matter are always the fame* all which Accounts. ev n when indivifible* bility ties it becomes Laftly $ That can is not be eflential to Matter which inten ded or remitted. if there were but one indivifible Part of Matter in being. E reafon . it being a Relative one. yet ftill Matter wou d be felfj like wile the fame extended folid Subftance. or draw other Bodies then it it 4? can move of fuppofing this Gravitation of the parts of Matter toward one ano ther deftroy d. thn d on Matter. is one being thus imprefs of the Divine Tower and Virtue . but this Property increafcs and diminiflhes reciprocally as the Squares of the Diftances diminifh or increafe. More over. where as impenetrability.of Natural Religion.

Figure and Difpofition of Bodies. conceive how this i. for there is no othis ther Mechanical Caufe conceivable. can arife from. that chanically cannot be Me Priciple accounted for. this Principle of the Gravitation of Bodies one another. nor arifing from its Nature.?o rcafon of the Diftinftion between the Laws of Creation and Nature^ For tho the Ener gy of the Impreffion does ftill laft. is the reafon why it ought not to be reckoned among thofe Laws which arife from the particular Texture. Principle can be Mechanically and they think it Unphilofophical to admit any Principle in the Explication of the Ap of Nature which can t be thus acpearances acounred for. yet its not being effential to Matter. this in admitting of the Univerfal Law of the Principle Gravitation of Bodies upon one another are. That they cannot accounted for. and were there upon no . It is indeed in my Opinion certain. fuch as mod of the Laws of Nature or Motion are. The Chief Difficulties that 1 can find have ftrakned Learned Men. but the Mo tion of fome fubtile Fluid.

but this one. But ev n the admiffion of fuch an Hypotbefis removes us but one Seep further from Immechanical Prin for the Caufe of the Motion of this ciples. vi%* that thereby thefe Parts of Matter which are the Caufe of. but the is it felf Immecbanical. are upon this Suppofition. why may we not rather ad- E ^ mit . deititute of Gravity I fiiou d think it fufficient to prejudice any inquifinve Man againft fucli Explications . which is the Caufe of Gravity. 5 1 Argument of Motion of a plications againft all poffible Ex Gravitation arifing from the fubtilc Fluid. for it s certain that Nature is uniform and confident with it felf. and fines we rnuft of Neceffity admit the Motion of this fubtile Fluid. fubtile Fluid. j has any Body ever pretended to other Caule affign any of the Motion of this fubtile Fluid.of no other ^attttal BeWgion. which is the Caufe of Gravitation to be unaccountable without a FirflCaufe. and wou d not deprive one part of Matter of (o Cardinal a Property. with which (lie had endow d all the reft. or produce Gravi tation. Nor Omnipotent Caufe of the Unherje .

the Impreffion of Rectilinear Motions. A&ivity.lt. are the Exiftence of Matter. that does require that are not to be accounted for Mechanically j the feweft any one pre tends to. . to which the fccond is There has never been any not liable.Poftulate upon Matter. the firft Suppofition is burthen d with feverai Additional ones. that the Earth draws to its Center all Bo dies within of it. fame Syftem of Natural Pbilofopby the offered to World as fome Populates not yet. and the prefervation of the Faculties of Natural Agents. we muft allow whether it be to be Mechanically ac its - counted for or not y anc fince it is not to be accounted for from Mechanical Princi ples. which no Man has pretended to account for from Principles of Mecbanifm 5 and the Impreffion of an attractive Faculty &amp. fince that this Difficulty in and that befides. . is no harder than any of thefe but fince it is Matter of Fad: and Demonftration. that Matter is in poffeflion of this Quality .mic is this Property the to have Firft Cau/e imprefs d this in Matter. for we daily fee. both .

5tion. we muft of neceflhy refer it to the Power and Influence of the Firft Caufe of all things. tffyflettion. Now. Another Difficulty ingenious Men have in the ter. we may come ble to conceive how Matter a6h to be aat a Di- E 3 ftance . ner of Thinking and one. the Continuation removed from the impellent Body. and ev n the firft Production of Matter and Motion. are things not eafily to be explained. 2. were there no other Difficulty this of the like Philofophy but of fymembring and Senfation. 55 as I think. pies. as ef neceflity it muft. are not to be accounted for. it but we know the Nature in might ftumble man The Communication of a Body in of Motion from one after it is part of Matter to another. Motion when we arc Souls and capable to explain how our our Bodies aft mutually up on one another . judicious Perfons .lt. I have demon ft rated.of Natural Religion. and yet we muft admit them. is Conception of this how it can a& Quality in Mat at a Diftance with out any Medium to convey this A&amp. and yet there is no denying that fuch things really are.

and nicate their what way they commu A&amp. there are much greater and harder Difficulties in the Mechanical Explication of the Nature of to belurmounted^ as (hall be afterthings XXVlll vvifds &quot. and that actually lodg the Caufe of all the Great and Uni No wife form Appearances of Nature. fufficient to know. how this Syftem of Faculties things was produced. whence nor how the they aroie.(hown. but till then. World.54 ftance wichout it is is any Medium .5tions another fent . it and Influences to one will fuffice fuch. will offer to explain by Rules of Mecbanifm. and if we will not admit of fuch a Being. from the Pre- Appearances to inveftigate the Powers and Forces of Nature. of Material Organs are preferv d. who throughly underftands the Matter. there will be lictle Difficulty in al lowing him to have imprcfs d on Matter what property he pleas d. that fuch a Qua lity it is d in Matter. and ^Powerful Beivg to have made this.lt. and honeft Man. and from thefe to account for future Obfervations and Ap if we admit: an Infinitely Wife pearances . .

and E 4 of .of Natural &eligtom The 55 XXVIII. linear th&amp. and that at the fame Diftance. the Force of the Attraction or Gra vitation of one part toward divers others.* equal Areas in equal Times . (their Diftances from the Sun y and their Recti in the Motions being once adjufted by Author of Nature. that a Line drawn from the Sun to them. and their periodical Revolutions will be in a defcribes fefquiplicate ftances. then. that every part Law great and primary by the Author of Na is of every Body attrads or toward every part of every other Body. is reciprocally as the Squares of thofe Diftances. that the Force by which one part attradts another in different Diftances from it. is as the Quantity of Matter they contain By the Virtue and Efficacy of this Law. ) and in fuch a manner. imprinted ture upon all the Bodies of this Univerfe. gravitates : the Planets mud perpetually move they meet with tick Orbits. proportion of their middle Di By Virtue of the fame Law. and the moft general Conditions of this Law are. if no in Ellip* refiftancc Spaces in which they move.lt.

well apply d. it is plain that by the Force of this Attraction of the Sun and Moon. Gregory has fhown Like. the Water that lyes dirc&ly under them will be rais d above its ordi nary Level. differ from exad Ettipjes which will be more fenfible in the Motions of the Moon. the Moon will for ever turn round the Earth. as alfo thefe the Sun. which will like wife happen if they are directly in the oppofite part of out Globe. the Sun. not only attra&s the ]But becaufe Planets and Comets. as the Earth doth round the Sun. As alfo the Comets will in very oblong Elliptick Orbits defcribe about the Sun equal Area s in equal times. as Mr. and their Orbics will be (bmewhat irregular. will account for all the Irregularities hitherto obferv d in the Celeftial Appearances. becaufe the remoter parts of the Wa* tcr .- wlfe fince a great part of this our Globe is covered over with Water.5 6 ^Dilofopt)fcai of thcfe Conditions. but Jikewife the Planets one another. Newton and after him Dr. and the Sattellits of Saturn and Jupiter round them . becaufe She is fo near to us 5 and this one attract Confideration.

and the Motions produc d in the Waters by the attraction of theietwo Luminaries cm t be obferv d feperately. this Globe will by reafon of the oblate fpherodical Figure of the Earth arifing from its diurnal Rotation about its Axis. one Prin will account for all the great and conciple ftant Appearances of Nature. which is a demonftration of its Truth. And were not our Terreftrial fee this fiology ( Thus we &amp. and full greateft. and the various Latitudes of Places. and leaft at thefe eflfe&s are vari- oufly limited by the different Diftances of theft Luminaries from the Earth. their De clinations from the JEquator. tho not exactly thither neither.lt. but their Forces at make up new and a compound Motion. its Bodies on prefs towards Center.of Natural &eW0t om will be lefs 57 attracted than the nearer.Py- more complicated than the Celeftial by reafon of the multiplicity of different Attractions proceeding from the many dif ferent Bodies that furround any particular one) . much iefs them all. and none but this will exa&ly anfwer any one. By this Gravitation. which Moon is the Quadratures.

fince the Center of the A&ion. as alfo the Secondary Planets tend to* ward the Primary ones as the Center of their . and that the Gravitation &amp.Plawts jconfequently.lt. in accounting for the more minute. and lefs conftant appearan ces on this our Globe. and that the Force ( as all other Virtues proround in a Sphere ) is recipro* pogated of the pittances from cally as the Squares In Qiort.lt. that A6tion and Reaction arc mutual and equal. that we are certain by the Effe&amp.Planets is mutual.lt. Bodies are attracted fince we feel that Terreftrul by the Earth. Add to thele Confiderations. by which the are kept in their Orbits. as in a great many we actually are. it is plain that every part of Matter attracts every other part. and fince we know by the fecond Law of Nature.5is. is of the fame Nature with that by which heavy Bodies tend toward the Center of the Earth. and fince gravitate towards the Sun.$8 one ) we fhould doubtlefs fee the Extent of this Principle. and by which the Moon turns round the Earth. of this Attraction Action and the Primary Read ion &amp.

Gene d the Laws Laws of Nature.Phy- Ufe of fivlogy.lt. their Satellits.of Natural Betfgfon* their 59 Motions. let us enquire into the Nature andCaufe of Fluidity^which ieems to confift in theMo&Vtfjr of fome principally parts. and fince the Decreafe and Increafc of this Gravitation is of the fame Nature with that of our TerGravity. and firft of all. and the reftial Sun and Moan thofe of our Earth. Planets another. eftabliJh of the following Difconrfes j having like wife fhown the Neceflity of admitting the Univerfal Celeftial Law of Gravitation to A pperances. Having thus in the ral. and hinted next proceed to folve the the great &amp. this Principle in the Celeftial let us fome of the mtiR Univerfal of our Terreftial Phenomena . with out carrying along with em the reft. and deduced fuch Conferences from em as we found neceffary to pkar fome Parts XXIX. and mutually gravitate upon one Sun. plain it is they all. Moon. or the cafie flipping of iome Parts upon others unmov d . fince likewife the Sun di fturbs the Motion of that Moon.

They lifli d. and fubjeded to the Univerfal Law of Gravitation. however a/lifted. one Particle may eaand for this End. whereby each Particle of the Fluid attracts another. that no Eye. fily flip upon another. 2. and Fluids in thefe four Conditions. muft be exaftly fmooth and po3. that the Force thereof may eafily Fluids exceed . at leaft.gt. e. That their Figures be fpberical r ot at leaft fperiodical or approaching to one of thefe. be able to Magnitude. i. Parts be extremely little. go after the manner folid All the Bodies in the Uni- verfe are Originally compounded of muft tho not indivifible. not mov d of (olid Bodies. able to diftinguifli the Figures or Magni of the conftituent Parts of Liquors. whence that cohcfion in the Parts of the fineft natural proceeds . but their Gravity muft be fuch. and by contequence. Parts.0pofop!ncai mov d. yet very fmall neceflarily take i. perceive able to difcover the Figures of Bodies their we have been fwim- but no one as yet has been ing in Fluids. That their and firm. tudes fo that they may touch only in a Point. fo very fmall&amp.

ceflarily require the Conditions in their Parts juft now affign d. which tear afunder the Parts of (olid Bodies. of attributing any particu ing no neceffity to the Parts of the firft Kind. lar Figure which own their Fluidity to the Force of the. generated and thofe that are naturally fuch. and equal fpeci em Gravities. porous. of equal Diameter*. fpherical Parof picks equal Diameters. that be Homogeneous. 4.of here Natural &eligton . thefe general Sup- pofitions. there be are to diftinguifli between thefe by the Force of the Fire. fmall. uniform Nature from for. and confe- they may equal fpecifick Gravities. which have between fome . and keep em in a and thereby make *em perpetual Agitation. of equal quently of Solidity. The Particles of natural Fluids muft be firnilar. whereas appear in the Form the Appearances of natural Fluids do neParticles of Fire. of a Fluid. (mooth. exceed the Force of their Cohefion and we Fluids. all the general Appearances may of be eafily accounted XXX. Water feems to confift hard. and of the fame .

is exhaufted. Their Smoothncfs. Water has above forty times more Pores than folid accounts not only for the different between Water and other Specifick Gravity Parts ) Fluids. fuch as Mercury. cles The ( Porofiy of the Parti- of Water Cubical which is fo great. that a meafure of Water contains at leaft forty times ter is more Pores than Parts. and ranged in fuch a manner. their Sphericity keeps em from touching one another in more Points than one. and by confequence. and Gold will by much preffure. when the XXXI.61 ^pflofoppfcai f&tftt tuples fome Spaces fo large. and nineteen times rarer than confequently Gold . makes em flip cafily upon one another. their Fridions in Hiding upon one another is rendered the their Hardnefs is the reafon leatl poffible $ why Water Air lodg d in is it. incompreffible. and fo may be more Pores than (olid fuppofed to have Parts. for Wa nineteen times lighter than Gold. as to be pervious on all Sides. by both which. but alfo is why it more eafily concreted into a folid Form than . let Water pafs through it.

ations inform us. we fee all Salin Bo dies produce a Rigidity and Stiffnefs in the Parts of Bodies to which apply d. are thin double wed d.like g Particles. to proceed and Fr Salin fee that all from fome . much we know. before they fhoot Figures into Mattes. . viz^ the fmall Points of the Salts getting into the Pores of the Particles of Water. zing. we but more eminently fbme. which is the reafbn why they fwim in Water when they are rais d once. from Mr. tho they be fpecifically heavier. menlions both Microfcopial Boyle s Hiftory Freezing increafes the Dtof Solid and Fluid Bodies. Obfen&amp. that they arc like the Effects of Free of Cold. But this Effed may be more juftly attributed to the fame Caufe that is prefent- be fhown to be the Catife of ly to Freezing. mix d with Ice. ftance floating in the Air Salts. that the of fome Salts. which have abundance of Sur faces in refpeft of their Solidity.of feem Natural aaeltgiotu Cold 6$ Sub- than other Fluids are. whereby thefe Salts are fufpendsd in the Water.gt. prodigioufly encreafe the Effe&s and Force of Cold.

em in a perpetual Motion. The Dimenfions of freez d Bodies are encreas d by the Infinuations of the(e Cbryftal Wedges in their Pores. ( and by (Looting into thofc Chryftah as we fee the Particles of artificial Salts do.. and the Particles of congeal d Water are kept at fome diftance from one ano ther. by the Figure of thefe Cbryftals. which in Freezing. Liquor is exposed the Air) which by both their Extremities when the to the Pores of infinuating themfelves into the Particles of Water. and confequently produce the Appearances of Cold upon Bo dies 5 but in Winter they are lefs difturb dj and more at liberty to approach one ano ther. infinuate themlelves in their Pores 5 for as I have before faid. fo that they cannot flioot into a (olid are not able to Wedge. breaks off their (lender Points. and by its A&ion. thefe Cbryftals are obferv d to have the Form of are a double Wedge. and fix em in a (olid Form. whofe Extremities . diflblves In Summer the Heat of the Sun the faim Particles into a Fluid. make em cohere.pljiiofoptjical pzinciplcs Water. keeps &quot.

by rcafon of the Largenefs of the Middle of thcfe Chryftals.of Natural Betigfom but pointed and flender. both in the Pores of the watery Particles. Specifically lighter cles this. and leffen the fpecifick Gravity of Water thus con- F geal d . thefe Globules can to touch. and not come fo thefc Particles in Freezing. and fo larger both enlarge the Dimenfions. and many of em uniting Volumes. there are many little folumes of Air included at feveral Diftances. Now Form by fpherical Fi the Insinuation of thefe by their the Volumes of Air are driv n out Chryftals. which thereby have a greater Force to expand themfelves than when difperfed. and in the Inter ft ices form d gures. fo that when the Extremities have infinuated themlelves into the Pores of two watery Particles. and thus the Spaces between thcfe fpherical Parti become larger and wider than before. than greater they were when in a fluid Form. are kept ac Diftances from one another. of the watery Particles. which is one Reafon why Ice becomes But befides than Water. its 6} Middle broader and larger.

and fatten them to a folid Body. which are not eafily diffolvible.66 geal d into Ice. the Parts of thefe Mixtures becoming a Ce ment to the Particles of Water. Gems. that the Quantity this our Globe does daily decieafe. and other Fojfils. may form itfelf into Me tals. ic is of fbrne part thereof being every Day turn d into Animal. to produce which. or Metallick Subftances. Mineral. Corollary Hence Water on plain. for (eparate a few Particles of. em into thcfe change different Subftances. the manner. and they are no mote fiderable fluid. a connumber of thefe Particles are necetfarily required. or keep em afunder from one another. Earths or Sulphurs. Vegetable. . any Fluid. how Hence we may guels at Water impregnated with Salts. Minerals. or getting into their Pores. which are not eafily diflblv d into t^eir component Parts again .

that their Diame ters are not much greater than thofc of tlie Particles of Light. that Light does through the Subftance of the conftituent Particles of Fluids. folid. of Reflexion and Refradion. their fliorteft Diameters muft not be much greater much a greater . fince likewiie it is probable.of jBaftirai ffielfct otu 67 Mercury feems to confift of exceeding fmall. Light being Material. that the Diameters of the Corpufcles of Mercury muft not be feeing Light and than thofc of Light $ and if theie Corpufcles be Spheriodical or Oval. for the(e Interftices are as the bules. and fince. ever fo (mall Quantities is abfolutely o- XXXH. ic is plain.fmooth. Cubes ot the Diameters of the Glo are by vvhofe meeting they form d. it s their Or plain. fphcrical or for fince Mercury in fpberoidicat Particles. cannot pafs through thefe Interftices. if the Particles of Mercury be fphedcal. and lets fagc through every refracting Medium. but rather not pafs through the Vacuicies formed by bicular Figures. none of the Rays of Light whatever be the Caufe pafs . muft either make or find a Pa pake.

their be ing (piral Accounts for the elafticity of Air $ being fpherical Particles which gives free Paffage to any Heterogeneous Matter. through Spires contorted the Interftices of which. and the extreme minutenefs of its Particles for the eafy afcent of Fire. it hew when becaufc comprcfs d fpiral retains its fluidity.68 greater than the Diameters of the Parades of Light. Spheres. the (olid Subftance Spires of the being very fmall in propor tion to the Spaces they take up. their Accounts as alfo for Airs being compreffible. above other fifts. beyond all other Fluids. Mercury by confift XXX1IL Air fecms to of into fmall Spheres. accounts for that won derful Gravity of Mercury. to form Paflages for it. form them (elves into Sfberiodf. why it is fo light. the Particles of Light fon may freely pa(s. The So of the Particles whereof Mercury conlidity and the fmalnefs of the Interftices they leave between them. through which another Matter freely pafles. This Account . or Figures moft refembling them. and this is the Rea. when comprefs d. Fluids.

of Natural aaeltgton* Account of the properties 6? per- of Air. as proportional to Mr. 3)enjity ( |V0/&amp. 01. 3 The Diameters of the Parti- Mr feem and Water greater than thofe the Diameter* of the Particles to be Vater. z j.gt. is for upon its this Hypot hefo they will compofe an Elaftick Fluid. of thcfe Primitive Fluids viz.. then thofe of Mercury . cles Tag. of . whofe Compreffion.. fome. which I (hall examin hereafter ) feem to be com (hall be afterwards pounded. Newton has demonftrated . with a Force reciprocally proportio nal to the Diftances betwixt their Centers. be fuppos d to confift of fmali Par which endeavour to recede from one another. W*~ ter3 Air. by far the leaft of all. Other Fluids ( befides that of the Light. as of of and fhown$ XXXIV. greater that of the Light. pleafe which to me feems the if Air ticles. But there is another more genuine. and of Par- F tides . all the Appearances of Air may thence be accounted for.for. under which Name I com prehend all that which paffes under the Name of jEtherial or Subtile Matttr. Mercury and Light . may haps.

of the Parts of the mixing Ingre thus Mercury mix d with Globules of Diamond. and fuch like Ingredients. which mixes with the Fluid .7/o tides of Salts. (efpeci ally the Fluid. would ver or Brafs. ) the Liquor will differ proportionably to the Difference of the Firmnefs or Softnefs dient . the Figure. the Fluid will differ proportionably to the Difference of the fpecifick . ^. Suppofing all other things alike. efpecially the ^Primitive Fluid. and the may in the Figure of the parts of the Ingredient. Sulphurs. make a different Fluid Globules from Mercury mix d with All of Sil other things being fuppos d the fame. mated. thus Water or Lymph mix d with Globules of Flefh or Blood of a greater Diameter. Earths. Cdteris Taribus. and the Varieties of fuch mixt Fluids general be thus eftii. will make a different Liquor from the fame Lymph. and the Dia meters of the mixing Ingredient being the fame. the mixt Fluids will differ proportionally to the Magnitude of the parts of the folid Body. mix d with Globules of Flefli or Blood of a lefs Diameter. 5.

All other things only confidered. of the thus a mixture of Gold being fuppos d the fame. the Diffe rence of the fpecifick Gravities being here 4. the Liquor will differ according to the different Degrees of the folid Parts the Cohefion of among themfelves $ thus. infinitely infinite which will Variety of mixt F 4 XXXV. but alfo the Figures of the folid Parts in the mixture may be infinitely diversified. feem to be the Trimogenial Differences of mixt Fluids . Now. . Mercury fpherical Magnets. will mixture from that of Mercury. little mix d with little make a different mixt with And thefe Spheres of Lead or Iron. be differently combined with one ano and with the four Primitive Fluids.of ffiatutai aaeiigiom cifick r\ Gravities of the Particles mixing Ingredients $ and Mercury will make a different Liquor from that of Mercury and Lead. (whereas the we have hitherto only fuppos d Solids fyberical) all mixing make an Liquors. not only all thefe may ther.

It may be ftopt fifted in its Paffage from one place to ano ther. That material Subftance. through a larger It is as Space. evident from reflecting Specula. and is not propagated in an Inftant. may congregated or fcattered rower. It is From thefe Confiderations. the Angle of Refle xion is always equal to the Angle of Inci dence . and it obfame Law in its Reflexions that other Bodies do. vi%. go from one place to another. as other Fluids are ftopt in their Courfes of folid by the wn Oppofition Body.. or re2. $tpme/s Reafonings upon the Eclipfes of the Satellits of Jupiter. as is plain from Mr. proand a determined to time requires gteffive. may be and tlie Determination of its Mo tion ierves the changed like other Bodies.XXXV. fccms to be evident i. any be within a nar . by the Interpofition of an opake Efody. It refiadting Burning-Glafles. reflefted. and 4. ( which are confirm d by the Qbfervations of other jftronorners ) whereby he demonftrates that Light requires about Minutes to come from the Sun to us.

8. Bodies .5ts lefs. Natural &cltgtotu It 7? may be put out of it^Courfc 6. Newton has demonftrated. others Blue. others fellow. through which it pafles. and all upon upoti other Bodies. and other Vegetables. their in component . and warm Juices they afford. by leparating lee.Prifm fome are ^ed % and fome Green. which effects. The of the Sun will warm and heac The Light other (olid arid fluid Bodies. continue when their paufe is removed j the of Light are yearly irpprifon d in Fruits.lt. parts Plants. and putting them Motiori all thefe Effe&s we daily 7. the parts of Light with various Original Colours. by communicating a certain Degree of Motion to them. the Organs of Animals. as Mr. areeqdow d Laftly. 5. as other fluid Snbftance? do. and may be fcen by a applied to the Hole of a darkened Room through which the Sun Now all thefe arc the Properties of fhiaes. according to the Nature of the Medium. by ftriking upon them with a detertriin d Force. Parts. It may be confined and (hut up in de- termin d Spaces like other Fluids. as we fee by the Spirits.lt. &amp. It more or a&amp.of dence.

74
terial

iMjiiofopljtcai

Bodies and can belong to nothing but MacSubftances.

XXXVI.
are extremely

That the
little

Particles of

Light

or frnall,

we may con

clude from thence, that they pafs through almoil: all Bodies that are pervious, fuch as
Chr)flats j Claffes, feveral Gems, and almoft all Fluids but Mercury, and that it freely
pafles

ver,

where no other Fluid, how thin foecan enter, and yet, no eye, however
has been able todifcover or diftinr

affifted,

But guifh the parts of the groffeft Fluid. what moft of all demonftrates their fmalthat Light may be propagated from innumerable different Luminous Bodies, with
nefs,
is

out any confiderable oppofition to one ano ther ; Suppofe a Plate of Mettal (having
at the top the fmalleft Hole can be made ) were erected perpendicularly upon a Horizon
tal (plane,

were fet innumera ble luminous Objects of about the fame at an ordinary Diheight with the Plate,
it

and about

irance

from it, the Light proceeding from every one of thofe Objects, will be pi opaga
through
this

ted

fmall Hole, without interfe

ring

ring.

This will appear by applying a dark

the Object, in a ftraight Lineagainft

Lu

Light of this Body will through the Hole be receiv d upon the it is dark Body ; impoffible that fo many different Streams of Light cou d be

minous Body,

for the

Now

transmitted through fo fmall a Hole, were not the Particles of Light extremely fmalL

Add
fwift,

to this, that

were not the
little,

Particles

of

Light extremely
(i.e.

being

extremely

more than a Million of times

fwifter than a Cannon Bullet, continuing in its as fliall be greateft Velocity, prefently d peirce all kinds of fofliown ) they

wou

lid

Bodies with almoft as great Facility as

they

do

Vacuities,
reflefted

whereas

we
fbme

lee

Light

regularly

from

Bodies,

innumerable dif ferent Spheres of Light within our Hori%on, may he propagated from their feveral

Moreover,

we

find that

luminous Centers 5 without interfering. How many Millions of Candles and Flambeaux

may we

fending out their Tides of Light, without clafhing upon one ano ther, which argues both the Smallnefs of
fee

the

?6

^fniofoptncai 0?i nctpies

the Parts of Light, and the Largenefs of the void Interfaces between the Particles of

Air and other Bodies.

XXXVtt,

How

extremely fwift the
gather from

Particles of Light are,

we may

the foremcntioned Experiment of
tners,

Mr. fy-

whereby he demonftrates, that the Streams oiLigkt pafs from thtSun to out Earth iq about ten Minutes ; and Hugens in his Cof*
ntotheoros,

nuing

has prov d, that a Bullet conti in the Velocity with which it leaves

the F/J Percur/a being the fame in both, the Velocities will be reciprocally as the times, i. e. the Velocity of Light will
t>C

Now

the Mufle of the Cannon, wou d require twenty five Years to pafs from us to the Sun

to that of a Cannon-Bullet, perfiftin^in
greatcft fwiftnefs, as

its

twenty

five

Years

is

to ten Minutes, or as 131 4700 to one fVoxime, fo that the Velocity, with which the

Light pafs, will be more than ^ Milliqn of times fwifter than a CannonBullet. Moreover, the Diftance betwixt
Particles of

the

Sun and

us

is

at Leaft

i

zooo Diameters
of

of natural

3&eitsfon>

77

of the Earth, but allowing it to be only runs a thoufand i coco Diameters, the

Light

Diameters in a Minute, or fixteen and half

Diameters of the Earth in a Second, or that is more than beating of an Artery,
1 1

oopoo

Taf/t;, fince the

Diameter of the

Earth contains 2865 French Leagues , and
Toifes, accor every League contains Buc ding to the Numbers of Mr, <Pkard.

n8z
1

Sound goes but about

80

Toi/es in a Se

cond, wherefore Light is abouc fix hundred thoufand times more Swift than Sound. Likewife fince the Earth s middle Diameter
is

7846 Miles, 5000 Feet and
;

each of which contains
fince

Light goes in a Se

cond or in a pulfc of an Artery, fixteen and a half; Diameten of the Earth, it is plain, that in every Second ic runs at leaft a hun dred and thirty thoufand Miles, which is a prodigious and almoft an incredible Space But the extraordinary in fo (hort a time. Effe&s of Light and Heat feem to require all this 5 we fee how powerfully it ads ( being congregated ) upon the moft com{olid Bodies, and w.c never perceive

any

78
any diminution of
an abatement of
its
its

Force arifing from
fixt

Velocity.
Stars

XXXV1H.

The Sun and

feem to be huge, denfe Bodies ( like the Earth or Planets ) heated to an extraordi nary Degree, and their Heat probably may be preferv d by the greatnefs of their Bo dies, and the mutual Adlion and Re aftion between their Parts and the Light, which they emit, and their Parts are kept from fuming away by their fixity, and alfo by vaft Weight and Denfity of the Atmoffberes incumbent upon them, and power fully compfeffing them, and condenfing the Vapours and Exhalations which arife from them : The Light feems to be emit ted from them by the vibrating Motion of
their Parts,
after the

manner we

fee Iron,

heated to fuch a Degree, as to be into Fufion, by the juft going vibrating Motion of its Parts, fend forth with Force

when

and Violence, copious Streams of liquid Fire all around $ Great Bodies prefcrve their Heat longeft, and that perhaps in propor
tion to their Diameters.

Mr.

Neww

has

made

of ffiatural

&tt<gfon

79

made
pear

it

probable, that the Comet which ap-

1680. by approaching to the Sun in its&erikelium, accjuir d fuch a Degree of Heat, as to be 50000 Years a cooling,

d

in

whence we may fing the Sun and

guefs, fixt Scars
folid

that

fuppo-

Colk&ions of denfe and

be only Matter like
to

the Planets, heated to a very intenfe
gree, they

De

may

be

many

Millions of Years

without lofing any confiderable part of their Heat, dftronowers have obferv d a clofe, compa<5t and large dtmofpbcre abouc
the Sun, and there is np doubt to be made, that its Body is of the fame Nature with

the other material Parts of this Univerfe, excepting what Alterations its vehement

Heat
ly,
fixt
its

may
Stars are

produce,

and

confequent-

highly probable,

that the

Sun and

only Planets,

vehemently
aft

heated.

XXXIX.
tually

Boferand

Ugh
i. e.

mu
a<5fc

upon one another,
its

Bodies

upon-ZJg&r, in emitting refledting, refraft-

ing and bending
(

Bodie$
>

Rays, and Light upon in heating them, and putting their
Parts

Parts in a vibrating Motion, wherein Heat confifts, according to Mr. Newton s Difcovcrics.
If

we fuppofe

that Bodies aft
it
i.

upon

Light, by attracting cular to their Surfaces,
fictiilar

in
e.

Lines perpendi

fuppofing

two

Mediumi diftinguiflied by Parallel

Lines, and that a Ray in its Paffage out of the one through the other, is urged per pendicularly towards either Plane, by any Force, which at given Diftances from the Plane, is of given Quantities , then what

ever Inclinations the

Rays have to

the Plane

the Sign of the Angle of Inci dence of every Ray confidered apart, fhall

of

Incidence,

have tb the Sign of the Angle of (fyfraftion a conftant ratio j this Mr. Newton has deitionftrated, both in his (principia, pag. 117.

&

feq.
if

and
its

in his Opticks y pag. 57.

&
it

fet}.

and

the Velocity
Incidence

of

the

Ray

be greater
fhall

before

than afterwards

be refle&ed, and the Angle of Incidence (hall always be equal to the Angle of ^flexion ^ and fince it is Matter of Experiment and Obfervation, that the Signs of the Angle*

of

Incidence

and tyfrattion in

all

Rays of
what-

of $atetai meifsfotu
whatever Nature, obferve a conftant and that the Angles of Deflexion and
<fewre

s
ratio,
7/7a-

are

equal

it is

therefore

on the o-

hand true, that the Rays of Light are thus urg d by the ^ffrafting Media, and their Velocity thus abated by reflecting ic fo that is ones, evident, fyfraftion and from one and the fame <%efleiion proceed
ther

Princiciple, ailing differently

in different

Circumftances.

Mr. Newton has demon: and convincing Experi ftrated from plain ments, that the Light of the Sun confifts of Rays differently refrangible and reflexible^nd
that thofe

XXXIX,

Rays

are

differently reflexible, that

are differently Thefe Rays refrangible. that are all alike refrangible, he calls the Light

of them Simple and Homogeneal, and thofe that are fome more refrangible than others, he calls their JL/g/^Compound Mdf&terogeneal\

the greater or
is their

iefs

(

l$efrangibility

Rays,
or
Iefs

Difpofition to
their

of be tutn d more

out of

on

the

way, in like Incidences fame Medium ; and their greater or is their xibility Difpofition to bc reG turn d

pDilofoplnral
turn d back
Surface they

more or
fall.

lefs

eafily into

the

fame Medium from any

other,

upon whofe
out of the

G(efraflion

Rarer Medium into the Denfer is made (b, that the Angle of tifyfraftion is lefs than the Angle of Incidence, and on the contrary. The Colours of Uomogeneal Light are thefe, Vwlet, Indico, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and
SfcA

Thefe Colours

in

the

Objeds

are

their Difpofition to reflect this or that fort

of Rays more copioufly than the reft ^ and in the Rays of Light they are their Difpo
fition to

propagate

this or that

Motion

into

the Organs of Vifion, and in them, they are Senfations of thofe Motions under the Forms

of Colours

;

the
ieaft

Rays

that

produce

Red
thofe
reft

Colours, are
are

and that make Violet, the moft, and the
refrangible,

as they ap refrangible, of thefe Extremes in the Or proach either der fet down, that is, Orange is Ieaft renext to Red, and Yellow next frangible,
leis

more

or

to Orange, and (o on.

All the Colours

of the Univerfe which are made by Light, are either the Colours of Homogeneal Lights,
or

of ^attttai
or

compounded of
is

a Mixture of thofc

;

Whirenefs

produced by a due Mixture

of

all the ^Primary
;

Colours of Homogeneal

and Blackne(s by a Suffocation, of Light ; and all Grey or Non-refexibilfiy Colours, betwixt Black and White, may be compounded of all the ^Primary Co the Pri lours mixt in a due Proportion mary Colours of Homogeneal Light are un changeable in their Nature, and no De nor Refractions will change any of flexions thefe into another ; whereas by the due Mixture of coloured Bodies, Colours may be produc d by Compoficion, which Qiall be like to the Colours of Homogeneal Light, but not as to the immutability of Colour ; for that may be chang d according to the Colour of the Light by which they are
Light
;

Teen

Suns Light confided but of one fort of Rays, there wou d be but one Colour in the whole World, ancl
;

io that

if

the

it

be impoffible to produce any new Colour by Reflexions or Refraltions,- for all
the

wou d

Variety of Colours depends Compofition of Light.

upon
/

the

G

z

XL,

For (not to repeat thofe which he has brought in great plenty ) fince Glais can be no other ways polifh d than by grating and (cratching it by Subftances. begin to bend before they arrive at the Bo Mr.gt. fo that the Scratches and of its Surface become too fmall Frettings other Arguments to be vifible. as by the rougheft. that they are incurvated by the Aftion thefe of Bodies as they pafs by them.84 ^ XL. . yet not fo fmall as to be come truly plain mff&amp. Newton has fhown by feveral dies. and that this Action is ftrongeft at the ieaft he has demonftrated likewife. if Light were reflected by impinging upon the folid Parts of Glafs j it wou d be fcatter d as much by the moft polifh d Glafs.berkal y and all toge ther to compofe one Surface*. Experiments of Rays paffing by the Edges of Bodies. whofe Parts are fmall and fubtile. The Rays of Light which fall upon Bodies and are reflected or refracted. that the Caufe of im Deflexion is not the Diftancej pinging of Light on the folid and impervi ous Parts of Bodies. which being contrary to Ex* perience.

after the manner hinted Bodies reflect 37. for then its refraCtive Power. it 83 is evident that the Reflexion of a Ray is not effe&ed by one fingle Point of the reflecting Body. which is evenly diffused over all its Surface. becomes too let any of the Rays go through. Power. Superfice greater or leffer refracting Power. Light in the j reflect the greateft Quantity it is of for by Experiment found.of ffiatutai aaettgt on* perience. but by fome Power of the Body. the ^flexion is ftronger or as the a hath weaker. or the Force of its Attraction ftrong to Befides that. for when Power various Cir- Light goes out of Glafs into Air as as it can obliquely poffibly if its ftill be Incidence then more made do. that tranfparent Mediums. by which it ads upon the Ray without immediate ContaCt. it becomes totally re/Jetted. thofe Surfaces of tranfparenc Bodies which have the greateft re/rafting upon the Ray. oblique . and refraft Light by one and the fame varioufly exercifed in cumftances . for in the confine Superficies interceding two of Air and Sal.Gem tis G in the ftronger than 3 con- .

oily Particles. pellucid Mediums have no fenfible Reflexion. All Bodies feem to have their Powers proportional to their Denrefraflive ficies. Mediums different from botK thefe between the Parts of hard Bodies. thereby . Between the Parts of opake and coloured Bodies. as Water between the tinging Particles wherewith any Li quor is impregnated. and perhaps. but at their external Superficies. and the Reafon why uniform. that conftitute Clouds or Mifts. is becaufe all their Parts are of an equal Denfity . Now Deflexions are perficies produced in the Su which intercede thefe Mediums of different Denfities. Air between the aque ous Globules. excepting fo far as they partake more and or lefs of iulphurous.86 confine of Air and Water ^ and in the confine of Air Cryftal. there are many Spa ces either empty or Me repienifh d with diums of other Dcnfides. and Opacity arifes from the mul titude of ^efleBions produced in the internal Parts of Bodies: XLI. ftill and common ftronger Glafs or and ftronger in the confine of Air and Diamond.

fince it s from the Aftion of Bodies on Light. Newton has found by Obfervation on almoft all tranfparent Bodies. fince all Bodies very probable. thac this refraffive Power does ari(e . to turn all a&amp. and it s depend upon the (ulphurous Parts with which they abound. that Light is fwifter in Bodies than in vacuo.of Natural aaeUgtom 87 thereby have their refra&ive Power made more or lefs . that this refraBive in Bodies does moftly partake more or lefs Power of Sul find. in the Proportion of theSVgTK which meafure the t^efrattion of upon Bodies. which is certainly true. phurs. is evident from Adion and this Confideration. this Mr. . fo fince mutual. into Fire them is : and Flame . refratt and reflett grow hotteft in the Light moft ftrongSummer Heat. Sulphurs al moft that the Aftion between upon Light Light and Bodies is mutual. that the denfeft Bodies which ly.5ls Light congregated by a Burningmolt upon fulphurous Bodies.lt. together with a Calculation founded the Suppofition. as by Chymical dnalyfes we And as Glafs. by refttttd the Action of the refrafted and G 4 Light.

thofe whofc Pores are fill d with Mediums of an unequal Denfity with that of the refrafting Medium itfclf. Glafs by being pulveris d. upon the fame Ground that thin Plates reflect or tranfmit thofe Rays j for a thin Plate of an even thicknefs appears all over of the fame Colour. and if this Plate were flit into Threads^ or broken che into Fragments of the fame thicknefs with . are Light. reflect Rays of one Colour. and Bodies become more fides tranfparent. according to their feveral Sizes. or Horn by being (crap d. be rendered diffidently opake. as Paper dip d in Water or Oyl $ and on the contrary.gt. and tranfmit thofe of aqother.a8 ^pofoppical The Bodies that reflect Light. XLIL The haft Tans of almoft all Natural Bodies are tranfparent. or almoft equal Pores Den- with their Parts. or feparating their Parts. as Salts or wet Paper dried. they muft T4icrofape&amp. the moft tranfparent Subftances may by eva cuating their Pores. as may be feen by viewing fmali Bodies with a and confequently. by filling their with Fluids of equal.

of Natural Bodies be muft upon the fame Grounds reflect or tranfmit the feveral (ores of Rays.of Natural Beltgton. their muft on Colours. Co lours gible and the moft (Refran Rays being the leaft refrangible Pw . there is no Reafcn why every Thread or Fragment fhould not keep its Co lour. fame Grounds ex Now Mr. But of Bodies on which their Colours the parts depend. muft be denfer than the Medium. and this is the Foundation of the various Colours of all Natural Bodies. that thin Plates or Bubbles refletted Rays of one Colour and tra/mitted thofe of another. which pervades their Interfticesj and as there is a conftant Relation between fyfrangibility. and there fore the fmall Parts ing tranfparent. according to their (everal thicknefs or thinnefs. and confequently. why a heap of thofe Threads or Fragments flhould not conftitute a Ma(s or Powder of the fame Co it lour which the Plate exhibited before was broken of a hibit . and the fmall the Parts of all Na tural Bodies being like fo many Fragments Plate. Newton found by Obfervation. ftolet . 89 the Plate.

foe full Satisfadion in this wonderful Ap of Nature. without lofing fomething . muft go to that late pearance written by admirable Treatifc of Oftic fo&amp.ffitinnples and thofe of intermediate Colours ha ving proportionally intermediate Degrees fo there is a conftant Re of fyfrangibility . is. and refrad or tranfmit the reft. Mr. lation between Violet Colour and (%eflexibility.%eflelion y and others in Fits of Thofe whofe who deeafie Tranfmtffion.gt.lt. that fome Rays at their Incidence are in Fits of eafie &amp. or to fum them up in a lefs room . Newton $ for it is impoffible to feparate the Parts of this Work from one another without Difadvantage to them. being at lead thicknefles of any Plate or Bubble. ac cording to the feveral thickneffes of thefe Plates or Bubbles : and the Reafon why the Surfaces of ail thick and tranfparent Bo Light incident on dies refled part of the them. the Circumftances reflected. in like the intergreateft thicknefles 5 and rnediateColoursat intermediate thicknefles j the Red at and lours there are ieveral Orders of thofe Co more or le(s intenfe and vivid.

4. has now manifefted to the World to what furprizing ments duly Heights.gt. That this Fluid of Light e3. even vulgar Experi ed in managed and carefully examin In the fuch Hands may advance it. from Mr. That Bodies draw greater Velocity. That fixt Stars are but Planets or Earths vehemently heated.of thing Nw and Ufeful. That far great Perfon having before flhown how Numbers and Geometry would go in Natural tpbilofopby. and moves after the fame man ner other Fluids only with a much them do&amp. tion. Newton s and Difcoveries. That the Mo Motion of Light is fwiftcr in Bodies than in . or having their in a fmalleft Parts ftrong vibrating put Mo emitted from them. I general. this Light to cm in Lines perpendicular to their Surfaces. by powerful ribratwni of their fmall eft Parts. 5. the Sun think we may fafely conclude i. and that this Light puts the parts of the(e Bodies in a vibrating tion wherein Heats confift. is That Light thefe mitted from thefe vibrating luminous Bo dies a certain time in from requires paffing to us. 2.

when brought a certain Degree of Strength. when that of the Rays of Light. becaufe that Force of Attrain its which accelerates its Motion Incidence . ed than broken. is the Caufe of their Light. muft of Neceffity retard its &amp. reflefted. juft as we fee the Vibrations produc d in the Air by tremu lous and fonorous Bodies. e. by reafon of after its this Attraction.in vacuo. i. muft be of fuch a determin d Force to produce a diftinft Sound. breaks through a reSubftance. or is rather bend 7. in 8. That thefe Vibrations produced Bodies by the Action of their Motion confpires with Light.lt.5iion Mo diffe tion in its (fyflexion. by reafon of the 6. and and (lower its being than in Incidence. That the Vibration of the fmaller Parts of Bodies produced by to the A&ion of Light. but when it is in the conit . when any Ray the is in that part of thefe Vibrations that has the fame Dire&ion with eafily that of Ray. rent Direction thereof. in its That the Ray cidence whole Courfe of ^flexion and In defcribes a Curve.

ces Sulphurs ought to 1 2. tarn . by and happens only Mediums of is the different Denficies of in Superficies Bo that intercede different Dcnfities. &amp. and fince k&amp. and fo every Ray is difpos d alternately to be eafily reflected or eafily tranfmitted. That of their own Na ture diverfly Refrangible and ^flexible.Glafs ads moft upon Sulphurs. 11. afting differently in dif the Rays of Light ferent Circumftances. are 9. Light congregated by a Burning.gt. That the For or refratt Light are very nearly proportional to the Denfities of the fame Bodies. vi%. pedes its Motion. and that this diverficy in both arifes from the fame Principle. the Action of Bodies upon Light. and that the refractive Power of Bodies is principally owing to the cranfmicted totally that are of the fame Sulphurs with for fince all which they abound A&ion is mutual. That Light through Mediums only uniform Denfity.gt. 1 That cerreflefi of Bodies to 5. is 10. it is eafily refle&ed. aft moft upon Light.9$ which im contrary part of the Vibration. That tffyfle\ion caused dies.

tain

Colours are

tfefrangibility

the primitive upon thefe Degrees.
lifts

d to luch Degrees of or ^flexibility, and that all and original Colours depend
ty
1

4.

That White con-

an equal Mixture of all the primi tive Colours, and Black in a Suffocation of all the Rays of Light, which is the Reafon why ftlacfo burn more eafily than other Colours and other not primi
in
;

tive

Colours
1

arife

of

thefe.

5.

Mixture That the Colours of Na
certain

from a

tural

Bodies depend upon the different Denficy of their fmall Parts, and thereby
fitnefs

Light of one Colour and tranfmit that of others. 1 6. That
their

to

reflect

of Rays make Vibrations of feveral which according to their bigbignefles, nefles excite Senfations of feveral Colours much after the fame manner, that the Vibra
leveral forts

of the Air according to their feveral bignefles excite Senfations of feveral Sounds.
tions
1

7.

That

the

lours arife
Iration

Harmony and Difcord of Co from the Proportions of the Vi*
as the

propagated through the Fibres of the

Optick Nerves into the Brain,

Har
mony

of

Natural fteHgton*

9?

and Difcordof Sounds arifes from the Air. Proportions of the Vibratms of the
Corollary.

From what

has been faid of the Nature
its

of the Sun, and

Light,

ic is

evident that

the Quantity of Heat and Light in the Sun does daily decreafe 5 like other vehemently

hot Bodies

it

muft gradually cool
of
fo

;

as alfo,

by

Rays Body upon all the Planets within its Syltem, which do not return, both its Bulk and Heat muft be diEwiffion

its

many

Millions of

perpetually, quite round

its

minifhed.
virtual

It is

Heat in Metals and Minerals, may be owing to the imprifoned Rays in em $ the Production of Animals in the ordinary way, require sa cer tain Degree of Warmth, which proceeds from his Influence. SomeBodies do ftifle and
fuffocate the

not improbable that all the the juices of Vegetables,

Light, fo as that they are never, or not duly reflected Sul again. phurous Bodies form little Cells by the

Rays of

Action of the Rays of Heat and Light to *& retain

$>6

retain

cm, and from

the Ingenious
learn

Expe

riment of the accurate and
{Bernoulli,

we

fpbere and all

d Mr. John are informed, that our Atmothe Bodies on our Globe are

faturated at all times with Rays of Light which never return again to their Fountain,

becaufe as has been
dtions,

Chown in the former
I

Se*

Bodies do attract, and confequently
thcfe Rays.
fhall here
(et

retain

down

(for he try d the fame Ex periment after different manners) the Inge

one of the Ways

nious Author prefcribes, which by my Or der was repeated here at London. They are
related in the id,

Volume of Mr.Fontanelles
Qtyyalle for the Year

Memoirs of
1

the

Academie

7 co.

We fuck d thro*

a very clean

Tube

of about 50 Inches in Length, open ac both ends, very well cleanled Mercury, till it came to the top, then nimbly ftriking off the upper Surface of the Mercury, which had been ioii d by che Air, and hindred the Effect in former Tryals, we nicely and the upper end with a proper quickly clo& d Cement fo th^t no Air cou d get in, then fu~
fpending the

Tube

that the Mercury

mighc

fubfide,

of Natural &ettgfon*
(iibfide,

97
chat

and darkening
in,

the

Room

no

Light could get

we

perceived that at

every Vibration, Flafhes of Light appear d in the Vacuity at the upper End, which enlightened
all the

Room, which as Mr.
$

@^r-

happened thus that Film of Dirt, wherewith the Air foils the upper Surface of the Mercury, and which hinders the Paflage of the Particles of Light in or
noulli reafons,

being removed 5 in the Vibrations of the Tube, the Mercury afcenddinary
ftafotneterf,

ing in

oblique Situation, lubfides again in its Perpendicular one, and thereby leaves behind it a Vacuity, to fill which, the Par
its

ticles

of Light, being the only Body that
in,

can get

rufhes in, from the Mercury and through the Glafs, in great Quantities, and fo produces thefe Flafhes ; which (hows
that the Subftance of
Light,
it

is

(battered
vifible.

every
the

where,
it s

Now fincc

though

be not

certain, that Bodies

do

attradt

Rays of .Light, and do retain em fo, that they can never return to the Fountain
of Light again of Ligb{ both
;

it s

plain,
this

the

Quantity

in

H

Bright Luminary,

and

and

in

the

Sun

like

fixt Stars

muft be

continually decreafing : However, it s alfo certain, that this Decreafe is very inconfi-

derable in any ftiort time, though
fure there
is

we

are

(ome, and our not being fenfible of this Decreafe, is only an Argu ment of the exceeding Smalnefs of the We find fome odorife Particles of Light,
rous Bodies,

fend out Steams

for

many

Years, without fenfibly diminishing either their Bulk or Weight, which argues the

Smalnefs of the Parts of thefe Steams. But the Particles of Light muft be extremely
fmall, fince the

Sun

for fo

many Ages

has

been conftantly emitting Oceans of Rays, without any fenfible Diminution : But this
can furprife no Body, who confiders that Matter is infinitely divifible 5 for it is poffible

to affign in Numbers, a Quantity, whereof a Body as big as the Sun may

conftantly, for any finite Number of Years emit Oceans, and yet the Sum of em all,

may

not be greater than a cubical Inch, or even a Grain of Sand.

XLIIL

of
XLJII.
that the

We

mod

have already obferv d, general Condition, of the

Univerfal Law of Gravitation in Bodies,was, that at the fame Diftance from the Center

of the attracting Force, Bodies did gravi tate in proportion to their Solidity, and at
different Diftances, reciprocally as the Squares

of thofe Diftances but this Condition is not fo general, as altogether to exclude
5

others
Tterfal

j

the
is

way

to

know how

this

Uni-

Law
is

diverfify d, in

the different

what Lines, Bodies in their Motions or A&ions upon one ano ther defcribe, or what the Effeds of thefe Motions and Actions are and then to in* veftigate what Conditions of the Univer al Law of Gravitation, will make Bodies
Bodies,
to obferve
;

defcribe thele Lines, or produce thefe Effedts. Thus if any of the (primary or Se
condary Planets, did delcribe perfect Circles. or about the Sun, or a
Ellipfe*

Primary

Planet plac d in the Center, the Condi tion of the Hnhtrfal Law in thefe, would be, that the attractive Force at different Di
ftances

from the Center, would be

as thefe

H

i

Diftances

$pofopl)tcal
Diftances
Parabola,
at

dire&ly.

If

they defcribed a

by fuppofing

the attractive Force

an

infinite Diftance,

changing
Force
,

or an Hyperbola, by the Centripetal into a Centrifugal

Law
ways
as

then the Condition of the Univerfal wou d be, that the Force were al
equable

and the fame at all Diftances, 1 1. Mr, Newton has demonftrated,
<Prop.

Lib.l.

We

find, as has

been infinuated in

the preceding Sections,

That the Rays of

Light in paffing through different Media, do tend perpendicularly, to either the Plane of Incidence or ti^eflexion, fo that the Force

of Attraction

always the fame 5 at equal Diftances from the fame Plane. We lee that the Parts of Air, fhun or fly from one another, inftead of tending to one another ;
is

fo that in accounting for the Appearances of Nature from the Unherfal Law of Gravitation,

we

are not

ty

d to one fingle ConK>

dition, but

may

have recourfe

others as

(he Nature and Ncccilicy, of the Appearan ces (eem to require ; for the whole Diffi culty of (philo/opby, teems to lie in invefti-

gating the Powers and Forces of Nature,

from

of

101

from the Appearances of the Motions given, and then from thele Powers to account for
all

the

reft.

XLIV.
cohering

The obvious Appearances of
two
very fmooth

Bodies are thus,

well poliflh d, plain Bodies, put together, will firmly cohere even in an exhaufted
Receiver, which fliows evidently that their Coke fan is owing, neither to the Gravity, nor

any other Property of the Air; all faline, cryftalline, and moft mineral Bodies, break in very fmooth and plain, or at lead congruent Surfaces , and univcrfally almoft all hard and very compact Bodies, break wkh Surfaces, which immediately upon the which is Separation, appear whitiflj,
to

an Evidence, that though the Surfaces be very fmall, yet they are very fmooth and polifh d, for only innumerable little polifh
all

d Surfaces, are fit to reflect plentifully kinds of Rays, whereby white Co

lours are produced. ces of cohering Bodies,
to

Now thele Appearan
do

naturally lead us

imagine,

that

one necelTary Condition
the plainnds,or at leaft

toward

Co^/^is

H

3

Congruitj

f^tnrtptes
Congruity

of

cohering

Surfaces,

and

this

fecms neceffary to exclude any Fluid from lying between cohering Bodies, for theie Bodies cannot be laid to cohere^ or be con
tinued, betwixt whofe cohering Surfaces, in all its Points a Fluid may infinuate itfelf,

The

of the cohe plairmefs and fmcothnels more Points come ring Surfaces, will make into Cotttaftj than when they are rough

and
/ton

irregular.
arifes

For whatever Caufe Coheif

from,

we

fuppofe that

Cade

to a 61

more
be
;

ftrongly at the Contatt, the Points of the cohering Bodies come
Colxfion in Curve

mod

into Contatt, the firmer the

will

and though cxal Congruity

Surfaces, will bring as many Points into Contact, as plain Surfaces will, yet Curvlty not being the fimpleft, nor mo(t expedi
tious

of producing this Effect, nei ther agreeable to Nature, (who always her Effects the fliorteft brings about all and eaiieft way ) in feems evident, that
the plairmek and imoothnefs of Surfaces, is one Condition of Cohe/ion, and that thofc

Method

Atoms that are terminated with plain Sur
faces

of ^atutai &eU0f on*
faces, will ( ctteris faribus
)

i

o$

produce Bodies

This will appear firmeft Cobefion. more evident from the contrary Quality in the conftituent Particles of Fluids. For we
have fhown before, Condition of Fluidity,
Surfaces, of the
that
is

of the

one neccffary
Particles

the Curvity of the

conftituent

of

Fluids, in
that
their

refpe<ft

whereby their Cobefion is very fraall, of the Cobe/ion of thofe Particles and are terminated with plain Surfaces,

Gravity always exceeds the Force of their Cobefion, fo that from both thefe
Gaufes, they eafily flip and move one upon /* another. that fome then may fuppofe

We

of the Primary Atoms, of which Bodies are conftituted, are terminated with plain Sur
faces
dies

on

all fides,

which will produce Bo

of the firmeft Cobefion, others are part ly terminated with plain, and partly with curve Surfaces, which will produce Bodies
of a
others again are intirely terminated with curve Surfaces, which will produce Fluids, and between thefe inCobefion
;

mean

tirely plain,

and

entirely

curve, there are

infinite Combinations,

of plain and curVeSut-

H

4

faces

to that by which they one another.lt. to whofe Plane at^.faces which will account for all the vari ous Degrees of Cobefion in Bodies. Now in can be deriv d from nothing Nature. and at ihe Difhnce AD. let !P A be perpendicular. let us then enquire what Condition of the Unfterfal Law. them from being e^fily feparated when join d. that cohering Bo a determin d Force. as this it were. On the Center A. there wants to hinder a Cement. will Bodies. attracted by . will not hinder them from being feparated. by any Force how fmall foever j and dies fiiice we require are certain. and &amp. whereby all the Pares of Matter. XLV. but that Univer* fal Law of Attraction. in refpeft of their Figures. to feparate ftill them. bring nefs and in the Surfaces of cohering yet this moft Points into Contact.P be a (Particle of Matter. and cannot be feparated buc by a Force fupericur. let a Circle be defcribed. endeavour to embrace one another. But though this fmoothplainncls. will moft fitly anfwer the Appearances of Coatcradt he fan.

5)0. Li^. L ..?. the Particle attracts the E Body &amp. in any &amp. 218.lt. right Line &amp. from ? to any any Point in the Radius of the Cir in the cle draw !P Ay take .lt. (P^.PF = VE. of fuch a length as may reprefent the Force whereby.of Natural 3Reltgtotu Condition of the Univerfal Law.Prop. and at F draw F/ pa rallel to AT).lt.P by all the Particles of this Circle.lt. and let Lt^I be the Curve which the Point 2^ thus constantly circumftantiated Generats 5 Mr. &amp. Newton has demonftrated.

lt. the whole Circle.lt.IPrincip.lt.P JLM =^=~^^ PH. (hall OTHILM . upon the Q^adim is &amp. r AHIL let &amp. = i x a- whofe And if for x you fubfticute !P ^. that the Force whereby Af&amp. &amp. j . F be call d x.gt. you have Iffot tte Area 0&amp.P attrads the Corpufcte multiplied as the upon the Kftarace A &amp. we then &amp.Phil.lt.P r tion of the Curve will be.~ x you fubfticute you have putting m. y= x&quot. &amp. .lt.P/j&quot. Matkemat.lt. and F^. =H .P.P. and let F^ ? or the Force whereby the Point E attracts the be reciprocally as any Power ( fuppofe n) of F then the Equa- Body &amp.OTJ1 r ^ 1 Wl v /r| .?.lt.lt. t n .and therefore i.

and &amp. with its AD the Cow- Afympiote is . then the Arch X&amp. then the of the attracting Circle being produced. ti\s Area.lt. or the Di~ ftance between the Corpufcle and the atTlane &amp.of Natural Bcligion. will coincide wich the dfymptote $0.P A = o.gt. Attraftim e. (the Curve being the vulgar Hyperbola.lt. in which Cafe.H ( whole Center .lt. &amp. the i.) finite. i. when the is y attratting Plane plac d at ot the Hyperbola.lt.P AH1L will be in and Jf being nothing. 107 m x &amp.P4 tratting K If 4HIL=o x ^ = n and VA = oo i vanifhing.~ consequently the the Cor- iM of the Circle upon pufcle = m t x If M = i.

lt.^tttlofopitfcal T.gt.. is greater i.gt.gt. is &amp. where ?i in = If n = o 2 and (P /4 ~ oo .4 (the which Exprcffion fliall be after meaning wards explained ) and therefore the Attra ction will be $A x AHIL = o .PD = &amp.P A AT&amp. there the 4*4 AHIL will be -nothing.gt./cfe upon the Gw2!_ x AHIL . AHIL will be oi more f/. a.PJ = o. = i.cc x = i. And hence appears that .^ and confe- x /4HIL =00 x o = therefore and V A = If n ^H be = 4 x And then f H called &amp.lt.y - + 2L If 7i Cff.lt.. then the Infinite. and conx ftcjuently the Attraction &A it AfilL iu r. ami &amp. let &amp. than that in the former Cafe. -f- &amp. multi ply *d into it more than Infinite from whence that the Force of the Atraflion appears this Cafe. the Attraction of the Circle &quot.P^ /&amp. and whofe Radius t= oo ) will coincide with is .lt.PA quently AL i and HI will coincide. when -V A o. and i.

the Attraction A m = ? and &amp. vi^ i.lt. then as former =&amp.of Natural Religion* in this Cafe.lt. fo that if A denote A=o . the Attraction will oo for of be greater than when !P A two Produds. having the fame Multiplicator. AHlLici this third in Cafe will be greater than the fecond and Cafe. for the Attraction &amp. that ^is to a. if (P i op A o. when (P traCtion.lt. contrary to what happened in the firft Cafe. for the reafon o is mentioned.P being cail djf. AH1L o in Force of the Attraction confequently the when PJ both Cafes. vi^ becaufc (P A = a . that is the greater.PA=--o y thmAHIL but will be more than infinite. If ?i J = 2 and &amp.lt. the Attraction.P in that Cafe was the fame both when was equal to o and to oo .- when (P A oo I and a the Atfay. will be greater than in the in this Cafe now fecond Cafe. as a greater than infinite is to infi nite. where n = i. which has the . ly AH If A = a. = greater Multiplicand.

and and confequently 00 X0 = 1. may from the Plane.Plane Attraction of the any affignable cafe of the Powers of the Diftance P F. AHIL will be equal to nothing. pufcle when come into or the Plane Contaft. If m = and PA =00. the Force of the circular &amp.no a common AHIL in this Cafe. then as be 3 fore. is Multiplicator in both. that the Force of the AttraEtkn of the Plane up thefe Calculations it is From on the Corpu/ck) when the Diftancc is no Cor thing. tf 6 After this manner. If the Attraction will be m = 3 and PA =a i } then the At. evident.lt. and at any affignable Diftance of the Corpufcle eafily in be upon computed the Corpufcle P. greater than AHIL in the fecond.* (fi traBion will be equal to ~H 2* (Id J? 4- i 1 45 + 3Z 5 rt Hi%0r. and the increafes when thus the Powers of the Diftance n increafe^ .

it s clear from upon greater. when the Towers of the Diftances are high. than when they are lower. at the fame finite Diftan- ces decreafes fafter ? or at a greater rate. the Force of the Attraction and PA =o. the Force of the Attraction tionally. or x. thus at the Diftances. when the Bodies are in Contaft. as does not anlwer the Appear ances . to where the Difference one Cafe and in the other. is when the AttraBion reciprocally as the Diftance between the attracting Bodies. is this to Now : apply theCobefion of Bo dies It s certain that the firft Condition (vi^. I.of ffiatmal &eltgtotu thus when n == 2.) cannot obtain in the Cohefon of Bodies 5 for the Difference between the Force. fo fmall. As alfo. H = i thefe Calculations. than when and fo in others higher. and is P A o. and fo in others between n yet greater. when in = 3. much lefs propor than when n=. fame n than finite is when is lefs. and when they are at fome Diftance from one another^in is this cafe. that the Force of the Attraction of the Plane the Corpufcle. or when n is a greater Number. .

they are at ever fo fmall a finite Diftance from one another. becaufe the Fluids But when . very much greater. ciprocally as the Squares at fome Diftance from one another^is greater than in the former Cafe . get in between the Surfaces of Bo they are at any Diftance. than when cohere. between Bodiesat immediate Contaft^nd of the fame. fame.ances .) the Difference of the Force ofCohefion. upon the Surface of our Globe. that the Force is whereby Bodies when they come to immediate Contatt. for we find. the Condition of the Univerfal it any which furround Bodies. greater than the Diameters of the confticuent Parti dies cles will be very difficult to make fuch Experiments. in it to the cohering Bodies. at fome deterthat min d would Law. But were poffible to gather by Experiment. J3ut not fufficient to account for this Difference obfervable in the if manner of the Cohefion of Bodies. In the fecond Condition of the Univerfal Law of Gravitationfoiz^whcn the Force is re of the Diftance. Diftances give from one another. the proportion of the decreafe of this Force.

howfoever everthisbe. and a Diftance equal to the Diameters of fuch jfubtil Fluids. that all the Appearances of the manner of the Cohefion of Bodies.lt. and that the Particles of 4ir y endea vour to recede from one another. they render the efficacy of the Force of Attraction where of the Force thus the Particles of by Bodies cohere. Ho w- very evident. and fo by the efficacy preffures. altogether infenfible at any Diftances from one another. it is affifted. and feeing one atight and Bodies aft mutually upon nother. is too fmali to be diftinguifh d by our Senfes. in between the Sur Light.of cles Natural their lateral of chcfc Fluids. get faces of Bodies. removed at almoft an infenfible Diftance from one another. and of^ir. then of Gra* one Condition of this Uniyerfal Lw I vition . together with that other of the already mentioned.Prin* cipleof Gravitation. of the plainnefs Surfaces of cohering Bodies . deftroy whereby Bodies cohere . may be explained from this &amp. greater than are the Diameters of the Particles of thefe Fluids . for if all Bodies cohere after one and the fame manner.

or in the become vifible which no doubt were K/&quot.vitation will fervc$ if fomc Bodies attraA one another after one manner. fures. find the Convex fide exceedingly ftretch d. to account for the different Degrees of Firmnels. as to be vifible as afro &amp.fide. Solidity and there Cohejton obfervable in Bodies ) then. which feems to arife from the Elafticity. others aftw another (and thefe Diverfitics to fome may feetn not improbable. there In we in the out. bending elaflick Bodies. that by frequent and long con tinued Bendings. there before.gt. is fufficient variety in this Univerfal Law all thefe Diverfities for account fo that it s to evident that from thefe Principles. being thus it is no hard matter to undcrftand (cxplain d. in fo much. tho* opt fo large. we fc the . Cahejton in general XLVL fame of fmooth and plain Sur faces. Cohefan in all pofGble Cafes may be explained. traftm. and of fome one or more of the mention d Conditions of the General Law of AtPrinciples.- firft Bendings.

were fo another. or its Parts forcibly d together. ftrike againft one ano ther. on the in. Diftance were fo fmall.5tion tain. are turn d in towards let us their Centers .of jftatutal ffieiigtom the Concave fide. only the Convex fides. fuppofe. the^irtraftive Force wou d immediately bring thefe Planes and together again.and that no forein Fluid endowed with a disjoining fuch as Air and Light arc ) cou d init is cer : terpofe.fide : the fame thing happens. that two very fmooth and plain (quare Surfaces. are join d together. if thcfe Planes. chat the external Force which thus fe- Force ( paraced theft Planes. feparated if thelc Planes were if the by zfarallel Motion.lt. mightily contracted. to hinder their A&amp. the matter being thus. that no forein Fluid I a . by any external Force. fide feparated. fo as to run prefs into Folds or lefler Convexities. or Balls. ceafingtoaft. when two elaflick Globes. as to move upon a common of the Congruent fquares as an /frcw . fo that each Particle in thefc Planes. attracts by fbme one or other of the Con ditions of the General Law of duration.

if the feparating Force ceas d. with a Force which may be. whereby thefe Particles If we then attraff one another. Now all Elaftick Bodies in their Actions upon one muft of another.eafily gathered from the Condition of the Law of Attralkn y and the Diftance of thefe Planes being given. the attracting Force would a6t and bring em together a- gain . the Surfaces of the Parts of Elafiick Bodies. changing their Figures. and in both Cafes. admit any forein deftroy the effi Fluid to enter. ) fuppofe. another after fome one gr other Condicion of the Universal Law 5 being feparated by a forein Force ? they muft (when that Force ceales) . feparated by a parallel or a circular Motion about an Axis y or by a - Motion both after thefe. fo far. as to manner they provided they be not feparated. which may cacy of the Force. fome manner compounded of ( for it is no matter after what are disjoined. and that they attratt one plain and fmooch.Fluid could get in to hinder their Adtion. neceffity have fome of their Parts in theie Adtions.

Principles. to defcend into all the par ticular Circumftances. ) and fo will produce all being the Appearances of Elaftick Bodies. toward bending Forces. but fhall content laid my fclf to have upon which dejpair d o for. there arc as great Varieties in this as in Cobefon. in this place with the particular Gonfcquences. and hitherto down pearances.of natural Beltgton* fes) join i i \? together again with a certain degree of Force. ic were eafie from thence. If Elaftick Bodies ferv d one conftant (Proportion. Upon the fame &amp. in their un bending. and Condition of the Unherfal Law given. be explained. the only (principles thefe intricate. to determin the Condition of the Univerfal Law by which their Particles attradt their one another . but per haps fome think. (which is to be eftimated from the Diftance.lt. from particular Conditions of the General Law of Attrattion. I fhall not may therefore trouble the Reader. may be accounted I . but it is not my ob- Bufinefs here.may the Elafticity of Ten dinous Bodies.

fome of the reft will naturally of thefe Diicourfes. from the fame Principles.ii 8 I ffpofopfflcal 0?mcipltg would proceed to the reft of the Appea of Nature which lam fatisfy d can be accounted for. come into the Subje& CHAP. for which this Chapter was defign d only as a Lemma : Befides that. . but that thefe already explain d are moft of rances what I (hall makt ufe of in the following Treacife.

.

.

CHAP. Of the II.. this Origination of World 3 and of Mankind in particular.THE Pbilofophical O F Principles Natural Religion. whether he fprang from fome times the Earth dropt from the Clouds y when he began^ or if ever there was a B time or . and yet fcarce any Bo dy give Himfelf the trouble once ferioufly to confider or enquire how Man at firft became to be. to fee T is a little furprifing Men contending and wran^_ gling about the Origin of their ieveral Families.

There are three general Opini ons about this matter.. or the Off- ipring of blind Fate and Chance. II.lt. but few of us go farther^ we take this World as we find it. and yet very many now a days don t fcruple to own themfelves the Children of the Earth. tho thefe Enqui s be far more worthy a wife Man than thofe infignificant Contefts.^I)i!ofopi)icai time ries when he was not . or whether it was~#We or eafily fatisfy not.S ving . and that thefe Particles mo &amp.. No Body can well bear to have their Anceftors affronted. without troubling our Heads who made it. very fmall. that holds that an iwmenfe Void^ and an Infinity of different hard and ly figur d. Whate ver others may do. the firft is of thofe of the Epicurean Se&. We are pains d we and our own immedi ate Parents have not been for ever . extreamly Matter have for infrangible Particles of ever been . I fhall not think my Pains ill beftow d once in my Life to have cxamin d how this prefent ftate of things became at firft to be. nor their Pedi gree dcfpifcd.

with out any Caufe. over But pafs this Head. This is the Scheme upon which fome build their and upon the account of which fome of our Moderns think emfelves fuh* Hopes j til Philosophers 5 III..which is a very liberal Firft this Compliment to fuch an unadive inaiii- mate Mafs^ to make it independent for its Being and uncapable of being deftroy* ed (both which Self-exiftence neceffarily implies) tis to raife it of Dignity. after innumerable ren counters^ did at laft fettle in this beautiful Order of things we now behold. how juftly we (hall now examine. as B 2 not .. 3 in a dire&ion oblique ving of emfelves to one another. Scheme fuppofes Mat ter to have for ever been of it felf. Time and Space it s true may have for ever been but that is becaufe they to a may have fome relation Being endow d with all other fuitable j Dualities but Matter feems to be too igno ble a Being to arrogate fuch high Endow we ments..of natural JReiigion. to which to a very high pitch we find none of its other qualities anfwerable.

if it was from all Eternity at reft.. thereof to the Places they are to have produc d this frejent now in ^ ftate of things. that wou d for ever continue in the ftate it it is put in. No . hard. it wou d for ever move on. e. We never bring it fclf into Motion. may at the {ame time. and with the fame eafe.not eiTential to the Bufinefs in Hand. it would continue fo for ever. that of it felf it can IV. if in Motion. Whatever can be fuppos d to fince it is put Matter in Motion.. Let us confider how out of thefc few Principles of an ttdwenfe Void^ an infinity of very fnjall. this motion did proceed fuppos d there is nothing bcfide unadive Matter it felf to produce it. and in and their oblique Direfrangible Particles^ Si/on to one another. have prov d XL of the preceding Chap ter ^ that Motion is no more effential to Matter than Reft.. be fuppofed to have dire&ed the feveral parts / . and. But I d gladly know whence .. it is poilible to form have this prefent ftate of things..

that the* it may be ve that nothing in this Univerfe is a&ually at abfolutc reft. that . for the fpace if is as the Velocity fmall y and the Velocity be very the fpace it moves through is fo Kkewife And that thofe Bodies which-&quot. tradiftion implies no cona Sphere in a vacuity fhou d B be . Motion is a Quantity. fay they.. is from hence. To ry this I true. anfwcr. feem to be Obflacle.of j^aturai 3Seii0iott. and may be divided in mfiiritnm as well as other tities^ Quan and a Body may be moving any fi nite time. who fees any part thereof at reftfor what is effential to any thing.. that No Body But fome thing can never be without it.. For. and yet never (enfibly change its relative Place . and thofe of great Name too. : are only alternately to and the ter from moving very (lowly mination of the Motion. Philosophers^ have afferted that no part of Matter ever was nor can be at abfoltite reft. but that every thing is in fome degree of Motion ^ yet that abfolute Reft in Bodies clear is not it iiripoflible... 5 can think Motion effential to Matter. or the at reft..

in the faculties of natural tbicgs.. i. pot . that determines it to this Dire&ion rather than to any other of the infinite Variety. it will not of it and confequentFor ly Motion is not effential to Matter..fM)ilofapl}fcai be d by two other equal Spheres with equal Forces and contrary Dire&ions. fhou d rnoYe rather in this than in any other of the klfinite number of Dire&ions. And it cannot poffibly move in more than one of em at once^ and therefore it will of itfelf move in none of em. from which preffure the intermediate Sphere wou d be at abjolnte Reft wherefore if it is not abfurd a Body {hou d be at abfolute d be it is Motion fliou impoffible Reft ^ to Matter. and that is -from the infinite poffible Vane-? ties of its Dire&ions laying afide the confederation of all other Bodies j or.. no Reafon can poflibly be aflign d why it prefs . e. There is another Argu efiential ment which to me feems very conclufive againft Motions being effential to Matter. fiippoa Body moving in ^acuo^ it muft move fing Now what is it in one certain Dire&ion.which are felt move at all.

V. that thefe Parti cles moved with different oblique Dire&ions to one anotherby which means they wou d meet and juftle and B 4 refleft.. in innumc- . it not being effect ial to Matter. felf* I wou d know exiftent and felf-Moving whence came this obliquity of Direction y this is to afcribe Will and Choice to thefe Particles. poffible and their Atoms. and therefore they added. not endow d with Free-will. there can be no Choice made at all. and no Reafon to determine any one way. and to alledgc that they are ca pable of refolving what way they w ill go. From all which it is that allowing the plain. yet nothing wou d follow but r an eternal wandering in Lines parallel to one another^ without any other cifeft. and there being nothing elfe to produce it. But allowing Matter to be .... where there is an infinite variety of Choice. as has been prov d..of Natural Religion. The Contrivers of this Scheme faw wifely enough^ that granting thefe Atoms to be felf-moving. yet nothing cou d be produc d Abettors of this Philofophy their Void for want of Motion.

do not find that Matter or Bodies can alter their Directions. But does not every Body fee that it is as eafie and as intelligible in Being. if the Mo tion of thefe Atoms arifes from emfelves^ they muft all follow the fame Dire&ions^ i. Why do they not fo ftill? Since (according to their own fuppofition) their Na nothing has happen d to alter or the manner of their Motions ever ture^ fince. they muft all move in -parallel Lines ^ and confequently they cou d never meet in order to We now produce any regular Effe&.8 innumerable different ways. and yet according to the Opinion of thefe for infinite as Men d Ages by -pa ft.. e. they have mov they lifted.. and all Motions produc d by the fame adequat fame DiCaufe have the re&ions and confequently. obliquely dire&ed Mo* the Caufe of the one being no lefs accountable from their Principles than the other.. We fee all Motions nowperform d in the fame dire&ion with that of the mo ving Force. . to iiippofe this World already as to fuppofe thefe Particles this endow cl with tion.

upon any other ac count but the Direction of the imprefs d Force..) felf-mo&amp. they w ou d produce a fluid Sphere^ their rectilinear Motions turning into circular ones . is r : to fay thefe Atoms were intelligent free Beings. For thefe Atoms cou d not move all with the fame degree of Obliquity to one another.. and all that s alleged on this Head by the Favourers of ther precariotts. But allowing. and if they again reffe&cd from one another.of /Ince it is atural 3&eitgton* altogether . or otherwife wander on in right Lines as before And to make fome con verge to one point. for that wou d be making em all converge to a point. thefe Atoms to be ^ji Jelf-exijlent. others to another.. and fo nothing but one great fo^ lid Sphere cou d be produc d if they happen d to unite after their Meeting. this Scheme is altoge VI. unaccountable in why Matter iliou d move one Direction rather than another.ving. which cou d chufe the courfe they wou d . yet tis ftill inconceivable how they r fhou d produce a World. and obliquely di- re&ed..lt.

only Spheres of different Mag nitudes cou d be form d. Stion to produce any in the of the Sun. is. by the interpofition of the furfaces of refle&ing Bodies thing. I leave the der to confider. differently fituated^ obtaining all poffible varieties of Obliquity.. only thofe whole Directions converge to a point. Bodies in ter this Univerfe. cou d meet to pro duce any real Body^ and ev n the Body which wou d be produc d woti d only be faid. they . e. The truth of the Rea mat Bodies were fclf-moving^ they cou d move what way they pleas d..and yet thefe pro duce no regular Syftems of Bodies.. /. now So that out of all their Motions. tho endow d with their obliquity of Dire- Rays which as was before prov d are very fmall parts of Matter.o $t)tiDCopi)ical in. wou d go We have a very powerful Proof of the infufficiency of thefe Atoms. and if flop when and where they pleas d. which how fmall a part this is of the infinite variety of a fpherical one... tho* they move and probably juftle and inter As I have juft fere all imaginable ways.

VII. For unlefs we defcend to Particulars. Again . we are never certain it can be fo.of natural Religion. allowing thefe Atoms to bzfelf-exiftentjfelf-moving and obliquely dire&ed. yet I wou d gladly know how from thence this Univerfe cou d be fram d It is not enough to fay barely thefe Atoms thus difpos flate d wou d at laft fettle into this of things. Generals are always to be fufpe&ed 5 a Contradi&ion may be difcovcred in the particular Explications of an Appearance that was not taken notice of in the the general Scheme^ as indeed it happens in every individual Inftarice of prefent Subjeft hitherto attempted. I (hall not ask of thofe who defend this Scheme^ a particu lar this&quot. be {hewn by what Directions and Refleit &ions verfe . To (hew a thing po fible to be done. we muft tell how.. what way^ and by what Laws it may be done. 5 the principal Bodies of this tlni- were fram d. unlefs particular Motions. . d they wou d be free-will Elective Agents.and tis as 5 probable (till contrary be evinc d^ in fome Particulars at leaft) it may not be fo.

and his Followers have It is furnot mended the matter much.. and yet to be fully fatisfy d of the truth qf this Hypotbefis^ a Man muft underftand t}ie particular Mechanifm of the whole of things. and of every individual Syftem Appearance. from thefe tell by what MecbaPrinciples alone. how any reafonable Man prifing to think cpu d believe this Vtriverfe to have been produc d by Matter and Motion j when as yet no Man that ever liv d./ or Terrejtrial Bodies cou d be produc d .. can by what Laws of Mechanifrn..lar account of the Mecbamfm of every in dividual Appearance in our Syft erne D for But it any one that indeed were endlefs.. or from what mechanick Principles the tell Planets defcribe Elliptic^ Orbits.. any one Animal or Vegetable was produced. can the moft contemptible of the Celeftial #//. We all know how wretchedly Des Cartes (the ableft Patron that ever this Opinion had) has blunder d on thefe Heads. . I {hall for the fake of thefe allow their whole Scheme to be true. V1I.

It is impoffible to conceive how innumera ble hard and compared Atoms in Now Figure. at leaft not fo but that the leaft Motion will disjoin em again. The only tolerable account Particles is of from Cohefzon their branched in fuch like hard folid Particles refle&ing from one another. cxtreamly compared and hard of Matter muft (as indeed the leaft parts neceflarily be) which compa&idnefs and hardnefi is a demonftration that nothing cou d be produc d by em^ fince being fb they cou d never come to cohere. without any other cement but their catching hold of one another. can never poflibly lay hold of one another..of Natural ffieiigion* VII. in or der to produce folid Bodies. Thefe Atoms are fuppofed in frangible..this mutual embracing might keep em from being eafily torn be ftill movable Work y and cou d never produce the appearance of Firmnefs affunder. fwimming an immenfe Abyfs cou d ever come to co here fo as to produce fuch hard Bodies as Diamonds and fome other Mineral Subfiances are.. but like chain d they wou d .

fome few of the moft confiderable tors of this . du&ion of this prefent ftate of things. and confequently thefe cou d never be produc d by Matter and Motion alone 5 or any Combinations of them.. and to meet according to any Laws of Mechanifm. iaid And what is here of Cohefion and Solidity . befides their Matter and Motion. obliquely dire&ed. It were endlefs to allege all the Inftances that might be brought on this Head. will . VIII. as is (hewn in the two laft Se&ions of the preceding Chapter..14 Firmnefs and Solidity. And thus allow to be ing thefe Atoms Self-exiftent. maybe likewife fhewn of Elafticity. or fuch movable ones that are al together unlike the folid Bodies we now So that to account for the probehold. There are feveral Appearances absolutely unaccountable from the Laws of Mechanifm. yet they cou d only produce loofe heaps of Atoms .. the Abet Opinion want a Principle for Both Solidity or Cohefion and Elafticity which are owing to no eflential Property of Matter. Self- moving.

all the Bodies of this Univerfe are VZK. That aftive Principle which animates as it were the dead Mafs of Bodies. The firft I (hall inftance in. That of Gravitation.. for if any with the Laws of Mechamfa^ then it is cou d have been impofllble this Syfteme produc d by the concourfe of Atoms. nor can arife from the Figure^Tex* Motions of its Parts.. Not only Gravitation or that implanted Principle whereby Bodies tend towards one another. is above the Powers of . is that great Law In to which fubjeft. and therefore this Syftem of things cou d ture or 5 not arife from thence. but is im^lan-* ted therein by fome Power fuperiour to that of Matter j whence it is evident that one of the primary Attributes of Matter is independent of the Laws of Mecbanifw. and which is the Caufe of all the beautiful Appearan ces of Nature owes its Origin to fomething different from Matter and Motion. IX.. the former Chapter I have endeavour d to fhew that this Property is not cffential to Matter.of Natural one be inconfiftent will fuffice.

cou d never from the meer Laws ofMechaniJM explain how the Planets came to move in Elliptic!^ Orbits.6 $i)itofopi)tcai all of Matter. i. that they fliould approach to and remove from a determin d point at different Sea- and that uniformly and conftant is ly. All the At- tempts of others before Mr. as has been (hewn in the former Chapter.. All the Fb/fofophers that ever were. that they (hould conftantly revolve in Orbits.. that as to conceive the their Poftulata thing which they pretended to account for from them. to explain the regular and confront Appearan c ces of Nature^ were moft of em Ungeometrical^ and all of em fo inconfiftent or it was as hard to allow unintelligible. they might Matter had been felf-moving) have for (if ever ftray d in right Lines. planted .but. altogether unaccountable from the Laws of Mechanifm. But from this im fons.. e. but the Effe&s and Appea rances that neceflarily depend thereupon. Newton. all the and ferrejinal Appea Celeftial rances are likewife above the Powers and Laws of Matter and Motion.

. nervous Juices are both deriv d from the Blood. Laws of fqueez d by the force of the Heart from the left Yen* is The Blood tricle^ through the Arteries unto the Ex^ tremities of the Body. The Produftion of Animals altogether inconfiftent with the Mecbaniftrt. and forc d into the Mufcnlar part of the Heart. verfe cou d not have been produc d by the there is Laws of Mechanifa. the Motion of the Heart by the Texture of their C containing Vc fck . Phenomena are accounted for^ and that to the greateft nicety we are capable of So that not only this Unidiftinguifhing.. and is thence re turn d by the Veins into the right Ventri cle thence by the Arteria Yulmonalvs unto the Lungs ^ from the Lungs by the Vena j fulmonalvs to the right Ventricle again. X.of Natural 3Ed!0tom ail 17 the planted Principle of Gravitation. but fingle Appearance fcarce a that can thence ade is quately be accounted for. The Motion of the Heart is caus d by the nervous Juices mixing with the Blood in the Mujcular And thcfe part thereof. r.

In all Animals there be fo hkewife. which is a plain Circulation of Mechanical Powers i. fo that the fame Water fhou d . But.. and a Gland with . By an Organ mean a diftinft independent part of a Machin :Thus a Wheel and all its parts is an Organ of a Watchj if I may fpeak fo. the latter muft 2. and perhaps by the pulfation of the Arteries upon the Nerves in the Brain. fince the firft dernonftrably impoffible.8 ^iiofopijicat fcls. is urging their Juices through the Caufe of the Motion of the Heart. are Organs in if number a&ually indefinite I not infinite. Here now the Heart is the Caufe of the Motion of the Blood in the Arteries. and the Motion of the Blood in the Arteries the Nerves. a Circle to move the constantly return in I iliou d then think their Scheme Machin : Ibmewhat is fcafible. e.. a Perpetuum Mobile^ which by what was faid in the preceding Chap ter is contrary to the Laws of Mecbamfm. If an Epicurean Philofopber cou d contrive a Water Machin that the Water fliou d move the Machia^ and the Machin the Water ..

. 2 and .. and confcquently tho ev ry minute part of the Body be fenfible. leaft Now there is not the folid part of the Veffels imaginable or Mufcles but is fenfible r and therefore the Organs in Animals that convey this Senfation. Jfceitgiotu its 19 Origin an in an Animal Organ Extremity thefe Organs or independent Now Body. To be obje&ed. it will not follow that the Organs which convey ttiisSenfation are infinitely many^fince they be only the continuation of fome few Organs through different parts. is its or a Canal from are infinitely parts in the Animal. many. Senjation is per- form d by the mediation of an Organ arithe Brain and continued through fing from the part affe&ed. are infinite in Number. if every point of the Veflels and Mufcles of the Animal Bo the is Anfwer dy be fenfible. that one this perhaps it may Organ may convey Sensation through feveral places. which is evident both from the Nature of Senfation and Nutrition. then the Organs which convey the Senfation are C infinitely fmall. But may all obvious.of with all to its natural parts.

. and fince there is no part of the Body that may not be encreas d or diminifli d (as is evident from the Cure of Wounds in all Places through which the neceffary part of the Fluids of the Body can pafs) it is plain that cv ry individual point of the Ani mal Body is the termination of an Organ through which the Nutrition may be con vey d.. nitely many. ev ry aflignable part of thefe Canals muft be the termination of forne Decretory Duft feparating a fluid fit to encreafe their Dimenfions or repair their Loflcs and thefe fecretory Chanels again muft have others to encreafe their bulk or repair their Lofles. through which the Supply is convey d to the Place to be nourifh d. Again. feeing their Extremities in or the Brain conftitute a finite Snferfcies^ fill a finite Space : For a finite number of in fmall parts can never make a finite finitely is perform d Quantity. and f on in infinitum. .and if infinitely fmall they muft be infi-. Moreover feeing even the Canals themfelves do encreafe in bulk. may de cay and be impaired. Nutrition by an Organ.

thofe capillary Pipes are difcovered j and thefe parts which were formerly reckon d Parenchywatous are dles or heaps now found to be of exceedingly fmall bun Tubes or Threads. that the fiinfinitum. the Brain is a numberlefs Congeries of infinitely fmall Tubes woven into feveral Figures ^ the Nerves are bundles of fmall cylindrical Pipes .. and each Fi bre of an incredible Number of little F/bound together and divided into brils. the greater Number of fine (lender . and the Litngs and Liver are but Heaps of little Bladders upon which the Blood Veflels are fpr cad in Net-work or of little Glands among which thcfe Veflels are difpcrfcd. all the for7 lid parts of the Body are nothing but C 3 cither . The Mufcles themfelves confift of a Number of Fibres.. neft Glaffes difcover nothing in the feveral parts of the Veilels and Mufcles but and the better the Canals Microf copes are.. In one Word. little Cells or the Glands are no Veficles^ thing but a clew of little {lender Pipes diverfly rolled or folded together .ffieligion* Add to all thefc.

Machines ^ Laws of Motion. is is beyond difpute. made of Organs in Number really infinite. in Fibre to another^ or fpread out into thin Membranes: For the Bones are nothing but fuch Bundles... In Artificial the more complicated and compounded the Contrivance of the Parts is^ the grea ter the difficulty is in adjufting them 5 and the difficulty encreafes in the fameproporti- on the complications do. nothing but thefe Threads wrought toge ther into thin Skins. or (lender Bundles ty d together by others fiirrounding em^ or going from one Threads .0?tnciples either very fine exceeding (mall Tubes for the conveyance of fome fluid.. For thefe Organs become at laft infinitely imall j and fo their Sum muft be infinitely which that every Animal all From it Now how many. and confequent^ the ly when the complications are infinite Machin . and or all the Membranes are Membranons Coats of the Veflels. feingitconftkutesafinite Quantity.. ridiculous is it to imagine a thing fo wonderfully made cou d be the or of the blind Eflfeft of meer Chance...

. Allowing have been produc d by the cafual concourfe of Atoms ^ why do not thefe very fame Caufes continually operate. and therefore the Produ&ion of an Animal is altogether imAnimals might mechanical. it s very arrogant in them to think People fhou d believe the Matter without any Reafon upon their meer Word. No Body now-a-days thing of as that underftands any Nature or Philofophy can fo much imagine that any Animal how abject foever can be produc d by an equivocal Ge- C neratiofi . and why do we not fee the fame Effe&s in our Days (fince the Caufes continue the fame) that w ere beheld in former Times ? If any of the Philofophers fliou d fhew us fuch an Appearance .of Natural lleltgioit. begin to hearken to their Pretences. fince fuch a thing how fuch we might But was never feen nor pre tended. 23 Machin is the altogether above Power of this is Mechanic!^. r nay^ if they wou d but tell us (without runing upon Contradiftions ) a Machin might be produc d . 3. and quite impracticable by the Laws of Matter and Motion: But exa&ly the prefent Cafe..

till and it be fit to be trufted with the Light. fill the Liquors of different Natures. going fame perpetual round which are no more capable of producing thewonderful Fabrick of another Animal. know very well that there is the . capable of receiving the Benefit of the We in the nothing Animal Machin^ but an infinity ot d with branching and winding Canals... and that the Parents conduce nothing but a convenient Habita tion and fuitable Nourifhments to it. in the fame or 5 different Individuals. Veins and Arterie? fhqu d be form d at the fame time. Befidcs. tinlefs Animal Spirits. which can never be done by the Motion of any for as hath fluid what way foever mov d been juft now faid.. who have confidered And very few the Matter but own that ev ry Animal proceeds from a preexiftent Ammakid. the Heart cannot be fent from move.24 |M)ttoCopt)ical neration Male in two or without the conjun6Hon of and Female Parents. in the Generation an Animal. there is a neceffity that the Heady Heart^ Nerves.. than a thing is of ma of king itfelf.. Air.

.of the ^amrai aaeitgton. It is Penance to their fluids. try able to form the Idea of the Generation of an Animal. doing read the wretched Accounts of the wifeft and moft learned on this Head. the Arteries Veins and Nerves muft be all form d at the fame time^ if the Ani mal is Mechanically produc d. But this is altogether impoflible. it 25 Animal the j be cannot deriv d into the Spirits Heart unlefs the Blood be fqueez d by the Heart through the Arteries into the Brain. for no Motion of any fluid or fluids howfoever difpofed can form all thefe at the fame inftant. again confider that all that one Animal can conduce to ward the Generation of another is by the force of fome Liquors through fome Ca and if from this Power he be nals. Philosophers To obferve how in every ftep they contrad id .. So that it is evident that the Head and Head through the Nerves into Heart. And we know all of the internal Mechanical Ali ens of Animals are perform d by the force Let any one confider the of Canals and other Infinity Organical in an and parts Animal.

. it is too hard a Probleme to be folv d from For (b few data as Matter and Motion..or the Laws of Motion. it is evident that an Animal cannot be produc d mechanically. and furnifh us with the fame Obje&ions . the meaner i. e...the thought ful parts of Mankind wou d be eafily temp */ JL ted to believe.. And cou d it be once prov d either by Demonftratton or by Matter of Fa& that a Plant or an Ani mal cou d be produc d by Meckanifat^ i. that fince the better part was produc d by Mechanifm. Nature. all the reft of this vifible World might have . tho Plants and fily fatisfy all the vegetable Kingdom be liable to the fame Difficulties. e.. be once folv d by indeed cou d this one of the Philosophers we fhou d be eaany J d of the reft.tradi& the known Laws of Motion j and indeed the manner after which they wou d have generated is as much above the Power and beyond the Laws of Mechanism as the true em and genuin Manner and Me thod of their Produ&ion is. for they are indeed only Animals of a lower Rank. From all thefe Considerations.

.. We (hewn that neither Spon taneous (nor indeed any) Motion is eilen* tial to Matter. 27 So that have been form d the fame way. that neither Animals nor Vegetables can be produced Mechanically. it is determin d to one direftion (while in Motion) which it can no more alter than move of itfelf. ^XI. and that neceflarily and conftantly if notforc d out of the fame by fome foreign Violence. the Arrow in that given it by the Bowftring.The Spontaneous Mo*ionsof the fenpart of this Syfteme is an eternal contradiftion to the Laws of Mechanijw.. it is a Matter of the greateft Confequence that have demonftratcd. and the Hand of the Dialplate in that given it by the Wheels. . But all Senfitivc Animals have a Self-moti0/r. the in the direHon of the Club or of the it is Body of the Piece out of which (hot.of ^atutai Religion. we There are many other Ar guments which I can produce to prove the fame Propofition which the Language I write in will not permit fitive me to fet forth. This have fufficiently our Senfes Ball goes may on daily inform us of.

that the Brute-Creation are only pieces of Clock-work and that all their Motions . ibme of clinations prompt em.. or In It s true. tions a priori I have juft now brought to evince the contrary. the Obfervation and Experience of all Mankind contradi&s it. forward our Philosophers have afierted. d as that of the meerly precarious. The Docility and Segacity of fome Animals demonftrate the contrary. .can turn and wind. if they were d to be endow d with it ? No really fuppos thing but a fenfation in our felves of the Principle of their A&ions cou d create clearer Evidences of & Spontaneous Motion. What more evident Proofs thefe of a Spontaneous Motion cou d poor Creatures give than they do. as their Occafions require... Modern are as neceflarily determin Dial-plate. move through all the points of the Compafs. and fome BruteAnimals fhew more Indications of it than fome of the Race of Mankind on whom But this is and may be deny d as eafily as it is they beftow it.. go back and 0#. con Befides the Demonftrafidently alleg d. Befides..

the Mufcles are Bundles of Fibres. Wherefore finCe the fenfitive World is endow d with fpontancons Motions. And we fliou d be ftrangely furpriz d if by any combination of ma terial left Organs.of Natural ffieligton* 19 Befides^ it is altogether impoffible to ac count for the far greater part of their A$ions and Motions from Mechanifm^ as we have in the preceding Propofitions {hewn at large. MuC cular Motion is perform d much after fuch a manner as this. every one of thefe Fibres confifts of a prodigious Num ber of lefler Fibres or Fibrils which are fo many very (lender elaftick Canals bound about . it is evident this Univerfe cou d not have been produc d Mechanically. we fliou d produce the fmaL part of their A6tions and Paffions. XII. The Voluntary Motions of Ra tional Creatures are altogether unaccoun table from the Laws of Mechanism. which being clofely compared at both ends make their two Tendons^ each of which is inferted into fome one fixt part of the Body or other. and fince this is far beyond and above the Powers of Matter...

this Juice of the whole The Nerves are the/Jr- .. and their Longi Veficul* tudinal Diameters (from Knot to ftraitned. which are nothing but fmall (lender flips of the Arteries for deriving an appropriated Juice from the Blood. Vein.* with the Veficul&amp.. and confequently are much of the fame Nature.. which mixing in the proper flu. the lat ter to carry thither likewife id .. I (hall forbear at prefent to determine) whereby thefe are diftended. Knot) and fo the length Mufcle fhortned. and Nerve enter. of the Glanditlous Subftance cretory Dufts of the Brain.z its Blood^ produces a rarefaction (the manner how.30 ^Dtloiopi)icai about by fmall tranfwerfe parallell Threads which divide thefe hollow Fibrils into fo many elaftick Cyftes or VeficnU^ as Gut were ty d at equal diftances. for avoiding Difpiites. if a Into every one of thefe Veftcul^ ^ an Artery. Wherefore fince the nervous Juice is form d out of the Blood..lt.. the two firft to bring and carry back the Blood.... and fince the Nerves are very fmall Arterial Tubes.. with the other Excretories of the Body.

. this nervous Juice is conftantly deriv d by a Mechanical In the Heart. and all the Juices of the Body be allow d to be deriv d from it. cles of involuntary Motion.. fuch as the Heart. of Blood.. its Ve And therefore the nervous Juice in Channels is propell d after the fame manner and by the fame Mechanifm the Blood is urg d forward in the Arteries.. the Lungs. ( ing abated either by the many circumvo lutions of the Artery in the Gland.of Juice muft ries 3 Natural move in thefe Nerves after the in the fame manner the Blood does only with its Arte this difference.. or by the rewith in the {lender fiftence the Juice meets Pipe of the Nerve it felf.. while the Auricles are are diftended. tis impoflible that any of thefe fels Juices fhou d ffognat in their longer than till they be filPd. Necefllty.) If the circula tion of the Blood be admitted . they and the influence of the nervous full . that it moves Velocity be abundantly more flow. Now in the MuC. and the mufcular Coats of the Veffels. which is the Origin of the Nerve. the Stomach and Guts..

. by a Mechanical a& alternately. the Auricles Neceffity they the diftenfion of the firft permitting the influence of the nervous and fo on the other Juice into the lattery hand. and fo the Ventricles come into Con- tra&ion ^ which hinders the Blood from runing any more into the Ventricles from the/^#~ ricks ^ and then the Auricles are again filPd : andVentricles being as it were Antagonifts to one another . from the diftenfion of the Auricles to the influx of the nervous Juice is taken oftj and fo it flows into the mufcular Subftance of the Auricles and thereby they arifing are contra&ed^ while the Ventricles are di* ftended. fo as that while thefe are diftended thofe are contra&ed. and the influx of the nervous Juice into their Mufcles is thereby ftop d. After the fame manner are the mu^ cular . till the Blood be deriv d into the Aorta^ and the Impediment from this diftenfion to the influx of the nervous Juice be taken off.32 $l)ilofoptical nervous Juices into their Mufcles thereby ftop d j but when once this Blood begins to flow into the Ventricles the refiftence . And thus.

In the Lungs theGravity of the dtmofphere forces the Air into the fmall orbicular Vethe Breaft- Cavity of whereby the preffure of its Sides upon them. and the Mulcular Coats of the Arteries then a& 5 the Mem branous by their Elaflicity concurring. and dilates the concurring ones are at freedom to and to diftend the Cavity of the till ad . which diftends them. thorax..of Natural ^elsgion. and fb the influence of the nervous Juice cular Coats into their Mulcular Coat is hundred but when the Blood conceiv d deriv d the impetus it has into the Veins. this im is by pediment is taken off. and fo the Mufcles of the diafragm and the other ficles thereof.. and the Nerves that aft in this funftion is taken off. the preffure of the fides of the Brcaft for -thefe j become too ftrong bir/d oppofite comtheir dilating Caufes D and then by own . 33 of the Blood Veiiels.. and of the Coats of the other Veffels containing Liquors deriv d from the Blood^ alternate for by the conly contra&ed and dilated traHon of the Heart the Blood is thrown into the Arteries.

34 Gravity and the elaftick force of the Ribs they fall down and comprefs the Lungs and (hut np the Emifiaries of the Nerves. the Tranfverfe and Guts. tions there neither is nor can be any fuch Mechanical Neceffity ^ it being a plain . when thofe are relax d thefe are in aftion^ and univerfally in al$ the involuntary Motions there is a Mecha nical Neceftlty for the derivation of the nervous Juices into the Mufcles employed But in voluntary Mo^in thefe Motions. There is no Mecha nical Caufe imaginable to force this ner vous Juice into the Mufcles of voluntary Motion. and fo of of on the other Hand. Contradiction to their Nature and there- fore voluntary Motion is quite contrary to the Laws of Mecbaniftn : we can move our Hands and Feet how and when we pleafe in an Inftant. own So likewife in the Stomach and the Longitudinal Mufcular Fibres are in ASkion. . we can bend and un bend em as we will. when Spiral ones are relax d by the preffure the a&ing Fibres upon the Emiflaries the Nerves of the relax d ones.

yet no Motion will follow. Juice be that curing the Nerves that ferve any Mtif^ cle. it is plain that volun tary Motion is altogether iwmecbdnic#I. And rily. s indeed were it Mechanical^ it cou d not be Voluntary j for what ever a&s conftantly and neceiMechanically farily^ and fo can never aft volunta a&amp... But this A&ion of the Mind or Will upoi) thefe Animal Spirits being altogether unaccountable from the Laws of Motion..5b . . and adds a greater force than the natural to the nervous Juice.. And the only Conception we can form of vo luntary Motions. as is plain from this hence. which it cou natural Power.lt.. tho all other things continue the fame. skilful is that the Mind like a upon that Nerve Mufician which conveys animal Spirits to the Mufele to be contra&ed. and no Motion can follow unlefs deriv d. ftrikes whereby it opens its Paffage into the Veficles of which the Mufcular Fibres cond pot have done by its fifi.of Natural J&eiigiott Motion.

than they now have. or fclves is which we find in our altogether inconfiftent with Methat chauijm. their . they have in their Power to forbear it or to do the contrary ^ they can rife or fit flill^ or backward forward to fliew their go ^ Freedow. The Paflions of Mankind all thefe Aftioiis that are call s true fotne . they can choofe the time and Place the Degrees and Circumftances we own of It d free. (which determine their Actions) are indeed violent. but thefe which are commonly call d voluntary Aftions^ are as much free as the nature of things will permit them. Their Power being limited. I wou d glad ly know what greater Indications of free dom they cou d wiflv to have.3 6 ^l)i!cfopl}icai XIII. of our natural AHons are neceffary. it in in moft. That Freedom and Liberty of refiifinpr o choof Ins.. Some Men indeed deny have any Free-will at all j but thefe need only examine their own Conferences to be convinc d of their miftake^ they will find that even when their Reafon wou d determine em to do fuch a thing. but they have.

for the Aftion of neceffary Agents can only be fufpended by a Mira the fome time which fhe ws they Let us fuppofe that Man in a pcrfeft ftate of Health. giving all : thefe Indications ^ to fliew our Freedom we have it in our Power to hurt or even deftroy our felvcs tho there be the beft Reafons in the World to hinder from fo doing. or to be able to fufpend the effeft of na tural A6Hons. when without this interpofition d wou Mechanically operate. are by doing the contrary. in two or more of the fame all Circumftances alike. is free and has a Pow er of election the only Indications he couVl give of this Freedom. they Now it s certain that we are capable of cle. we can take out the . things in us D Tho . or by making an Ele&ion among many things^ when there is no imaginable Rea&n to determine him more to one than another..their Power to fufpend for of them j iatisfy ing are not neceffarily determin d toward their Satisfa&ion . where there are weighty and folid Reafons for doing fuch a thing .one and not the other.

it is by the Necef- of Nature we are determin d. yet in thi Infbnce that Ob.. it is abfolately . and tho mechanically and it it is d in our Power uniformly.. yet we have to keep in our Breaths and to fufpend the efficacy of this natural Fun$wn for fome time.38 ^t)tlofopi)tcat Refpiration be Tho reckoned an involuntary certainly perform A&ion. and at the fame time determine this Fnn&ion to be irregularly and uncertainly fufpen- ded.eHon can have no Place . we have no Freedom.. if we are ne- cefTarily and determin d in all our A&ions. Now abfurd to think that Nature fhou d determine any natural FunSlion to be per form d regularly and conftantly the fame way. and that by Mechanical Laws. for if we are determin d ever fo imperceptibly fity it is . On if the other Hand.be one of the moft evident Indications of Freedom that can pofllbly be defired. For tho in other Cafes it may be alledg d that it is the fubtil and imperceptible man ner after which we are determin d that makes any of our Adions feem free.. and this feems tp.

i. mean By things altogether alike. 6. can only be from the things themlelves with out us. for if we are determined. bers.. tho they may differ in fbme fmall Circumftances 3. The fame thing happens ija the Anfwers to all thefe Problem* 4 D . there are infinitely many which are equally fuch. two Farthings are altogether alike. and if it equally even were propos d to afiign aa Num Num even or odd Number.. 9. Thus.. the things without us are in ftances alike. equally odd 4. we cou d ne ver I make an Ele&ion among things alto gether al&e. Now where all Circutn- we can never be determin d to any one of them by themfelves. for all things within us are upon this to be fuppos d to move Hypothefis uniformly and Mechanically.of /Batutai lutely impoffible we fhou d in all make any ECircumftances it Je&ion among things alike . 7. 5. 8. And therefore were we not free.. Thus bers. that do not concern the Effence of that Species of Coin.. fuch as are alike as to all the Cir cumftances neceflary to conftitute them the things requir d. are and 2.

out Free. XIV.40 Problems which are affigning fuch Problems .. Tuftice and Jlnjaftice are only bare Words. Now Liberty is and is only to be found by ion on our felves and our A&ions . there is nothing in their any Nature that can pofllbly determine us 5 and in d indetermind^ one of the Anfwers to call the Conditions of the Problem only being had refpeft to. for Mechanifrn produces all its Eftefts ne- ceffarily..will. no Arguments will make a Man confefs he feels. Now if moft cer is Rational Creatures be tainly they are. it. if he be obftinately refolv d not to confefs felt. And that is that with. Virtue and Vice. And therefore fuch things as thefe are only pitch d upon by But the energy of our Wills or Freedom.. but there K one Argument which will always have weight with the wifer and better ^ a thing a reflex } part of Mankind. Having I think fufficiently Jflipoflibility (hewn the Inconfiftency and of . free. as this Freedom a plain downright Contradi&ion to Mechantfnt.

independent of any other Caufe... This Opinion is commonly. yet he did not think it was fo of it jelf\ and there is a very great Difference betwixt f allowing this prefent Syftem of the Univerfe to have been created from all Eter nity by an Omnipotent Caufe. has been for ever in the ftate a. That this World Parts.. fecond Opinion about the Origination of the Univerfe. and be! it ieving to have been for ever of itfelf without any . That it has been fo for ever of itfeli.of ^amrai Religion.. I come to the of the Epicurean Scheme. This Scheme confifts principally of thefe two i. which in few Words tells us very pofitively. firft part of it. fo as we now behold it j any Changes that have happen d therein^ have proceeded from the Laws of Mechanifm that now obtain in the World. viz. That the World was from all Eternity as we now behold it. but falfly afcrib d to Ariftothj not as its firft Broacker but as its But tho Ariftotle held the ableft Patron. that this prefer) t fbte of things has been from all Eternity of itand that felf. we now behold it.

&amp.lt. that this prefent ftate of things cou d not have been from all Eternity^ neither of it felf.any Difcourfe following not to difpute againft any Schewe of thofe who admit the Exiftence is Caufe. Produftion it about the manner of its but if he fhou d fee or learn requir d fome Foreign Ajjrfiance to keep .. If one d fee a Piece of pointing out the Divifions of time exa&ly and regularly^ he might have fome that Difficulties . have been ftom the prefent from hence 3 that Principle for its Eternity condition it now it all of is.. ^ XV. nor without the frequent and particular interposition of a Divine fower^ and to make it plain that naturally and of itfelf it tends to Diffolution^ Tho in the mean time. is in evident requires an extrmficl( fubfifting in its prefent fliou Condition. itfelf. My Defign in the of a Deity^ I intend only to fhew..gt. Clock$&ork&amp. That this Univerfe cou d never . it is not to be doubted but that that Almighty Power which cou d create can prethis beautiful Syflem of things ferve it in being as long as He pleafes.

and diftinft from Matter and all its Faculties. and of all the Celeftial and Terreftrial Appearances.. and if this vitation. they wou d immediately ftop and their Motions wou d be deftroy d and they wou d become a lifelefs una&ive heap of Matter.. its 45 keep it a going^ that Motion depended that upon fome Principle without itfelf. . as has been fliown in the former Chapter.. And this Power is no thing elfe but that univerfal Law of Gra felves. which a&nates the whole frame of all the Syftems of Bodies. The Power which produces and preferves their Moti ons.of Natural Beitsion. Their Mo tions and A&ions depend upon a Principle Matter arifes from . fprings from fomething without thcm- Power were fufpendcd or withdrawn.. he wou cou d not have been from all Eternity of itfelf in the ftate he then beheld it.which quite extrinfickjto none of its Powers or Properties. Now this is the very Condition of the Earth the ^ Moon and Planets. which pro ceeds from a Principle both independent of. of the Spring or it required winding up d be foon fatisfy d it Weights.

which have but Qualities both finite in Number and Degree j and confequently have affignable relations to and dependen for it is otherwife ces upon one another in the Immense Being in refpeft of his Creatures^ which can have no Proportion to him. Whatever depends upon ano Canje^ as alfo. fible Wherefore it is altogether impof- this prefent ftate of things fhou d have been from all Eternity of itfelf^ fince at prefent it cannot fubfift in a regular and beautiful Syftem without the perpe tual influence of fome fuperiour and exPower.) . whatever is neceffarily requir d for the Exiftence or Prefervation of another thing. thefe cou d ther thing as its not have been from all Eternity of them- jelvef. The vifible things of this World.And when a thing depends upon another thing . for Self-exiftence neceflarily implies other independency as to Exiftence on any either as Caufe or as Efteft . trinfeck^ XVI. thing. (I mean only of thofe things which are about us..44 culties. // &.. . and he no dependence on them.

. which likewife foppofes Defign and Contrivance. than that moft of the things in this our Syftem are neceffary or ufeful in thefe things. and confequently is a fign of Produ&ion or Creation. .the Earth cou d bring forth no Fruits for our Support- take ftagnat away the Moon^ the Seas wou d . Like wife. ces . or us tyttd. and the Fi(h be deftroy d level our Mountains we fliou d have no &e(Ti Waters ^ deftroy pur Atmofyhere. we fliou d fwell like poyfoned Rats. and not of the Selfexiftence of thefe things..of thing as firft Natural Caufe.. ifteitston. Do not thefe and a thoufand other Inftan-. and coni^firft quently can be no fign of Self-exijlencz there any thing more plain. this 45 implies that the thing exifts that the fecond may exits which fuppofcs Defign and Contri vance. it plain ifti ly implies that the thing exifts that the fecond may exift. is Now towards the Being or Prelervation of ManRemove the Sun from us. from the Sun .. when a thing is neceffarily requir d for the Exiftenceor Prefervation of another.or the Airs Elafticity.

and flioiul plain ly difcover... that the Accommodations and Conveniencies of this Building were exfuited in every Circumftance to the Wants and Necefllties of thefe Creatures^ aHy I think he wou d have no cluding that this Houfe wife Architect for the Convenience of thefe Creatures. meet with a Noble Palace neatly finifh d and finely ftirnifli d^ and about it fhou d find Creatures that cou d not fubfift with out fuch a Convenience. he wou d certainly never dream that it had for ever been there of itfelf fo difficulty in con was built by fome he then beheld it.. Now this is the ve ry Cafe betwixt us and the Syftem of the things about us j not that I think as whole . which is a moft evident fign that all thefe things have been produc d and are not Self-exfervation of other Beings. demonftrate that all of this Univerfe exift as the ne- ceflfary Effeft.ccs I cou d the Beings allege. or for the Exiftence orPre- and confequent]y imply Contrivance and Defign-. If a wild Scythian or Indian who never faw a Houfe in his Life. fliou d iftent.

// *. but for both require the conftant influence of a Principle even different from that which governs the inanimated part of the Univerfe. we ruin this Hypothecs ^ for we do not then know ho iv . Gra vitation.. XVII..of Natural 3KeitQtotn 47 whole for us the Univerfe Syfteme of was made of the Race of Manfynd^ but that we cannot be without a great many of thefe things that are round us. for both the Reafons alleged in the two former i. I mean of their Material fart. Their Produ6Hon For 3eHons. that they can nei ther fubfift nor be produc d by the Pow ers of Mechanifm .. this Now all that is obfervable in World. and Exiftence depend upon Principles quite extrinfick from and independent of themfelves. and that confequently we were fome part in the fo they cou d not have defign of them. That Animals coti d not have been from all Eternity is plain. (according to this Scheme) is Matter and Motion if we once al (for low a Power diftinft from thefe. I have formerly fhown. and been for ever of emfelves.

. fome Principle.. ral Parts and Organs of the Animal Body are fo prudently adapted to the benefit of the whole Compojitnm as plainly implies and Contrivance.. they cou 2.. the Bones articulated? How wifely are How prudently the With Veins. and therefore fince mals is they depend upon a Principle diftinft from and independent of the Laws of Mechaand need a continual influence of niftft... that it is impo Deffgn fible to confider this. diftinft from Matter and d not have been its Properties. All the fevefor ever of themfelves.) But the Produ&ion and Prefervation of Ani above the Powers of Matter as has been formerly fliown. Mufcles contriv d ? and how conveniently faftned to the feveral Places of the Body to produce the neceflary Motions ? what Judgment are the Arteries 5 and Nerves rang d are ? With what Wifdom d in their their fluids difpos proper Veffels? . and imagine they have been Self-exiftent.4$ $l)rtofop!)tcai far ^nncipies how the influence of this Power may reachj as to the Produ&ion and Prefervation of the prefent ftate of things.

cannot but difcover evident Footfteps of Defign and Contrivance in it. ilourifliment of Animals and Vegetables . which by thefe Operations upon Matter is chang d into a folid Form 5 of which but a very fmall part is ever refoVd into W^ter a^ain... and the greateft part requir d to the produdion of Minerals and Metals is a wa tery Fluid..of Vcffels? natural Msrpom is 49 How carefully the propagati on of the Species provided for according to feveral Circumftances ariffng from the particular Climate mal is confin d to^ ry Particular the whole Compound fion to after. and its Corollary of the pre ceding Chapter ? that fome part of the XVIII. whereby the quantity E of .. been formerly fhewri in g XXX. and Element each Ani and how juftly is. eve adapted for the Benefit of ? I fliall have occa- purfue thefe Inftances farther here but any Body who is ever fo lit tle acquainted with the ftnttfnre of an Animal. and therefore Animals It has cannot be Sclf-exi* ftent. impregnated with fome other Body.

and we are fo little fenfible of the difference of the Quantity of Water fal then and at other times. wherefore if the World had lafted from all Eternity in the State it now is. I fear. we had long fince wan ted both fait and frefh Water..of Water on this our Globe is daily ins~ pair d and diminifli d . And in deed this dccreafe of the Quantity of Wa ter on our Globe is fo confiderable^ that a very great Man is of Opinion that the Comets were defign d to fupply the fame. as is fufficient ta fapply the Expenfes of Water till the Re But we fb felturn of another Comet. to be Befides. and thefe ling D Comets are when they come within our Regions at fo great a diftance from us y that no fuch considerable EfFe&s as may anfwer our Demands are.. the Wit expei:ed from em.. Jom receive Vifits from thefe Cekftial Bo dies.. fend us fuch a Quantity of Vapours from their prodigious Tails. dom of Nature generally fupplies re uniform gular Deficiencies by regular and . which when they come nigh our welling.

it is plain things has not been from all Eternity. XIX. yet it ieeins to be more conftant and regular than the returns of thefe Comets j but of this we fliall have Occafion to difcourfe at more length in the following Chapter. and tho the decreafe of fluidity on this our Globe may not be ev ry Year of the fame Quantity exa&ly. Stars : Now been from all Eternity.of natural 3&eltgtott.. are very cer tain that the Rays of the Sun are impri* of the fixt had the Sun and jixt Stars faid may be We a E foiled . It has been prov d likewife in the preceding Chapter y that the Ligln of the Sun does daily decreafe^ and that the Body of the Sun does continually grow the fame cooler. Where Quantity of Water on our Globe does daily de creafe (tho perhaps not fenfibly) had the World Eternally been. we ftiou d have been reduc d long before this time to a State of utter Darknefs.. Caufes. fince it s certain that the fore.. the whole Face of this Earth had been more parch d than the Defarts of Arabia-^ which not being this prefent State of fo.

g XX. . and tho thefe Effe&s be not fo coniiderable as to become fenfible in three tain of our or four thoufand Years (tho if ancient Hiflories abatement and diminu tion of the Light and Heat has not been infenfible) yet in an infinity of Ages (this di minution being ftill fomewhat) the Sun had been redu d to the Heat and Light of a Candle long ere this time. plain the World has not lafted from all Eternity. are for ever hinder d from returning to the Body of the Sun.. that the vaft Body of the Sun is perpetually a-cooling. and we had true. more than Cimmerian But fince we obferve no fuch it is Effeft as this. and are retain *! by the A&ion of Bodies upon Light and iome part of them by their feparation from others. and their being imprifon d in thefe Subftances^ and the A6Hon of Bodies upon Light. this be been involved in a darknefs.foned in our Plants and Vegetables^ in our Metals and Minerals. We are certain likewife that the Foun Heat daily impairs.

and likewife thefe Planets attraft the Sun. the Planets move about the Sun is that the Body of the Sun attra&s thefe Planets . and that (fince the Planets defcribe Elliptic\ Orbits about the Sun) the attra&ive Force of the San upon the Planets is reci procally ^ as the Squares of the different diftancesof the Elliptic^ Orbit from the Suns Center in its focus. I have fliewn in the preceding Chapter. for example. But that befides. that the Reafon why. leaft fome refinance to their Motions.of Datura! 3&eii0iQu. But that which does infallibly demonftrate that this prefent ftate of had a beginning and that of things. or at the beginning of their Motion (to fpeak a Force whofe dire&ion made an by fo) Angle with the attractive Force or that at the very fame time the attractive Force of the Sun exerted itfelf on thefe Planets^ - 5 E 3 they .. 53 XX. that our Earth. thefe Planets were driven at firfi. both themfelves they muft have an end is. the Planets .. . the Sun and Stars do not move in Spaces altoge fixt But ki fuch that do make at ther void.

. either of which be ing deftroy d the Planets muft have fall n into the Sun. Now tho Mr.. (fo I call that whereby the Planet yet if tends towards the Sun) any refiftence in the there be which the Planets on.. Medium through the proje&il Moti fion muft decreafe and (in an infinity of Ages) be deftroyed. Newton has confidered the refiftence arifing from the Expanof the Elafticl^Atmofyheres of the F la(fo I call the other) abfolutely no he only finds that it s not fufthing. pafs. on. or ftray d for ever in Lines and tho* the refiftence of the right Medium cannot alter the Centripetal Moti the attra&ive Force . tion of the Planets about the Sun^ is com pounded of two different Motions in two different Dire&ions.54 ^pofopt)icai they were puili d along in right Lines by a Force whofe dire&ion was in fome man ner or other inclin d to that of the direH~ on of of the Sun^ 6therwife they cou d never have revolv d So that it s evident the Mo in Orbits.. (for in fjcient to deftroy the froje&il Motion nets^ and cannot fay it is a very ..

muft rcfift other and if it be but the A&ion of lucid Bodies communicated by the impulfe of one Body upon another. yet frill they make a fluid. which will as much refift the paflage of Bodies.of Natural Beltgiom a very fliort time. and this fluid muft give this fluid is Chapter. which fufficicnt to have finity of Ages have been quite deftroycd this proje&il Motion. the Light of the Sun be a Body ( as If we have prov d Bodies that it to be) in it move it. fo that in both Cafes there muft be fome refiftence dies pafling through this E made to Bo Ocean of Light - 4 which . as if the parts of Light mov d themfelves .) yet he has not men tioned that arifing from the fluid of Light which reaches beyond the Orbit of Saturn^ and tho we have {hewn in the preceding extreamly thin and its parts eafily moveable. that fome refiftence to Bodies pafling through tho very fmall. in a ftrait Line. muft in an init. without the a&nal Motioijt of any one of em ^ yet neceflary that there be a Series of Bodies intcrpos d betwixt the lucid Body and the illumina ftill it is ted Objeft.

and confequently long e re now all the Planets had been broiling in the Sun. of the firft Law of Nature j and fince w^ fte the . it s evident that the Matter or Bodies of this Univerfe has been fome time or other before thisprefent time put in Motion. it s plain this prefent ftate of things has not lafted from all Eternity in the Order we now behold - it. g XXI. muft have been fufficient in an infinity of Ages to have deftroy d the proje&il Moti on. thac Since it has been fufficiently demonftrated in the preceding Chapter..which tho not fenfible in any finite time.. had the World lafted from all Eternity which not having happened.. fer CorolL 3. can of itfelf revolve in an Orbit or any curve Line. but more elpecially firice no Body put in or ev n endow d with Motion.. that Motion is not effential to Matter^ nor any Combing lions of particles can bring themfelves to particle thereof no Motion^ and fince there are various and different Motions obfervable in this pre~ fent ftate of things.

Therefore before d. after Motion was imprefs d. XXIt . the thefe Motions was imprefs different ftate one of was in a that other from what it was in. It is altogether impoflible for any Body to move in an Orbit or any curve Line of itfelf. it is plain they have not for ever been in the ftate we now behold em of themfelves... And fince to move in an Orbit or any curve Line is to move with a Motion compounded of two other Mo one of which at leaft muft have tions. So that fince the Planets do revolve in Orbits or curve Lines. been imprefs d..of ^aturai Beitgtotn 57 the Celeftial Bodies it s do move in curve Lines plain they have not for ever mov d of themfelve^ and confequently they have not for ever exifted in the ftate we behold /em. becaufe at every different point it muft change its diredion j and to fuppofe a Body capable of changing its of its Courfe^ is to fuppofe it to have Reafon and Difcretion. by the Corollary now men it tioned. fince it cannot move of direction at every different point itfelf by both.

nor the material we part of the Univerfe boujndlefs.. they had long e re now all of em met there. the terminating Bodies of the material part of the World inuft be all free from Attractions towards the void muft be all approaching to part. Space indeed may be infinite in its extent but there is no imaginable Reafon to believe the Number of the fixt Stars is infinite. .XXII. fince have . It s certain thefe luminous Bo dies each other^ fitide it s abfurd to imagine Matter not to be of the fame uniform Nature every where ^ attract do mutually and it s as certain they do not revolve about any common Center or Centers. If the fat Stars be not ally infinite in their prefent ftate of Number... fince they have been bbferv d never to have varied their fituations or diftances from each other. and fo ward the common Center of Gravity of the whole j and had the Frame of the World been eternal.. Now if they be finite in Number. theti this things muft of iteteffity both have had a beginning and muft haVfe an end.

the Bodies at the limits of the material part being quite free from attractions upon the fide toward the infinite Space.of jjMurai have very good Reafon to believe that the folid Subftance has a very fmall Propor tion to the Vacuities interfperfed even in our and the Matter of this Univerfe is Syftemy almoft nothing in refpeft of the contain* ing Space.. their Number. it s plain. and nothing . muft yield to the attra&ing Force of the Bodies toward the common Center of Gravity of the mate rial part. or the material part of this Univerfe limited in its extent. and the Boundaries yielding. the Bodies next them muft do fo likewHe. and fo on ev n to the Center.. Matter cannot be infinite in its extent j fince thereby it is not equal to Now if the fixt Stars be finite in Space. for nothing but an equal attraftion on all Hands can keep in their Places. been infinuated For fince Space in the is infi- nite (as I fliall hereafter demonftrate) and fince there s a necefllty of admitting of a&ual Vacuities as I have formerly (hewn. as has former Chapter.

lifelefs it s all made a and had there Heap^ which not having happened fted from plain this World has not la Eternity . And it s not un likely that the vaft if not immenfe diftances of the fixt Stars from us and one ano ther^ has been defign d to retard this Effe$ as long as the defigns of Providence may require. that ev ry generated Animal produced from a preexiftent Animalcul of the . If the World had lafted from all Eterni ty the whole Matter of this Univerfe had been long before this time amafs d in the common C&nter of Gravity. infinite Number rang d up and down the infinite Space can be fuflident for this wherefore fince it has been evidently demonftrated that the material part of this Univerfe is finite in its extent. nor can of itfelf continue to all Eternity.nothing but an . and I fliall have Oo it is cafion in the following Chapter to make evident. ^ XXIIL Chapter bility I In the former part of this have demonftrated the impodi- of the Mechanical produftion o Ani mals and Vegetables.

. and that ev ry Vegetable arifes from a final! Plant of the tame kind. with all thefe was included 5 one from which it proceeded and fo on infinitely backwards j and confequently fmce there 13 no new all that are or ever have been prodti&ion. of that Species were once aftuaily together included in one infinitely remote from this now pitch d upon. and it. have a&ually been all included in the firft of ev ry ties or which is the lame thing. that pitching upon any one individual of ei from thefe.. And confequently that all the Animals and Vegetables that have exifted or fhall exift. ther kind now exiftent. that all the Ani mals or Vegetables that proceed from it were included in it. And it is impoflihle s it can be othcrwife Scheme of admitting nothing but Matter and Motion-.for if Animals and Vegetables cannot be product upon our Ad verfary (and I have clearly prov d they cannot) they muft of neceffity have been from all Eternity.of Natural Religion/ the fame Species . And that at any in that finitely or infinitely diftant 1 time (if they have .

have fo long cxifted) from their Genera tion or Produ&ion , all the Animals in cluded in the firft of ev ry Species were there moving and living Ammalcnls, and all Vegetables included in the firft of ev ry Kind, were there a&ually growing and
encreafing fmall Plants.

Now fince every

Animal and Vegetable has been prov d to confift of Organs in Number infinite (tho* if the Organs of Animals be only finite in Number, it will as efie&ually ferve our
prefent purpofe.) It is abfolutely impolfible any of the Species of Animals or Vege tables fhou d have exifted from all Eterni

ty

j

for then their

Number muft have

been infinitely many., and the Anwtalcuh and fmall Plants., being Organical Bodies and confifting of parts, and thofe infinite* ly many too, and being all included in the firft of every Species, or thofe infi nitely diftant from the prefent Individnals , thefe firft ones of evVy Species muft of necefllty have been infinitely big, for
infinitely

many

Organical

Bodies
in

how

fmall foever, amafs

d together

one Bo-

3Rett0tou+

dy, muft make that Body infinitely big; fo that unlefs we cou d admit the firft of
ev ry Species of Animals and Vegetables to be infinitely big (and how abfurd fuch an I leave the Reader to Hypothefis is,
It
is

judge)
all

abfolutely impoflible,,
ftiou

that Animals

and Vegetables

d have been from

I fee how this Ar Eternity ; gument can be evaded., if we admit all Animals and Vegetables to proceed from

neither can

preexiftent fmall Individuals of the fame Species,, included in the firft of each kind.

And
Upon

it is

impoflible this can be otherwife our Adverfaries Scheme, if the Me*

chanical

Produ&ion of thefe be impoflible^
think
I

which
ftrated.

I

have

clearly

demon-

all

XXIX. Had the World lafted from Eternity as it now is, it is altogether

but that Arts and Sciences muft have been brought to a far greater Perfe&ion than they have as yet attain d. Let us take for Inftance the Matbematick^^
impoflible
it is

certain this Science has been

more im~
in

prov d within tbefe two hundred Years, than

64

$i)rtofopDicai

in all the time paft before that,fince

we have

any Records Years more ,
thofe

;

and two or three hundred going on at the rate of

laft paft.,

may

carry

em

to a height

which we
is

now

cannot imagine.

Now

it

the Improvements altogether impofllble

already made fhou d be loft, feeing they contain things fo abfolutely neceflary to

^^Accommodation of Mankind they will as foon forget the ufe of Houfes and Cloaths^ as the Advantages to be reap d from this Science ; wherefore had the World Eter had been brought nally been., this Science to its utmoft Perfection long e er now* It may be alleged that Inundations^ Delu ges , Wars and feftilencies might have de* former Emprovements., and ftroyed all the then we fhou d have been left to begin anew. As for Deluges y it is impofllble they fliou d have been Univerfal, i. e. Natu for rally and Mechanically impodible the only Philofophical Account of an
^/z/"-

werfal Deluge hitherto afilgn d,

*>/

&. that

of Mr. WhiftonSy depends entirely upon the Principles of Gravitation^ which have been

of

Natural

been proved not to be Mechanical ; and fiace there cou d be no IJniverfal Deluge naturally, (and to allow a Principle above Nature or the eftablifhed Laws of Mecha*
nifm^
is

to yield the Caufe) particular In-

undations, cou d never have been fufficient to have obliterated the remains of Scien
ces.,

of this one., which by In* fcriptions on Medals y by the Ruins of Archite&ure^ by Pillars^ Inftruments^ and Machins^ might have been prcfcrv d n de~ fpite of etery thing but an Univerfal Con
particularly
i

flagration.

Befidcs,, it s

meerly precarioiiSj

to (ay there have been Deluges that have done any considerable Damage, to the

whole rational Creation., and may be deny d with the fame Reafon it is affirm d, fince it is certain we have heard of none
of any considerable Confequence. It s true there happen d an *Unwetfal Deluge in

NW/sDays ^butbefides, as! formerly faid,
that this

was not brought about naturally, we know not^ if this and other Sciences., had arriv d at any great Perfection before this Deluge happened. So that we are not

F

certain

66

$t)tloibpi)icai

certain if the Pcrfe&ion of Arts
ences has

and

Sci

been much retarded upon this account. Wars and Peftilences., it s true., have been and may be, but thofe do not

happen univerfally over the whole World at the fame time:, and there are always tome Countries and many particular Perfons

who

efcape

things cou

d

impoiliblc thefe have obliterated all the Re^
;

fo that

is

mains of Arts and Sciences. I believe it almoft impofllble by any means, except
Annihilation y or a general Conflagration^ fo to deface the Memory and Remains of
all

our modern Improvements^ that fome of em fliou d not laft at leaft ten thoufand
Ycnrs to come

and yet it s certain we have no evident Footfteps of Improvements ol der than three or four thoufand Years. In
iliortj

this

Argument holds good

againft

ev ry thing but Vniverfal Deluges , and to admit or fuppofe any fuch to have been,
is

to yield the Caufe., fince it s impofllble to explain fuch by the Laws oSMechanifm, or to account for them Matter and

by

Mo

tion as

things are

now

fettled

3

and to
quit

of jBatural J&eligiotu
allow quit thefe., or to

67

any thing to have is to admit happen d contrary to them Powers fuperiour to em., which for ought
,

might have produced that which they can now fo powerfully alter. And tho Arts and Sciences may have been at

we know

fome Countries, yet that is nothing to the whole Globe. For fince that Principle which prompts fome
a ftand for

many Ages

in

Men
inclin

to improve Arts or Sciences they are

d to^ iprings naturally in their Minds, according to the Scheme of our Adverfaand is neither imprinted upon them, nor were the things themfelves reveal d to this Prin them, by any fuperiour Beings ciple in an infinity of Ages, without any Univerfal Deluge, or ev n any particular one of any great extent, muft have of Neceilky brought Arts and Sciences., and the other Accommodations of Life ,
ries,

to a

much

greater Perfection than

we

fee

they have

now

attain d.

From

all

which

duly weigh d, it s plain this World has not Eternally been as it is now. And indeed, the Accounts of our Emprovei? r 2 ments

f&i)tiofopi)tcal

mcnts anfv\ er very well to the time, affign d by Mofes for the Creation of the
r

World.

^ XXV.
led
tiling.,

Number of any generawhich we behold on this Globe,
If the
finite

does either encreafe or diminifli continu
ally^

in

any

great foever., fmall foever,

Number of Years how by any finite Number how then this World cou d not

have been from all Eternity in the prefent For had it enftate we now behold it. creas d in any finite Number of Years how
great foever,

by any Number how fmall

foevcr, long before this time their ber had been infinite j fo that this poor Mole-Hill of a Globe had not been able

Num

to contain

em: And had they decreased, their Number had been none at all^ i* e. the whole Race had been extinguished.
But of thefc has happened, the prefent ftate of things has it s plain not been for ever. It s not eafie to be that the Race of Man lieve., for inftance, kind has been ebbing and flowing without
iince neither
,

coniidcrabk cncreafes or diminutions/rom
all

of
all

^aturai

Heiigtott,

Wars, Peftiand the other means knees and Difeafes, of DeJftru&ion, have not been fewer for thefe 300 Years by~paft than ever they have
Eternity.
j

We are certain

beenfince we have Records^and yet it s plain the Number of Mankind has confiderably Sir William Pet encreafed in that time.
ty

from Obfervations on Births and Buri
difcovered that in

als has

360 Years the

Mafs of Mankind is doubled in thefe Coun tries. Had they thus encreas d from all Eternityin other Countries.,
all

the Placets

within our Syftem had not been able to have contain d them by this time yea if in many millions of Years they had but
encreas

d by an Unity

continually,

their

Number had been
But
it s

infinite

by

this time.

plain both the Number of Man kind, and that of other Animals and Vege tables-, muft have perpetually encreas d, if

the
is

World

has been from

all

Eternity as

it

at prefent. And fince their Number is but finite at prefent 3 it s evident this World has not been for ever as now it is.

And

indeed the prefent

Number of AniF 3 mals

70

^!)tiofopt)ical

mals does anfwer very well to the com mon Mr a of the Creation. Thefe two laft Arguments I have fubpin d, not as
conclusive proofs of the Produ&ion of this prefent Llniverfe in time., but as concur-

ring Confirmations of the former
ftrations.
Tsrf

Demon-

it

XXVI. Laftly, that this World ihou d
Eternity?
Is

How

improbable is have been from

all

there any thing we fee in any part of it, or ev n in the whole, other Quality fui table to that that has

any

Cardinal one of Self-exiftence

?

We

our

felves are certainly the nobleft part of are acquainted with- and this Syft-em unfit any of us., or knows

we

how yet God even our whole Race
travagant a
as

is.,

to have fo ex

Compliment beftow d upon us Self-exiftence., when as we can fcarce
faid to

be

be

at all, fo very a
as

nothing our

Lives are in rcfpet of Infinite Duration.

We

might with

much Reafon imagine
oz Omnipotent , (which

Mankind Onsnijcisnt

we know
flcnt.

too well he
qualities

Thefe

not) as felf-exicannot be feparated
is
-

where

of

Natural

Sfteligtom

where one is, all the reft muft neceffarily be. For whoibever Isjelf-exijlent^ muft ne~ ceflai and independently be. Neceffarily^ ily becaafe depending only on himfelf alone when and while he for Being^ he may be
pi cafes
^

independently.,
that
s

becaufe his Being
it

and

all

necefiary to

depend on
necelfarily

himfelf alone.

And whatever
cxifts,

muft Be in Oppofition of all other Powers., and whoe ver is fo, muft be able to preferve his Be ing in dcfpite of all other Powers, / e. muft be Omnipotent. Whoever is Omnipo tent muft know all things that are pofllble to be done or let alone for he can never be ftipos d to do that which he knows not how to do, / c. muft be Ofifffiftfent; and whoever is Omnipotent and 0;;/;;//r/>;;^ all things elfe muft depend on him ^ for be ing fo\ he may make all things depend of

and independently

.

,

him

if

already they did not fo.

Befides,

other things fnnft depend of him for the %. becaufe he can very fame Reafon,

w

makeVm
potent

do fo. As alfo., whatever is Omni and Omnifrient^ depending on no-

F 4

things

. fince nothing can hurt him. as {hall abundantly be fhewn hereafter.. admit fomething to be how much more reafbnable is to believe that..thing.. has created all noble Reprefentation of himfelf. *// *. be true. that whatever is felf-exijient muft poflefs all the other fui- table Qualifications. And fince we muft of (elf-exiit. This beautiful State of things. which poffeflcs all other Qualities fuitable to that of -Exiflence y has been from Self and when this it Eternity j was his Pleafure. can do all has no Reafon nor Caufe to de termine him to any thing that s bad... which bears fo vifible Chara&ers of his infinite Power and Wifdom.. that immenfe Being... which I have is the (I think) abundantly confuted. nor any Power annoy him. neceffity ftent. So that it s very plain. And this is the third Opinion about the Origination of the Univerfe. things. him. this only poilible remaining Choice. neceffity which muft of THE . fince after the other two. and having all things depending on muft be fupremely good and wife ^ all becaufe he knows things.

the Exigence of a Deity. can be abfolutely convinc d... may have hear wiflid within themfelves. /. III.. The Fool indeed may have faid in his Heart there is no God. there are r T^H AT no Speculative as.73 THE Philofopbical O F Principles Natural Religion. that the three Angles of a Triangle are not equal to two right ones. that me feems as evident^ no Body who has confidered the Atheifts^ to matter. lewd and tily vicious Men. that there were no fecret Ohferver. e. CHAP. nor that there might . Of I.

and there are millions who live .74 $i)tlofopt)tcal might be any publick Funifhment of their Crimes. and has du ly weigh d the Evidences for the Being of a Deity ^ fliould at laft come to a full Per- fuafion of his None-Exiflence^ to me fccrns as impofllble. is make the beft ufe of Life that this in the may cer And of we kind of Atheifts there abundance World j for it s can never determine any thing about what we never^ or but very flighttain ly think of.. who has ferioufly fet about the matter.. moft Men think nothing of the matter 5 and few give themfelves the Trouble to there be a God or not 5 inquire whether they think fuch idle Speculations become thofe only. and to be. who know not to live.. firft to be convinc d that the Sum of the An true of a right Imd friangle^ can be It is more or lefs than two right Angles. becaufe it s their Intereft there fhould be neither but that a Man of an ordinary Underftanding . as it is for one who has the attentively read and rightly gles Bool^ of Euclid^ uuderftood what he has read.

I fliall here fet down thofe. which beft with my manner of agreed think- . the neceffary Confequences there of.. the Demonftration of this great Truth ^ blind. can withftand fuch Now tho the convincing Teftimonies.of Jive Datura! Religion. that none it. do fo nearly concern the Happinefs or Mifery of every individual rational Creature and the Obje&s that inculcate . has employ d the Care oi many wife and fo that none can doubt of it good Men... who will but give thcmfelves leave to confider yet iince the Evidences for it.lt. tor want of fufficient Proofs. becaufe they never took the But the being Pains to confider them. is a Matter of that Moment to the Government of the World. and are fo many. 75 Self-evi and dye ignorant of many dent Truths.. can never be too many^ and fince fome are to be wrought upon by one fort of Argument. fb fo conspicuous. or not being of a Deity. the Confideration of different. &amp.. others by another. who made and governs this prcfent Syftem of things.vi% but the wilfully that there is a faprewe Being.

it muft have been produced or created. cou d neither be produced by the cafual Concourfe of Atoms^ neither con d have been from all as it has been fufficiEternity of it ently prov d j and fince that it now is^ no Body doubts.. For fince this World. the rather becaufe our modern Atheifls have taken San&uary within the Bounds of Natural Philosophy. of Necefllty therefore. Now fince there is nothing elfe thinking.gt. felf&amp. nor have been from all Eternity of of- . All the Arguments of the pre ceding Chapter . in being but this World^ unlefs we admit that fnpreme Power we are now {peaking and fince it coud neither have been produc d from the fortuitous Concourfe of Atoms . fome time or another.$f)ilofopt)icai which are founded on the Prin ciples of a juftcr Philosophy ^ and a more genuine Explication of Nature^ than was known till of late. by fbme preexifting Power. are fo many Proofs of the Exiftence of a furpreme Powery who made and governs this prefent Syftem of things. . II. And I have chofen this way of reafoning.

. He muft therefore for ever be . that we . and have been that great exift. we might have fome Pretence for flight this all our Infidelity. by the cafual meeting of Atoms or by al. ledging to have for ever been of it felf.. But fince does equally lye againft Suppofitions.of Natural it J&eifgtoii* 77 have been produc d by that fupreme Power whofe Since then Being we now inquire into. t\iis fapreme Power ^ of necefllty. by faying that this Syftem was produc d.) is neceflarily All the Difficulty any rational Powery muft now how Now if we it could avoid this Difficulty. muft have created this beautiful Syftem of things.. andfince exifting independently.. (for if the Difficulty... then the Cafe is as itfelf.. of em(elves j if it has been from all Eternity of it is.. Deity. without a Beginning. Crea ture can have about the Exiftence of a to conceive his having for ever been of himfelf without a Beginning. thefe three has been World produc d by the cafual Concourse of Atoms y then a Void^ Atoms ^ and Motion have for ever been.. of it felf-j muft of neceffity .. phin.

78 muft allow fomething to have been without a beginning of it felf. without a beginning. that therefore fuch a Being muft of neceflity a&ually exift. nor capable of. who neceflarily . and who does neceiTarily poffefs all other fuitable Perfections.it is much . fince the very ianie Difficulty equally and unavoidably^ urges all the three Suppositions is it not more reafonableand congruous^ to allow that Being to have been for ever of it felf. ceffary Exiftence. is his heceflary Exiftence. But fure I am 3 fince our main Difficulty in the Conception of the Exiftcnce of a be ing abjolutely ferfcSi. to whom we may afcribe. or his having for ever been of himfelf without a beginning. rather than either of which we know are nei ther endow d with.. that becaufe in our Conception of a Being infi there muft be included nenitely perfett^ thofe others . fuch eminent and tranfcendent Qualitys ? I will not fay with DCS Cartes.) Where fore I we fay. more reafonable to fuppofe that Being to have for ever been of himfelf.

is there now exifts a Quantity offolid Mafs. I believe no body doubts.lt. How abfurd . nor alter it s deftitute Direction Figure j it can neither change it s word. it nor Colour . it firft exifted. wou d we gladly now alearn how cou d never have been are certain^ that it a&ive Qiialities vvhat- of is it felf. not Solidity^ yet there t& jpermit us to doubt of the Exigence of Matter. nor when put in motion can it reft of itfelf\ nor of itfelf change it s Courfe. nor Situation^ in a is cnclu d with no Property but In- which is but a Negation. or more Vacuity than is dill fufficient. fince of all foever. that III.of natural all $cli&amp.it cannot move ofitfelf.. The Exijletice of Matter . a plain Demonfiration of the Exijlence of a Deity.stoin 79 ccffarily poffeffes lities. Wherefore It fince Matter I ftually is. there be more Pores than Parts. other fuitable Quathan thofe who neither poflefsj nor are capable of any of them. celeftial out of which the Bodies were form d and terrejlrial our moft folid and tho perhaps in Bodies.

Whereas the admitting of an infinitely Powerful and perfect Being to have for ever been. to imagine into Being ^ it cou d have when it can do We bring itfelf to become a pofitive Being. Befides.abfurd is it brought itfelf . nite they vanifli quite.. of itfelf Formation and Produftion of the prefent State of things^ as has been {hewn in the preceding Chap farther now and be {hall illuftrated... ter. ariflng in the Creation. and infinite aft every thing not involving a ContraWherefore fince Matter now diftion. ad mitting Matter to have been for ever of itfelf yet this will not folve half the for ever . Difficulties. Power. a$ually before infi implies a Capacity .uft nothing of itfelf? may as reafbnably imagine that Nonentity. fram d this wonder ful Syftem of Things 5 contrafts all the Difficulties of Nature into this one of For as to the Difficulties of his Exiftence. fhou d then. and to have created the folid Mafs y and out of it. for Power Power a Capacity to to aft. as conceive it poffible that Matter fhou d have been.

It has been formerly fliewn^ that: *Univerfe was not form d by the it fame Laws now is govern d. to admit an infinite! v wife Being to have for ever been of himfelf? arifing -J ^/ whereby the Difficulties. but on the contrary wou d multiplie em.. Is it not much more reafonable then. in the con ceiving the Manner of the Produ6Hon of this Vniverfe. do vaniih at once. and prefcrib d Laws for it s Parts afterwards to obferve. to..of ^aturai Jfeligen* 8 1 a6hially is^ and yet it neither coti d have been for ever of itfelf. coti Laws the Bat this Syftew of Things d never have been brought into it s G prefent . We fee all the now happen firft in this Changes that material World. are cftabliflicd in according to the Chapter. that of Matter.. which form d this Syftem at firft. nor had it for e^ ver been. and which feveral Parts in their A&ions do now obey j and therefore of neceility there muft have been fome Power fiiperior and diftinft from. all ^ this it s IV. ties wou d that remove in the the Difficul Formation of this prefent Syftem of things.

(ev n admitting Matter to have been eternally exiftent of itfelf) as I have abundantly {hewn in the firft Chap ter neither one. as to their principal Parts .. the Figure^ Number^ ) Denfitics. the Form and bulk of the Annuhts of ter. was the Num ber... nor all of thefe were fuffieient to have feparated. and amafs d it in the Sun and Stars neither did fixt the Laws of fpecifick Gravities obtain in grofler the Formation and Situation of the inner Parts of our Earth .prcfent Order 5 by the now eftabliflied Laws of Nature. ^ Laws that thin and rare fluid of Light ^ from the other and more denfe ones.. By none of the known Laws of Motion. ther. Saturn limited. O Stars determin d. nor in the Separation and Situation of the fevcral Fluids thereof. J or Diftances of the Jfixt Magnitudes. the whole pro and ccTs of the Formation of the celcftial terrcftr/al World ... In a word. Gravitations Situations upon one ano and Order of the Pla nets adjufted 5 the Number. and the other Planets-. Diftance^ and Magnitudes of the Satellits of J^fi&quot..

of jftattttai Beltgtoa Parts 83 and Arrangements... was brought about by none of the Laws of Motion and Mechanism. it is evident. may obtain. yet they are dire&ed.. and Laws of Nature. other than what we have of a Planetary Clock^ or any other complicated Machin^ form d by the Hand of a skilful Artift^ where tho the Rules of Motion. and a great deal more of the fame Nature alleg d in the firft Chapter. and confequently obtain in this fet or at moft thefe by t\&tfupreme Being. and even iometimes contradifted^ by the volunta ry Motions^ aud the defign d Interpofings G Z . it is plain it has been produced by fomething fuperiour to Matter and it s Qualities.. Wherefore fince this beautiful ftate of things has not been for ever of d be cou form d nor the Powers itfelf. we can have no Notion of the Formation of this prefent State qf things.. into whofe Ex- iftenc? we are tlow inquiring. And truly from what has been here faid. by and Laws of Nature. tled ftate that now of things Laws had but a fmall Share in their Produ&ion.

nor any Combination of Particles^ can move themfclves and therefore it was abfolutely neceflary that fomething diGvrent Irom themfelves y ihou d put them in -a motion. V. As the Formation and Difpofition of the great Bodies of this Univerfe. Now it has of Matter moving. For fuppofing Bodies already form d^ and the celeflial cl a Being fo likewife did their Hand of rang according to their feveral Diftances from one another yet without this und Impulfej they had continu una^ive. did neceflfarily require the infinitely firft powerful .. to fet them firft a going. demand the Impulfe of an almighty Hand. be but a very faint Rcfemblance of that noble and glorious Work. with a due Velocity of their feveral along the Tangents Orbits-^ other* .84 ^i)ilofopi)tcai of free Agents.. yet it is the befc and moft adequate our Imaginations^ without runing upon evident Contradidions.. Movement. and imprcfs d Motions.. Heap been already (hewn that* no Particle of Matter. And tho this no doubt. can frame..

along the Langcnts of their Or- but their Centripetal impuWes^ where by their Revolutions or orbicular Motions are perform d. to the prefervation of G 3 their . did. it that thefe glorious Bodies have about thefe four or five and fince it hath been demonftrated that they are not felf-mobeing folid Maffcs of Matter-. 85 otherwife they had for ever continued in the places^ and at the Diftances^ they were at firft fet.. both in Strength and Skill and confequently he who did fo great and glorious things muft ncceffa- who rily be. Eternity of themthat they have been all going by fbme powerful Hand} and fufficient is what Hand but his for fuch a Work..of natural saeiifjiott.. firft Not only the Formation. VI. ving. and impulfe of the great Bodies of this Univerfe. Wherefore fince it is certain been rowling thoufand Years.. and ftill do 3 require a bits } Power beyond that of Matter.. fince that they has likewiie been fhewn^ have not felves.. infinite. and the Laws of Nature. fet a it mov d from is plain..

and forces it into a curvilinear Orbit. Chapter. and after hin&amp. The firft being once imprefs d ^ docs continually perfevere. and without which they wou d for ever wander in right Lines. Newton.one along theTavgcnt of the Orbit^ another toward the Center. Mr. there is neceffarily recjui/d two Impulfes. fo that it muft be re~ Now thefe peated ev ry Minute of time. as is evident from the firft Law of Nature : The (econd con tinually draws the cekjlial Body from it s re&ilinear Motion. and all the Bo dies of this Univerfe tend toward one a- nother and by which the Sun being the of this our Syftem draws far greateft Body toward him the Planets^ and they their own Satellits . Dr. that this Principle whereby the Revolu- . But it has been demonftrated in the firft .gt... about which the Body moves. Gregory y has dcmonftratcd ^ that to the Motion of any of the Ce/e/foz/ Boclies in an Orbit ..their Motion.. and needs no more to be renew d. jecovdary Impulfes arife from that *Uni-* verfal Principle of Attra&ion^ whereby e^ : very Particle of Matter.

but Matter and the rher&amp. And feeing is nothing in Nature. preme Being for whofe Exiftence we con tend. every individual Plant and Animal is a Machine of an infinite Number of Or gans^ that no Animal is or can be proG 4 duc d . unfefs we admit that fu. The former Chapter ^ that all Animals are in their own Natures ferpetua mobilia^ that they have fome Principle above the ers Pow of Matter that governs their Moti-ons ^ it has likewife been (liewn that . is independent of the Laws of Mechamfm. and only accidental (noways Matter. of Animals does Exiftence neceilarily infer the Exiftence of a Deitor it has been demonstrated in the ty-j ^ VII. implanted effential) and confein extrinfick fome Power. by quently (fince it muft be repeated every Minute) muft be perpetuated in it by feme uninterrupted Influence.* to but there Powers thereof. therefore the Revolutions of the Bodies in their feveral Orbits do celeftial neceflarily infer the Exiftence of a Deity.lt. 87 of thefe glorious Bodies are perform d...of Natural Mtston.

unlefs we admit the Exiftence of befides Matter that fupreme Being. were all created or formed at fhall be afterwards fliewn) and that all thefe are abfolutely unaccountable from the Laws of Motion.&amp. or generated ter.. we Perfect Being. arid Liberty of choofing or refufing in the latter. into whofe Exiftence are now inquiring. we neceflarily muft have Recourfe. and the Laws of Mechanifm. and confequently... and altogether above the Powers and Now when ever Properties of Matter. and indepen dent of Matter. (that all Ani mals and Vegetables that ever were or fhall be. by the Force of Mat and Laws of Mechanism .. . we forfake the Powers of Matter.. fince there is nothing ly and its Properties in the World. the Freedom of Will. and all it s Laws and Pro and confequently to that infinite perties once.gt. to the Exiflence of fome Power fuperiour to.cluc d. . inuft fpring from a principle independent of. The fyontaneons irrational^ Motions of and the voluntary Motions of rational Animals. VIII.

and ly perfeft. of a Deity.. e. For fince this Syftem of things has not Seen from all Eternity of itfclf. For fince this prefent Syflem of Things^ has not been from all Eternity and fince thefe are allow d to ofitfelf. fore he that brought about all thefe glo rious things. Natural in a iaeiigtoiu all 8? and of Nature^ of Mechanifm (which are innumerable) are fo many undeniable Proofs of the Be ing of a God.. Faculties both of the animate and inanimate Part of this Syflem of things. be above the Powers of Mechanifm^ they muft have been produc d by fome Power Superiour to thofe of Mecbanifw. The Prefervation of the Bei/w flX. /. who alone does Wotrders y muft neceflarily be. as we now behold it.of latter. fince . and there. does neceflarily require the Power^ and confequently the Exiflence of a Being abfolutedoes great * . But no the Appearances which are above the Powers word Power alone is fiifficient for thofe.. but his who and marvellous things^ who adjufted all the Parts of this noble fabrickjjy weight and meafure.

. for inftance^ ceffarily be. without having Recourfe to an Almighty Power.. tween the being any or of it s Faculties. of a Body moving. may be deftroy d (by . Now the Motion produc d by any one Part of this Motive Force.. muft neLet us take. or at different times. in Ev ry motive Force (as all it s Motion : other Quantity) into feveral may be fuppos d divided Parts (the Sum of all which muft be equal to the motive Force firft motive Force being impropos d.. muft produce a prefs d on therein equal to the Motion pro duced by all the feveral Parts thereof. the Prefervation. and fince we fee both have been preferv d for a confiderable time This prefervation of the Being and Faculties of things. and their being the next. this prefent Moment. im- Motion prefs d.. can never be ac counted for.. which may be fuis no neceflary : ficient for all things not involving a Con- tradition j and therefore that Omnipotent Being indow d with this Power.) This a giv n Body.ilnce there Connexion be of one Part thereof. either at once.

vi^ that firft Law of Nature (preferib d bv the Author thereof) wiiereby Bodies as 1 much them $ate of Motion or as in is. and confequently the Perfeveration of a Body in Motion.of $atuvtil afteitgion.. (by the Oppofition of an equal Body ^ ima Force equal to that Part of pell d with the Motive Force we wou d deftroy. but with a contrary Dire&ion) the reft of the Motion remaining unalteredhave no out the therefore the feveral Parts of any imprefs d Motion neceffary Dependence upon one another. but upon fome Principle cxtrinfic ^ to both.and therefore the Pcrfeveration of a Body in . perfevere in that reft they are put in lame by fome Moreover foreign imprefs d Violence.. docs not depend upon the Nature of Body. Now there franf* place into a- as the is no imaginable con nexion between a Bodies being in this place now. fince one can be deftroyed withreft . nor upon the Nature of Motion.. unlefs forced to change the Motion may be confidered^ lation of a Body from one nother. and in another hereafter.

is not %\\ effential to it.$t)ilofopt)tcai in motion. is ficacy is owing to the motive Force. but confifts in the meer A&ion. ding a and therefore the feveral Impulfes. fince by contra* . a&ing ev ry Minute equally. e. that the Perfeveration of a Body in motion. Now. nor But to that vis into the Body mov d. fince an fpent that very Moment it is imprefs d 5 it is evident therefore.. or any Number of thefe Impulfes may be deftroyed without the reft. by which heavy Bodies defcend. and it s Ef Jy.... After the fame manner in the defcent of neither heavy Bodies the Acceleration of their Mo tion may be refembled (or is equivalent) to the Acceleration of a Body impelled by a conftant equable Force. and by that means ad new Velocity to the former. do not de pend upon one another.. any one. thing diftinft from Matter and its eflential Properties ^ /.. to God Almighty ^ the Author of Nature and all its Produ&ions.. which is implanted therein by fomeercitf. Laft- imprefs d Force is not at all permanent in the Body mov d.

And the fame may be faid of the Being of.. and therefore muft be afcribed to a higher Power. (I mean of inanimate things) /. that thing can be without . things. there be ing . e. 93 ^ ry equal Impulfes they may be deftroyed ? and confequently the Degrees of the Ac* Motion of heavy Bodies defending. whatever is not effential to a thing.. have no neceffary Connexion one upon another. the Continuation of that is not owing to it. And univerfally. nor of any of it s Faculties. Continuation.of ^ntural Religion. whatever any thing can be without.. (and of all the Fa culties not effential to) Bodies. unleis the thing be felf-exiftent (which cannot be true of Matter. as has been formerly {hewn) or unlefs Time or Place cou d change the Natures of which is abfur d.. for it s Nature... and fo the Prefervation cehration of the of this Faculty of Attra&ion in Matter which is the Caufe thereof does not depend upon Matter. to quently requires the Caufe of it s and confefome Power above it.. for the Be ing of any thing now. does by no Means infer it s being the next Minute.

) ino cue and have our Being. and of the feveral Parts of this admirable Fabrick of the *Vni*terje&quot.i and it is altogether impot fible for the united skill of Men and An to mend any one Part.ing no neceflary Connexion betwixt Time or Place. j X... there are legible and Wtfdom^ in the Contrivance of the whole... trive it better. who made and governs this Syftem of things. or even to find out any real Defei therein. i. due Regard being had to the univerfal Benefit of the whole infinite indelible Characters of Syftem $ . which of all others affe&s me moft. to him in whom WQ live. than it is. is Things ... that altogether impofllble. But that Argument for the Ex* iftetice of a Being infinitely perfect. or to con gels. Or which is the fame. and then put the Defign in execution. e. this Univerfe cou d have been better contriv d or it is more compleatly infinite finiflicd. had Wifclom firft a&ually defign d it. and the Being or Faculties of and confequently their Prefervation is owing to forne Power above thofe of Matter..

like the Sun) to be plac d. and moving about their own Axes only (perhaps) Stars - XL about . However.. and fbmetimes infinite. keeping always the fame Diftances from one another.. it . the moft advantages to the w hole. and in it at vaft Diftances from one another. But firft of all it will be convenient to lay down a general Scheme of this noble Stru- Let us then conceive the Mundan Space. or indefinite in its Dimenfions... or which only cou d bring about the defign d E fed:. to be boundlefs in it s Extent. or the univerfal Place of all Bodies...of 5$aturai Beitgton* Syflem for in the Contrivance and Adthis juftment of the feveral Parts of ble Machin.. that one is pitch d upon. no where the Choice is various. and r to treat according to it s Dignity re than the Limits I quires more Room have prefcrib d to my felf will admit.. This is a very large Subjefr. I fliall endeavour to illuftratc the fame in the following Particulars. which alone cou d bring. the fixt (huge luminous Bodies.

and about thofe Each of thefe Satellits of our Planets. over.. Our Num very fliort here. Glimfs^ Night.. conftituting that which is caird a Syflem of the Celeftial Bodies. and yet and they it s included in a bounded Extenfion- for Matter feems not capable in ture of being infinitely propagated. And how many fuch there muft be in the vaft net-like ones Analogous to the Extent of Icfs Space.about each of thefe let us imagine fe?veral Bodies like our Planets^ fowling in feveral Orbits at feveral Diftances lefler ... Na let us conceive the fixt in More glorious Body of the Sun.. may but much more a good large Telefcope dire&ed toward that Region of the Skie. fixt Stars with their Circumambient PlaOrbs. (or near it) the Center of Gravity of this our Syjlew. and in the common . and our Arithmecall can fcarce give us an idea of the vaft Quantity of Syflems that adorn this ftnpenduous Piece of Architecture -^ no doubt are all their Number is fink. a naked eye in a cloudgive us ibme faint which is bers fall tick^ d the milky way.

. which . our Earth. the meters. View of him Moon. to him Mercury makes his oval round .of natural Eeltstotn 97 common Center of Motion (or focm) of And then next all the Planetary Orbits. Jupiter.next to Mars. XII. in going through the following Parts of this ^ Difconrfe.. and laft of all. and meafure out the Year. that we can rarely obbut fo near him. and concludes our turn Syftem.. Gravities. is our beautiful Morning and Evening Star Venus : next Venus . Saturn with his five Guards. Diftances. perform their friendly Courfe. Next to Mercury. with it s Attendant the a diftinft . of Matter^ in thofe of the Num Dia- and Quantities H Cclejiial Bodies. in the Light of the Sun. * j tain he being fwallow d up almoft. lits round in concert. I (hall fet down here the bers that reprefent the Periods. the with his four Sat ellargeft of the Planets. revolves about the fame Center. For the eafe of the Reader. Beyond our Earth Mars fingly and alone. describes the remoteft Orbit. and his furrounding Annulus QvKing.

which have afforded any Grounds for de termining the fame. Whifton has calculated them from the lateft Obfervations. as Mr. Newton s Rules. by Mr. Y. . The Periodical Times of each Planefs Re volution about the Sun.

of Natural Beltgioa and 99 The Quantity of Matter afford in. The Suns Saturns Jupiter Mars*s s 4^4100 043925 052522 9 Statute The Earth * The Moons Venwis Mercurys 002816 JMiles each 008202 5000 Paris 002223 Feet. the Gra vity of fach of the heavenly Bodies (as Means for the determining the fawe^ at the fame diftancefrom the Cen ter of the Sun } is as The Sun s Jupiter Saturn s s The Earth s The Moon s 66690 00060 00028 ooooi ooooo * The Diameters of the Sun and Planets. 004941 002717^ H a .

d.11. r On the Sur face of The Sun The Earth Jupiter 10000 01258. 17^ 57.: The Moon Saturn 00804 00630 00536 i. of I 2 h. Bf .IOO The weight of Bodies on the Surface of the Sun and Planets. 1 8 h.lt. 1 8 3 281 3 d.p 7 3 Hi 6 d. the Denfities of Celeftial The Moons 700 387 100 The Earths The Sun s Jupiter s 076 060 the Safeltits c Saturns The Periodical Times of Jupiter. 4 h. id. The Bodies. &amp. 13.

Ol The Dtftances of the Satellits from the Center of Jupiter. flamftcd by the Eclipfes of the Satel. .of I.

and her Means the feweft fimple^ &amp. Her Courfe the eafieft and ihorteft Poifible.) various and Her Caufes few.102 middle diflance of the Earth and Tla* their Periodical nets comfard with e . her Effe&s wonderful.gt.4 152399 looooo 72533 38710. innumerable. we How that . The Sun in a 5 Days Jupiter in i o hours The Earth in i Day Mars in 247 hours The Moon in 25? Days Venus in 2 3 hours. . 98 522520 152350 IGOOCO 72598 58585. XIII. The Times of the Revolutions of the Sun and Planets about their Sixes. What a beautiful Scene of things here ? haye and yet how wonderful are the Works of Nature ? Such like are all the EfFefts of infinite Wifdom^ her Foundations are plain and fimple buthcrfuperftru&ure. j&amp.gt.

. and the Caufe of all Heat. and thereby fending thin. all the Appearances of the Heavens^ are accounted for. their carrying. in the celeftial Ap pearances : fuch a ftrange ungeomttrical - and contradi&ory Syflem they made of the Heavens whereas from thefe few 5 plain and fimple Pofitions.of j&atutai Religion. with wonderful Confiftency and Fa cility. XIV. - compaft Syficw t forry. perplex their with they made. and dquating^ we fhall fee there what Work their Concentricl^ and Excentrick^ Circles. the Stations and Retrogadationr. out Oceans of that active which is the Medium of Light. 103 that can poffibly bring about her Ends.. in this neat. brought into fufion huge Body by the Fluid. and Epicycles. Let us but confult the Books of -the old Aftronomers. Cycles. and we will then have fufficient Ground to admire the frugal Simplicity of Nature.. their folid Orbs. turns round his own H 4 Axe. . a Fire. The Sun being of liquid Force of his Heat... and the perpetual Change of the Axe of Motion .

. His greater Quantity of Matter. whereby his Bulk and Heat is conftantly diminifliing. as the Sun muft neceflarily be.. as alfo. and will do. muft certainly be vi d.04 |^Diiofopl)!tai five from Weft to Eaft in about twenty Days which arifes from his firft Being put into fuch a Circumgyration. for drawing all the yeft qf the Planets and their Satellits to wards .. the folid (fome folid Bodies being more denfe than any Fluid can be) his Sphericity. His Motion about his all own on his Axe^ has been difcovered by Spots his Surface. he lays out upon them... trify and larger Dimenfions Planets^ makes him in refpeft of the fufficient for all the Expenfes of Light.. after his And paving been feated in his Place. and that all Bodies heated to fuch a Degree. things ^ till the Consummation of by Virtue of that firft imprefs d Gyration^ and the firft Law of Nature. lefler and in . it has continu d ever fince. there being little or no Refiftance in his Region to retard his Motion. Denfity Planets from refpeft of fome of his Fluidity.

. reciprocally. neceflarily of muft draw the Planets with their Satellits to him 5 which wou d have unavoidably come to pafs^ had not the Planets at the inftant they were feated in their Places.of ^amtai wards him} for ffitiigf on* i o$ been formerly infinuated. All the Planets re volve . which drove em along the Tangents of their Orbits^ with the fmall Refiftance they meet in their Courfes . receiv d an impulfe.. in one Sun is fituated : And of whofe Foci the what is here faid of the Caufe of the Primary Planet s Mo tions about the Snn^ may be underftood of the fecondary f Janets Motions. at the fame Dias has ftance. has made em ever fince revolve in their their Ellipticl^Orbits. the Force of Attraction of one Bo dy upon feveral others. is : as their Maffes^ qf Matter tains a or Quantities Wherefore feeing the Sun con very Matter by greater Quantity than any of the Planets... and the Force of the Attra&ion diminishing as the Squares this of Diftances increafe. the Sun far.. about the Primary ones.

dent. 66r: and in it s motion about the Sun. for if Axe fuppos d this no other Motion (there being in the Sphere) is immoveable. turn round their own Axes from Weft to Eaft. about an Ax?) which is inclin d to the Plane of the JLcliptick. the Axe fliall continue parallel to that Line it was firft pa* rallel to^ for that Imprefllon which perit s s Axe^ and the petuats it Rotation upon impulfe along the Tangent of it s Orbit. and at the fame time always turn round it s Axe. and fa each of them niufl continue the . or fuch as are not very far different from moft of em. this Axe y of the diurnal them . as alfo Rotation obferves always a Parallelifm with itfelf... are two diftincft Motions^ which never inter fere.) or ftrait Line.. while in the mean time every Point in the dcfcribes a Circle about this Axey Sphere^ and therefore if a Sphere move either in a curve.. the Reafon of which is evi a Sphere move about an Axe.. the Earth in twenty four Hours.06 $t)tlofopf)!tai volve about the Sun in Elliptic^ Orbits..

. do alfo turn round their Axes. they. in the Earth s Re volution about the Sun. if not difturb d by The Satellits of Jupi Foreign Violence. i o/ the fame as if the other were not fo that every Body turning about its Axe . ter and Saturn do likewife turn round their Axes. Mars and Ve^ fturb it. that the others in which we have not had the Occafion of obferving the like. turn that conftantly the the fame Face or Disk^ toward their p rimary Planets ^ and it is not improbable. Jupiter nus y and our Moon. retain this Paralleltfw.. if nothing elfe dilike wife.. from Weft to Eaft..of ^latum 3&eitgton* . may alfo turn round their Axes. like our Moon. and from the farallelifm of the Axil to itfelf. and would Line. that in a Re volution about the Sun. that we have the Vicifliudes of Day and Night.. they may in all their Parts oftner Light and Heat tion of our Earth upon it s Axis. than once enjoy his for it is from this Rota . as is evident from hence. and at the fame time defcribing a Right or Curve muft of neceflity retain it s Axe parallel to itfel.

.. Since their Solidity and Opacity.. together with their diurnal and annual Motions . their Phafes. the Proportion of their Periods to their Diftances from the and mutual Center of Motion. and fome of em revolving in Orbits. and its being inclined to the Plane of the Ecliptick} come the beautiful Seafons of the Year. their total and parEclipfes arife.Sun. and the other -Planets with their Satellite. and their Rotati ons about their Axes. and the Obliquity of their Planes to the Plane of the Ecliptic^. Summer and Winter. V. it is not impro- . thee^^/eDefcription of Areas in equal Times. which is of fuch comfort and nfe to it s Inhabitants. wkhin one another. all thefe and many more Particulars are exa$ly the fame in our Earth. the Similar Nature of their Orbits . From the Opacity of the Moon and Planets and their Satel lite. Spring and Autumn. their appea ring and difappearing. and tial X Attendance^ their Revo lutions about the Sun. Since^ I fay. their Gravitations their hatellitiott-s Attractions.

it is very likely that they have Planets. and have Inhabitants. which not only are not but on the contra ford or contradi&ory ry highly probable. and thefe Planets have thefe Planets and Satellite Satellits. athofe in our Syftem. what a noble and glorious Fabric^ wou d prefent itfelf to our Imaginations ? How is it poffible for any one who had this Idea of the Vniverfey {hall to think it poffible fuch a beautiful Syftem^ con d have been produc d without infinite Wifdom None but the w ilfol^ or ob ft-ina te cou d refift fuch a powcifel Impreffion of &amp. Plants and Vegetables. .. tants both rational and irrational. rational and irrational. nalogous to On thefe &quot.ah- Suppofitions. and fince our fixt Stars are exa$ly of the fame Nature with our Sun^ as ihall be after tho* not wards made appear.gt. Water and Fire analo- of the very fame Na ture and Conftitution with ours. Water and Fire.. divine . Plants and Vegetables gotis to.of Natural JSeligton* be alike in other probable that they may and that they may have Inhabi things. as be afterwards made appear more fully.

have been exhaufted in furnilhing &amp.. great and noble Parts. Changes of Weather. while the other more glorious. thofe vaft and huge Bodies of fome of the Planets (in reipeft of our Earth) with their noble At* were made for no other ufe but to twinkle to us in Winter Evenings.. But allowing the Planets to be inhabited. who can think fo poorly of the reft of the Univeiie. poor Corner. is it On the other Hand..gt.I I divine Power and Wifclom.. Number of glorious and Sun- of the fixt Stars. and of their own Habitation. and that the fixt Stars have their Planets and Inhabitants. are left deftitute and bare? Certainly they muft have a great Opinion of themfelves. that all Animals and Plants. and to their forebode what little by Afpe&s tendance. or other pitiful Ac cidents were to be expe&ed below.. yet they are not of the fame Nature and Confticution with thofe of this out . how that immenfe like Bodies poffible to conceive that. or to be peep d at by fome poor Paltry Fellows Or can any Body force of Aftronomers himfelf to think..

but receives only the twenty fifth of our and Saturn but the part Heat. Jupiter likewife en joys a perpetual Equinox. Mercury is three times nearer the Suny than we... and fo her Day is but one Hour lefs than ours /he has all the Phafes of our Moony appearing fometimes horn d fometimes halv d. Venus enjoys twice as much Heat and Light. and confequently enjoys nine times as much Heat and Light. and a Day of ten Hours.. he never remo ving thirty eight Degrees from that vaft Body of Light. and her Courfe about her Axe is perform d in twenty three Hours. and the Seafbns of the Year.of Natural Religion* as is of our Globe^ ferent evident from the dif Degrees of Heat and Light they en joy j as alfo the different Viciflitudes of Day and Night. Mars has no Inclination in the Axe of his Rotation to the Plane of his Orbit^ and confequently enjoys a perpe tual Equinox^ but no Viciflitudes of Seafons j he receives but the third Part of our Light and Heat. XVI. The Satellits of the feveral Placets . hundredth..

. or always the fame.. and whofe Inclination to the Plane of the Ecliptwl^ wou d never vary but by the A&ion of the Sun upon the Moon-y all thefe Effe&s are difturb d.) more Curve about the Quaand lefs toward her Conjnn^ions and . for flie neither difcribes equal Areas in equal Times by a Kay from the Center of the Earth. Foci&amp. for they are . Thus the Moon (ifa- only by the attra&ive Force of the Earth) wou d by a Kay from the Center of the Earth.Planets fufFer many and various Diftur- banccs in their Motions from the Sun^ as alfo.gt.... Neither is her Orbit always fpecifically the fame. defcribe equal Area s in equal times. nor is the Earth in any of the Foci of her Orbits . &ed upon wou d about the Earth in defcribe a perfeft one of it s Ellipfe of the fame Species conftantly. but fbmewhat larger ones in her with the Sun Conjun&ions and Oppofetions than in her Qttadratures. the Primary Planets fufFer likewife from the Forces of the Sun y and of the fecondary Planets.. whofe Plane wou d be immoveable.

and it s Inclination to the Plane of the every Mqment. printed in Dr. and both the Situation of the Plane of her Orbit. as is evident from Mr. befidcs a Ecliptic^ Varies great other Irregularities too tedi ous here to relate. ftronomers. Upon the account of many all which. Newton s Theory of the Moon. and all thefe Uncertainties and Aberration^ are multiply d by her nearer or remo ter Diftances from the San.. the but efpecially of the as . Gregory s Aftronomy^ which is a furprifing Confirmation of the Truth of that Principle. it em in Numbers and yet thefe Irregularities are Wonderfully ac counted for. ev n to a Nicety. beyond which Gbfervation can not diftinguifli. Moon y difturbs the Motion of the Earth I the other hand. upon the common Suppofition of the Law of Attraftion. and to exprefs all has been fo very hard for A to reduce her Motions to Rule... defcribes a new kind of Curve.of Natural SMtQiom and in every Revolution ilie Oppofitions .. from the A&ion of the Sun and Earth upon her.. On Force of the Sun.

may be with due Limitations underftood.re Bodies like our Snn. with fome few collateral Circumftances.. fince altogether impofllble. ^pofopDtcai as evident from our Tides. and tranfmitted to us. than Oppositions at her Quadratures. I have fuggefted is in the firft Chap And what here faid of the Earthy with refpeft to the Moon. all the late Aftronomers agree.4&quot. that the Light of the Sun. XVIL That the fixt Stars a. We .. cannot be ignorant of the latter j for when the Moon comes to the vertical Point of any Place.. of any pri mary Plajtety inrefpc&ofit sSatellits. fliou d be fcnt to them. we have a Tide there.^ and greateft of all at the Equinoxes^ efpecially if the Moon is then in her ferigeum^ the Reafons of all which ter.. 5 that he who knows the former. as alfo on the Place this Tide is greater diametrically oppofite to it . fo as to it is make them appear fo lucid as we fee them. for it s plain they fliine by their own Light. at the and Conjitn&ions of the Moon to the Sun. which da fo exa&Iy follow the Motions of the is M00.

difcover them* Their Diftance is faintly in refpe& of forae Stars ^ Saturn fhines for all his fo great.... The Rays of the Sun wou d be fo diflipated before they reach d fo re^ mote an Objeft. as i to . how great foever) does con(b that they fiderably leffen them^ appear like lucid Points.of natural JHeitgion* We fee how of the jixt Bulk j and yet his Diftance is but a Point in refpeft of the neareft fixt Star. (or thou 188304000 Miles. Hngens Computation.. the Diftance of the Sun -from us.. if they five . that the beft Eye of the World j cou d not by it.. that the beft of Telefcope.. from the Sun. allowing fand Feet to the Mile) one time of the Year than another. yet their Parallax is fcarce fenfible if any at all.. approach nearer them fome twenty four thoufand Diaweters of the Earth... inftead magnifying em above what they appear to the naked Eye fas they do any Obje&^cmov d by any menfurable Diftance. tho we in this Globe.. which cou d noc were at my moderate Diftance be. : By Mr. Befides. is to the Diftance of the neareft fixt Star from us...

both thefe are true. when parted from the Mouth of the Piece. Now this being true. immenfe Diftances as the neareft of em m us. it is impofiible they fhou d be all in the Surface of the fame Sphere j fince our Sun which is one of em . that they Ihine by their own Light. cannot be reduc d to their this Rule. is at leaft 2404520928000 Bullet Miles. according to the be ft Calculations) Star from the Diftance of the neareft jfxf us. cou d they a Cannon be brought near us. or we near them. that is (allowing theDiftance of the Sun from us to be 12000 Diameters of the Earth.. Since then.6 $4)i!qfGp!)icai 07664. Be- fiJe^j different as Magnitudes.. (hew that they are at from one is fix another... and a Diameter to be of 7846 Miles.. which moving with the Velocity it has. they Sun } which wou d be evident. and that they 3re at fuch an itmnenfe Diftance from us^ muft be Bodies like our it is plain. Let us but imagine our felves removed . is for it only the Diftance that creates our doubt. wou d fpend almoft feven hundred thoufand Years to go thro*.

and knowing the Na ture of one... ly perceive . (fome of which I hinted before) that they have Attendant Planets^ and no poffible I one 3 . we fliou d have no attend the Snn^ fliou we occafion to imagin any Difference be tween one Star and another^ but fliou d Stars certainly conclude both Sun and fixt f the fame Nature . yet at our Di ftance we cou d fee neither. that if one was a lucid Globe of liquid Fire. Since then there are feveral probable Arguments. and becaufe all their Orbs wou d be united. In this Station.. we fliou d certainly conclude the fame of all the reft^ z//%. fo wou d all the reft be.&amp. and that they were at immenfe Diftances from one another. Cer tainly if the fxt Stars a&ually had JPA/nets y and they Satellits.gt. we fliould then certain no Difference between them . in that one lucid point of the Sun. for as to all the Planet s^ that we fee now d not have the both becaufe leaft Glimpfe of themtheir Light wou d be too weak to affect us.of natural Beitgion* 1 7 remov d at an equal Diftance from the Sun and fixt Stars..

others ano- .. that the Sun is in one of the Foci. that their Periodical Times are certain and invariable. that like our Planets . only their Courfe in their Orbits is riot determin d one way. they do move in a re curring Orbit . its certain. we may fafely conclude that the fixt Stars are fo many Suns in the Center of a Sy&em of Planets and their Satellits.8 one to evi& the contrary. and that their Moti ons are regular.. we have not determined the Returns of above pofitively one or two.. Befides thefe already men tioned. XVIII... which re volve about the Sun-. which does in the Pla nets-. in very Oblong BUiptick Orbitsj approaching to Parabolic^ The Times of their Periodical Curves. that by a Ray from the5#// 3 they defcribe equal Areas in equal Times. of this Orbit . Revolutions are very long. there is another Species of Hea venly Bodies^ call d Comets. however.. fmce in three or four Thoufand Years. but indif ferently fqme of em move one way. that the fame Law of Gravitation obtains in them.

It is it is always oppofite to the 6V*. intermixt with feveral an irre grofler Particles.. in many Thoufands of I 4 Years. by the Heat thereof^and extends fometimes to four hundred Thoufand Miles above its Body. generally fpeaking 5 and like them are compaft folid Bodies ^ but furrounded with a vaftly large thin Fluid. and . it has a long lucid Train...Icflening in its Rcceft. and uncertainly agitated Mafs^ which is call d its Atrno* fpbere. This Tail accompanies it through its Courfe over all the Planetary in its Approach Regions. whofe Diameter.. and compofing gular unequally difpofs d.of another: natural Religion. as that is ten or fifteen Befides Times as long of its Body.. encreafing to the Sun. becaufe the thiner part of its Atwofphcre. which is rais d in its Approach to the Sun.. to fuch a Degree that they cannot be come cool again.. They are alfo about the 1 1 9 lame Bulk with the Planets. Thefe Comets fometimes come fo near the Sun as to be heated . and fo rare that the Stars may be feen through it. which. . ex tremely rarified by his Rays.

. Now the Returns of thefe Bodies are fo irregular and uncertain. to fupply the Expence of Fluids in the $nn and the But as I have before hinted^ this does not feem fo very pro bable. and the Difpoiition of the confufs d its d Mafs of fit Atmofyhere^ makes it an un Habitation for Animals. that are not in a ftate of Puniihment conceive therefore we can of the Nature of Animals.. becaufe Nature always fupplies conftant and regular Expences after a conftant and regular Manner. Ciirv?j after it irregular Ferihelium.2o 0Mofo$)icai This with its violent Motion in a which comes near to a ftreight Line. and we fo little feel the Effefls of thefe Returns (which of nemuft be felt^ if thefe frightful Bo ceffity Planets. And 5 fo far as fome have thought it defign d.) that I am afraid no fuch Benign Influeiices^ are to be expcfteel ... has pafs its Years. of all the at onc:^ or in a dies lois made very have fuffbr d in their Fluids for they many Years before. the Reimbursement mentioned ? fince the Sun and Placets are recruited all fhort time.

that of Water. or if they were prowifcuoufly. it is uncertain of what Nature theie Vapours are. I readily grant. how thefe EfFe&s can anfwer the Defign. for every . that there may be feme Clouds of Vapours fweep d off the Tails of thefe Comets. Vapour will not become a Fluid unlcfs its Parts be of fuch a determin d Figure and Si^e as the Nature of Flu ids require. and . wou d be as in the Sun. fincc d to draw all which wanted only more of the Fluid of Light. it is more probable. the other Yla: nets their proper Fluids fiippofs . and increafe their Bulk to a neceffary Dimenfion Moreover its hardly accountable how the Sun fliou d draw from thence only the Fluid of Light. by the Sun and Planets as they approach them. provided it be fufficient to diffolve the Union of its Parts. as Fire on the Earth r which wanted only more Water. Now it s certain^ that Heat will raife any Body into a Va pour.of ^atitrai &eiigtcn* ed from them. But then.. I think that thefe frightful Bodies are the Miniftcrs of Pivi/te Juftice. Water improper a Gueft. the Earth.

: and may ftill bring about. the great Cata- ftropkes of our Syftem. it would not equal a Grain of Sand.. and fo needs not fo magnificent an Apparatus ^ as the vifife of a Comet to fupply it .and lend us Benign or No* xions Vapours. I do believe it may be dernonftrated. in their Vifits. that if all the Fluid which the Sun lofes in a Year were brought into a folid Form.. as to the Diminution of Light. if it did not look too notional^ there are many Arguments to render not improbable. according to the Defigns of Providence that they may have brought. Now what is that to the vaft Body of the Sun ? And as for f the . and the Pofitions of the Tlanets^ and the very Nature of the Orbits thenifelves: and that they may be the Habitation of Animals in a ftate which. changing the Figures .... by raifing of Tides. Diminution of the Quantity of Fluids in the Sun and Planets^ it is certainly fo fmall and fo inconfiderable (tho ftill it be fomething) that it will never be fenfible in any finite Number of Years. But as for the of Punilhment .

for in all Animals and Vegetables .of Datura! Beitgtom 123 the Fluids on our Globe.. Frame. XIX. or. tho feme of be reduc d into a folid Form. Thus I have given a fhort View of this Syftew of things. So that tho there be fome lots of Fluids on our Globe y yet there is ftore enough to fupply all the Ufes of Life and Vege tation. that fome infinitely powerful .. And now let any one ferioufly refleft upon the Order ^ Vaftnefl^ Magnu ficence this . by the.. yet them upon Examination it of the fame is again diffolv d into a Fluid . and make of this our ) feem defign d to laft for jlem. as it is at of Opinion it is pretty prefent^ and I am near the Truth.. Scheme . without fome considerable Changes. and Symmetry of he can think it the if he can fo much wife and as doubt. whether there be ve ry will be found that moft many new Productions or Generations of that kind. fince their firlt Production. and try if Effbft of Chance. it does notever. Beauty . for any finite number of Years and .. the Matter is plain j and as for Minerals and Metals ^Idoubt much..

but if with an almoft infinite Number of Dice.f^inciples: powerful Architect has rear d this noble But to drive the Argument far Fabrkk. pro Now bable that fo Hm&erfitt a ful a Principle Law^ fo power and fo conftant a Rule j fhou d be owing to Chance ? If one with 10000 Dice. is reciprocally as the Squares is it at all of thefe Diftances. all the &amp. fhou d throw 5000 Si7es^ once or twice ^ or even 1000 Sixes once and again.lt. and that the Motions of ces Planets. that the univerfal Principle of Attraction or Gravitation obtains in all the Bodies of this Univerfe... different Diftances from the Center of Attra&ion..all^ we fhou d certainly con- . their Satellits and the Comets^ are govern d by one Condition that the Force thereof at thereof.z/r&. he fhou d always without failing throw the iame fide in ern .. let us of this Divine Archtte&ure. enquire a little into the par ticular and obvious Defigns and Contrivan* ther. And i* It is plain from what has been {hewn. we might pofifibly fay he did it by Chance.

the periodical Times is in a Sefauialter Proportion to the middle Diftances^ or the Cubes of the middle Diftances. It is Foundations of the World. from the Center of their tions. by Art and Contrivance. as by Rays from the S/tf/j and all the Sate Hits. how conftant and beautiful a Proportion^ the Times of the Revolutions of all the Flatlets^ and their Satettits y keep to their middle Diftances for univerfally. worth our Obfervation to take Notice. or that thefe Dice cou d turn up on no other fide..... and of the fecondary Planets about the Primary ones. are in all of them (Planets and Satellits) Mo the Squares of the Periodical Revolutions. he either did it ftrated that Gravitation is not effential to Matter^ and fo out it^ and yet verfe.of jfcatutai Religion. in all the Revolutions of the Planets about the SHK. fo far as this might have been with all the Bodies of the Uniwe can difcover^ are en* it dow d with it Principle ^ and therefore.. by Rays . All the Planets 3. Now I have demonelude. was defign d by him who laid the a.

the dreas defcrib d.... are not only difcoverable by Obfervation. flower their Nearnefs. are always proporti So that when they onal to the Times.r . who confiders how many things are con thefe curring to.. and fo Times. Can any Body now. approach to the Center of their Motion. they move fafter. by their Swiftnefs. defcribe equal Areas in equal Times^ /.and determine the Powers } neceflary towards the . but are the neceflary Ef of the Law of Gravitation.. to tainly nothing make the Calculations. and their Diflance by their Slownefs: Al ways making up equal Areas in equal Thefe two fo umverfal.. adjuft theF0ra. juft now feft^ Celeflial Bodies^ mentioned to be the Principle of the Heavenly Motions.f Primary Planets. e. and depending upon beautiful Proportions. of the Motions of the regular Affe&ions. and regular Effeftsy fo much as once queftion whether they are the Produce of infinit Wifdom? Cer lefs cou d be fufficicnt. Rays from their and when they recede fo as to compenfat from it ..

. is ftill neareft and the lefs Denfe... . wifely fituated. it is fo obvious no Body can mifs of it for it is plain the more Denfe Matter requires a greater De gree of Heat. they are fit ted with Degrees of Heat neceffary for natural Produ6Hons. And confequently.. their Diftances adjufted for this very Reafon by the bye. in refpe& of the Suny that the Denfer Planet. to fit it for natural Produ6Hons lefler and the lefs Denfe. * 27 the Produ$ion. now this Adjuftment and thefe natural Productions were ufelefs.of Natural Religion. if there nefit were no Creatures to enjoy the Be of em and we all know Natiire has :. for the fame End.. done nothing in vain. is a very good Argument for the Planets being inhabited. all. needs only a Degree of Heat. - 3 Defign ? No certainly. of fuch exa& and regu All the Planets are fo lar Effe&s. -.. is farther remov d from him and the leaft Denfe of Now can any is the moft remote.. Body think this was fo ordered without him. 4. And therefore fince thefe ... fince were and this according to their Denfities.

petal are reciprocally . there fore the Velocity of the nearer. floweft of all. and fince the fquare Root of the remoter Diftance is greater. Squares of the Diftances from the Center^ and the Celerities in that cafe^ recipro the fqnare Roots of the Diftan cally. and the fartheft. that the Planet And fo in the Satellits ^ the neareft to the primary Planets^ moves quickeft.$i)ttofopi)tcai thefe Accommodations are provided for li ving Creatures. and the For fince the Centru remoteft. there are fuch certainly to enjoy em. floweft.. which is neareft the Sun^ moves fafteft. as from the Center . as the Forces. 5. than the fquare Root of the nearer. for fince the nearer Planet enjoys more of the Heat of the Sun y than the re moter . it was fit the Viciflitudes of the Seafons . is a wife Contrivance of the Author of ces Nature .. The Velocity of the Pla Motions j is fo adjufted in refpe& of the Sut? y and the Velocity of the Satel* nets lits y in refpeft of their primary Planets. and thofe more remote^ lefs faft. is grea Now this ter than that of the remoter.

.of Seafons... there the Seafons ihou d be all thefe EfFe63:s are taken longeft: care of by this adjufting of the Velocity to the Diftance. in the nearcft^ and floWeft in the remoteft Satellits. that are nexc the Sun^ their Periods muft be fhorteftj all move about their and fince Axes. for whatever Effe&s the primary Planets pro duce on the ^econdary ones. natural &eli0ton. there Heat is leaft.. fhou d be quicker. they muft admit of for Va is riety of Seafons. and their Velocities greateft. by fome Angle or other with the Plane if of their Orbit. it was neceflary the Seafons fhou d be fhorteft. it is doubtlefs moft convenient 5 the Viciffitudes there of fliou d be quickeft. and where the Heat the Conveniency of natural Produ&ion. where the greatefi. making there moft. And this K . they not all of them. that anfweof natural Produ&ions ring beft the Ends for fince their Diftances are leaft. And what is here faid Now of the Seafons in Refpeft of the ?lanetfy Satellits Influ may be ences 5 underftood of the from their primary Planets .

is matter .. yet ftill their Or bits are nearer Ellipses now among And tho than any other Geo- Metrical Curves^ and may be reduc d to theie and that the Planes of the Orbits of the Y lands coincide with the Plane of the and with one another nearly.. the Satellits are Orbits of that the fay. is a convin ^ cing Proof of the Planets being inhabited for ii all this beautiful Contrivance is loft ? there be no Inhabitant in thefe Celejiial Bodies to enjoy the Benefit of it. All the Planets defcribe about the Sun in . That the Planets defcribe Elliptic!^ Orbits about the SMI 3 there is no manner of doubt . as well as the former . not exaflly Elliptical^ yet that is from neceffary Caufcs. but to the already eftablifli d Laws of the Univerfe ... and with the Plane of the Ecliptic^.$i)itofopt)!c ai this.. and is not owing to Chance. 6. one of Elliptic^ Orbits of one and all the Satellits Species or another defcribe about their primary Planets in their Foci^ :. they Aflronomers. one of their Foci^ Elliptic^ Orbits alfo and the Planes of all the Orbits do very nearly coincide with one another.

Now this Benefit wou d be confbnt if the Place of the Pvrihetium did that is the not change ^ but fince not conftant. Now is it imagi and conftant Order of Elliptick Orbits^ the Situation of the Sun in the one of the of the Planes.. Foci.of Natural Religion. nable..for there by. 1 3 1 matter of Obfervation. which cannot but be of fome ufe to thofe Places. than in Summer . that by the natural Courfe of the Earth. and the Coincidence of the Orbits . this beautiful of thefe three things. the other is not du rable j but temporary.. are brought fome hundreds of thoufand Miles... the colder and more Northern Places of our Globe. are evident... with that of the Eclipcou d have been the EfFeft of Chance and Cafualty? Or that it was without Defign or Counfel ? No certainly. arc depriv d of the benign Influence of the Sun at that Seafon. nearer the Sun in Winter. But this change is not now to be taken notice of fince it is a Qiieftion if thefe Irregularities a K were any . for Advantages thereby arifing to our* Earth in particular.

it cannot be amifs to any of eni.. the Axe of this Rotation is dwxy parallel toitfelf^ and they revolve all one way from Weft to Haft. Co far as we have had occafion to know^ move about their own Axes. the . and that of the As to the Rotation about their Eclipticlq own Axe.. but the work of Infinite Wifdom. yet the conftant Order of thefe things are a fufficient Proof that they were not Cafiial . Jnpiter. and their Satellits. Venus. not the fame^ yet nothing is to be concluded from thence. againft this Ar gument^ fince we know not the Nature of their Inhabitants^ nor of their Natural Produ&ions . the Earth. they agreeing in moft things ever be the : But what Defign thereof. is : firft Contrivance of in the reft this Now tho of the the Situation of their Perihelia. But this we may conclude.12 3 any part of the Univcrfe Planets. The Sun. and that in Planes. fmce it is of notable life to one of the Planets. all the Planets. Mars. it is matter of ObferVation in the Sun. almoft coinci dent with one another. 7.

Now can thefe Conftant and regular Efte&s be afcrib d to any thing.. if the fame were not difturb d by fome collateral Caufes j as alfo the Coincidence of the Planes of this Rotation.of natural JRcitjjion* 1 3 3 the Moon^ and it is very probable in the other two ^ and as to the Parallclijm of the Axe of their Rotation... and Beauty. which agree. and with the Plane of the Ecclipticfyj is wou d fo very near the Truth. fmall Difference from is not to be regarded. uniform and regular Appearances.. Farther. that all thefe beautiful and comely Proportions . cou d have brought about fo uniform 5 and fuch conftant Effe&s. not to a few things. nothing fible.. and Confufion produce regular and invariable Efte&s? It is altogether impoU and but the Au therefore. all thefe con ftant and immutable all thefe Effe&s. but an over-ruling Providence ? Can Jum ble.. with one ano ther. let us now coniider. that the it.. a nd be nicely exa&. or in fome K 3 particu- . it is demonftrable a priori^ as I have formerly fhewn. thor of Light^ and Order.

the Planets from the Sun ^ the poflible s of their Reyolntioxs.. moft of them.. feve^and yet none of ral and divcrfe ways. and the univerfal Benefit of the whole Syftem ^ as thefe already fettled. the Planets. and the Comets^ and our word ^ to every thing in this might have been varied. and the in a M0&amp. Celerities^ . to all their Sate!lit to the Sun . fo well as to the There are innume Reciprocal Dnplicat. rable proportions^ befides the Sefquialter^ yet none of em had fuited us fa well.lt. becaufe this is the Eftci of the Law of and on thefe two. Thus there might have been an infinity of different ^ poflible Laws ^Gravitation^ yet none of them wou d have fitted our Syftem^ prefent Circumstances.?//. to -all s.*34 Wiofopljtcai but in particulars. em fitted fo well^ to the prefent Irate of things. all the fubfequent Advantages from the prefent efhblifii d Motions of the Placets depen different from thefe ding y any other wou d have depriv d us of thofe Advan The various poflible Diftances of tages.. their poffible Gravitation.

But at all. feeing every thing and Meajurc j and Proportion. and to the Plane of the Ecliptic^ . and their Bulf\S.lt. their pofilble Derifitief. by weight feeing they obfcrve Order is 4 the . and conlequently the poifible Varieties of the Bodies might Celeftial have been infinite among cmfelves. Orbits j of their the poiliblc Figures O I and of the Inclinations of their Planes to one another.. which moft of thefe they confequently wou d be lofi . and different from thofe now mentioned. were they Add to difpos d atter another manner. and the po and yet as I IIble Changes of many other Affe&ions ^ are in num ber infinite- have fhewn that are at prcicnt ? bring very confiderable Advantages with them.. J 1 3 &amp. to the Syftew in general.. thefc..of j&atutAi Heligiom Celerities. the prefent ftate of things will admit ^ ilncc both the whole and the feveral Parts of rr K ad jink d. . that all thefe Affeftions of the Hea venly Bodies ^ might have been in no re gular Order 5 nor conftant Proportion. and that every one of cm is difpos d in the fitted Order.

of the Heavenly Bodies.. or of it s Creator^ than that frodigiom number of fixt ... who weighed the Mountains in Scales^ and the Hills in a Balance^ likg a Curtain. does wonderful things paft finding fome of the more general Affe&ions. and ftrong Arm out. and (hewn fome of the Advantages. ^ XX. both very gooda and convenient. now to the any thing beget a greater Idea of the Univerfe.gt. and of their Motions.. Stars can all glorious Bodies.. whofe right hand. arifing from their prefent Order and Difpofition. Bo I come now to confider the Celeftial dies a little more particularly. and lip femov d at Diftances from one another not to their Diftance from us? This.. dares fo much as doubt whether he who did all thefe things lives and reigns for ever and ever ? or who can forbear to admire and adore him. . like our Sun. who that con- fiders all thefe things.&amp. who ftretch d the Hea~ and held the Earth in his Hands. and firft as Having confidered.. rang d and down the immense Vaft .36 $t)ftQtopl)tcal is the Celejiial Fabric^ ufeful.

Again^ if we examine how many Spheres can ftand round this firft Range of Spheres we will find their number betwixt forty eight and fifty two 5 and fo we find the number of the Stars of the fecond Magnitude. and fecond Hate.. I do not . as the firft and fecond are. As for the feveral other Magnitudes. becaufe they are not fo diftinguifhable from thofe of the other Magnitudes. I do not plead here for Accuracy... it is not alto gether poffible to determine their num ber. is Supposition.. equal to our Sythere muft be only as flew. that every fixt in like our Sun^ and governs a Portion of Mundan fpace. 137 not only their different apparent Magninumber of thofe tudes^ but likewife the of the firft. but there are but about twelve or thirteen Spheres.of ^amrai laeligtcn.. does evince. For upon the Star. for. but on firft ly for things being nearly fo. Befides. then imnyfxt Stars of the firft Magnitude ^ as there are Syftems that can ftand round ours. that can ftand round a middle one^ equal to em j and fo many are the Stars of the Magnitude.

is what certain Vegetables all ! doubt. and of what abfolute Necefllty to the Being of all Animals and Eyes. fions : it is impofilble for any Body. to hinder himfelf from being ravifh d with the Power and Wifdom of the Great God of Heaven and Earth. or view with his about thcfe glori ous Bodies. and makes force their way. the Liquor in the Thermometrjcal Tubes^ and drives tjierri through .. to difplay all the and there Foldings of the {lender Seed^ them by to augment their Parts raifes juft as we find his Heat... for gularity. y is the Sun. it is beyond that without him they cou d As never his above the Ground . that rarifies the iizy Juir ces about their tender Roots. theie things being nearer any Re* gular Proportion^ than they are to Irre is diffident for my Purpofe .. How beautiful and glorious a JXXI. for it is Heat alone.. rife to Vegetables. fcrioufly to confider in his Mind.not think that the fixt Stars^ are either all of the fame real Magnitude.. or that are all of the fame Dimentheir Syftems...

.. knows the Reafons. z//%.. for we know. and tho* perhaps -Animals... all the fuperficial Parts of the Body are open d.. yet it wou d be a very miferable fort of Life.of natural Eciigton. might make a forFood cou d be fupry Shift (fuppofing his Influence) in a ply d em without perpetual State of Darknefs. and enlarg d. how neceffary the Sun is to pur fie our Air. and cou d through all be of no long continuance . and Heavinefs in his Abfcnce^ foul Weather.. freely which muft needs . is a Difeafe alone. and to exhale the noxious Dews. and he who underftands the Animal Occonomy. and i the we Vapours of the Ni^ht feel a fenfible Joy in his Light. which Nature has deilgn d iliou d be carry d out of the Body. and a cloudy Day. it s 1 39 winding Branches. baleful thing ev ry Body knows . tint by the Heat of the Sun^ and the Aflion of his Rays^ that infinite Number of the cxcre* cretory Duels of Perfpiration. and the Mechawcal One Necefiity of all thefe things. and fo thofc Exha lations. are more apd plentifully xieriv d.. plac d along.

altogether impoflible to ac count for the Appearances of the Planets } i. and confequently the Stability of the Sun ^ there are fome other Argu ments that will have fufficient Weight to fettle the Matter among thoughtful Men. upon And 3. without admiring the Motion of the Earth. any other Suppofition. and whereby he the Motion of pretends to demonftrate the Earth. Flamflead has obferv d. It is likewife for the Motions of impoflible to account the Comets. a. For It is their Satellits. in any tolerable manner. for not to mention at about the Paral prefent the Controverfie lax of fome of the fi xt Stars^ which Mr.. more afterwards..needs give a greater Freedom to the Blood and Spirits 5 the contrary of all which. and of the fixt Stars. It s being fituated immoveable in the Cen ter of our Syftem^ no Body who has been But of this at the pains to confider the Matter^ I be lieve doubts now.. which is . happens in the Abfence of this Benign Star. that Analogy of the Periodical Times 5 to the midk Diftances .

when How he was to have giv n Light and Warmth to all the Bodies round him befides. does demonftrate the Earth s unlels we wou d a priori .. Add to all that there is no tolerable Ob.. to have fet him in a Corner. thefe. to the confervation of any fuch Suppofition (fuch as the TychonicJ{ or Ptolomict^) there are requir d fo many different Laws of Gravi* . in the Center of unartful wou d it have Syftem. fo that fubvert the whole Syftent Motion of Aftronomy.of is Natural ffieifgiott. and difprove the Caufes of the Celeftial Motions^ we fhall never be able to prove the Stability of the all Earth.. 1 4* the neceflary Confequence of the cftablifti d Law of Gravitation.. been. For if the Celeftial Bodies attraft one another procally . ter of their Revolutions. what an Inftance of Wifdom and on Now Contrivance tain his is this. but has againft the Earth had a full Anfwer. and a plain Solution.e&i- s Motion. in a duplicate Proportion reci to their Diftances from the Cen then the Earth (and not the Sun) moves.. of Light and in placing that Foun Life.

. and look d moft like the Effe&s of Wiidom and Defign For here one fingle Law. Thefe are fuch great^ Ends.2 f Ijtlofopljtcai that any reasonable Perfbn by inquiring into them. like a powerful and a kindly Monarch on his Throne ^ diftributing Light.. accounts for all the various Motions and Appearances of faft..... and Life in to all his furrounding plentiful EfFufion. and their in their Bulks and DiSatellits^ fo various ftances from him ... fpeak the Om nipotence and Omniscience of their Author. that the Vaffals.. Warmth. that whatfoever was Matter of Gravitation^ was the the moft fimplc and eafie. and that fo equally. and that in regular and . yet this Pofition of ours : the Celeftial Bodies. Moreover. in w i(e r as clearly the flanets^ refpeft of juft Qiiantity is contriv d to have enough of Matter to draw round him thefe Maffy Bodies. let us confider. Thus then this great and glorious Body is fixt... neareft have not too much. nor the re- moteft too fuch little. wou d cafily difcover. with how much Artfulneis his Bulk and Situation..

.Emanations thereof upon his AttenAs for his Rotation about his own dents. . circular Motion of the whole Ho. the Author XXII. that the Particles of all folid Bo dies running into fufion. and emitting this Fluid of Light through the Planetary . perhaps it may be for the better propagating.. are turn d innumerable different ways 5 and io by their Oppofition and Inare at laft determin terferings.. it being very well known. Axe^ it is no doubt likewife^ for wife Ends and Purpofes...of and uniform exa&ly his Body is rounded. fenfible How Diminution^ tho there are conftant . but I am rather inclin d to be lieve it may be the neceffary Efteft of the Fluidity of his Body. by the Force of the heat. d .. Kegions . have here fign to enforce upon us the Belief that is a being infinitely perfeft thereof. how fully it has been faturated with the Fluid of Light.. to be able to laft fo many Years without any Orbits.wever fufficient Matter Inffonces of this we Wifdom and Debe. into a one way.

makes laft Advantages from the Prefence and Motion of the Moon. which are i.. and to point out to us. how Curiofity . now made it only to guide our Steps. for at leaft three fourths of the Year. twice in twenty four Hours.. not have . We can no the Benefits we of the nalogous. Now comfortable and delightful a thing this is. and joyful a thing. in the Night Seafons fant then.. Ambiton and neceffary. Travellers and Voyagers can beft tell. fome part of Mankind iliou d be travelling by Land how pleaor Sea.44 otherwife gather the ufefulnefs of the fecondary Planets. we (hall . how our times wears out ? For a very lit us reap both thefe tle Experience. to their primary Ones^ but reft XXII. that Luxury.. to Earth.. She raifes our fides.. 2.. which how abfolutely neceffary it is toward the fubfiftance of Animals and Vegetables. is it to have a Light held us forth from Heaven. but to direft us in our Courfe. fome thing A~ fupplying of the Sun in the Night time. The by fuppofing the may reap rejpe&ively. receives from our Moon..

. Bony.gt.. the conftituent Particles a /linking rotten Pu-dle. L ward . Earthy.. of Water themfelves. and wou d by no means hin* ny thoufands of Water Rivers. and combining em in new Forms. and then the firft Effcft wou d be ? that all the Places toder it s Stagnation.. and fepathefe noxious Particles which by rating pix&amp. and Vegetable Particles^ than of pure - lement operates.. Now frefh tho there be ma daily Sea are the into y yet they very inruning confiderable in refpeft of the vaft Ocean of Salt Water. But admit the Ocean once ftagnated. that has no fi e(h Water runing into it. duce this EfFeft. for tho* I do not think. but contains a greater Quantity of Flefliy. are Stagnation.. Metallick.. alter is d by this yet no Water abfolutely pure... and confequently it s Corruption and Stinking.... and it is upoti thefe. Salio. Every Body knows that a Lake or Loch. turn into fending forth naufeous and poyfonous Steams . will by the heat of a few Months. and its Stagnation.of /hall Natural ffieitgioti* now {hew. the heat diffolving their Union.

. af terwards the Plants and Animals where ^ the Moon. and by the noxious Steams thence arifing. Now what a noble Contrivance have we here by appointing an Attendant to our Earthy all the Vegetables and Animals arc prcferv d from certain Definition. This of new Water on the perpetual Change Shores. (but I am of opinion that to the full effe& of rlns wife Defign. and then by Degrees it wou d get farther till the whole were become more baneful and poyfonons than the Lake of Sodom and Gomorrah-.. the as by ters are lifted up in a heap. are conftantly fethis AcHon of Wa Wa cur d from Stagnation and Corruption. and the begining Malady ftifled. as it were^ and then let fall again ^ whereby the ters near the Shores. too fbort a time. wou d be firft wrought turn upon by the A&ion of the Sun.. keeping any one Portion thereof.46 ^tjtiofopljicai ward the Shores. whereby the Fifties wou d be firft deftroy d. d to a Mephitis . expos d to the heat of the Siw. and .. the Salt of the Sea I does . to have it s mixture corrupted.

. that we fliou d moreDamage than Advantage from perhaps thereby our Light in the Night (provided {he were of any Bulk. at any L a tolc- . Moon were biger or nearer the or if we had more than one. can ceafe from wonder. one Moon attending receive it. if our Earth.of does very natural much Keltstotn ^ 147 have contribute for as I and may obferve afterward. it And con* here perhaps fider that if will not be atniis to our Earth had any more than it. how many Conveniences in Rivers for our Navigation.. or can continue in Unbelief. ly tear em afunder. or at any Diftance near to that of our prefent for tho Moon) might be augmented^ yet at Conjunctions andOppofetzons with one another. the pointed {lender Particles of the Salt. and with the Sun... and Harbours.. we fhou d have Tides that wou d raife the Waters to the the tops ofour Mountains. fn ihort. cannot fo cafifaid before.. ftick the Parts of Bodies fo together. that the Particles of Heat.) Befidcs this.. and in their Quadra* lures we fliou d have no Tide at all. does this ebbing and flowing of the Sea afford ? No Body that confiders them.

be not in fo great hazard of corrupting from the Heat of the Sun. or feparatcd Forces of (6 many Moons. by the united. However the thing be^ we may here obfcrve . we by the fliou d be in noxious were none hazard of being Steams arifing ftiflcd the from it s Ocean . in hazard of being drown d and at if our prefent Moon were or if there lefs. how ftrongly Fluids in Motion will refift the Efficacy of Cold. or at a greater diftance. J O all. they muft be reafonably expe&ed to fit the Neceffities of the Inhabitants of thcfe Planets. yet they may pot be in hazard of being congeal d by fibly the Violence of the Cold. for xve fnfKciently know.. may hinder this EfFeft . which it wou d ftagnat more than evident now does.. From all which how wifely our Satellit. and the fre quent toffing and turning over of then*. fince our Moon fuits us fb well^ and tho the Fluids of thefe Planets.. As for the numerous Attendants of and Jupiter Saturn.. has been contrived for our Purpofes.48 ^ijiiofopljicai tolerable diftancefrom us^we fliou d be every * now and then.

which by prudent placing the Heavenly Bodies. Of the fame ufe are the Edipfes of the Sun. ..and of the Satellite of the other Planets which laft being fo frequent. in placing other.. at fuch a Diftance from one ano ther. or great Oceans. From our this d by her Name pro ceed.. one very Bodies at (uch a Diftance from each the grcateft at the greatcft efpecially Diftance} for had they been fituated much nearer to one another. and the Longitudes of Places are dctermin d. for by them the Differences of Meridians.. L 3 upon .of ferve ^attmtl ifteitstotu 149 and and of Wisdom fignal Inftance the Heavenly Contrivance.And Moon the Eclipses call . are of wonderful Affiftance^ toward the Solution of this fo defirable and fo much defpaird of Problem? . they wou d have caus d prodigious Diforders in very diffe rent Manners.. where-evcr there was any Quantity of Fluids.. are intirely prevented. and in particular fuch dcftru&ive Tides . 3. . which is of exceeding ufe in Navi gation. that neither Animals nor Vegetables woiul have been able to fuftain their Fury .

Orbits. and theitSatellits has been brought to any tolerable Pcrfeftion. but loudly pro claim Author. the Head of Navigation all Wisdom and Being of their XXIII. As fo the Comets.. that the Aftronomy of the Planets themfelves. than I have already (aid. with that Care becoming fo noble and andMifcful a Part of Philofophy. but the World is already fo fenfible of the Ad vantages arifing from the Motions and Appearances of the Heavenly Bodies. their Natures. Motions. in the Matter of Navigation. and much la* ter Hncc final Caufes have been cultiva ted.. and Situations. I have lit what tle more to fay about them. have been fo lately determin d. in this great Drama of the World.. that I fhall infift no farther on this Tofick^ but from this whole Seftion about the Ufe of the At tendants of the Planets fhall infer.o $t)iiofoptical jipon this Agro in comes other without the which nomy 3 were meer groping in the Dark.) there ... that they are not mute Perfons. (indeed it is but of late.

have vifited us twice. as I have before hinted. there are fo em we know of.. upon the Planets^ they long come nigh of j and if what be is commonly faid em by Aflrologers vifit us without fome true^ they (eldom fuch direful Salu tation. Only. few accurate Obfcrvations al that extant. from vinejuftice. However^ from them we may learn that the Divine Vengeance^ may find a feat for the punifliment of his Difobe- dient Creatures. To few of em our Rcafoning upon. to wander in thefe long EccentrickjOrbits^ through the World. But moft likely they are the Minifters of-dibaleful Steams. theie blaming Stars feem not defign d for the Habitation of build Animals in a ftate of Happinels.expenfe of a new Creation. they may be the firft Rudi ments of Planets ^ not as yet brought into our Syflem^ or rather the Ruins of fome banifh d thence.of jjtiatutai Religion. fending their Trains.. nay ev n fcarce of Animals not under a State of Punifliment. L A . without being put to the . that we have Icarce any folid Foundation to bout .

hoping the Reader will reafon fame manner (bateing particular Circumftances) of the reft. Come we now to enquire the Wifdom of the Contrivance of But having already (hewn the Analogy between them and our Earth. if the Analogy hold in general. the Planets. and that. both becatife the defign d Brevity of this Treatife will not permit me to be Ib particu lar.. and how probable it is that they are in habited by Creatures fitted for fuch Habi tations^ I fliall content my felf with point ing out fome of the moft confiderable Inftanccs of Defign and Wifdom in this our flanet ... arifing to us by the Rotation of the Earth about it s own Axi*.. And firft let us confider the Advantages.52 ^i)tlofopi)icitl into XXIV. that once in fixteen or twenty Hours at rnoft.. as the Subjefi deferves. We the Inhabitants of this Globe are fo made. the parti cular ones (with allowance for Circumafter the jftances) will eafily follow. we require a Time for Relaxation j all ing 9 in and generally fpeakhealthful People this time is pretty . and becaufe.

and Education. without Injury about the Time of fix tionSj and much Hours is required to fill em is again and neceflary that generally fpeaking^ it an Alternation of Application and Relaxation^ fhou d It s true Cuftom be once in twenty four Hours. It was likewife ncccffary^ that the Air fhou d be at leaPt cool and temperate.of r natural ffieiiston. once in twenty four Hours.. and the Weak. 1 53 fix and nine Hours. between the Store-houfes of our Spirits will not permit any longer Application than twen to our Conftittity Hours. for generally find thofc that deep in the open Air. natural ly run into a Relaxation^ and recruiting their Spirits by Sleep. and almoft all at their own Liberty. during the time of this Reft. pretty equal.. or ev n while the Sun is above the Hori^on^ the worfe for it j the we Sun and Heat exhaling the natural Perfpirations too violently.. and too quick raifing a Mo* .. may get the better of thefe natural fropenfities^ and a very ftrong Conftitution may bear out with harder Meafures for fome time j but the Young.

Channels... Day } the Expenfes of the next as alfo for nourilhing the Mufcles.. the Night by its Coolnefs and Quiet. than the Day. And tho we generaly perfpire more in the Night than the Day. Viciffitudes for Application of Day and Night. the Darknefs is lefs fubjeft to Noife and Difturbance... and more accor tural^ and ding to the Necefllties of our ConftitntU on.. to afford us time to recruit em. Spirits in. and the other Parts of the Body ^ for the Bufinefs of Nutrition perform d in the time of Reft. in the Blood. in the Night than the Day. and lay up in ftore. to af is moftly. becaufe the Blood has too rapid and quick a Motion.. the Ex of the Spirits are too great. Befides... that of neceffity. whereby the Sleep is lefs calm. yet this is more na lefs violent.54 a iWofoptjtcai Motion. thefe things are won for by the Rotation of derfully provided the Earth about its Axis j for thereby we Now all have the the and fpending our Day about the Neceflities of Life.. for Bones. if not altogether penfes ford . and more difturb d.

More over.. at the Roots of the tender Seeds. and to fettle em there ^ generally find that People reco vering from a Difeafe^ and Children._ of natural Eeliston. let us refleft upon the Nccefllties of our Vegetables^ which are the Support of Animals. we have before faid. thefe Juices wou d not be at liberty to fettle . what a comfortable and refreshing thing is the cool Breezes of the Night. deep more. neceflary Places. and are more fed by their Sleep. and very grievous.. fhining upon them . and grofs People naturally fleep longeft. i $? ford Leifure. or Materials for nourifhing Be* the Parts in the time of Application : fides that a gentle uniform Motion is re- to the quir d to apply nourifliing Parts.. and we than any other Animal Fnn&ion. to thofe that live under the equatorial fartsy without which Life wou d be both ex ceeding fliort. and thereby forces the folded Branches to expand and en large. or for any long time. and confequently raifes the fizy Juices.... that the Heat of the Sun rarifies. Now were the Sun conftantly. Likewife.

by exhaling the watery Parts harden and (which This are now brought nearer the Surface of the Plant) does evidently fee in Nntgals. we Nights... and very hot Countries.. they may be heavier y but not fo tough or hard. has time to fettle and confolidate in the and it s Cold runs the thin Juices Night. produce Vegetables of the firmeft Union of Parts. and the other Excrefcences of and generally. fizy 3 Subftances. and higher. firft into thick. the Leaves of Vegetables Countries that have moderately cool fix. and confequently cou d produce nothing . till at laft rifing higher they burft the Tops of the Canals. and firft On the other Hand^ had rot the Earth much upon the make of the Seed.. mov d . which wou d be the fupervening Heat. tho* this too depends Conftitutioo.fettle^ and confolidate but in the fit Places ftill of the Branches. whereas by this Viciffitude of Heat and Cold. fuddenly bring up their Seeds^ but their Parts are lefs firmly ftuck together . what is rais d in the Day-time.

of Natural ^elision. that firft baleful we and fulphureous Damps (by the Forces of the preceding Heat generated and rais d. if not abfolutely neceffary to the Being of our Animals and Vegetables^ but we had fuffered alfo fuch Inconveniences. which by in the Channels. for very near one half of the Year fhou d have been in perpetual Darknefs... but wou d have frecz d the Blood and &amp.gt. which wou d of nenot only have lock d up all Fliiids cefllty. . the Confeqtience of which wou d have been.. exceeding Rains wou d have been pour d down (as the Vapours became cooler) next Sleet.. which wou d have ftiflcd all the Animals^ or had they furviv d that.) wou d have fafl*h. our Air. Spirits of all the Ammals^we are acquainted with for as I have fhewn before^ there is a faline Body conftantly fwiming iu.. as neither of thefe cou d poflibly bear. then Snow^ and Ice. mov d upon its Axe. by Degrees. and Froft. the .for then. we had not thefe Advantages. only loft all which are fo beneficial. the Sun in its but only turn d round annual Period.

we fliou d have had. Again... Snny what Abfence of the and with how much firmnefs wou d thefe Saline Bodies haveform d themfelves! Certainly nothing that moves^ whether Animate or Inanimate^ wou d have been able to ftipport fuch a cold And all this is is not only demonftrable a fait. but in hi* Abfence. next all our Ground^ wou d have turn d into a ftiff in a manner dif{linking fuddle y (being folv d by the Force and Quantity of the Snow .. is fo attenuated and reduc d into fo (lender whofe Points (being eafieft bro ken) by the Force of the Fluid of Light are firft beat off. -priori^ and a&ually happens in thofe Places that are under the Poles.. which likewife wou d have produc d fuffocating Mifts . as not to be able to do any Particles. in the enlight- ned half of the firft Year.. during a much (horter Abfence of but this Matter of gloriom Star.158 i&tHiofoptical the Prefence and A&ion of the Sun. from the preceding Snow.. Damage.. Now in in a half Years Quantities. which ftick together the Parts of all Bo dies. huge Deluges of melted Waters. they flioot themfelves into oblong {harp Wedges .

falling by the Plenty of Vapour. that any thing that has Life refift fuch a Degree of Heat. or they turn d delirous by the violent Agitation of the Blood and Spirits^ and then dy d in Convulfions y like fo many Puppies in the Dog-Days-. being by . ariiing from the Earth s Kotation about her Axis...much a far harder part. It s there are fome People live under the &quator^ yet they have but a fcurvy time on t. the continued rais uninterrupted Aftion of the Sun.. the Blood and Spirits of all the Animals of our Globe. which is a mighty Relief. wou d be quite exhal d. and prodigious Quantities of Rain. poffible. that we fliou d have found reft. ha ving as long a Night as they have a Day. than the Depree of . tho they are fupply d with conftant Breezes. fultry 3 $9 Snow Water) then wou d Heals and a burning Air have gall d us. d by the Days Heat..of Datura! Religion. for it were abfolutely im- fhou d true. neither in Houfes nor Dens ^ till at laft the Heat encreafing without Abatement. and let fall by the fupervening Cold of the Night.

but it .lt.. The extreme Degrees of Heat happen there^ being in But compatible with an Animal Life..vi*^. or turn d into Defarts of Salt. that is the Caufe of both . feeing Air to fend it Plants or we cou d have no freflt we cou d have no cool down: If we had any Vegetables. iSj that the Rays of the Sun wou d be both direft.. Air. not only our Fiflies wou d be deftroy d. they wou d be but &amp. upon this Suppofition. which by no means cou d happen in our every fucceeding Hour heating the Air to a greater Degree than the former.. of the Heat for the Poles ^ And as we have very certain Infor mation. thefe. that which makes the Cafe much worfe than in any part of our Globe... but Waters. that our Seas even not* withftanding our Tides^ wou d either be Add to all exhal d. and there cou d be and Cold that no Rains nor Winds becaufe it is the cooling of the Cafe. and fo. that few if any at all^ inhabit near em.60 $i)iiofopi)tcai at ftated Seafons. thofe which require the greateft Degrees of Heat. of one particular kind..

Summer. the comfortable Viciffitudes of colder and warmer Periods... will eafily fee that no Animal. of ihorter Days. fuch as we have on our Globe now. and again of longer Days.. that the prefent Rotation of the Earth y about her Axe. about its own Axe^ with the Annual Revolution of the fame about the Sun. and Rain. Next let us combine this Diurnal dotation of the Earth . of Snow. and Winter. g XXV. and longer Nights. is one of the moft fignal Inftances of Wifdom and Contrivance. of the Diurnal Rota tion with itfelf: And from thence we (hall have the beautiful Seafons of the Year. demonftrable we fliou d kave Occa- none . Winds and Calms. and the Yaralleltfm of the Axe.. and of fion for 5 all thofe delightful Changes^ w hich r are fo . for any body who underffonds the Animal Oeconomy. that can be imagin d.. and Harveft.of it is Natural Beligmn. and (horter Nights.Seedtime.. cou d bear fuch an excefliveand uninterrupted Degree of Heat. Upon all which Accounts it is very plain..

had the Earth only turn d about her own plcafant. and Nights ^ which by no means wou d have been fufficient for Vegetation. and in fome Places none at all} and fo theEfteft of the Annual Revolution wou d have been defcroy d in fome Meafure... but our other Seafons wou d have been un certain.. we fliou d have had but one long Day . and the other confequent Changes of the Year.. yea. once in twenty four Hours. and neIf ceiiary in our prcfent Circumftances. If both thefe had been united without the third of the Parallelism of the Axe of the Diurnal Rotation to itfelf . which are of fo great ufe to US.. without any Rotation. about the Sun. and another equal Night . nor Vegetation. once in the Year.. which as I have fhewn. neither with Life. we might have had Days and Nights. If the Earth had made a Period.. wou d not have agreed. . then all our wou d have been of Viciffitudes Days.^ittcipies ib comfortable. we enjoy our Sea fons. But by this wife Conjunction of all thefe three Modifications. Axe.

) a Lixivial and Nitrons Salt. porous Parts. flippofe of Summer Weather . and afunder... there is requir d (befides a certain Degree of Heat and Moifture.. firft M feparate their a .. which keeps the Mould loofe (for re for the ceiving the moift Air.. whereby their Particles are ftuck together. and forth of worn and thofe other Plants that require thd leaft rich Soil. and loofe. by very Reafon^ for their Particles them entry into themfelves. for toward the Produftion of the more ufeful Plants. natural &eit0totn 163 enjoy d a conftant uni form Seafon all the Year round .. yet they keep the Parts of Mould or Sandy Clay (which has little or no Water) the fame not allowing they get betwixt em. which confifts of folid . and moft Heat only fo that in a few Years the Earth wou d have been reduced into a Wildernefi of unnfeful Herbs.. and entry of that Heat and Moifture. then our for had we Ground had been out by conftant bringing Vege tables^ and wou d have run into Weeds...of us . exhaufted.) For tho Salts confblidat Water.

are ga thered from Places . and the Expences of Vegetation 2 but expofs d to the Air^ and Weather.. as is evident in younger Twigs and Branches. and turns into wild ufelefs Weeds ^ and all the Materials for enriching Ground. by conftant Growth and Vegetation. thefe are either quite exhaufted. Stubble.. wou d by a Now fhort .. things which abound with Lixivial Salts . fuch are burnt Wood. as well as Animal ones) and endows the re Juices with the Qualities the Plant their union. debar d from the Aftion of the Sun.. fee the beft Ground quires.. this Nitrous Salt are : im Such and the Dung. whereby they pregnated with are old Turf.. .. Now We wears out in a few Years. all thefe. or dcftroy d.. burnt Turf.!M)iiofopDicat and then keep em from coming together j and perhaps both forward the Motion of the Liquors in the Vegetable Channels (which are certainly endow d with fome Degree of Elasticity and To capable of being ftimulated... Excrements of Animals^ or thofe new Mould. and the like.

violent M 3 I mean . even cou d not con veniently bear a perpetual Summer. Animals themfelves. than in the Summer fix Monthsin and yet fix .. more natural. to that Degree that is necefiary for confufficient would not ftant Vegetation.. the Blood is the natural Funftions.of /hort Natural Eeltfiion.. and performed with more Vigour... Moreover. uninterrupted Vegetation have been quite fpent. ter^ by ftoping the Pores of the keeps the is fenfible Perfpiration. Add to thefe. in Time s a that perpetual fall Summer ^ there Quantities of Rain... to moiilen and foften the Mould. the Digeftion is better.the all this is but fufficient for one Months Vegetation. are ftrong. for we find there is more than twice or thrice as much Rain falls the Winter fa Months.. that the cold of the Win. from September toApril. for we find now. and lefs and the Crudities of the pre~ ceding Summer are fettled and digefted. the (enfible more Excretions . within. tity lefs whereby there Spirits Warmth more a greater Quan of rarify d^ generated.

neither of thefe States perpetually... who inhabit this Globe of ours. in healthful and found Animals is quite otherwife in Valetu (for the Cafe dinary ones ^ asofnecefilty kmuftbe) and in a moderate and not over tedious Win* ter ^ wheras in Summer the Blood is more yarify d. the Spirits more exhaufted. we fhou d be reduc d to . anfwer. the fenfible Perforations and the Digeftion worfe. and lefs natural.petual Summer^ ceff^iry meer fliQii perpetual Winter y d turn Dull. they may be much J the . the Change of the one being abfolutely ne- to qualify the Errours and ExIf we had a pertreapis of the other. So that it is evident we cou d bear more violent. as I To this I pretend they wou d be. that there are rational Creatures. unaftive Droves* Skeletons ^ if a we db- Now perhaps againft all thefe it may be je&ed.1 66 $l)tlofopi)tcal I mean. who are and perpetually in both thefe Extreams. all the Conco&ions lefs thoroughly perform d. that tho as to the Prefence or Abfcnee of the Sun. yet are found to be not at all difpos d.

Let any one confult Varenius^ and he will be fatisfied that thefe Southern Countries have Winters^ though not of Snow. the when defHIPd into for as I is fufficient for this end Air every where of fuch Salts j as is known by Experi ment.of the fame as Datura! ^elision. I concurring from the Vicijjitndes fuppofe. yet.. do enrich the Ground. are have faid full d from thefe hotter Countries themfelves. . rais even the Clouds. before. that both hinders the perpe .. which arife of the Seafons in the other Parts of the Globe which alters the Cafe quite. there are other Circumftances. Rain. and there fall Befidcs that....... and Rain. fattens it for the next Crop there and are Clouds of Snow. tual Vegetation^ fofcens the Mould. which fall for fome confiderable time. M 4 foften . in the more Southern Countries. yet what is abundantly fufficient to ftop the perpetual Vegetation.. to moiften. impregnated with thefe nitrous Salts^ which are driven (by the Force of the Winds) from colder into thefe hotter Countries ing.for there are conftant Seafons of Rain..

they are not fo much diftinft Sc^- fons fioin the two former. as dations and eafie Steps.. ences of a perpetual Winter^ every Body is fufficiently feniible. and fuch like Circumftances.winds. which are the Effe& of this Combining thefe two Motions to I need not fhew the Inconveni gether. that in fuch a ftate (either arifing from only a Diurnal Rotation.. unfit for the prefent Conftitution of the Animals and Vegetables^ is. Gentle G^whereby the one flides . fuch as require a Summers Heat.. and to cool the Blood. and other Fluids of the Ani mals. without an Annual^ or an Annual without a Diurnafy there wou d not be that variety of Rains. nor conftant 5 and Trade. nor overflowing Rivers.gt.^titiofopijtcai foften and fatten the Mould. fliou d have neither Ve nor Animal in a very fliort Time efpecially of any confiderable ufe^ or va lue.. that upon fuch a Suppofition getable thing that this Poetical ftate of a Perpetual Principal Now the we &amp. for their Growth j and as for Spring and AHlumn... makes Summer. and cool Breezes.

. where Heat is not wanting.. and cooling Breezes in the Winter^ of thofe Countries. to have the produd of the Ground brought to its Vege tation* XXVI. to transfer the Pro* dub of one Country to another. and to flop conftant and we have Froft and Snow Vegetation in others^ where the Heat is not to {pare. adventitious Heats.... Come we now to confider the Obliquity of the Plane of the Ecliftick^ to .of flidcs into Natural Eeitsion* From which 1 69 the other. foften and en rich the Mould. till the time that all Circumftances concur. and made capable of Induftry. keep natural.. we have fufficient Heat Modifications.. or . have in Summer^ to ripen the Fruits that are the produft of every refpe&ive Climat^ and we are furnifii d with Reafon. for the Benefit of the Inhabitants of this Globe j for by thefe. through the inter ail it is mediate Degrees. to cool. to lock up the Mould from being wafh d in and either the away. dent... evi how wifely thefe three fo different been link d together. we have Rain.

dred the Annual Revolution of the Earth if the Earth had mov d quite ufelefs j for about its own Axe. and all the Confequences thereon depending. or of the Axe of the Diurnal Rotation. Befides that in the Torrid Zone. and this Axe had been at right Angles with the Plane of the Ethe fame Appearances as to the cliptick) of Day and Night. I have alrea dy fhewa. the Heat wou d have been intolera ble.. that if the Equator and Eclipit wou d have rentzck^ had coincided . had not been at all and what a hinderance this wou d have been to Life and Vegetation.. to the Plane of the Annual Orbit of the Earth. and even in the Tewperat Climats. the one half of wou d have made but a very Vm comfort- . I have . whether the Earth had mov d round the Sun.. and not to have been endured j and in the frigid Zones. the Cold wou d have deftroy d both Animals and Vegetables-. already (hewn. or not j and the Alte rations of Seafons. which makes an Angle of 66 J Degrees.to that of the /Equator. had hapViciffitudes pen d.

for by tures. and who confequently have the greateft need of the Suns Heat. John Keitt. that we be yond the -forty fifth Degree of Latitude.. take the whole Year about. But God who is wifer than Man.of ^antrai Beitstom comfortlefs Habitation. had the feartb -obfcrv d a right Po- of his fition . and that is. have by thefe Means. le(s Heat. have more of iti. a tolerable Seat for rational Crea of the whole Globe.. for fuch Crea fo that but tures as we now are only the other half. by my very learn d and ingenious Friend Mr. and five fixths at leaft prefent Obliquity of the Ecliptic^ to the Equator we reap one very confidcrable Advantage. even to the Latitude of forty five Degrees. has contrived the Matter much better . than if the Sun haePftiov d continually in the Equator j and they that live in the Torrid Zone.. .. and the adjacent Places. than they wou d have had. who are rather too much expofed to the Heat of the Suny than too littl^. wou d have been rendred ufelefs.. wou d have been any ways.. which is taken notice of this .

. and the like Animals and Vegetables. Thofe who defire to fee the monftration of this.) the prefent Heat of the Torrid Zones ^ ve all the Kinds of Animals ry well fitted for and Vegetables that inhabit and grow there^ the Cold of the Frigid Zones ^ very tolelerable to the Inhabitants and frodtiffiiovs of thefe Places . may confult Keill s Examination of Dr. to ripen. and Nouriftiment..f ^requiring different Degrees of Heat. Burners The ory DeMr. To thefe add. (to {hew the manifold Will dom of the Author of Nature in the Va And fince we find riety of every thing. and the Vegetables that require a greater Degree of Heat^ not having too much. of vari ous Tempers ) Conftitutions and Dijfofitions^ and for Vegetables of different Natures and Fzrf #e. & has been defign d for a Habitation of ra tional and irrational Creatures.fition. fuited to theirs thofe Animals that cannot tranfport themfelvea. and the Temper of the intermediate ones.. 71. that fmce this Globe of ours. of the Earth pag. and bring em to Perfe&ion. feq.. that can ...

.of can fufter ^atutai Religion. all of and that cou . and the rational Creatures being endow d cold. in the fame) Climate. Earth in refpefi of the Sun j in the Situation Her- . 1 73 not having too little Heat.. been the fame with the Diftance between confpicuous. or moft of the mention d For all Advantages which Reafons we the (iifficiently admire. who has provi ded fo liberally. (or in one. of the for had the Diftance between the Earth and the Sun. XXVII. The fame is divine Wifdom. Alteration. tranfport themfelves where they live moft at eafe. and prudently for his Creatures.. Wtfdom of the Author of Nature. And fince it was impoffible to have ac with Reafon and Means } to commodated. all thefe fo various and dif ferent Animals and Vegetables in a place an equable and uniform. to the Plane of the Ecl/ptick^ is the beft (of that infinite Variety pofllble) be. it s evident that the the Axe of the Earth prefent Situation of . d for our prefent Circumftances confiderable for by any other very would be can never loft.

.. and the Flui of the fuperficial Parts of the Earth. between we two extream Diftances. had the Sun been remov d from us.. to the-Diftance Jupiter or* Saturn are remov d. or we from the Sun. or the Sun brought three times nearer us than he is. or with a little our felves againft their Inju Induftry fence as to the Figure of our Earth . but that thefe em.. and what a Condition we fhou d have been in then^ we the other Hand. On Day had not afforded fo much Heat. i. thofe that live now then very wifely provided for.. our hotteft Summer may eafily guefs.Mercu ry and the Sun. yet it . wou d have been hotter than red hot Iron. who are put in fuch a Mediocrity. ries ? we may either endure tho Again.. that neither our Heat nor Cold isfo violent. were three times nearer the Sun we brought than we are. be the neceflary Refult of the Earth s Rotation about its own Axe. our Ground in Winter. at it dity the Commencement of this Rotation . as under the very Polar Star (if any fuch there be) of our Globe Are not feel in the midft of Winter..e.

and therefore. and accumulated at the Equator. and fince Mr. 1 75 very s By the Parts en as Earth Motion about its Axe. . its plain is that at the Commencement of the diur nal Rotation. af- with a good Telefcofe. fince it is evident to our fight.. Newton has demonftrated that Earth at leaft feventeen Miles higher at the Equator than at the Poles. if the Matter of any of the Heavenly Bodies. the Surface of the Planets has been covered with a Fluid which -. the they pofflbly can. longer. at the Com mencement of this circular Motion . than that at the Poles. arifing from the circular Motion . by deavour to recede from the fame Axe much as a centrifugal Force. below the Surface of our Earth. gives an Account why at every forty or fifty fathoms. particularly^ in that the Diameter at the Equa Jupiter.of it is Datura! Religion. it wou d neceflarily have rifen from the Poles. was fluid. generated by the Circumvolution of an Now fifted tor is Elliffe about its leffer Diameter. convenient for us. and fo in duced a ffheroidical Figure on the Planets Body.

likewife evident from this Figure of the Body of the Planets.. that the Surface of the temferate Climates is larger than it Xvou d have been. and lefs convenient for the Habi tation of Animals. and their Satellits but likewife in the Sun.. we never mifs of Water.$f)tlofopi)tcai It is Earth. are {hereby confiderably enlarged. . which by reafon of the oblique Incidence of the Rays of the Sun upon them. and the Production of the nobler Sort of Vegetables. had the Globe of our Eartb^ or of the Planets. fo that the Advantage of this Figure Table. and univerfally in every fluid Body revolving about an Having fhewn fome of the Advantages arifing from the feveral Mo tions XX VIII. is very confide- the Surfaces of the Polar Regions. which are moft comfortable and ufeful .. The fame in the Earth.. are colder. are hereby confiderably leflened^ and the Surfaces or Space about the temperate Zones. been either fpherical or oblongly fpheroidical. and Figure obtains not only the reft of the Planets.

and as to Vegetation^ Dr. have in fome manner (hewn But fome of it s ufes I lhall now I firft point out. cou d be any confiderable time without it.} come now briefly to confider. Elaftick. This Atmojphere is a thin that neither..than other more compaft. of fuch Necefllty toward the fubfiftence of Animals.with Particles of different Natures.of tions Batumi .. and are not the im mediate Confequence of its Motions ^ and the firft in order is our Atmofybere. and N . it is Grew and Malpighi have fliewn a principal concurrent therein.thofe that poilibly may be more particularly be longing to our Globe. and lefs fpringy. 3&eltgion* 1 77 of the Earth and the Combination of thefe.growth of Vegetables. heavy.. Fluid.. already. Fluids. that it being more eafily rarified and heated by the A&ion of the SM$. . is fitter to ces in promote the Afcent of the Jui the {lender Channels of Vegetables. furrounding our Globe of about forty or forty to the heighth. intermixt . which are common to the other Planets. and the . The Nature and Properties of this Fluid. five Miles.

.. and terminating We have . that they may more ry eafily pafs through the Capilla* and for the Propagation thereof in the wider ones. It s Vejicles quite clap certain. does thence arife. that they cou d live but a few Minutes without this ElaftickJFluid. that the Blood is fent from the upon opening... by the Air. is the quick and violent Rarefaftion of the Air about them . the Circu muft ftop there. and the fides of their d together. the firft ItnpuHe of the Juices upwards..and drere being no Fluid without a confiderable Portion thereof. Moreover. and probably that which fo fuddenly kills thunder-ftruck Animals.. lodged up and down among it s Parts. for the l^ungs of all fuch found quite deftitute of Air. are right Ventricle of the Heart to the Lungs y and if the Veficles thereof be not diften- ded or blown lation up.... there is ntceffarily d a Fluid of a requir determinate Gravity^ and Elafticity.. Veffels. as to Animals it is well known. and the Animal and both for the Comminution periili of the Particles of the Blood.

. and makes it s flight in Vapour s.. and enrich our Vegetation. nor Snow. nor any of thofe things. and Steams Pr-ogrefs is yet conti * by the Aimofykere^ nued to the upper ted when it is Regions. nor Rain . and fnppof there/ to be afterwards N 2 . great Difficulty a thin as in a thick Air and ev n in as es y have F//Z&amp. which moiften nerality ^ is&amp.gt.- where the Water in feme meafure fupplys the want of Air. yet if you draw out all the Bubbles of Air.. is neceffary* how well is this Fluid fitted for the ge this of the Inhabitants of this Globe ? it being neither too heavy. and make it it it fit for raits For tho be the Sun that take the Water.. 179 ia of breathing. they will languifh and dye fo that ev n to them.. neither too much^ nor too little eUftic^ for the tifes of Refpiration. nor too light. a certain .of Batumi fficlifltotu. Portion of Now ElaftickJFlmA. Another Ad vantage we fc-eap by our Atmosphere that by it our Chuds and Vapours are fupported. rifics firft its Soil.gt.. without which we flieu d neither have firefli Water. which are al ways found in Water.

and fo cou d never be cool d fufficiently. ever the fupporting Afwofphere becomes lighter. the Vapours cou d rife to no fufficient heighth. the of the Sun. (being dcftitute of thefe refle&ed Rays) and the length of of their Defcent.. .. if there were no Atmosphere.. or carried into other Regions. by its Tendency toward Now then. or Rain. but a Adion Void . that forms thefe Clouds and Vapours into Snow. from its Surface. around the Earth .: than raife the thefe Vapours ^ that greater buoys em up in the Air./. Rain.. there. that no Vapour cou d be turn d into Snow.. .. to I Vapours above a few feet. wou d not be able. or Hail. no Atmofphere. and Rain. into SnoWj or Rain for at a fmall diftance from the Earth s Surface. or Soil whofe . and that its only the Atmofpheres. make the places fo warm.. does want it more. that if there were perfeft Every Body knows. when.form d into Snow.for it s the Coldnefs of the upper Regions. ib as to be form d the Center. the refle&cd Rays of the 6V/. being fpecifically heavier.

..ofjftatutat Religion. or Rain according So that its plain. which (with the Concur? rence of the Sun ) melt our Snows. Laftly.. and Rains. fo many nothing but a violent Motion of the Air^ produced principally by its Rare* fa&ion. and the Combinations of the Earth s Motions... from aoxious Steams. N 3 Our . Advan tage of our Atmosphere and our Winds . upon the Sea. and dry our Ground when over-moiftned . than another^ is Wind by the Snns Beams . than under Ground. A third is. one of the principal Means of our Dews.. they had in the iipper Kegions y and fo become Snow. more in one Place. than thefe accumulated Vapours.. and purifie our Air. and fo be deprived of all the Benefits arifing thence.. and all the BlefUngs^ that is that follow upon thefe. they fall down with the Temper of Heat lighter. or Cold. it s our Atmofyhere ly.. our Breezes which carry our Ships and ferve for for the other Purpofes^ Accommodation of Humane Life. the Attractions of che Moon. Without our Atmosphere ^ we fhou d have no more Wind above.

and r fhte this wou d From r be. Mountains^ without which it were almoft impoffible to for Animals to fubfift.. from the vibrating fofcorous Body. The Vegetables grow. Without our Air we fhoti d not be able to hear the Report of a thoufand Pieces of Ord nance difcharg d at the fmalleft Diftance. we fliou d have nb fuch thing as Langua w hat a comfortlefs ges or Mufick. they being one of the principal concurrent Caufes toward the Produftion . next thing in Order to be considered is. but a Modulation or Percuffion of the Air^ communicated by an impulfe. or : XXIX.. that there which it s very plain w as Counftl and Defign in the Contrivance and Produ&ion of our Atwofyhere.^i)tlo(opi)tcal Our Attnofyhere is the Vehicle and Medi um which moftly diftinguifhes us from Fifies^ and the infe Sound is nothing rior fort of InfcBs.. that vSenfe in Undulations through the Fluid of the Atmofpbere. and propagated of found. our. all I leave the Reader to judge. ev ry way round..

Halley^ that the Sun raifes Va pours from the Surface of the Sea. which refting in thofe Places. by feveand particularly the inge nious Profeffor of Geometry at Oxford^ Mr. fufficient to frefli fupply all the Rivers with Water for that time. where the Air is N 4 of . whereby they are put in a violent Motion innumerable dif ferent ways. fame. It has been fhewn from Calculation . to rife firft. Fire under an Alembick^ by d (the Sun a&a ratifying the /. in a ral Perfons . buoy d up by the weightier Atmof* phere) in fuch Quantities.. Year. 1 83 on of our frefii-water Rivers. Ed. as is fufficient to make Streams of Vapours.of natural Religion. and fo to little Bubbles of are expanded in larger . freflieft it makes the the lighteft. the Portions rarifies its thereof. and it Water by Particles the Infinu- ation of active among the porous Parts thereof. e.. Diinenfions than they formerly had means become fo are fpecijically and by that and lighter . Now as thefe Vapours being rais ing upon the Surface of the Sea.

Rocks. and thus be come heavier than the Air they fwom in. and many of thefe Pvivers .184 of equal Gravity with them... till they at laft hit againft the fides of the more eminent and Moun tainous Places. and Dew. of the Globe*. they are condens d^ fo as to be precipita ted thereby through the Chinks of the Plains.. fo that it is evident the great Benefit of thefe Eminences is not.. and ftony^ afford them a Bafon^ till they are accumulated in fufficient Quantities to break out at the firft Crany ^ whence they defcend into the and feveral of them uniting. are carried up and down the Atmojphere^ by the Courfe of that Air. and fo gleet down the rocky Caverns of thefe Mountains^ whofe inner Parts be ing hollow. that by the Shock thefe Vapours get in their Courfe from them. tho there were no .. but that afterwards in their Bow els they arc preferv d. and by this Concuffion are condenfed. and then Rivers ^ for doubtlefs our Vapours wou d fall in Rain.. till they be of fufficient quantity to form Rivulets.. form Rivulets....

fatten. the Rivers make innumerable beautiful turnings and wind ings. the Rivers cou d up and down the whereby they enrich. Globe at wou d over confiderable Places of the once . they . by thefe Eminences. equally. plac d Globe. whereas. feveral Mouths into the Sea.. whereas by thefe Mount a ins. if they had run at all. they are perpetually almoft..of Datura! Eetigton* but then they 1 85 fall no Mountains. and at laft difembogue where in . make an ttttiverfal Fuddle-.. by the afliftance of the tides . for tho there had been Rivers without Mountains^ (which in that cafe is hardly poflible) yet only have run in a ftraight Line. make the Tranfppr* tations and over Lands more eaCarriage fie and manageable.. and water the Soil of feveral different Coun tries in one Courfe. (at leaft a Nights) pouring down in fome particular Places^ and there treafuring up ^ for a conftant Supply to the Rivers. and fo or wou d be fuck d up in the Ground.. and Eminen is the Determination of thefe Rivers* ces. Another very con fiderable ufe of thefe Hills..

which are indeed numberkis. (tho Nature feldom is Luxuriant in diverfity of Caufes) yet without our Mountains we cou d never have Rivers. i.. All thefe Advantages we have by our Mountains^ for tho from other Caufes^ we might poflibly be fupply d with frefh Water Springs. is.and Ports y for the they from Harbours convenience of Shiping and Navigation. nor cou d thefe Rivers have 5 fuch delightful turnings. without which we cou d ne ver have been. Next come our Fluids to be confidered. feeing they are a very ef- XXX. The . nor thofe ufeful falls ^ which gives them an impetuofity that may be improved to fo many delight ful as well as profitable IHes. Thus we fee of what Advantage thefe unfightly Mol s (as fome thought them) are to the Accommodations and even Neceffities of living. The fewcipally nefs of the original and primary Fluids. in of that vaft Number of compoun refpeft ded ones.. of us^ that which I (hall prin fential part take notice of .

three of which are but feldom much compounded with others^ fo that it is Safes the parts of folid Bodies floating in this Fluid. Airy Water. I do not know xvhat a great part of the World would have done. Mercury being about 8000 times heavier than Air. in the prefcnt Circumftances of Mankind.. The pofitions. vaftful and ufeful varieties r l.. that produces all our delight it is that is the Water alone. Now not to mention the ma ny ufes of this laft Fluid in Artificers Works. had Air been as heavy as Mercuryy it had been altogether ufele(s in refpiratiODJ on the contrary. a collection of exceeding fmall...y heavy Spherules .. or Lymphy of all our Mixtures. For the Lewdnefs and Debauch ery . vi^. great Difference be tween the ffecifecJ^ Gravities of our Fluids.. Mercury and Light-.of natural 3&eitgicm 1 87 The primary ones are only four. and fo fruitful and various in EfFefts and Com2. and of Liquors^ fo frugal is Nature in Principles .e. and had there not been a Fluid of the fame w eight with Mercury^ i.. it had choaked us immediately.

. a Remedy is provided for thefe Maladies.. has fufficient force to take away but a little weighty Sphere.. capillary Veffels. which I am fatisfied are more than two or is three.. wherein themf&amp. that this Fluid.for no neceffary..88 $f)iioCopi)ical has brought a great ma ery of Mankind.. is is principally con* if not abfolutely this thing obftru&ion. without this Fluid j for it s certain.lt. cificl^ Now by all this difference of the Spe- Gravity of the Fluids. in the extreme extreamly beneficial.. thorough Cure cou d be made of em.?lves.. moft wonderful in thefe 3. ny Difeafes to that degree of Malignity. is. But that which Fluids. fuch as the Particles of Mercury certainly are.. wherever any Diftemper arifes from an obftruftion of the Blood the Globules Veflels.. The univerfal condition of the dire&ion of their Preffure upon the fides of the containing Veffel j for in all Fluids of whatfoever kind or nature^ this is communicated in Lines perpen dicular .. and to feparate thefe Globules from one another.j that I fcarce fee a how and not the Serous part cern d.

. but is contrary to it..5Hon through that point of Contaft j Dire&ion through the point of Con* do not likewife pals through the Cen taffi^ ter of the Sphere. for fince by the Rea&ion or Repulfe is always equal and contrary to Impulfe or A&ion. in the fame Direftion. feeing a right Sphere.of Natural JSeitsiou. if a Plane prefs two . can only touch a in a point. is Now this Property of Fluids. if this Flam. the nece fary Confequence of the Sphericity conftituent Particles . Now third . and can prefs it in a dire&amp. confequently the fides of the containing Veflel preffes the contain d Fluid. is which of their fo beautiful and uniform. the Sphere will nccefTa-. 1 8? dtiular to the fides of the containing Veffel. as much as the contain d Fluid preffes the fides of the and this preffure of the containing VefFcl fides of the containing Veffel y is direded in the fame right Line with that of the contain d Fluid. Law of Nature. rily revolve upon the Plane till the Dire&ion of its preffnre. from the point of Conta& pafs through the Center of the j Sphere juft fo likewife.lt..

two in the point of Contaft. is perpendicular to the fangtnt Plane ...fame Dire&ioii. But a Line through the Center of a Sphere from the Spheres. the Line of this Direction will neceflarily pafs through all their Centers.. as alfo fince curve furfaces are compoun ded of an furfaces .gt. preffure of Since alfo the Particles of Fluids v are5jp/?ericaly or nearly approaching thereto. the Line of this Dire&ion will neceffarily pafs through both their Centers. And fo if there be any number of Spheres whatever^ prefs d by a Plane in the fame Dire6Hoa&amp. it is do prefs the fides of the in a Direction perpendicular containing Veffcls.. infinite it is Number of little univcrfally true. . fince true. plain that all Fluids of fides of ftion perpendicular other hand. And on the what nature foeve^ that Fluids by demonftration. prefs the the containing Veflels in a Dire* thereto. and fince this is the Dire* ftion of the preffure of the Plane upon the Spheres . it is alfo the Dire&ion of the the Spheres upon the Plane.. and fince they are fuppos d exceeding fmall.

their exal weights and {hall allow him to requird Solidities? continue in his infidelity who can demonftrate by what Laws of Mechanifm^ all the Particles of Water were turn d of the fame Diameter^ Solidity and Weight... What a noble reprefentati* on of the Divine Wifdom does our Fluid of Light afford us! how wonderfully are its parts fram d gious velocity and with what a prodi are they feat from the Body of ! . Now cou d any thing but the Fingers.. or nearly thereto ^ fo that this is now approaching no more Hypothecs but Demonstration. have rounded thofe infinite numbers of fmall Particles y whereof Fluids confift ? or cou d any thing but his Wtfdom^ have afiign d them their true dimenfions. turn d all of different Diameters^ Solidities and Weights from one another .of Natural JReitgtou* 19 dicular thereto. it s certain that the Par ticles of all Fluids are Spherical. but all of the fame Diameters y Solidities and Weights We among emfelves. and thofe of Air. Mercury and Light .. XXXI. and Almighty Power of God.

a fourth Green . can anyways And then what a beautiful reprefent it do Mr... and uncon ceivable velocity . muft this be nothing it runs ! but the a6Hon of the Mind. and its and Reanother One Ray Violet. no Pore fo fmall as to ex no Stream of it fo greafc. . Newton s la Idea of this Fluid : . we are not able to comprehend nor ima gine a Number fufficiently fmall. and the laft Red.. And thefe are the primary and ori ginal . millions of different ways. to exprefs tery.. its fubtility . evYy its Ray endow d with own is Colour ^ different degree of Kefrangibility flexibility.a Indigo... third Blew.. its Rays traverfe through one another. but fingle Point may no be congregated into a Surface fo finely poliflied. ter is Discoveries prefent us with. .a fifth Tellow^ a fixth Orange.of the Sun clude it ! itsSubtility is almoft beyond imagination. in every Pulfe of an^fr- fome hundred and thirty thoufand Miles ^ what an amazing. as not to fcatter almoft one half of it. without interfering ev n in the ftraiteft Pailages- in one Word..

and tranfmit all thofe of another. lour too. are coloured. 1 93 ginal Colours find from the mixture of thcfc^ all the intermediate ones proceed. according to their different De grees of denfity and thinmfs^ are apt to refleft back upon our Organs. For the firft degrees of Intenfentfs^ in all the primary Colours ^ feem to arile from fome determin d degrees of den fit y and ^ and the fubfequent degrees from. is lefs or more intcnfc.and this one Co Colour..of Natural 3&eligt on. pafs through their Pores. accord are of diffe ing as their prominent parts rent denfities^ or are thicker or thinner.efraj7giand to let others bility and Reflexibility. Rays of one and of one degree of R. but the Light that falls up on -them. and White from an equable mixture of the whole j Blacl^on thecontrary.. tity of any mcaliire all of them in a luffo* great being So that now it is not Bodies that catcd. Their prominent little Parts. from the final! quan of them being refle&ed on. upon their Co Surfaces. and their Colours arife from their Aptitude^ to refleft Rays of one lour.. O the ...

aHng in different quities Circumftances y viz*.. Light a&s upon Bodies by heating. the Sines of the Angles of In cidence j are to the Sines of the Angles of Refra&ion in a conftant ratio ^ and both thefe Properties proceed from one.. as alfo Bodies aft upon Light^ in drawing its parts to them. of the Surfaces of Bodies. obferves this one Law. that in all the obli of the fame Ray. obferve one of Reflexion likewife ? . Law c/z-x. diffoland puting their parts in a vibrating ving. that all the different Angles of In cidences are refpe&ively equal to the gles An and all the differently Refrangible Rays of Light .the other different degrees of denfity or thicknefs or thinnefs. and the fame Principle ... and that this attraftion is equal in all the Incidences^ and Refractions at equal Diftances from the fame Plane. of the prominent little parts.. that Bodies attraft Light in Lines perpendicular to their Sur faces. and the rcfte&ed ... and that in Lines perpendicular to their Surfaces All the dif : ferently reflexible Light. Motion. to the Plane of Incidence..

Now what a beautiful. different degrees of Attra&ion in Bodies ^ which produce their different degrees oi Elafticity and Cohefion. For if the have fuch a force of at- tra&ion. dire& impulfe. and proceed in the Line.. the Ray muft refleft.of refie&ed Natural 3&eiifjton* 195 Rays are turn d back before they : arrive at the refle&ing Plane reflecting Plane.. it has already made the Sine of the Angle of Incidence y equal to the Radius . together with the degree of attraction in the refrafting Bod}% And as there are neceffarily generates. uniform. and fimple Theory of Light is here ? this is fo very ^ like the frugal fimfltcity^ and vet the ma- O 2 infold . the perpendicu lar^ for it s well known y all Mediums have not the fame refra&ive Virtue.. fo there muft be different degrees of attraction in Mediums ^ fuppos d^ to account for their different Powers y in bringing the reframed Rays nearer to or farther from. then muft of the that its enter the Body Plane. and not fall upon the refleding Plane at all 5 if it a leffer degree of attraction.. that before the Ray arrives at it..

lt. e. were there no Democrat/on and Expert ment to confirm the truth of it. I might like wife iliew here the Art and Contrivance of Nature. to reflior- takes the way poflible.. in the propagation of Light. vi&amp.196 ^Jjtlofopljtcai infold variety of Nature.. that a Ray of Light. Hugens in his Treatife of Light.z. Mr. Now I appeal to . when the Ray one and the fame Medium. This the Geometers have demon ftra ted. in the produ&ion of the Cohefwn of Bodies. I (hall only (uggeft one very remarkable Inftance of the wonderful Contrivance and Wi dom of Nature... in paf- from a luminous Point. pafles^ and confebut through / . Ray paffes from a luminous fled upon a given Point.. through two differently refracting Mediums^ to illumi fing nate a given Point j fpends the leaft time (the redrafting Powers of the feveral Me diums coniidered) quently pofllble. teft it when a Point. that one would be afoioft tempted to believe it true. very ele gantly Page 40 and 41.... But having been pretty copious on this Subjeft already . and particularly.

Others have thought that being kept in. to fhew the wonders in the Bowels of our but our Difcoveries are fo few. Earth. if be not an Infbnce of Conn\d and Dcfigny is not this like the Methods of Pru dence and Wtfdom^ which will not fpend more time on a thing . than in hot Weather y but that might proceed from (bme of the other more narrow out lets of this Baft/is being ftopt ^ by the Froft and the Vapours that the Sun raifes thence. becaufe they faw that Springs run fafter in Froft and Snow. O 3 within .. XXXII. to the Reader.of jaattttai Religion. will never be convinc d. this 1 97 how incredulous focver. fo lame.. that nothing certain can be determined about thefe Inner Regions. but take the fhorteftCourfe r poflible 5 fign d? that will bring it to the Place deHe that can refift fuch pregnant and powerful Inftances of Divine Wifdom. Some have con cluded that there muft of Neceffity be a Central heat... I fliou d next proceed.. than juft what is neceflary to do the Bufinefsj which will not go about. and our accounts of this matter.

to account for the variation of the Magnet . and from a different Law. count for the Effe&s and Vertues ral others to ac of the Metals^ Minerals ^nd rious and of many other Fofftls^ Bodies. but I am of Opinion the Caufes of this variation is to be fought in the Magnet it felf 5 and not in fo remote and fo far fetch d a Caufe - for feems pretty odd ..caI this outer Cruft of Earth for muft be a rable D ifcontinuity^ ... and that there was fucceeding this. different from the Loadftonc as &amp...gt.98 within 0!)tloCopi&amp. yet it s after another manner. to whirl within the Bow els of the Earth. well as the Loadftone does. If the Earth were an univerfal Magnet ( as it s commonly but erroneoufly believ d) then the parts might follow the Nature of But tho it attracts Bodies. there diffonce. as the whole. fome confidequite round. after a certain moving manner. that a Sphere (hou d be made. a large Sphere. One might as probably expect a different turn and figure of internal Orbs . to make a feeble turn it this or the other way above Ground... pi .gt.

the other a King only Neither can I think that this Annulns can : be fome remains of the Ruins of a Cruft. and of Nature and artfulnefs. for the analogy between thefe inter nal Orbs. the one be ing exteriour the other interiour.. befides. may be defign d for the Habitation of fome fort of Animals. (hou d be fo ruinous as this Suppofition wou d make that Planet to be. but: this is not a proper Place for thefe things. and that of the Annulns of Sa turn.. I cannot think it As holds. whereupon by the figure and llze of its parts in regard of Bodies attra&ed.. I believe Hypothecs may be form d./ of its dire&ion might be accounted for . that is fall n in upon the Body of the Planet. becaufe this Ring appears to be regular and uniform. allthefe Hypotbefes have not that fimplicity .of ^aturai Beligtotu 1 99 an of their Brother the Magnet. that the Works O 4 Truth . Laftly. fcarcely probable that which like ours.. the one a whole Sphere. this and th0 cwr^/tf. it is thefe Planets . and at an equal diftance from the Body of the Planet . of an equal breadth quite round.

that that lefier Body is defign d by it s is that produce fome effeft. the Confequent of this Attra&wn.. attra&lion^ to plain.and the greater number of the Satellits of Sa turn^ than Jupiterj feems to favour this ConicSure. that the Multi tude of the Satelltts of thefe Planets may ferve in their vaft diftance from the Suny to hinder their Fluids ( by frequent and various Difturbance) from free7ing. or diforder the Motions of their refpe&ive Planets-.. then it s very plain that when ever a lefTer Body (however figur d) attends the Motions of. or may never 5 come to difeover. and fo the Satelhts of Jupiter and Saturn. and revolves with a greater. Now this Anvnhis may pofllbly lerve fome fach purpoie as this^ fince it .fM)ilofopl)icai Truth carry along with them. If it be true that all the Bodies of the Univerfe attract one another. were defign d to attraft. the Fluids... and I have fuggefted before. Thus raiie it s our Moon was defign d to and regular Winde^ and to difturb the Motions of our Earih^ for our TfefeJ^ Purpofes that poffibly we may..

Bowels. and Stones^ which . we haue all our natural Salts . . for the Accom*... modations of Life. It s likewife certain . and Vulcano s. Ores. by that we have frefli depth. Minerals.of it Natural Religion* moves differently from the Body it fel But all thefe are but Conjectures on both It s cer fides j and as fuch I leave em. the variety. which fhews it has not been compounded thefe Laws. of Shells. and the Bowels of the Earth. wou d require. it is likewife certain that its Strata are not of fuch Gravities as a regular fubfidence according to the Laws of Gravi tation of Bodies. all our Metals with all their Varieties . If any one had but occafion. tain that Earthquakes. pro^ ceed from fome Motion and Mixture of different Particles within the Body of the Earth. and the fubfervience of Medicine from the depths of the Sea. beautiful Figures. and Colours... which do us fo great and manifold Services. which is of fo much ufe. in any considerable moft Places diftant from the Sea its Water at we have from and Minerals. . to look over..

or Ani mal^ they are perfe&ly at a lofs.. on the Head am about. But when they come to a Plant . XXXIII. Inftances But of Counfel and have fo many other I things to fugged that I muft content rals. I come Kingdom that noble and manifeft Repre* . to give fome faint and imperfcft kind of Explication of the Celeftial Ap from their Principles.. Having dwelt Dentation of the fower and Wifdom of the One of Democritus or Author of Nature. my felf with Gene fo long up on the inanimate part of this Syfleme of now to confider the Animal things. and I wou d afford very demonftrative Contrivance.. Des Cartes s Ditciples 5 may perhaps un dertake.. This were a very large and copious Field. they can produce nothing coherent. tho how pearances. or of a are like the peice 5 their Schemes tjien . wretched their accounts of this Matter are^ we have in fome meafure already fliewn.202 $l)tiofopDtcai \vhich Induflry has colle&ed^ he cou d not but admire the manifold Wifdom of the Author of Nature. .

an infinite Wisdom. but a Being abfolutely per- fe&. nor Beauty. an exaft and exquifite Knowledge. give lhall confine my Speculations. thrUft into thfc Stomach j .. follow. being grofsly the and foftened by Teeth. in the Laws of Geometry and Nature.. that they clearly argue. I (hall here.. is fo exadly adapted. an odd inconfiftent Mixture of things. as I did in the Ccleflial fome general Scheme.. is through the Gullet. and which once acquainted fully underftood I (hall being . to the H//- mane we fily Structure. that nothing is efFefts - fufficient for. as being the moft perfcft^ are with. that For ev ry has neither Form. divided^ by the Saliva.of the cafual concourse of Atoms. The Fibres. the reft will ca- begin with the proceis of the Aliment and the Circulation of the Blood. ev ry thing is fo fitted. to fbme wife Defign. to its own proper ufe and -thefe Ufes ^re fo manifeft and evident.. of the Animal Fabric]^ and economy and Philofophy. part of thefe. by the Conftri&ion of its Meat | XXXIV.

Stomach . the other to dilute the Chyle^ by the vermicular Motion of the Inteftins (arifing from the alternate and Longitiidinar of the Midriff and the Fibres) the preffnre the lower Belly the groffer Mufcles of deriv d downward. Inteflins 5 thruft into the it is irri entry into which. mate parts are broken^ Coheiions diffolv d. aone another.. farther ibftned by the Sncciis of its Glands^ and the Liquors taken in.. where being fwell d and. while the finer. its and their inti this And by preffure of the at its fides of the Stomach upon it is the contained Aliment.. are the narrow of the fqueez d into Orifices la&eal Veffels^ which open into thefe inwhence in {lender Chanels they teflines^ are carried into the Glands tery.. by the perpetual Motion of the Coats of the Stomach. out of the Body. to be thruft parts are A&ion of their Spiral . of the Mefen* receiving firft a foe thin Lymph frpm the . fhe Mufcles of the gainft Midriff and Abdomen employed in refpiration. gated with the Bile and Siveetbread-juice r the one to fweeten.

re ceives the Blood from them.. The Veins (in a continued Channel with the the Blood from the Ex Arteries.. form the Vena Afcendens and Dewhich two likewife join at their fcendcns.lt. it afcends into the Thorax 5 and about the Heart fometimes dividing. con- . and circulates with it. and there mixes with the Blood. and creeping along the Gul to the left Subclavian it let^ paffes on Vein 5 where in one or two Mouths. and Lymphatic^ in one Dud. form d for it by the Uthefe La&eal.gt. it immediately unites again. and in its from thence Ca&amp.) entry into the right Ear of the Heart. which Circulation is thus perform d.va.of Batumi Bciifiiotn 205 the LpmpbaticJ^ Du&s which dilutes this Chylom fluid.*) bring tremities of the Body..&amp. and all uniting in two large Veflels 5 whofe fides diverge. it opens into that Veffel. and fcours its containing Veiled which from the Mefenterie\Glands unite in larger Channels^ and pafs dire&ly into the common which is nion of Veflels Receptacle of the Chyle ^ a Bafon.. which in its Relaxation or Diajlole.

conftri&ion or right Ventricle. where leaving fome of its Particles proper for their ufe j the reft is fent into the Veins. the reft turning down again. from the Arteries into the Veins ^ and from thefe to thofe^ and in this Circulation .. through the Arteria Pulmonaltt j into in the Lungs whence it is receiv d. XXXV. Syftole. thrufts it into the Rcrnidlon it : which is then its ftate of which when contra&ed. it is difcharged in to the left Ventricle then likewife dilated. carry the Blood to the feveral parts of the Bo upwards. an uninterrupted Channel. by whofe contra&ion it is pulhed into the Aorta. duly perform d^ Life and Health confift. then open to receive it j by \vho(e conftri&ion. and is carried into the left Awri cle of the Heart.. forms the defcending Trunk. . dy. which are nothing but the re turning Arteries ^ and thus the Blood is carried about in a perpetual Circle. drives . by the Vena Pul~ monalis. and thefe dividing into innumerable leffer Channels. which bending a little fends forth the Cervical and AxiUary Ar teries..

fends out feveral little Du&s. of equal Diameters. whole laft Bran ches muft be Cylindrical. the Tefticles. fometimes run into a common Bafon. fo is it likewife evident from thence^that it is only from plain from what is only the Blood.. are derived. and that all the Secretions of what kind foever are thefe Secret ions. As it is XXXV. and fome of the Conglobat Glands . fnch as the Inteftins with their Secretory Duds. the Blood.. Now made by the afllftance nothing folding. that it that is recruited by the Chyle. and may be feen in all the reft if they happen to be obftru&ed. which fometimes unite in one common Pore .of Natural Religion. in its windings. This Cylindrical Artery . of is of the Glands. and fo fwell to become vifible. the La&eals. And therefore the fame is reafonably to be concluded of all the Glands . This Stru&ure is evident. in all the larger and more confpicuous Glands. has been faid. fince Nature . that all the Expences of living are furnifhed.. and a Gland but the Convolution or various the Evanefcent Artery .

with the Trunk of the Artery The different Angle9 already demonftrated. when the Fluid is at reft.. Now . and produces milar Inftruments. i The different Dia~ meter of the Orifice of thefe Secretory Du&amp.. and is - 5 then . fo that the Motion of Secretion muft be compoun is this pnlfation ded of both Velocity. It is likewife evident that the Blood is urg d for ward by the Force of the Heart..&amp. puL of the fation prefigure..gt. of the longitudinal Motion is yet it is not in the proportion of this Ve for this prejjure is always fomewhat locity even.5b. thefe Motions. this lateral preffure. is Now when s tho the fo. Effeb by the Nature of the Secretions themfelves depend upon thefe three things. greater. are excluded.lt. greater than that of DU&. Particles this of a Diameter. whereby 2. which this Du& for makes.Nature is conftant and uniform in her fimilar Afi- &ions. that all Fluids the containing Veffel^ prefs the fides of and that in a direction perpendicular to it is thefe fides and this is evident in the fince it is. Arteries^ to that owing.

both 5 compound Proportion of whence it is evident that if two in a of equal Diameters D but of une* qual fpecificl^ Gravities^ arrive with the fame Velocity ^ at an Orifice capable of ad mitting either of em. nothing elfe being in this Fluid to produce this preffure. and in a Fluid urg d by a Longitudinal Di re&ion. yet they will not both pafs 5 becaufe their Motion of Dire* So that this Diverfity in Skion is different Particles : the Angles ^ thefe Secretory Duch make with the Trunl^ of the Artery. that the Blood is zHetrogeneous Fluid^ and contains parts fities different Specificl\ Gravities. The different Velocities\ with which the P . feems altogether the poillble Diverneceflary to account for of fecern d Fluids . as the Blood is in the Arteries y this lateral preffure. of the feparated Fluid muft be Homogeneous to perform the uniform Fun&ions of Life.of natural Religion. 3.. to be the fame. then in proportion.ev n admitting their Diameters^ and Figures..gt. For it is not to be doubted. to the Specifick Gravity of the Fluid.. different and of different Denfides^ and Cohefions&amp.

of the Kidneys^ Liv-er and Tefticles.... eafily others of an harder.from this alone.) Diameters of the Secretory Du&s.10 the Blood Secretory made in arrives. as the Blood is. Du&s^ at the Orifices of thefe for fince the Secretions are form of a Fluid. muft be in the fame Proportions. 3 *Urin. the .. For fuppofe^ (as my worthy and lear ned Friend Dr. Now tho upon this iuppofition of only different Diameters^ . feparable Texture firmer. but this . for the ftmilathe fecern d Fluids from fo Hetero* rity of geneons a Fluid. there is no po ilble Reafon can be afngn d. why fome Animals are of a foft loofe Texture.. And tho* fices the Diverfity of the Diameters of thefe Du&s. and why one part of the Body is of a tender. and more clofe Cohefion. it is certainly that which is of greateft Moment in this Affair of Secretion^ yet is impoflible to account. at the Orzof the feparatory Duds. loofe. different Velocity of the Blood. and Union of folid Parts.. Cockburn has very juftly reafoned) the Dtaweters of the Particles of The Gall and Semen ^ to be as i ^ .

that are lefs than the Diameter 6f the Secretory DU&. muft be the termination of a Secretory DU&. of the Diameter of the Excretory that Du&s of this the Tie/tides. fo that ev ry point in the Body. arifmg from the terminating Artery.. The Blood being brought by P a the ... the Diameters of the Particles of thefe Fluids. which carries a fuitable Portion of the Blood. Nutrition is perform d by a Secretory DU&. yet the Parti cles of Vrine and Gall may be feparated by the Excretory Dufts of the Tefticles. lefs than being by fuppofition.of Datura! JMujion* the Particles of Gall and Semen cannot be feparated in the Kidficys . So that upon fuppofition of only different Diame ters^ it is impoffible to account. through which a proper part of the Blood is brought.. view of the Nature and Manner of Secre tion s^ the particular ones may be underflood. muft be indifferently But from this general feparated there. to every part to be nouriflied.. for the Homogeneity or fimilarity of the feccrnecl Liquors for all the Particles of whatever : kind.

arifing from thefe in* finitely many little Glands of the Cineri* lions part of the Brain. which are the beginning of the Nerves. and more fubtile. O of the Evanescent exceeding . and the Secretory Pores of the repositories of the Animal Spi rits . they are hollow but extreamly fmall^ fo that tho* the Spirits move in them after the fame manner. yet by reafon of the many convo lutions form to which they are TLxcretories^ And the ilendernefs of their Mnfcular Coats ? the Arteries. the Capillary &amp. which Glands in the Brain r their original .lt. they are only the Secretory Du&s of thefe little Glands. Thefe Nerves are Bundles of fine fmall Pipes.&amp. and terminating in all the points of the Body j fb that properly . the finer... in thefe Glands. and by the fame Mechanifmy the Blood circulates through the Ar teries .gt. ^aW Particles of the Blood.the Arteries to the Brain parts . are feparated^ and log d in the (lender fmall Tubes of the Medullary parts... of thefe Arteries by innumerable volttiicns^ form innumerable little Glands^ of which it s C^rf/r^/part confifts.?#.

the Blood is brought to the Kidneys^ and is there freed of its Se* rnm^ by their little Glands^ and is receiv d into the fmall Excretory Dufts of thefe Glands^ to be carried into the Pelvis and . this very much abated however flow Motion keeps em very near full. the Veloci ty of their Motion. the Animal is a6Hvc and watchful. is in refpeft of that of .of Natural Heltgtom exceeding fmallnefs of their Cavities y and their diftance from the Heart .. P 3 XXXVI.. and when thefe Tubes are quite full of this nervous Fluid. when they are near empty it is languid and dro wfie for this Fluid is the 5 principal concurrent in Mufcular Motion. thence by proper Tubes into the Bladder.. Much after the fame manner ^ are their proper Fluids feparated from the Blood in the Liver and Sweetbread. . the Blood. I eft ides ? the other and Conglomerate Conglobat Glands of the Body. By the Motion of the Heart y through the E- mulgent Branches. and the immediate Organ of Senfat ion. fo that it is needlcfs ^ to infift on thefe..

this Air ifufhes in through the Pipes of the Tnacbea into thefe and blows -ern up. form d infinity g XXXVI. thefe Velie flat upon one another 5 and by fales their freffure upon the Blood Veffels 5 hin der its progrefs through them .4 $i)iiofopijtcai Lungs are compos d of an infinite number of little Lobes. Each Lobe confifts of an of fmall fpherical Vefides. fo that they (when blown up) as may be confidered fo many fine Tubes ending in little hollow Spheres . but as foon as this . and Magnitudes ^ hut fo join d as to leave but fmall Vacuities between *em. upon the fides of thefe Vefides . of different Figures.fetu s enjoys the benefit of the Air3 by its weight and elaftick^ Force. Now before brought to Light. Vehicles y is the fetus whereby they fhnd of thefe little ereft upon the Trunks Wind-pipes^ and give a free paffage to the Blood through thefe Vcffcls^ ipread upon their fidesJ. the Blood Veflels in a fine Net-worl^ are fpread. And wlien by the weight of the Thorax^ and the . The by the Coats of the fmall Branches of the Trachea ..

ind confequenrly. feparate the Globules of the Blood^ which had Pvoorn and Liberty* to unite in the wider Channels of the this Veins j and by reparation of thefe Globules of the Blood.of natural A&ion of the Mufcles thereof. and the ela- Fluid a&ing upon the fides of them. It is un doubted Matter of Faft and obfcmtion 5 that the Blood confifts of a Lymph ^ which is the common Vehicle. of P 4 which .. feveral Salts ^ K&went a of a thick confidence . through.. from one another. and that is to form thefe Globules of which clafticl^ the Blood principally confifb. (which is probably the unform d part of the Chyle . paflages of the Capillary Vefif I be not very much mifta- ken.. renders it more capable to circulate ^ in the more narrow fels.. the Trachea in Expiration. with thoi e of the Abdomen. But. there isftill a more confiderable ufe of this natural Fun&ion behind. and Midriff\ thisdttjtzcl* Fluid is thruft out of the Vejides. fti cfy thefe Veficles preffing againft one another. on the Blood Veflcls fpread thereon. and Aliment) and thefe red Globule s.

as alfo from their Colour.. they may bubles. and be all recovered and recruited again.. Blew and Purple ^ thefe any body may difcover with an ordinary Mzcrofcope. as White. j Place in the Body. that thefe Glo bules muft be form d fomewhefle in the Body from the Chyle. and that Acids do ahially de{troy their Figures . it s exhaufted^ as in violent Hemorrhages.6 ^Dilofophirai are we now fpeaking but fometimes they are of different Colours. and coagulate thefe Globules be little highly probable.. can the Afford tbis elafticl^Plmd and this may be * . in the capillary Veflels. Now certain. blown from the viicid it is part of the Chyle ^ more fubtile by the force of fome Now no Elaftic^ Aura. And fince it s cer tain that they are not folid Particles 5 both by ocular infpeftion and touch. that thefe Globules may be or may be all burft. but the Lungs. and by the neceflity they are under to change their Figures into oblong Spheriods . yet wherefore it is of neceflity. as in obftru&ions .

yet this finer Fluid.. this fubtile E/^/V^ Fluid beyond doubt. which are why immediately ro the Heart. may through thefe Vefides.. by that vaft Force u(ed in Expira in thruft be the fides of tion. a finer Elafticl^ Fluid. in all the fubcile fe&s commonly afcrib d to the other. to the Blood Veflels. Veins 5 the Chyle enters into the and thefe too only .... get through but in theLfl/Tgj. and is fpread upon the fides of the Vejicles there tricle of . and feeing thefe Blood Globules muft be gene rated fomewhere^ and fince there is no can be fqueez d with fufficient JForce^ to fides the of the Blood Veffels. is fent from the right Ven part of the fafeft courfe of the Heart to the Lungs. tho* the groffer Eliment cannot. For fince in our grofs Eliment of Air. that thefe Globules are form d there after this manner : The vifccws Chyle being by the fhorteft and poflible.. to be fent into the Lungs.. there is conftantjuft returning ly loged.. brought into the returning part pf the Blood.of the reafon Natural Religion. it feems to me all part in the Body. which is the principal Agent.

whereby the circulation is rend red conftant and uniform.nefs of SWl^ from whence it has its Colour. it is preferv d in its figure in all the various Motions of the compound Fluid of the Blood and if it little bubles fhou d be happen that thefe moft certainly are by a biirft^ (as they j thoufand Caufes) when ever they come to theLtfflg.. is forc d into the wfcow part of the Chyle.r. this fine Fluid d. For fliou d thefe Globules be all .gt. they are new. in the Aft freffure the Blood Veffels. and by its ferfendmilar it upon the fides of that Cavity forms^ produces a fmall little buble^ of a certain magnitude. whereby greater the thin Serum ads upon it.form d again. and th. and by the force of the fucceeding Fluid. $pofopi)tcai of Ex being fqueez a piration. in little fine Tubes. which is runing by in the Serwt.8 of. through Pore^ continued through the Veftcle of the Lungs y and the fide of &amp.. this lit tle bulk is broken off from t\\ePorey and carried along the Artery y and the Cohefwtt of the parts of the Shell of this biiblc^ being than the force from without.ick.

. in mixing Oil with Vinegar. bubles. and Vinegar. and unfit for the Limits I have prefcrib . And this makes it look the more like truthj Nature being frugal in her Princi T t 4^7. there muft oneceffity arifc Obftru&ion in all the Capillary Ar The manner of the little Produfiion of thefe ftick^Flmd. and a thoufand Difficulties about the Gaufes of Difeafcs. into litJ But from this one Prin tie Shells of Oil. but with an ordinary Microjcope... J7 ples^ flag.. ciple. many of the dcfpair d of Appea rances^ in t\\^ Animal Oeconomy^ may be made eatie. but various in the effecfo thence But it being both foreign to ari- my d Peilgn. a general teries. to be but an appears nothing infinity of fuch like little bubhs^ form d by the im* niiftlon of the Air. the Subftance of which Mixture . when view d. and the manner of the Operation of Medicines vanifli.of all natural Eelt sicn. in the forc d Blood by the Elathrough the fides of the Vefides } and Blood Veflels in the Ltivgs^fo obvious^that I fliall infift no farther upon it^ fince ev ry body may fee an inftance of the fame Nature.. 2 1 9 deftroyed.

. the firft and fecond. and are call d Membranous Fibres-. the fleihy of the Mufcles is fpongious. to another Gccafion.. only a bundle of Fibres. to deduce I fhall all the arifing. an infinite number of little Fibrils. is only the flefhypart lax} the tendinous. of the preceding Chapter . to bring and carryback the Blood. vided into innumerable little orbicular two concave Segments of a Cells. each Fibre confifb of ly of the Mufcles. the latter to let in (upon . folid^ thefe make the Head and Tail. form d of thofe of the other.. are hard and Sphere-. ty d tranfverfe fmall Threads y together by which go from Fibre to Fibre . inftance reft but in one Particular. enter an Artery. the Fibrils of the one are di which are always inferted into fome folid as to thofe of the Bel places of the Body . into thofe orbi cular Cells. and leave the as I XXXVII. ted is A Mufcle. Vein and Nerve. foft and part in the compared..$i)tiofopi)ical __ prefcribM to my Corollaries thence felf.. have hin XIII. of which all fame Plane run parallel-.

. own proper Juice. 22 1 (upon any Impreffion communicated to its very proba ble from its Acid tafte 5 that this nervous Juice.. and confifts fo leave the imprifoned Elaftic^ Aura.. the Globules of the Blood may be a&ually broken. This is undoubtedly the true manner of mufcu lar Motion. by which means. John Head. thefe little daick^ Cells of the Fibres muft of neceffity their thereby Longi tudinal Diameters.of jfratttrai Belision. and fo move that Organ to which one of the tendons is fixt. And ned which wou d contra& the length of the whole Fibre. from Cell to Cell ftrait- be blown up. Bernoulli s DoSrine on all this And metrical Theorems he the Geo confequently^ has difcovered a- bout mufcular Motion. Now it s it) of Particles which are pointed and fit to break the Shells of the Globules of the Blood. And upon an immiflion of this Liquid of the Nerves. into the orbicular Cells of mufcular Fibres. to efcape. are now a&ual But I fliall Theory^ and Matter of Fah have an occafion of fpeaking of thefe after wards . and agreeable to the learned : Mr.

the length of the Mufcle being fliortned. The very evident demonftration of the true Caufe of mnfcular Motion . and their Na ture being thus determin d^ a priori is a Xvards. fo long as the Blood Globules.. are carried back by the Veins to the Lungs. which has been long thought uncapable of being d. that is to move beyond its Articulation. accord and Determination. For the Mo tion of the Joints and Limbs the Bones which are the Pillars of the Body. The broken Shells of thefe cxplam Globules. are ar ticulated one into another . Only now.place of theProduftion of thefe Globules. and the other to the Bone . and the one Extremity of the Mufcle. is faftned to fome folid part. muft be So .. to be new-form d. which is the reafon that muscular Motion is fb conftantly and uniformly perform d... of ing to the Manner the Articulation. Thus the Motions of all the . .that dra\vn toward the fixt Extremity. and Animal Spi rits are in fufficient plenty. the moveable Bone.

. or is to be driven to different Places. But the Membranous Coats. Fibres of the The Body are principally propelFd^ by the Adion of the Heart. meerly by their own Elaflicity^ being ftretch d firft by ex ternal . which are Cavities for receiving or holding the as it comes from the feveral Ve Blood. fels. Now confifting of feveral Orders of flefliy FibreSj of different Dire&ions^ it has two little Ears and as many Ventricles.. a Mufck.of the ^atutal of the Body are perFluids of the more d.. a& by the Longitudinal Diameters of its Mujcular Cells being fliortnedy and fo by the win ding and fpiral Dire&ion of its feveral Orders of Fibres^ the Cavities of the Ears and Ventricles are leflcn it is And d or conftring d. The Fibres of this Mujcle. and the elaflicl^ Force of the the Heart is containing Veffels. like other Mufcles. ad af manner already explaki d. all obfervable that thcMufcu/ar Fibres of the Coats ter the of the Veflcls. iblid parts form XXX VIII.

ternal Violence. the outermoft Membranous^ the fecond flefliy and Mufcular^ turning ob from the uppermoft end of the Oe- is fophagus to the Stomach . Ration or Nutrition. The Coats of the Gullet are three.. excepting thofe for Senincluded Fluid. and wou d ne ver have diftinguifh d a Coat into Fibres^ but for Mufcular A&ioo.. the third. it is a fure Indication . together with the Range and Di- liquely re&ion of thefe Fibres^ it is eafie to know the manner of their operating upon the included Fluid.. that this Coat a&s as a Mufcle for Na ture does nothing in vain.is more capable of a&ing by its own Elafticity. tendinous and mufcular^ of white {lender Fibres diverfely interwoven. and of their conftituent Fibres^ of the Channels. bring known. The Stomach has . So that the Nature of the Coats. when a conti nued Membranous^ Tendinous one. branes are Thus the fides of all Mem bent or prefs d outward by fome but reftore emfelves by their own natural Elafticity 5 whereas when ever a Coat confifts of Fibres of whatever kind.

ad jacentParts^and particularly the Organs of four of the Senfes the reft in a large bun dle^ are let down by the Cavity of the Q. Vertebra. . flender Pipes j wherein the Animal Spirits are treafur d up for the Expcnfes of Motion and Senfation-^ they arife from the Glands of the cineritious part of the Brain. The Nerves y as I have before bundle of fine. the fecond is of two Orders of Muscular Fibres^ Longitudinal and Spiral..of Natural Beligion* the innermoft (liort is *2 5 has four Goats^ like. ding perpendicular upon which is nervous and extreamly fenfible j the third isfleflry and Mufcular.. the innermoft is of the fame nature with that of the innermoft of the Stomach .. the third is common and mem branous 3 arifing likewife from the Peri toneum. of white Carpettendinous Fibres ftan* the next Coat. of ftraight - and fift circular Fibres 5 the fourth Membra nous from the Peritoneum. and are terminated in all the points of the Bo faidj are a ten pairdefcend immediately through proper Holes of the Skull.. fmall.. and ferve the dy . The G///^ con- of three Coats.

. . oi the fttu6hire general account their Aftions upon the in- clofed Fluid underftood. for the nourishment of and for the Mnjcnlar A&ion of the intermediate one. The Arteries have three Coats^ the outermoft is a fine of Nerves^ Web and Blood Veffels.. From this of the Vcffels. the fhort erefted Fibres ferve for the at eallly may be trition of the Aliment. becaufe of the IcfTcr force of the Blood afides of the diverging Veins . which is thefe other Coats made up of feveraly?r^ta of Spiral Mufcnlar Fibres^ Artery. and for firaitning the the Cavity of the Guts and Stomach .$i)ilofopi)icai idnnaples Vertebra. wou d tear the The Veins have only the Mujcular Spiral Fibres are thinner... and at fit Places are fent forth to a&uate the feveral inferiour parts of the Body. to keep in the Blood which otherwife upon the dilatation of the Artery ^ Mnfotlar Fibres afundcr. according to the bignefs of the The third is a cloie tranfparent Membrane very ftrong and compaft. the fame Coats with the Arteries . gainft the than thofe of the converging Arteries.

lt. this Coat be feme time the ner vous Juice is {queex d out from the Nerves by this dilatation of the finall Arteries. dimenfion and thereby /. and the included -Fluid. and fo brings the Mufcular Fibres into Aginning to at the &amp.. e. in a dirc&ion parallel this by encrcafing Diameter . the force of the natural of the Membranous Elafticity Coat . up or down to its length. among the Originating Nerves in the Brain. which make but ferve to propagate gently the included Fluid. leflening the other. the tranfvcrfe the Spiral ones by fqucezing it it in length tranfverfely. Thus the Blood being puflit by the contrafiion of the Heart diftends their Coats atill into the Arteries.5Hon manner already explain d. through the uninterrupted Channels of ^ the .. and fo encreafing or leflening it in breadth. be equal to the force of this Impulfe then that Elafticity of aft. And both thefe Forces a&ing at once..of natural few turns oblique Fibres. long their whole length. the Longitudinal ones to move the Veffel. ? after the propell the Blood in a continued Stream.

$!}ticibpi)ifal the irnpulfe of the Heart.gt..&amp. Thus in Vifwn. . firikes the filaments of the Optici\ Nerves which con In Hear vey this Impulfe to the Brain. and congregated upon the Retina. is tranfmitrcd through the HUMOWS of the D Eye. and thereby an Impulfe modi reflected fied after a certain manner. ing. paffage through the Meatus Anditorius. is the Veins and Arteries. flrikcs on the -tympanum ^ which mo . upon the Or gans of Senle the Impulfe communicated -. And call d a Pulje or Puljat/on of the Ar~ All Senfation is perform d by the immediate A&ion of the finer and more fluid parts of Bodies. the Sound after- ving . is that which when feltj lery. XXXIX. through thcL/g/j/ from the Surfaces of Bodies. propagated only by the Membranous Coat.. tranfmitted to the Nerves... in the lame mdnner it was rcflcfted from the Body. in its diverfe Modifications. by thefe fubtile parts of Bodies^ fifly is difpoted . Organs upon the through them appropriated and contriv d them for fuch a Senfe^ and to the Brain.

and they the inclofed Air of the Labyrinth . Q. and they communi cate this A6Hon to the Brain So that in fome manner. after wou d have been. and no Difpofition or Arrangment of either. fince all the parts m lift be form d together. 3 . can produce an . with the Advantage of a better qualified and gentler Impulfe than they cou d have had otherwife. to be im~ there is no poifible and unconceivable thing in an Animal but an infinity of bran ching and winding Channels ^ and their contain d Fluids. Tajlittg. and Touching . In Smelling. all Sensation is nothing but : Touching. I have demonftrated the Me chanical produ&ion of Animals. all for beyond doubt . Animal. the Auditory Nerves there^ the fame manner they are mov d. had the common Air afted upon them. ration is Gene it is nothing but Accretion.of jsatnvai Religion ving the Bones of the Barrel. the Effluvia and more fubtile parts of Bodies. aft immediately upon the Nerves themfelves. feveral ways diversified.. that all Generation is from a preceding little Animal lodged in the Male.

and lodg d in the Loyns of the Ori ginal pairs of all the Species of Animals. tho doubtlefs the Velocity of their Motions is perfectly accommodated to the fmallnefs of their dcrncfs of their Bul^ and parts. cv ry Generation of an Ani and that thefe Animals themfelves are all confpicuous in Male Seeds ^ it is plain that they muft have been all created at once:. Now. the flen- folid and fince thefe . and Difpofition of parts.230 or together. an^Chyle in the Veffels^ nimal confifts to think of. Like wife the Fluids. mal. evident then that they muft circulate after a manner proper to etnfelves.. if they did not move in the wou Channels of thefe fmall Animals. we find fame little bubles. d corrupt and deftroy their contain It s ing Veffels. Blood Globules ^ may be form d out of the and one kind of Li quor may be feparated from another^ out of the Blood in the Glands^ and thefe are all the Produftions an Animal is capable of. iince itisabfurd God Almighty \z in confin d to a new Creation. which can never reach to that wonderful Number.

... fuitedto this Degree of Growth and Perfection. without fome infenfible Evacuations and Secretions^ this Lofs muft be repaired fome way or other. with Branches and Leaves duly folded up. are that the Eggs of Animals only an Vie* rns for a little Animal ^ furniilied with . We We Q. by the Force of Juices rais d by Heat.of natural Religion. to the next Period of their Lives are cer bear the Light and the Air. thefc Fluids cannot Wherefore it .. 4 proper . be carried off in the foft and tender Fluid of the Stolen . till they arrive to *// *. from external Injuries j and that Vegetation is only the unfolding and extending of thefe Branches and Leaves.. to be afterwards log d in the Female . is not improbable they in may fome lurk fomewhere the Male. in know the (lender Tubes of the Plant. in till they be fitted to proper Place. pcrfe&Jy form d. where they are fitted with Accommodations. move. and involv d in Membranes^ or furrounded with Walls proper to defend them in this ten der Eftate. tain that the Seeds of Plants arc nothing but little Plants.

it were fufficient to perfuade any one. with thefe already men tioned . But this. is owing to the feveral Mem branes they are involv d in. and more eafily pafs into the nourishing Channels of the included Animalcul^ and the Heat of the Sun or of our Culinary Fires^ when duly adjuftcd. We the feveral Transformations of InfeSis and other Animals^ is nothing but the Expansion of their parts. are . but the Analogy between the manner of the Generation and transformations of thefe lower. Now were that all there no other Argument.3^ |M)itofop!)itai proper Food.. produce the fame very Effe&s with that of the Females. Injuries and fenc d from external and we know likewife that all the Effeds of incubation^ isfupplying a fit to make degree of Heat and Warmth the congeal d Fluids flow. who confiders the fimplicity and uniformity of Nature in all her Works... and the more noble Animals . and the fure^ that all breaking of the Membranes that folded em up by the Augmentation of thefe parts ^ the feveral Figures and Shapes they put on.

From Stm&ure of the this parts. how wifely our (everal parts are fitted for their Ufes.of j$atttrai Heiigtott* 25 3 tioned put it beyond all doubt.how juftly our Fluids are contriv d and difpos d. Mo It i$ impoffible duly to confider thefe things without being rapt into admiration of the infinite Wisdom of the Divine ArclnteB and contemning the arrogant Pretences of the World and Animal Wright s y and much more the Productions of Chance or juftling Atoms . and yet how fuffi- cient. for fince even Mechanifm^ affifted by fome kind of Art and Contrivance^ does fo miferably blunder in the Undertakings of .. are. general view of the and of the manner how the Animal Fun&ions are perform d evVy body may fee how wonderfully we are made. and were once all actually in the Loyns of our firft Parent. XL. theCaufes of all thofe various the Animal performs. and have been ever fince / grow^ ing to our pretent Eftate. to make thefe uninterrupted Circulations wherein Life confifts .. how fimple. that we are all deriv d from one Seed. tions.

34 0!)ilofoptical of this Nature (as we may fee in all the Schemes of the Projectors upon t\\ck Heads) we may be afliired blind Chance and JHWble cou d never produce fo beautiful fimuniform Effects. make but an ItifeSl or a Plant y with the fame Faculties and Qua we ihou d begin lities that Nature does But they are fo far to hearken to em. and he thai made the Ear mufl himjelf hear. that the moft exaft and nice Performances of Art^ come fo far fhort of the dead Organs of Animals^ or the inani mate Productions ot Nature^ that a weak Eye may difcover the vaft Difference. Cou d any of our pie and mechanical Undertakers . and form d fo all things both ani juftly and exaftly^ mate ^nd inanimate^ muft needs bt. from that. Put . Wherefore of unavoidable Neceflity^ He that for id the Eye waft him felf fee.. and he that indnd Majj with Wisdom mnfl and he that contriv d hitnfclf ^tnd^rftand^ fo wonderfully and wifely. with all their skill and cunning.

.. 500 fuchDtifts may lye.. Number a prodigious of fuch Glands muft there be on ! Now what the Surface of the whole Body Into ev ry one of thefe Glands an Artery^ Vein and Nerve do enter ^ fo that we may guefs how prodigious the Number of Organs in from thefe that are vifible to the Eye afliftcd with an ordinary Micrvfcope. Thefe Glands fecern an Animal Body muft be. g XLI. . is Scales^ lefs.The Scarf d of feveral Lays of fmall compos which cover one another more or thicker.. skin being upper.is thicker in one part of the Body than another ^ between thefe Scales the Excretory Du&s or lye of the Miliary Glands of the true Skin open. according as it. The Skin with its parts is what offers itfelf firft moft. and that a Grain of Sand will cover 250 of thefe one Grain of Sand will cover 125000 Orifices of thefe Ex Scales^ fo that cretory Dufts.of atural 3&eltsiom *35 But I proceed to make fome reflexions upon the particular Inftances of Council and Wisdom in the Animal Fabrick. Lervenhoecl^ reckons that about one Cuticular Scale.

. is composed Scales of which the Scarfskjn a Hair is . fyramidalcs //&amp. cous Subftance. of NecefTity they muft be many . -Scarf they are the finite like wile in Number- Extremities of the Nerves of the 5%. to the Surding their Secretory which there face^of the Scarfskin^ upon Lines.. and in each interfeftion In the Summer the planted..gt.. along the other VeiTels make thefe the Nerves and all cover d over with a miia fine Web.36 ^i)i!ofopt)tcat cern the Sweat and intenfible Perfpiration. protru Dufts up. Skin is thinner and fofter. in And paffes 24 in skin arc the Papilla fyramidales.^ . in Winter more and hard. by reafon of the heat coinpaft The and cold of thefe different Seafons. d About and ferve of Feeling.. that fince San&oriu* obfervcs ^ through a of Fluid them fifteen Ounce weight Next under the Hours. and thefe interare many by parallel fefted others. to convey the Impulfe more immediately for the Senfe receiv Nerves to the Brain. to moiften thefe Fap/U* and then under this the M/- Glands thcmfelves are placed.

and to be the Organ of the Senfe of muffing and Feel Now what can be more wonderfully ing. to fiiftain and to keep the Papilla Fyrawidales in their Places. and the Miliary Glands from being difordered.. ry point and Atom of the ABod is taken care of But that .of is Natural Iteiigiotn a 37 defign d to fence the Orifices of the 5Vthe Mtliary Glands and cretory Dufts of ^ making too pain ful and cxquifite an Impreffion on the Nerves. to receive the Impreflions of external Obje&s... without our Knowledge. to the danger of the whole and thefe Intervals had not been freed from the noxious parts^ which are here thrown out of the Body but by their infinite by thefe Glands ev N timber.. if the Tyranridaks or the Miliary Glands had been few and large. contriv d than this exterior part. then the Inter Pap ill vals c had been without any Senfe of Feel and fo might have been deflroy d ing. and to skreen them from exter rhe Skin it fclf is nal Injuries defign d to to hinder Obje&s from wrap up the whole Body.

or of the Wing of a Fly. then we fliou tual Torment. Whereas by this nice adjuftment of the Senfe of feding to the Impulfes and A&ions of Bodies round us. had made us cry out.. we fliou d not have dar d to have approach d our Cloaths or our Beds^ in t . ons of little Bodies that are ncceflarily in Motion and we feel fenfibly enough. without our Knowledge or Concern. and might have J O been torn away or confum d. is the ap: proportioning this Senfe of Feeling^ to the which is r been ten or twenty times as exquilite as it d have been in perpe is. or in more callous than it is.. For had our Senfe of Feeling & fliort. many times duller. ev ry Hair had been a Dag ger. to hinder . we can live in indolence from the Difturbance of the and AHeffluvia. we had loft fome of the moft exquifite Plcafures of Life. A6Hons and Impulfes of the Bodies among which we live. we had it liv d and had been as perpetual Mifery. the touch of a Feather. our tendereft parts had been as infenfible as our Hairs or Nails.yet moft wonderful .

and the Skin becomes the thicker. and fo a caUoiijvefs quently . for it is as it is more or lels ufed highly probable.of Natural ffietgtotu hinder us from hazarding the Ruin of our Fabrick. by which forae drops of a vifcid Fluid is that the Scales which forc d out. which is a notable Inftance of Council and Defign in the formation of thefe Parts. And it is worth noticeing. is rendred more exquifite and or more dull and imperceptible. and guard the Organs of this Senfe from being violated. Scale. which there becomes a irnall and therefore the oftner the Mouths of thefe VeiTels are preis d upon^ or the oftner we life thefe Organs of touching. that thisSenfc of Feeling fcnfiblc. And univerfally indeed in all Animals whatfoever. grows upon it. this Senfe is adapted to the Circumftances wherein they live. drying and hardning. And confethe more moderately we ufe the .. compofe the Scarfsk^n. do arife from the preffitrc of touching Bodies upon the Mouths of the Superficial Veffels at different times. the more of thefe Seal s are form d....

the Pleafures of Senfe (the moft exquifite of which lie in that of Feeling) the more lively and fenfible they are life ^ and the more immoderately we the full lefs r they are fo .. were to tranfcribe it. either in on or Insertion.. XLII. they are not kept from Excefles that way. that Head. w ife Contrivance of the Author of for thefe Pleafures. which is a wonder- were it otherwife. fince we fee where there is both Sin and Nature-. Figure. fo diftra&ed is the moft part of Mankind. and to inftance in all the Particulars. Having already fliewn the wonderful yet fimple ftru&ure of the have little more to add upon Mufcles. of which there are about 446 in a Hu mane Body. my Reader for his full Satisfaftion in this Affair. to that learned . that they wou d certainly deftroy themfelves. Situati has fomething that fpeaks its Defign and Council.. prefent Punifliment. I For tho ev ry fingle Mitfcle. yet feeing Borelli has written a whole Book to fhew this. or to write a whole Syfteme I fliall refer of Myologie.

. learned and furpriflng 24 Book De motit malinm. he has (lit fome^ that other s might this is through then! undifturb d^ fuch a wonderful Inftance of WiC pafs R dom . i .of ^attttai BeWgion. they wou d have aL ufes Motions^ and made thefe Places foft and fpungy. now had they been fituatcd neat Or about thefe Parts. is admirable* We of Life 5 thefe Mufclcs were to be ftrong and large. {hall Then only fuggeft a few Inthe maiiner of the Dif- of the Fingers and poiition of the Muftles know that for the Toes. and ftances. that they might be fufficient for the various 5 and forceable Motions of thefe Organs .. and and going confequently unfit for grafping their * together difturb d to avoid this^ the Infinitely wife An*tbor of Nature.. they might not rife in bending thofd . up and fill Places with their Bodies or Tendons he has ty d them to the Bones by Annn* lar Ligaments ^ and alfb that one TLendoit might not be interrupted in its Courfe by another. the Arm or Leg. has plac d them at a conft derable diftance from thefe Organs.. and that ev And n there.

It is very obfervable that in Mnjcular Motion the Expenfe of Animal Spirits^ is not in Pro portion to the Labour the Animal is at. Bernoulli in that Curious Meditation &quot. Mr.$i)ilofopt)tcai dom and Defign . So that when t\\e Animal Spirits are but as $ to 8 r the Weight fuftain d by em fhall be as i lifted. may be to 4. in burfting the Blood the veficnlar Cells of the then a Mtifcnlar Fibres^ to be as 8. a.. the And Difference becomes moft fcnffble between thefe Animal Spirits and the fuftain d weights^ when thcfc Spirits are expended in greateft Qtiantities. that none can pafs it over without Admiration. than the ele vated Weights j for fuppofing the Animal Spirits expended. Lipfirf 1 printed in the ^ ASla 694 . derful wife Contrivance Now what a won and compendium of . Weight four times as great r as when they Globules j in are but as 5. the like or the other Propor tions of the Animal Spirits-^ efpecially. has demonftrated that the Expenfes of Animal Spirits^ are in a much lefs Proportion.about Mufcular Motion.

not reduc d to the necefllty of having is Man who twice or four times as much Vi&uals. and agreeable to the Neceflities of Life. we live. that no Expenfes fliou d be made therein that cou d be avoi ded. we that the Spirits are the moft precious things in all the Animal Body. of Mo3. the Animal Spirits which are the Subftance.. by all know which we move... /. and without which... and we fee the wife Author of Nature. io that a is obliged to hard Labour. unaftive. fo neceflary and ufcful was to be fav d by all means poflible. and thoughtlefs.by which all the Pleafures of Life are reliflied. that aftuates all our Enjoyments. this. and No\v dull..... the very ElTence of the Blood.. and all Sensation perform d.. What a ftrange variety R a tions .. that Chearfulnefs and Tran quillity. and our Blood circulates. as one that is under no neceffity to work. a Subftance. or rather. by which we have that Livelinefs and Agility... we are languid.. has taken wonderful Care. are fav d as much as is poflible . e.of Natural Urttcjtom of Nature is this ? Here in great Labour.

and falling. whereby they are kept in the fitteft Pofture for fwiming or fo difflying. the Center of Gravity is fodifpos d. and fo be in hazard of our Arms. And in thofe Animals that live with the Water. by which means we are kept from tum bling. as to fall. immediately bring it back within that Space. the Center of Gravity being pofed as naturally to keep their Heads creft. ftrongeft Mufcks upon their Breafts. the various Motions of our Head. by a Line drawn from it to the Center of the Earth . and if at any time we chance to rhrow this Line without that Space. Thofe Animals that are defign d for flying or fwiming on the Surface of to us that we want..^44 tions are our Organs capable of? There is no poffible one. and two Lines drawn by our Toes and Heels. that might be ufeful and how wonderis the whole Machin adjufted ? For iully our erc& Motion. al ways in fome part of the parallelogram form d by the outer fides of our Feet. have all tjieir in the Surface of the Watery there is a Bladder .. and Rreaft..

which being cut out. But this Bladder is commonly of Air.. by the Comprefllon or Expanfion of this Bladder. as renders em in an /Equilibrium without any Pain. than the Fluid they fwirn in. whofe Orifice isendow d with a Mttfcular Sphintier. they become heavier. from the preffure of the full Mufcular fides thereof. with that kind of Fluid they in. live and they commonly alter their Equilibrium. or as they pals to a Specifically lighter or heavier Element j for by taking in more Air. either fwims on the Surface or finks to the Bottom.. by which they let out and take in the Air.. to render them Specifically lighter or heavier. and fb fink fill or emerge as their Occafions prompt them. they become lighter than they were. and fb fink. which is under fome Degree of Condenfation.. naturally lay their Heads linger their Wings. d with Air. Birds moft and Fowls that fleep^ refting on one Foot to eafe the other.of Bladder Natural ^elision. that fo the Center of R 3 the . and by let and fo neceffarily emerge ting out fome.. the Fifli ever after. fuch to wit.

Thefe are wonderful Inftances of Divine Wisdom and Providence ^ but thofe who pleafe to will confult that noble Work of Borellfs. may grafp the Branch more ftrongly. without any Mufcnlar Contra&ion... may fall upon the Foot they ftand on^and the Animal be preferv d from overturning j and thofe Fowls that deep fo on the fmall Branches of Trees. which upon the compleat growth of thefe Bones.. a thoufand fiich Inftances^ relating to this Head alone of confift Mufcular Motion. that their Claws by the Gravity of their Body. ty d together by Tranfverfe ones. find to their Satisfaction.. after the manner of the Mnfdes ^ they are nourifhed by Blood Veflels which enter their Subftance at feveral Pla ces.. prc- ferv d .the Gravity of their whole Body.. are fo ftraitned as to admit only what is fufficient to repair their De All the considerably thick Bones cays. XLIIL The Bones compared of hard Fibres. are either hollow or and both fpongious^ forts contain an oleaginotft Subftance. incline a little backwards.

of fefv natural Veficks. whereby .. our Limbs had been in hazard of being dif- made jointed upon ev ry Occaiion.. Thereby the Arti ftronger^ for had they been leffer.. the Arm and Leg.. There are fevcral and ter R various . e. All the Bones are cpver d with a very fenfible membrane din little each large Bone. and Purpofes: For culations are i. or equal to the middle.. the Cen joint. 247 which by the Heat of the Body. By the largenefs of thefe TftJfirr&r^ it comes to pafs. JaeiiQton. that they dry not. and that for very wife Ends call d the Periofteuw. but this cou d be obuiiVd.. no other Contrivance pofllble. in the Articulati*OHS of the Shoulder and Knee efpecially.. more than a Semicircle which by.. and thereby grow brittle. is considerably bigger at the Extremities than at the middle.. is exhal d through the po rous Subftance of thefe Bones y to fupple and anoint their Fibres. /. is capable of moving round. The Tendon of Motion-. And 2. that in all the Revolution of the is kept at the fame diftan-ce of the Sevridiaweter of the Tubercle from the Center thereof.

348 ^t)ofopl)icai various manners of Articulations of the Bones into one another... wonderfully ted for the Motions of the feveral fit Mem ber^ one is like Ball and Sockgt. to move them. Now all thefe dif ferent Articulations are from the Neceffi- or Motion of thefe ty of the Situation The Bones in order to be the i$ones. cpmpos d . as was reconcileable with a fufficient degree of Strength..gt. that the Inftruments of Motion. by which the Bone can move equally any way .. and yet they are thaji if th?y ha4 (iranger by very far. ought to have been as light.&amp. snoft convenient that might be. . for he has made em light.. and that the mechanical Ma~ chin might not become a Burthen to now the wife Author of themfelves N&amp. might not re quire tpo great an Expenfe of Spirits. as the Thigh-Bone with the Ifchium^ others are by way of Charnal.*~ ture. by evacuating their middle Subftance. has wonderfully provided for this. as the Radius with the *Vlna^ a third are only ty d to gether by intervening Cartilages 5 as the Vertebra of the Back.lt.

equal lengths. or the firfi is twice as ftrong as the fecond.. two Bones of and of equal Number of that of is to the Strength of the other.lt. compos d one has demonftrated. as their Diameters fo that a hollow Bone of ^ double are -.. and exactly nice Geometry ufed by Nature in the Figure. to a clofe one of the fajiie Num ber of Fibres. or overcome any Rcfiftence.* of the Mttfcles elevate. by which the Vires Moti~ is v&amp.of Natural Religion* folid Cylinder. Connexion. BoreUi hath fhewn that thefe Bones are fo many Ve&es. the Strength of the one Fibres -.. There is a wonderful. This is moft confpicuous in thofe Animals that are form d to fly . cou d no othcrways be obtain d but by this Contrivance. how light and yet how ftrong. Order^ and Motions of thefe fiUars of the Body. is as 2 to i. of which the Center of tlv* Articulation the Fulcrum. it is wonderful. and move a- ny weight. ^nd pf their Cover the . Diameter. the Tendons are the Ropes... the Quils of their Feathers and their Bones are^ and this wonderful wife End.

what can be more wonderfully contriv d than the Backbone. had of one entire Bone. the wife Contrivances3 and prudent adaptati ons of thefe admirable Machines for the I (hall inftance benefit of the whole. whole wou d not have been pli- for the various Poftures to put our felves in. had been in hazard of being bruis d at ail quently in every ftooping j and confethe inferiour Parts. had bcei* perpetual hazard of being depriv d of the Inftruments of their Motions^ befides that the able. have If it had we . to {hew all the Necejfities.. then the Articu lations of thefe Bones in bending our Backs. i.the Muftles-. only in two or three proceed. without Articnlations ^ we cou d not have ftoop d or turn d. it were alone a fufficient work. Particulars... and then Then. but have gone forward like a Poft or a Pillar.. which made lends Nerves to all the Inferiour part of the Body. and fo the Spinal Marrow. had it been compos d of a few Bones only. muft have it been all a large Angle upon their innermoft edges..

this So that we fee. by which it obtains that Curvature that is fafeft for the included Marrow. we had not been capable of thefe Varieties of Motk ons that we now are. if each Vertebra had had its own proper Cartilage. that Medullary Subftance.. from being thruft backwards or forwards. we fhou more Benefit by it. or had thefe Articulations been after the manner of fome others of the Bones. *5 * of various Bones without inter d have had no vening Catilages. keeping the middle.of corififted natural Beligion. ty d by the Back for the Se common Cartilage. the Contrivance of were. than if it had been entire without Articulations.. the Ar* ticulations might have been cafily disjoin ted. the oblique greateft degree Proceffes of each Superiour and Inferiour Vertebra. that curity of runs down its Cavity . to hurt the Spiral . of the Body is the for by thefe beft that can be imagined as it Hulk many and what a plain fmall Articulations upon {bmeand fmooth Surfaces. and brings the of firmnefs . is bent after the manner of the Catenarian Curve.

thefe Proceffes force the Ribs to move upwards. might have all man ner of pofllble Motions j but the Vint and Cub it us is join d by way of Cbarnal. As I have obferv d be? fome Bones are articulated after the manner of Ball and Socket as the Humerus with the Scapula and that for this wife fore.. if infinite Wifdom were fuppos d to have fram d this part. whence the dilatation of the Thorax proceeds. Tranfaerfe Proceffes are. the Ribs fhou d wou d have mov d upwards and forwards^ than backwards.. 2.2 Wlofopl)icai Befides Spinal Marrow. But as they are now contriv d. End. that the that Arm . to keep the intermediate Vertebra from being thruft backward or forward. then there fon why have been no more reain Inspiration . had not the been fo plac d as they . Now can there be a more manifeft In* fiance of Council and Contrivance than this. and fo lift upthe-StowiM**.. Certainly.. it cou*d not have giv n a more pregnant Indicati on thereof.which cou d not dilate^ were there no Tranfaerfe or they otherwife difpos d. . Proceffes .

the Hand by the greater Strength in this Joint. that can con. that it could have by another of the fame kind in this other Articulation j and we fliou d have loft the Benefit of fiich it. Be- caufe the Tubercles of the Bones of the Fingers and Toes. for that Articulation of the Shoul der. becaufe thereby in grafping or fqueezing. thefe points of the Fingers which are at the Articulations^ cou d only come into contact cou d not be conveni Proportion to the middle with the Body fqueex d ^ and fo the Aftion cou d not be uniform..of ^atutai ffieligiotn a53 that this Articulation might be the more for had it been after the former ftrong. fift with the good of the whole. ently fo large in of thefe Bones as they are in others. Thus we fee. and by this fmalnefs of thefe Tubercles. Nature in thefe Motions lofes no Benefit in the feveral Parts. there was a hazard of bringing the direction of the A&ion of the Tendons of thofe Mufcles .. takes off the Neceffity of another having all the Motions. 3. manner^ we fhou d have had no Benefit thereby. here .

how carefully and ftrongly is that principal Organ of the Body.. or very near the Center of Motion whereby this A&ion wou d have been quite. fcnc d from external Injuries. the dire&ion of the whereby Motion of thefe Ten remov d always at the fame diftance from the Center of Motion. Now clcs... to ferve as fo the Tendons many pafs. and two very clofe and compact Membranes? What an infinite Multi- . had they not obferv dons. the Ojja Sefamoidota (call d fo from their Refem- blance to the Grains of Sefawntn) are plac d at the Articulations of thefe Bones.. to prevent this Inconvenience. which the Wit of Men cou d not have thought d them. quite through. of the Articulation. of. The fame Artifice is us d in the Knee. How wonderfully is the Brain contriv d. or almoft deftroy d.which contract the Finger and Toes. by means of the P at ella thefe are wife and noble Ends. by a thick Wall of hard Bone. about which at fome diftance from the Center of the Articulation .. are ^ XLIV. Pullies..

a hundred of which do not exceed one fingle Hair? How commodioufly are the Nerves. d down very remark that the Veins the fame Holes the pafs out. that ferve for four of the Senfes y and all the parts of the Su per/our Regions 3 feat out the ihorteft and fafeft ways through proper Holes in the Head? And thole that ferve the Infericarry is our Regions of the Body.. are in the Cortical and of begining Nerves in the Mepart.. Thcfe Veins alia do not run along by the fides of the Arteries ia the Braio.. as they do . Channel.. then upon any violent Motion of the Blood.a Bony able. log d in the Arte ries . their dilatation and pitlfatzou wou d cornprefs the Veins againft the bony fides of their Paflage. or any greater Quantity thereof than ordinary .. dullar Part.of Datura! 3&eit giott* ^$5 Multitude of Glands. at Arteries enter ^ for if do not they did. to the dcfhu&ion of the whole which by thcfe different Entries hlachin and Exits of thefc VciTels is prevented. And it jin.. and fo occafion a ft agna tion and extravasation of the Blood in the Brain.

do through all the reft of the Body.. its point to ward the left fide. the left the ... Boretti reckons it equal to the force of 3000 Pound weight^ Blood. into the Mufcles of involuntary Motioi^ which wou d have been hindfed if the Veins had always gone along with the Ar teries for thefe Veins wou d have receiv d the impulfe of the Arteries^ and thereby in fome Meafare kept it from the Nerves. pa and that 350 Pound weight of (es through the Heart ev ry Hour. for the Arteries here. and with what are its Columns and Furrows clofer is Contra&ion of turn d a little its Ventricles . and with what a Force does it fqueeze out the Blood into the Arteries . for thereby like a reclining inverted SiAuricle becomes lower that! pbon. Next how ftrongly is the Heart built. which is alfb another wife Contrivance of Nature ^ were by their dilata* tion to prefs out the Juice from the Nerves. How are its varioufly vmfcttlar and effe&ual for its end. for the more eafie a cent of the refluent Blood in the Cava . . Judgment for the difpos d ! Fibres arranged..

in this which is moft wonderful the different Stnt&nre of the Heart in the Fatus . Valvs themfelves. to the Trunk of Arteria Pulmonalk. fame the in from that of the In the Heart of adult Perfons. Batumi EcitQion. is feveral different for wife is Ends and Purpofes. by and Situation of Contrivance prudent And ev n the Figure of the the Valvs. But that Affair. that opens into the Vena Pulmonalis. 257 All the Auricles and Ventricles have Valvs . whereby the Blood has a in its true courfe forward y but paflage the fame wayis hindred from returning frequently happen.. is which Inconvenience this entirely prevented. w hich r runs from the Tmnl^ of theAorta.. and iscall d the Foramen Ovak^ there is likewife a Paflage.of the right. juft oppofite Y&tW) to the Mouth of the Cava afcendens^ there is a Hole from the Cava. which wou d to the Ruin of the Animal . Now the Blood which is receiv d by the Placenta from S the . in the Places. upon the equal prefjureof the Blood on all Hands^ and the Rcfiftance of the fides of the Vet (els.

the Mother. did . which carries it to the left Ventricle of the Heart./ obftrudHng that Courfe^ neither indeed.. whilft that which comes from the Defcendens. to be difpers d over the Body. fo that the Blood that comes from the Cava afcendenf. and falls into the right Ventricle.into the Arteria Ptilmonaltf. cle. is by the umbilical Veins car ried into the Port a. from whence the communicating Canal. by a Canal which goes ftraight from the Trnnk^ of the one. it is imme diately carried into the Aorta. from which it is fent to the Cava. in the FoetiM cou be- d not go through the Lnngs^ their Veficles by their coHipreffure upon the Blood Veffels. pa-ffes only through the left Ventri is The reafon of which caufe the Blood Paffages. by pafles only through the right Ventricle.. to the Tntnl^of theother^by the Cava it is thrown through t\\eforamen Ovalejnto the VenaPultnonali*. by which it is fqueez d into the Aor The ta. which throws it .. is diverted by the Ifthmns of file Cava from the for amen Ovale. Blood that comes from the Super iour Parts of the Body.

. And this is certainly one of the moft con vincing Proofs of Defign and Conafel. by : the communicating Canal And fo that dries up. after the manner already explained. the Valve of the foramen 0* vale is {hut fo. the F&amp.of Natural 2Mi0tom 25 9 did the Blood need to pafs through the nouriftied from Lungs. and by the current in the /Wmonary Vein. in her Lungs . that neceffities ! S a can . it all comes into the Air . for the different how of the Foetus .xtw being the Mother. that the Blood can no more pafs that way from the Cava. And through the Lungs fo finding a free Paffage it runs no more . is fuflicient for.. Now wifely are thefe different Channels for the Blood contriv d. but when ceiv d. before and after its Birth This is a plain Indication of fore-knowledgej and of fuch an one as no thing but Omnifcence. by the diftenfion of the Lungs. and is no longer nouriflied from the Blood of the Mo is taken off from ther j this preflttre the Blood Veffels .lt.. whofe Fluids had already rethe Advantages they cou d reap from the Air.

for to provide for an Event. But this is not the only Inftance of a Precaution. for it s evident. that in the natural Courfe of things.. that the thing was forefeen. by the wife Author of Nature rent Provifions are made. and confequently. without Houfe or Habitation^ and .. all the feveral Steps of the growth and Vegetationfioth of Animals and Plantsy have been forefeen. for thefe various a noble piece of Get?metry is manifefted in the Fabric^ of the Eye. feeing. and fore-deffgn d. and the Provifion defign d. diffe and different Circumftances adjufted^ Periods of their Lives. by fome intelligent Being. the animated part of this Syftcm^ wou d be but fo many PupfetSj tofs d up and down by Chance and Organ ^ Fortune. cou d not guard againffc it^ without the Benefit of Light. nor be forewarn d of approaching Danger.can pofllbly be wifh d for . and the manner of Vifion ! Without this XLV.. muft happen a long time after^ is an infallible evidence. What Animals cou d not provide themfelves with Food.

and depriv d of all the Pleafures and Con What a mifcrable veniences of Life. and refle&ed from the Surfaces of Opake ones . for feems impoflible that Light fhou d reprefent Obje&s to us^ at fo it 83 . they feem of fuch a Nature as fcarcely to allow any other Method. Thefe things are not only contriv d and fram d nited with fo great Wifdom and Skill y as not to admit of a better j but to any one who attentively confiders them. to be confined to per petual Darknefs. to tranfmit through them : that fine. State wou d it be. than that the Particles of Matter fhou d be (b fram d^ as by their means to {hew us the Shapes^ Portions.of Natural Religion. and Colours of re Diftantes. and u- on the bottom of the Eye.) Motions^ yea mote Bodies ? How wonderfully muft the feveral Coats and Humours of* this little Ball be difpos d. and never to behold the chearful Light ? the Mifery of fuch a Life is beyond Exprefllon and Conception And on the other Hand. what can be more amazing. which is emit ted from luminous Bodies. andfubtile Fluid.

Opake behind . hath little !&quot. to wafli and clean it. it is thick. which the internal fide thereof (which Sclerotic a. and fmooth. hard. d the ConjunQiva^ and jnakes the white of the Eye.. where it makes the third Coat call d the Cornea^ from its Refemblance to a piece of Transparent Horn^ it has a greater con vexity. The the Globe of the Eye is fpherical-.. that upon any toucli 3 the Tears might be fqueez d from the la chrymal Glands. The fecond Sclerotica. firil Coat is call r The fourth Coat is the Choroides it .fo vaft a diftance. an exquifite Senfe. fhou d be equally fitted for that end./- is . it is compos d of fix Coats and three Humours. -. And it feems impoflible that any other Compofition of the Eye. it lies under the Glands which feparate a black Liquor. than the reft of the Globe of the Eye. confifts of feveral Lamintf^ w hich are pourifli d by fo fmall Blood Veflels. but Tranfparent before . as to It is of obftruft very little of the Light. from the Qbjeft upon the Eye. but by the trartfmifll- on of fome fine Fluid.

..) The the which is nothing but the Circum it is ference of the P tip illa compos d of circular and ftraight Fibres. to let in more the more diftinft.. Circumference which rifes the Ligawemum forepart of the Eye is by whichthe d outward.of is ^atumi Belfgion. Light is 5 too ftro ng^ the Circular Fibres contraft the Papilla. which is called the fupilla^ for admitting the Light. to contrafl: or dilate. of too near Objefts. the ftraight Fibres dilate it. for the infide of the TiJvea from joins the Choroides^ Ciliare.Vifion. The fixth Coat is the Kttina^ which covers like a Net the bottom -of the}^ it is only a fine expanfion^ of the ^Fibres of the QpNerve $ upon this -Coat.. its On Rays. otherwife of a whitjih Colour) for dring the re$e$cd Light from difturbing the Pi&ures of Gbje&sthis Coat has a fifth is Hole before. that their Force hurt not the Eye ^ and when it is weak.. apd. at the approach. IJvea.. th^ Pifturcs of 84 prefs . according to the ftrength or weakfor when the rtefs of the Light.the Retina backwad^ or the Axe of the Eye lengthned.

of Obje&s are fram d. it is thicker than the Aqueous . the in^ midle point of any Objcfr. upon its back part^ is the F^etina fpread. Nerves are inferted Objefts. it is The it lies is fir ft Humour immediately thin and liquid^ and of a fpirituous Nature. had been vifible . Aqueow it is The the glaffy Humour. calFd the Aqueous^ under the Cornea . with that of the Retina. the ChryftaUine^ next the convex on both fides^ and refembles a double convex Lens ^ it is co vered with a fine Coat y call d Aranea. in fo much that it will not freeze in the greateft Froft. is The fecond . And confequently y had the Center of the Optick Nerves coincided.. infide in the of the Optil^Axes^ whereby the middle point of ev ry Objeft is diftinftly feen^ for the Center of the Reti na is infenfible. and thinner third is than the ChryftaUine^ it gives a Spherical Figure to the Eye. reChryjlalline quifite to receive the diftinft impreflion of The Optick. which it keepeth at a diftance from the Humour. as Monfieur Mariotte has fhewn by Experiment.

we fliall fee through it. which covers the backfide of the Retina. with that the the Obje&&amp. d fall on the infide of Rays both Eyes at the fame time.but by this lateral Infertion of thefe Nerves. becomes vifible . are the Caufe of Vifion. for looking then upon the back part of the Retina.. the Figures of external Obje&s painted upon its infide) and thefe Piftures propagated by Motion^ along the Oftic^ Now Nerves. and there to paint in the fame Order and Proportion. The light which comes from the feveral points of Obje&s.. The Cornea . ev ry part contribu ting fomething toward its Perfe&ion.gt.. what can be more admirable than this ftru&ure of the Eye . vifible in the other j fliou for it is impoflible. isforefra&ed (by the Cornea and ChriftaUineHumour principally) as to meet again upon the Retina. (as taking off that part of the is evi Dura Mater. of Room . and then placing the Eye a darkened in a fit Hole. dent by the Image thereof. from the Eye of any dead Animal. the point of the Objeft which is invifible in the one Eye.

. the Fibres of the IJve.Cormais more convex than any other part of the Eye.. to Mufcles protrude. eafie black.vea*. for the Expanfion more conveyance of th? Impreflion The Choroides is tinl:ur d to the Brain. the Hairs of the . when t. render it oblong. The OpticI^ Nerves are inferted on the infide of the dxes of the Eye. Ciliare contra&s.lt.break the dire$ Rays that . that the whole Objc& may be diftin&ly view d... according to the De grees glajjy of the Strength of the light... the Images are painted upon a Skin. by which all the Rays are ga thered. when Obje&s are too near .he Ligamentum or both the the Bulb of the Eye. and few of em loft on the The A*U&amp.a contract or dilate the Pupilla. to pafs through the Pupilla.. produc d by the of the Opticl^ Nerves. The Humour keeps the Retina at a due diftance from the Chryjlallin. queouf its Humour being either thin.Eyebrows. and fo confound the Obje&. that the Rays that pafs through it may not be reflected back again upon the Retiaa. eafily changes oblique Figure.

. between two Obje&s is meafurcd. to keep it from more pow erful Injuries. wall d with a ftrong Bone. thence arifing. funk in a Hole. The feveral refraftive Vir tues of the Coats and Humours^ ferve to correft the Errors arifing from the diffe rent Refrangibilities of the Rays of Light. when one Eye accidentally rendred ufelefs^ we enjoy the Bleflings of this fo neccflary ..of natural . however one Eye were plac d^ we cou d not diftinfily perceive them that fhou d be fituated toward the fides of our Body. Befidcs we cou d not diftingtiilh the diftance of Ob)efi:s by one Eyc^ for our two Eyes are like two the different Stations in Longimelryy the diftance by affiftarice of which. and fo cou d not guard our felves from the Dangers. As aL is fo. that they hart not the fight thofe on the Eyelids defend it from filth and light Bo dies that fwim in the Air^ the continual Motion of ty j Eyelids the Cornea^ elfe it it is moiflen and fweep woit d dry or grow dir . Our Eyes are double^ to (ccure both fides from Danger ^ becaufe if the Objects were near..

. have a Clufter of Semifpberical Eyeballs all Thofe Figure.. than that great deal of Land Animals . the greateft Diame ter going tranfverfly from fide to fide .. by the Benefit of the It is obfervable that the other. in the fame diftance. for oCreatures that by their ther reafons. have no Motions of their Neck. in thofe that feek their Food on higher Pla^ ces 5 its greateft Diameter goes from the top of the Head towards the Feet perpen different Figures be to the different neing wonderfully fitted dicularly. and thofe that feek their .neceffary a Senfe. thefe ceffities two of thefe Animals. coming In thofe Animals that Water. and that becaufe of the different refraKve Air. Figure of the ChryftaUin Humour of Fifties^ is a nearer to a Sphere. and living which fend in the Piftures of Objefts around them . through ga ther their Food from the Ground the Pupill is Oval or Elliptical. for that Vertue of Water from convexity which wou d unite the Rays of Light coming through Air 3 \vill not unite the fame fo perfe&ly at a point.

. the Laws of remov d that had the Retina been pricks farther &amp. or (keeping the Retina at the fame Diftance from that Humor) had it confifted of two Segments of a lefs or greater Sphere^ the Vifion had been indiftinft or none at all .of Natural ^Religion* the dark.gt. which refleds the light and enables them to fee beft in the leaft their ifi Food light j thefe are wonderful and furprizing Inftances. or had the Di ftance . and this we are certain of by our other Senfes. are of the iame real Magnitude our Eyes reprefent them.. have their Retina coloured white . whofe Organs are found they fhou d have been fb nicely fram d in all the infinite pofllble &amp. or brought nearer the Chriflallin Humor.gt. and under y as to reprefent Objefts at a due Diftance of their true and real Magnitudes. which Varieties over concur to demonftrate that Objeds at a due Diftance. of Forefeght and Connfel in that Being that fram d thefe Organs but that which to me fair^ is is moft furprizing in this A that in rational Creatures. Now all we know from from..

. which we cou d not have difcovered. we had feen Obje&s ev n at a due Diftance. bcfides that thus we fhou d not have difcovered the true Magnitude of Obje&s ^ which wou d have had a thou fand fatal Confequences. but by .. had our Eyes magnified Obje&s. or the Atom that we now fcarce take Notice of. wou d have ftancc 3 and we our View. but had it confifted of of Segments of Spheres^ leis or greater^ than thofe of our Chriftallin Humour^ that are at prefent.. the Precipice that perhaps was not many Feet from us^ might have appear d at Ibme Paces Di- have tumbled down^ ere we were aware. we cou part of them at once... which wou d have expos d us to a thoufand dangerous Miftakes^ for Example.270 ftance been fitted exa&ly in the Focus of the Chriftattin. and hindered us from taking in any other Objeft} in a covered all Word.. and twenty dange rous things might have been in our ways. either bigger or lefs than the Truth. any thing confiderad have feen but a very fmall bly.

of difadvantagious Fabricks of this Organ^ has fingled out that only one. and obftru&ed our ObSight ^ and had our Eyes diminiflhed jeb confiderably. we coti d have feen them but faintly and iridiftin&ly all mi nute Bodies wou d have vanifhed. and we might have been deftroy d by thofe which we thought at a difbnce. In one Word.. wou d have been able to have damn d up. he certainly deferves not to enjoy . and then ev ry little Particle. that was beft . our Eyes might have poffibly been form d 5 none of which cou d have brought with it^ the Advantages the prefent Strufture does.. the Blefllngs of his Eye Sight^ whofe Mind is fo deprav d. thor .as not to acknowledge the Bounty and Wifdom of the Au. .of by a great deal of Pains . there are Infinities of different Ways. Can there then be a more pregnant and convincing Evidence of the Being of an infinitely wife Power ^ who out of the infinite pofllble Varieties. likewife... fo that our Promuft have been flower greffive Motions. than thofe ofReptils..

and purifie our particular Modifications) wou d : Atmofyhere ^ by drawing it in we fitted to live. to be there form d into Snow or Rain. its and our Blood lations . yet neceflary Ufes our Vapours are fupported. and what can be more wonderful than that the fame Medium of Air. we enjoy the Benefits of Converfation ^ and the Pleafurcs of Mnjick^ and by it we are forewarned of thofe Dangers. in Feeling a general one. fhou d ferve us for fo ma By it ny different.the ravijbing and aftonijbing Stru&ure of this noble Organ. XLVI. and buoy d up to the higher Regions . is perform CircH* by it Sounds are convey d to our . this of It is by Means Senfe.. Hearing is the next Senfe in Dignity to Seeing^ (for I reckon his thor of Nature. our Eyes cannot inform us of. it s which fail our Ships. according to the Exigences of different Climates^ by Motion our Winds are produc d. of which the reft are only without which be our Lives very Comfortless.

The Internal Parts of the Ear are thefe. that have no Communi cation with the Air. one of which opens.. Paflage refembline m it T . the Head of Circle. and other Mcns Thoughts to our Minds. The Meatus Andit or his ^ which is a contorted Paflage for the out ward Air. coming in by the outward Ear. a thin Membrane^ like a Drum. and then are many Glands y which feparate a vifcid glutinous Matter.of Natural Bciigioti. which hinders Infe&s. ftretch d upon a It is behind which is the Barrel^ in the Cavity of which there are four little Bones call d the Hammer^ the Anwily the Stirrup.. i. In Bony Barrel there are fevcral Holes. or any hurtful thing. the Mouth. Next to the Barrel^ is the Labyrinth. here upward. 273 Ears. from corroding the Tynrpa?ntt& y which is a fecond principal Part of the internal Ear. behinds the Palate of this and receives Air to fupply thefe Cavities. which ends in the VejiibuhtM y and is follow d by the Cochlea^ which is a a Snail s Shell.. and the Os orbicular?. riming firft downward .

or ex ternal Ear.. after the fame manner is the internal Air mov d by thefe little Bones and this internal Air. Tywpanuni Drum. excites thefe undulations in it. and as k is accordingly is the Impreflion inade upon the Auditory Nerves. through the Air (the Sonorous Body ftriking the Ambient. the four little Bones that are in the Barrel..atus Andit or ms or to the . Air by many repea ted Vibrations. in the Labyrinth and Cochlea fo that as the ex-r . . and carried through the Me. makes $ anlmprdlion upon the Auditory Nerves. are thereby mov d and as the Drum is ftruck by the external Air. mov fo the. after the manner any heavy Body thrown into a (landing Lake.2/4 it Auditory Nerves terminate. raifes in the Water.. Now when any Sound is propagated in Undula the tions. to ftrike the in-* ternal Air after the fame manner. thus mov d. and all Apparatus feeins intended.. tcrnal Air ftrikesthe Druwfo does it move the Bones in the Barrel. Waves in a Circle round it) thefe are gathered by the Concha. to hinder d. on which beating.

for we find that too fudden^ and violent a Noife. which for Brevities fake I mult now omit. for the Conveniences of Life Had it been more exquifite. T 3 .Noife had been capable of difhirbing us. we fhou d have been in proportion thereto. Fabrick of this Organ be demonftrated of the fes.. Wou d have pirc d our Ears like a Peal of Thunder. then every little &quot. and the Morion of every little Atom wou d have rob d us of Reft and had this Senje been any thing confiderably more dull. and fometimes to diforder them fo^ as to Now how wife deprive us of this Seuje. is ftill able to difturb thefe (lender Tubes. deprived of all the Fleafures and ! Advantages thence arifing : fcl that it s e- vident our .Hearing^ is nicely adjufted to the Gonvcmencies and Neceilkies of Life^ which is a of Deftgn in the plain Inftance the fame might two remaining Sen.. ly is this neceffary and plcafant Senfe eontriv d. the buzzing of a Flie^ or the Noife of our own Breath.of Natural ffidigiotn the Sound from coming -with too great Violence upon theib Nerves.

not only in the Veins the Lymfhaticks. the Blood may . as before. but fhuting by the Preflure of the Blood in a contrary Direction. do one Trun^ whofe Branches communicate with one another. and thereby obftrufting that backward Motion... lyes. upon which it immediately the Chyle may be propell d upward.. but hindered from returning back. It is likewife remarkable. when any fmall Artery is obftru&ed or cut.. Thefe Valves are but in vifible.$M)ttofopl)icai all have before obferv d.. at any fmall Diftance from the Trunks. and obfervable that this laft Channel always goes up the left fide. Valves. of thefe Fluids. all thefe Valves^ opening toward the term of the Natural Motion. that by the Pulfation of the great Artery. by which their Fluids are per mitted to go forward. that the Canals except the Arteries have I XLVII. that all the Branches of the Arteries which go off... and with others.. in their Courfe.. the La&eals and it is DuStus Thoracicus-. that .and that for all unite again in this w ife End r ..

.than ^ to 7 : fru. to the primary Branches of the Ar and doubtlefs the odds is teries . than that of the fame at the Heart.. The Velo in the extreme Arteries city of the Blood is confiderably lefs. ftru&ion.of Natural ^Religion* the 277 may be brought by Branches. whereby it appears the Diameter of the Aorta^ does not bear a greater Pro portion.. and by which as was . or its Entry into the Aorta^ becaufe it is of thefc extreme Ar teries the Glands are form d them the fccretions Velocities are made.. Di* evident from : this curate Compendium y Anatwiy of Human Bodies I have always had recourfe where my Memory fail d me) has giv n us all the Branches of the Arteries to the ateat . to the Parts communicating below the Ob- which muft have otherwife been depriv d of Nourifiiment. has Nature been in the Stru&ure of the gal How Veins ! .. before demonftrated in the Blood require different to fecern the ^ different Fluids in thefe Glands minution of the Velocity is the Proportions Dr. greater in the fmaller Branches. (to whofe of the Ac Trunk. Ke/ll..

and foftop Pailage. for their widening Channels. Veins.&quot. large . that the for the fame ends and purpofes and having now Occafion Arteries did -. Bcfides. Branches of thefe linall the Horizon communicate with one another. Veins ! for becaufe of the lefs Preffure proportion the Arteries. perpeud/cnlar backward. which flick to their Sides like fo many Thimbles. are are tornits fill d. are endowed with Valves. not omit here the wonderful Contrivance feveral of Nature in the Pofition of the the Vterns j the Parts of the Ftfns in in the iirlt part of the time Skyll whereof and of its Geftdtioti being Very thin.$fttlofopi)ical of the Blood. Now thcfc Valves were ufelefs in other Veins. againft the fides of thefe wi the thicknefs of their dening Channels.. than thofe of Walls is in lefs. but the foreward Motion of the pres d bv Blood. it s Gravity afting laterally to the as in thofe . Occafion to the Blood to pufh back give no and not ward.. that only thofe Veins that nin perpendicular to the Hori-j^off. which when the Blood prdfles back. I can to fpeak of the containing Veffels.

it in a Direction that upward. Counfel and Forefight. and fo the Head becomes the heavieft place in the Body whereby it tumbles over. and acquires that Pofture which is fitteft for its Deli Thefe are fignal Inftances of very.of natural Beiigiom only Membranous. diffidently to wit that are wonderfully wade. a Cloib. XLVIIL Having I think made out that great Truth.. in the Formation of thefe Organs and parts..already fwell d to a far greater Bulk . and fo to put a Clofe to this Chapter. but about the time of its Delivery the Skull and hardens^ the Limbs and Members ft retch out. I now come to make a few general Obfervations under one Head. though I have at a few of thofe Inpointed only ftances that we the Animal Fabrick and Oe~ conowy affords. the Thorax and Abdo men with the Limbs are fo dispos d as to make Fluid the Head always emerge out of the or at leaft preferves it is ftill it lies in. with its Face to toward it s Mothers Belly.... but I haften to thickens.. has .

the Infitiency of the Cawe!.. and are more produftive of their kind than others. Plants. than Foxes or Lyons-. and the Alka and fome lays but other Sea Fowls. two Eggs. than the fitnefs of ev ry Crea ture for the ufe we make of him ? The of the Elephant. What is more admirable. while other more curious and nice Plants will only thrive in their proper Soils: Thus Hens^ Gecfe. and is are found in moft Places. and the Pheafatit hath fifteen or twen and thofe which lay fewer. Corn is the Produft of all Soils. that thofe Animals. and Conies. and Climates.. and are of Food.. as the Woodcol^ and the Dove. Thus Iron is found almoft every where.. and Minerals.gt. and Turtles are more produHve than Crows or Jackdaws. are fuch as will grow almoft in every Soil and Climate. that are of moft life. whereas the IV tridge ty &amp.280 Bulk than I at firft defign d it.. but one. and Advantage to us.. and Hares. lay oftner. nioft value for for . fo long employ docility ed in War. thus a Crane. It is very remarkable. which is but fcurvy Meat.

. fince their (lownefs allows them time to dwell as Snails and Moles longer on an Objeft. tl iifelefs .. and there by fo well fitted for our life frugally and Service ! How ufelefs has Nature avoided any Cir-. as Fifits and other Inhabitants of the watery Element.of Natural SRtltgien* for travelling in the parch ferts^ d and dry De- the gentlenefs of the Sheep. thefe other \Vou d beufelelk.. and Swiftnefs of the Horfe. it being ufclefs to fuch. that have no Ears have no Organs for making a noife with^ becaufe \vanting Ears. the Cleannefs. when the cumftances of the Animal wou d haverendred ern Fo ? Thus thoFe Animals that are (low of their Nature. have no very quick fight.. thofe Animals which have Teeth on have but one Stomach.. Thofe Animals alfo. whofe Breath * Foam.. Beauty^ Strength.. Sd alfo. and ev n Excrements are fwcet. Expcnce of Organs. have brisker Eyes^ and a more as Hawkj and quick piercing fight ^ Hares. but thefe that are enclow d \vith a quicker Motion. b* caufe thefe Teeth render more Stomachs both Jaws.

who numbered all our a and appointed them out their feyeral Ends and Uies v I am afraid will flpt.fe who I will not be canvinc d by the Inftances that there is have brought doms of parrs. the Crop. and in all granivorous Birds.asinBeafts. thcPattch^ the Read and the Feck. the Echinus and the Gi^^ard... the God who rules in the King Earth. and a thoufand fuch Inftances of Wisdom . Thefe. Bat tho.^i)ilofopi)icai ufelefs and thofe Animals that have no upper Teeth or none at all.. and confequcntly can have no has not fo great Ute for much dexterity^ well q. Counsel ^ and Meliority in the Contrivance arid Fabrick of the feveral Animals .Brains. partiqn to his Body than any other w* mal. have three Stomachs to fupply the want of thefe Teeth. A Man which has a bigger Brain in prq. fiiap d nor eafily applicable a Hand. may be gathered by any one who will cpnfult the V/ritings of natu ral Hiftorians. has a better and more eafiiy manage able Hand ^ whereas a Mortice that has littie .be prevaiKd upon by thofe behind* THE .

attain to are fome we Labour. for us to extend poffible Faculties. are as really bounded and circumour Bodies and chat it is as imis . TT 1 T as JL fcrib d..5t If we drive to enlarge it. beyond all Difpute.lt. in vain things. we perceive nothing. CHAP. but Darknefs and Confufion : We may (boner Aaa be able to accem- . that we all our Endeavour. our Intellectual as it is determined Limits. for us to add a Cubit to our beyond their Stature . in vain we Struggle. There can never by a perfect Comprehenfion of. the Eyes of our Underftanding are capable of but a limited aperture^ and of receiving but a bounded Obje&amp. that our Minds and Capacities. Of Suture ) of Finltenefs and and the Limits of Human \. r . the IV.

Figures and Numbers. that almoft all jufteft and evi Men. how fome Exiftence notwichftanding. whofc things can be. and where he muft be contented to be ignorant. Magnitude or Quantity in the Abthat of is which we have the clearis eft Apprehenfions. than be able to con ceive. and moft diftindt. The Reaion agreed in their Conclufions ot which is.and comprehend. in a proper Method. who have apply d themfelvcs diligently to difcover. the Proper have ties of Lines. Preju dices which generally give the for Byafs. to our Reaionings 5 and yet all this. and have the lead Influence on our Paffions. we are forced it becomes a Wile Man to diftinguifh between what he can really underftand. our Minds can never concei^ Interefts. to allow 5 and fince it is fo. and not . II. in a Circle of a Foot Diameter. are both the fimpleft. that the Notions and Ideas* of : rhefe things. leaft compounded.accommodate a Line of ten Feet. as it dent from hence.

e. beyond which all is palpable Darknefs. there is a Non pita ultra. . but ftill there arc which we can never at tain. one of whofe Ex definite right Line. both whole Ex finite right An itremities arc determin cl or given. indefinite. infinite An which is both ways a Line with no Extremity at i. as to be able to reach Heights that may feem furprifing to thofe that do not apply themfelves to fuch Matters . tremities is not the other given. cotnpreheads a a a . e. and profound Ob- fome things. or a that right Line. We may ties. to fcurity. III. Thus an equilateral Triangle. that.of Natural aHeUgfom nor our Imaginations form an Idea of an unlimited or boundlcfs Quantity. all. Circle of a given fide A or Radius. a right Line with but one Extremity. indeed improve either of thefe Facul by Study and Induftry fo far. that Bounds or Limits are given is or that j whofe which bounded on all poffibie (ides infinite chac which is bounded or limited no way thus a Line is that. . but $ i. We may call finite.

from the other. how great greater loever 5 for whatever Quantity always ex ceeds.4 but of an hends a given or finite 4re a fide or Radius. an nt/wil* Solid. we muft I tome Mark or Rule. of a given Solid . from its /?o- Jitive Properties. think. telling its effential we are forced to it is de- by than what it it. to diftinguifli is have the one none. but of fide or Radius. nor apprehended. makes a an infinite fide or Radius. infinite Area y asalfo or Sphere. [cribe fpeak any not. equilateral /zw&amp. muft how can have no Notion of any real Quantity but with the Degrees thereFinite and Infinite ot IV.e But ^ecaufe it Infinitenefsis of that Nature. in al- low d an to fpeak fo) an Cone. is more than this. that neither can be defin d by us.gt. all poffible Degrees of Finites. by Attributes. thing diftindtly a bout the Na what ture ofFiniteneJ* or Jnfinitenefs.gt. fince we great foever. ( if one may be finite &amp. . rather And feeing before we can is. that infinite always than any -finite Quantity. be Infinite. there certain.

or this infinitely Grcat^ in refped of that. how refped: of foever : great in any thus finite the Space contained between the Jfymptote of fome Hjperlokids . refped: Thus any thofe infinitely Lefs. of one In* or infinitely lathe. yet infinitely Great. finite at a Diftance finite from it. whole Angles of . lin d dngky is infinite in refped of the cir And there are ocular Angle of Contatt ther Curves in infinitum. in infinitely Orbits. of an infinite A a a 3 . CwtaEi are as in infinitely Lefs. which is infinite. finits.of IV. and a Line par olid thereto. than circular ones. infinitely Lefs : thefe there are Gradations in infinitum. we the fliall afterwards demonftrate.. %- re/ped: another Quantity. There is are two ICinds . The other Alfoiute. Thus their Motions of the is the Centri petal Force. of the projeflile Force. each of and of themof right of which. is tho infinitely Little. is in* in refped of the finite Space. in in felves. Quantity. which only great Quantities in Infinite . ^Planets. fmall *Porlions of in refped: is infinitely Little.

Numbers. and become the fame may be quently will then finitely Great. as infinitely Great. comprehended between the the Curve. and confeinfinitely infinitely Great. alfo Small ones. in refpedl true of infinitely Lefs. correlatives. fo is that.infinite fion Length. and infinitely Small. of infinitely And what is (aid great Quantities. diftinft (Pitturet. in or Space refpeft is of the place of Body. ^ and finite V. is to finite. and therefore Univerfally. as alfo. are the moft fimpl&amp. to an infinitely fmall Part of this infinitely fmall one. as finite to an infinitely fmall Part thereof. infinite an Number were thing. for if an in fmali Quantity. and confequemly the] would be fo likewife of infinite ones. Infinitely Small . Thus the ExpanAfymptote and of the Univerfe. or Smaller.lt. may be a Relative finitely of an infinitely infinitely Great one. is infinite. we muf confide . to an infinitely fmall Part there fo is finite of. in refped of other in Greater. or^fprefentatkns. is affignable j Bu feeing fuch a impoffible. o\ Quantities.

we can never actually go thro thefe infinite Additi e. by fuch ano ther Number. of fuch a Number. fo many times. we (hall have the Progreffion. And becaufe a conftant Addition. if we add we fhall have as great perpetually to icfelf. and go on in and or diminifliing in incrcafing. infinitum. how finite great foever . i. e. and if we con finite tinue thus adding in infinitum. a* Number as we defire. a a$ by perpetual Subtra&ion.of any finite determined Number. may may be more by fome one or more Mul Like wife. we fhall have an in* Number. therefore what be had by a perpetual Addition. confider thus frame our Notions of infinitely how great unity otfmall Numbers . eafily obtained. Aaa from any finite 4 . join d together. is increased or diminifh d. or the Repreientation of -the Nature. whofe Sum at laft would be equal ties. to an infinite Number of Uni or other finite Numbers. tiplications. is a Mul equivalent to tiplication of fuch a Number. we (hall at laft have a Number greater than any finite one. ons . i. Thus. becauie But Virtually. not actually. of a determined Number.

may be alfo had by Divifion. here it is to be obferv d. VI. how fmall foever. And becaufe Divifion only a perpetual Subtra&ion of fuch ^Number. how fmall foever. would at laft exhibit them. loever. we flhould obtain a Number. of one or more we fliall at laft obtain a re finite mainder. tum. fmaller then any finite Number. equal to any Number. e. fb many times as the Divifor implies.8 finite Number how Great unites. if (uch a thing were to be obtain d. finite upon given Numbers-. i. finite not that thefe Operations. fo by fiich a Subtraction per petuated in infinitum. . therefore. an infinitely is fmall Number. whatever Cafe by Subtra But ction. in any time. lies in the infinitely perpetuated arithmetical Operations. that the whole may be obtained in this Force of this manner of generating an infi nitely great or fmall Number. can a&ually compleat or exhibit the infinite Numbtr re But that thefe continued in infiniquired.

of $atut ai Religion* Vf. or Quantity may be once added to itfelf. of ge tradi&ion. (as fome have thought) is evident from both the ways juft now mentioned. which may reprefent any infinitely great or fmall Quantity whatfoevcr .gt. and if a finite Number. 6tion it and confequently it implies no Comradiition it fhould go on conftantly. Number greater Number. at leaftic implies no Congain. in being added ta and the Sum of all itfelf. e. it may be again added to itielf. you may do it atiply and again. implies no Contradi- fhould be again. thefe. in nerating an infinitely great or (mall Number &amp. tradition. and again. and a would make you can mul a Number by itfelf. That infinitenefs implies no Cqpits Import or Significarion. it may be ftill i mulciply d or another Number and To it by im plies . in infinitum^ third time. itiliouldbefomultiply d^ and after an affignabie N^m^roffuch MultiAgain. if any finite an infinite Number. plications^ itfelf. how great foeverj a than i. for whatfoever has once been.

one. of Geometrical mean Proportionals. Likewife it s certain that between any two given Terms an Infinite Number. are ~ 5 ~ ? 5^c - Befides. and the Truth s difcover d by poffibility of infinitely Methods. then any finite. e. Sum is and the mean themfelves. at the rate fince the of 2 is and Sum can imply no Con* tradition . the Parts there and an &amp. the depends upon and fmall gveat. equal to Unity . can imply no Contradiction. infinite Number of mean whole Proportionals Proportionals in the ratio of a to i.gt. i.io plies jtMnlofopiiiral no Contradiction. greater ver. and univerfally betwixt -and o. . which depend upon thefe Sup- positions. and the Sum of all which Products. the whole abjlraEl Geometry . how great foe- Number. infinite an fince can affign their Sum . would make a Number . affignablc. it fliould be ftill the Produft of going on in Multiplying all which Multiplications. thus be twixt ~ and o the Sum of an infinite we Num ber of to is i mean (Proportionals. Quantities.

Univerfe from hence. is evident is the termination of right Line. and Quantity to That the Extenfion. of allowing is evident from the neceffity both Extenfion and Duration to be boundbe infinitely Divifilefs. of the ble for. Inftances arc quainted needlcfs. that whereever we flop. from the Limiting Poinc. two Diftances in the one going forward. in thofe that are throughly ac with this Science. arc confirmed $ Hefitation. for in Extenfion. will convince us. for every Limit is boundlefs. . there muft be ftill further Extenfion . i Contradiction in . fince whoever does underftand this. thefe things. But that its hfinitcnefiy involves no Import or Signification. need not be told VII. there muft be Extenfion beyond thefe Li mits. the end of one Part of it . and whereever our Imagination may place the Limits of the Extenfion y of the Univerfe. the other backward. to allow of any pofitions.of by other which have other Foundations and they are too well fupported. fame yet a little further Reflection.

. is ffiijtiofoplncal the beginning of another. equal Sphere. and fo it go on without Bounds or Limits. may be found Moreover. and the Radius of a Sphere equal to this Cube. equal fide. is the Product of the fide of of a finite the Cube multiply d. as is well known . may be found equal to any finite Content whatfoever. for a Cube meter. if the muft Extenfeon of the Univerfe is then a Sphere of a finite Dia finite only. nite Let us then fiippofe the whole fi to the Exttnfion of the Univt rfe. into the Cube ^oot of -| of the parts & ratio of the^^w to the Grcumi ference. to it.2 it.

As to Duration. will only touch the Sphere in the Point A. may be drawn. by which there will an extended Diftance re between the Circumference of the Sphere and the Tangent in all their Points ex cepting one. Sphere. the reft falling without it whence it s evident. great foever. it s certain from the Elements of Euclid. be the Circle ADFE-.of Natural Religion. of which only the Point A falls upon the from Circle. is ic s evident the Extenfan of the Univcrfe finite greater than it any is 2. 1 5 whofe QfaJiiM is A ft. evident^ tharit both has been without a beginning. and muft be without an end. that to any gi ven Point At a Tangent A C. that there muft be Ex. or che Sphere by the Sedion of which it is generated . of every main. tenjioH without this Circle. of admitting fome real Being to have been for ever. finite Extenfanhow Exttenfon. and fince this is true. for whether thisUniverfe had a beginning or not. fince a plane paffing through this Tangent. . yet time or Duration muft have for ever been 5 there is an abfolute nccefiity. let this Sphere be cut by a plane through its Center. and the Se&ion.

have already demonftrated. fo many different Principles. &amp. the is fo and demon there incom- menfurability . fo that it s evident. Befides. has been for ever .& poft. Duration muft be infinite both a farte ante. when time was not. as the Schools fpeak. whatever Scheme of &amp. therefore the Duration of this thing muft for ever be . the very Suppofition. and confequentever.Philofopby we go upon. in the preceding Chapters . and muft be infinite. wherefore Time or Duration. nothing actually exifting.lt. for we cannot fuppofe a time. as I ly the Duration of this Being. is. is the common one. from the that from were plain. destroying itfelf. and fince fome real thing muft for ever exift.lt. The infinite Divifibi5. needlefs to dwell it. lity were there of Quantity it ftrated upon moft perfect and unavoidable Proof of. yet rime could not be faid not to exift.

lt. y^D to tht Diagonal &amp. that ding the fide AT) into Parts equal.lt.gt.lt. 5(A/w are Similar. fo that impoflible before an adual infinite Divifion of the fide A to find a Part in D&amp.of Bdigion. Since the 7H- 4H/w is ^D. thatfhould have to (P/&amp.gt.. fmalifoever divi how fliall T p.I(m ^ 2. let men/urability of fufd Quantities..gt.BD. whofe Diagonal is !B theft is the fide 2. Aft Z&amp. CD be a Square.Pp &amp. as i: V from whence it s plain. as be to Mm. any . i yet to ftill or &amp.

or Qua lity of a real Being. Finitude and infinitude. that taken a certain finite.gt.any fuch Proportion as either Integers. it is to fame Subfttntive j thus jjoyn d in finite . involve and Conception. I e. fliould equal if DS exactly. or frattions have to one another. in being further divided. infirittum j that neither Great. fignifying finitenefi unboundednefe of the Property. or they do not fignifie really Beings. but the Modes. and / Mcalures of the Affections of Things thj is an abftrafl jfenw. and that from all which. divided in capable of is and confcquently AD. involves any Contradiction in their Import or VIII. it is abbefore an adtual infinite folutely impoflible Divifion. it s very evident. Things in themlelves. Signification. does not imply a real Idea. or even infinite Nunber of times. but like all oiher till JdjuhBsj. nor infinitely infinitely Small. to find a part Tp in the fide AT). yet !B ftill on. nothing in their Import but the Degrees of the Properties of Things . were T&amp. ever fo fmall Parts.

fince there infinites I of feveral Kinds. which deftroylily cd the Nature of a created The Being.of Natural Beltgtom finite JKjiotffledge. are of things. they thought muft neceffabe io in ieveral others. unli mited Exttnfton. endowed with yen cerabfurdity. any one Property. or paint an Image their Imaginations j others have thought. of the firft. I have fhewn in the two falfity infinite becaufe whatever was in former Seffions.. but Infi intelligible Properties nity is till its a vague and undetermined Notion. and endlefs Duration. . may be which may have no B b b . that there no Creature. that 5 any Quality. \? or infinite Wi/dom. infinite in is Degree tain it is. is and tho I am of Opinion. that there no I there fhould be fuch. Import is determined by the Addi . but upon immediately it muft belong to thefirft Be fo could not ing. and belong to a Crea ture. tion of a proper Subject (brine Perfons have thought that Infinitmfs was a contra dictory Term. irs prehend thereof becaule they could not com Extent. that nothing could be capa ble of having Infinity afcribed to it.

perty. or Du~ ration. either finite all or infinite : Wherefore there is no Impoffibility . but unlimited at the o- ther. lidity all does Impenetrability. imply Thought. and Length. as Extenfion does no way .8 no Relation another : nor Dependance upon one Thus a Line may be limited at to. j . may have infinite Length. and have neither Knowledge. nor im ply any Degree of that other. fome do not at imply others. . or the mundan Space. but when a finite Degree of any one Property. nor Wifdom fome Proper as So ties involve fome others neceffarily. and yet have no other real Property and Time. may be boundlefs. implies the infinite implies the infinite . one Extremity. nor Motion. and Breadth. does not at imply any Degree of another. the infinite Degree of that Property. but thus alfo a finite Thicknefs or Profundity the Extenfion of the Univerfe. does not at all alter the former Cafe. a Parallelogram but of a may be of an infinite a Solid finite Breadth. Knowledge and when a finite Degree of any one Pro a finite Degree of another. may be eternal.

fecond Chapter Time and no real things. Natural ffiel&totu or Abfurdity. tho per* B bb 2 haps endow d . Being. which other fuitable Qualities. implies many have fhewn in the laft Article of the it . nor compleat SubS/&amp.dce. which quire alters the Cafe . I do not here deand eternal tcmine 5 whether Extenfion. and yet be fince infinite in its Knowledge implies neither nor Reflexion.gt. for eternal Dura tion implies no other poficive Quality. provided thefe do not imply others which deftroy the Eflence of a Creature And this Univeife may be infinite -. unit to have been from all lefs we fuppofe Eternity of tt felf. may be the Immenjiiy and Eternity is of that firft with all great Being.of bility. for the neceffary Exiftence of a from as I thing other Qualities. As alfo this World may have been from all Eternity^ and yet have been created. a created Extenfion.are fiftences. infinite Duration.. they are only the Modes and 0Vcumftances of other things. nor any of the Extenfion Properties of fpiritual Beings. that a created Being in their Oiould be endowed with fome Qualities Degree. fdf. but in effect.

finite conceivable.Extmfion and thought. infinite in their Degrees. exhauftible ? infinite inexhauftible. infinite boundlefs.which do not neceflarily in maintain. can mutually exceed one another from whence it is evident. Finite* and or things of a quite Light and Sound^Coloun &ndMufick. is. which by finite Multiplications. or Subtraftion thefe and that finite can nei nor fubftra6fced from w/zthat are of the fame things . only kind are capable of Addition.20 ^pofoptncai $?inctplcs be abundance of Reaion to . different Nature. they have few or no common Qualities. haps. that finite $ is no part of infinite. ther be niteJiQi added to. infinite incomprchenfible. to one another. that Abfurdity in admitting Creatures all I volve thofe others. no/* nite Addition norMultiplication of fimtesj&n produce an Proportion infinite. there may lead one to think fo there is no to be endowed with fome Qualities. IX. like Infinites ones finite finite $ and very many quite contrary is bounded. are Difparata. that deftroy the Being of a Creature.not has finite to infinite any for thefe only have a aflignable Proportion.

The fame little is true. nor fubtradt infinites. the other. 3 But in Bbb . &amp. in that of the Cubes. ib likewife not zddfidites to. becaufe no finite Number make an infinite^ nor any finite part of an infinite make a finite. as no parts of the thing we fearch for. of is fquare An infinite Quantity. in refpeft of thofe of a lower. can make you can em from offinftef.of you cannot add Cows to Horfes. the lower to be rejeacdj in the Aritbmetick of the higher kind j thus the Root. becaule no Number. ( mtdy Small) ?n infinite of the lowert kind and a then in the Arithmetick of fuch either infinitely Great or infi* is the fame. for when the Proportion between any kinds of infinites.as no parts of the Qjt&fitum . all infinites are to be thrown away. wherefore in the can drithmetick of the one. in the dritbmetkk of the Squares of infinite Quantities .5tion. fo like- wife in the Aritkmtick of finite*. of a higher Rank. of any infinitely great or Quantity. and the Squares. is to be thrown away. and fo in the higer Powers. the other is to be neglefted.lt. nor pare of the one. as that between finite^ infinite*.

fo&amp. by none of the Faculties. by reafon that the Produdt of the of two Fractions. isabfolutely incomprehenfible. can we in a attain to the pofitive Properties.lt. the laft is always to be rejected in the Arithmetical Operations of the firft. nor any of the Operations of the Mind. and therefore is no mean in Arithmetical Operations. The pofitive Nature of Infinites. I the latter. of Addition and Subtraction of thele Quantities.gtfjiiofopitfcai $tfncfpies in infinitely fmall Quantities. wherethan lefs to ob ever the Proportion of infinite finite tains.5lors. we can neither frame a Picture to ourfelves. be- caufe no finite Multiplication of Part of that. this can produce the former. is always Multiplication of the But either Fa&amp. the contrary obtains. fo we can neither exhauft the Con tents . arc li . ginations and Apprehenfions are finite. both our Ima pacities. nor form a Notion of Infinity our Me mories and our difcurfive Faculties. by finite Ca fuch as ours are. mited. X. or cffcntiaJ . nor run over the Parts of Infinites^ word.gt.

that the natural Enlargement of our Minds. come diftinftly to conceive as the greatcft finite Numbers. time of our Maturity Facility. as our Minds enlarge. to the natural of our Minds. came at hft to be infinite. as eailly. Numbers all finite ( the moft adequate Pictures of Apprehenfion. as we now do the leaft. as we well do now finite ones . of their Nature. we then fliould conceive. ends . flies little and that is all that Study and Application does. and if our Capacities did conftantly enlarge and encreafe. Bbb 4 far . cility with much if Fa and our CompnlMnfions. the pofidve Na ture of infinite Quantities. and us with variety of Objects j but adds Vigor. in to give us a furniconceiving things. we are capable to advance. is the laft thing we attain to.gt. and that a di(Quantities ) of their pofidve Qua Relations. fo that they are very &amp. but we know very commonly.of ffiatutal Beligfon* tial & 3 Attributes of in Infinites. at the and Capacities. when we are Children. We fee for Ex- emplc ftinft lities. or Force. we might per haps. and our Undcrftandings open.

$J)Sofbpj)fcai . for it s certain.. fince it is abfolutely impoffible for us to ftretch our beyond their prefcrib d Limits. i4 . that infinites have to one aCapacities.-. -.&quot. fuch as greffion. which we can attain to. ______.. for all the Proportions that finite* have. an as n. it For is the more diftind Appre Infinites hending. we fliotiid diftinguifli Number of which. ther all and that in a regular. io as to it be able to conceive. Quantity of equal Parts. nother.. an flitutes the infinite. Since then thus is. the relations of neceflary to one ano the Parts. to improve that Part of infinites. and that is their relative Nature. or the finite Relations of infinites to one another. far from arriving to that Strength.. . fuch has to an infinite Quantity of equal infinite \&amp. we muft be contented. con* infinite Now thefe may be ei unequal. Parts fuch as Unity._. i t. the Proportion that n has to XL ther.. Pro* +1 +3+4 +5i &c. i.gt. the pofitive Nature of Infinites. with any probability of Succefs. fince we can never comprehend the pofitive Nature of Infinites.

of which. who(e Parts infinitum are 2. and CXD a Numinfinite of indetermin d equal Parts 5 then | will m . i.&c. or z 4- i -^ i -}- . i + f y alto let 2 QO 4.. conftkures the infinite. fake. in infinitum. or they may go on in any Geometrical Profinite. an infinite Number. or as the Roots of fucb Powers.o &c. or any other Powers of Natural - Num Numbers. C0fej. &c. as turn. infinite. grefiion aicending or defcending from or the Parts may have no in- of which the infinite Number. regular Progreffion : all thefe Varieties may happen in the Parts. &c in may be e- in infini- +z 4. ininfinior QQ 2 ovoo x ^ in fignify er an infinite Number. Or the Parts. infinitum j for Diftinftion nify finitt oo an infinite Number ( reprefenc or figof Unities or /#- I would be underflood always. i at laft con- ftitutes or reprefents the i quai. when I do not exprefs its in fmall finitely Parts. let 2. laftly. where the Pares that at laft con&itute. the infinite. this I here declare once in general^ for fo for all) or oo turn i = 4. are as Natural bers ? or thefe Parts may be as che&fftirif.2 4.

5. alfo oo x oo = oo i * is an infinite i Number x of oo or V+ &*c. which is i. Addition.. and infinite the indefinite Power of an forth. IDO+OO 2 5 = oo 2 4-2^=oo. Number of Unities. 004 oo z . whole infinitely fmall cjual : with one ano with Infinites. this and the whole dritbmetkk of and of Finites deduced .or the infinitely fmall part of an infinity of Unities. may be Infinites all Infinites Parts are e- thus. oo 3 4. oo = oo a -}- 20Q K) = . + + oo oo 3 likewife oo x oo Infinite or the Cube of an oo * is Number and fo of Unites. S C H Article L I U M. = oo J oo ^ + ^ = 00 . oo e.16 ^DflofopDfcal Wnctptes will be equal to*.-^^^ the Ninth. i? r= \j^j z and ^= \J*J a. having firft reduc d to thole. From ther.

izoo .00 = 00 1 . co * -|- oo = OQ lefs n and ob * -}- oo *~&quot. ^oo 3 00=003. oo P~^ oo ? . Let be than n by any finite oo Quantity. co i or oc 700 _ 5 oo = 1 oo -a /? 900? 500^= 400 x *. 1 4X. oo oo ^ x 4.. MultipKcatton. .006?! GOJ 004^=00 2. oo 4 x ooe = 4eoo 3004x400^= = oo 6. f = oo &quot.Batumi aaelfgton* 2 = oo 4. z 3 -|- oo 4-x Z 4. 007 ^ 3. 00 ^ 5 _7zz:oo ^00^ _400^=:^_^00^. 5 .=:00? let 004 ^ then oo ? -^. 4^004 aO ? C0^~. oo x 4 -J-oo 3 oo a. 00x5 oox oo^oo 1 and o * 00^x00^=00 ^ +1. oo 5 -f oo 00 z ~ oo . = oo ]. then Subtraction.oo 104 17J * 024=007^.

28 fiivifon.* J 5* k OO ^gr = 59/ 4-1* oo i* ft C3 Fractions.gt.!? ~l ^ 00 /I ? &quot. ~ oo or oo ~. XII.&quot.&quot. tick. will cafily Underftand the Truth and Realbn of theie Operations. f ^ oo ^ oof JtHt -2 ^ J 5 ^7 5^5- . QO * =* f ~ &amp. 2- oo P * I *&quot.lt. ^=OO P ^53 ^. oo 2* f 7 = &quot. Now to illuftrate this Ariihne- in Tome few Problems let the firft be th^c of the Sum of an arithmetical Trogrefto j from having the firft Term in y y = a* . Q ^ X OO a P M f O^f e ? -. 5 * ct ^ = oo 2 ry&quot.&amp.5 | + co A = co ~ A ^oo ep . 00- ^ Thofe who are ever fo little acquainted with the Speeious Arichmetick. O 4.

by the Rules of Addition ) And the infinitely (null equal Part of fuch a t Sum. when uncertain &amp. the fame for pens the = o and ^ = oo &c. in infinitum =^ 4 i oo i x oo i = ( by the Pvules of . be ( if I ginning at a. } Lee \si fignify. is u* ^atnral fttUgfon* and the Common theiaft = &amp. then y = #* -f- v e -\- TT&quot. all i . hap or oo ) if ^ (^ f a or oo ^ . Sum i of a whofc or firft i Series.gt. and Roping at M/zwte may be allowed to (peak fo) vi%.. giventhe Difference of two Quantities equal to e. infinitum) is e- qual to ~\ or the natural Numbers. 4- 4. and the i Numbers. of natural Term is d.= d.and v ( = o} then j-== ~l^^i^ ^.x&amp. laft is cxs ^ 4. i Exemple.i or an Infinite Number of U- nities. which as is greateft. If ^ ==oo.gt. of ^9 Dif ic ference.lt. o 5 &c.

gt. infinitely Rules of Addition) fmall and the ^ ^ = co ( or oo i ) equal part of fuch a bum.Multiplication. had been then had been equal to IfJii^. if a 0. fhould have their Sum .^=^0 = i f then &amp. thus if in^f might be in an Arithmetical Progreflion. = Difference.. t henj=^-.= oo 5. d ootfj V = = oo = oo /?. where a be put to a equal finite Quantity. Number of halves. is equal to an infi nite Number mean * of Five s.. ) or &quot.gt. or the Sum of all the poffible Arithmetical mean Proportio nals. for Exemple. for Example.= -&quot. if 0. we fuppos d. (by. i =: ~ .the infinitely is fmall equal infinite part of fuch a Sum. or Five is the infinitely fmall equal part of fuch a tical Sum of Arithme 01. t Suppofe * + ** Proportionals.. between i ^ and o. given.the. v = and* = oo i. If inftead equal to an of the common the Number of Terms &amp. if (by . f.

. the Series oo m wputum. fmall equal of fuch a Progrcffion is 2. or tht in finitely u/que ad a./ . ~ 31 ^ XIH.of ( Natural meltgtom 5 and the by the Rules of Addition) fmall infinitely equal Part of fuch a Sum. If r be as 2 to then i ^-^ 2. firft Term * of the Terms r to sy r * * * then J where y r s = &amp. ginning at fuch a on ing CO OO OO i and ending rate.gt. the la ft &amp. = ( by to 5 the Rules ofDivifons i. If rto . be at 0. to 1 3 for Example. if it be required to find the infinitely fmall equal part of fuch Prothat let part be called * the greffions. - and go -Ji 7 -]- 7 + s ? &c vi%.. y be comes -^y. the laft o. f i. . continued. oo * r s and confequently / * ) = cor^oo/ . = ^~= part oo 2.I(atio and if their the Sum s y.lt. In let a Geometrical the firft Term be Progreffion call d a y s the &amp.lt. . And universally.o be oo .. let r co s be as z then a Geometrical at oo Series continued.

as i to then * 00 00 for = i. be required. the firft be and firft the laft nothing. may have Term its Sum being a at laft. then OQ = -- -.gV r to If tffytio i i^DaofopDicai be as | to i. ^. Geometrical Progreffion. continu Terms of a ally defcending. of fuch fmall equal parts If it bt to 2. and of the &amp. the firft Term of the Series. if and confequent*. r ly = if of the Terms be the fame. then jp 7^- =~ finite.gt. y ~ If ~^.i^.^ laft nothing. equal . an infinite is Number. as the it alfo if the thelaft finite y firft = ~ x be nothing. Example.-iH ii^rh f . e. to find the infinitely ftmll equal part of the Sum of fuch a Profinite. equivalent to find the tifytio of the required. and confequent) ly * = ( by the Rules ofDivifan -^-~^ s . and of the $(atio of the Terms. and r to *. and : rt . whofe firft given Quantity. = J i. be t . and fo in other Cafe. if the firft Term of the Se ries. then x = $. be and the and gteffion.

^TY r * a . and going on in a different ^atw. + r* as r -~^. the 3{atio Sum of the Terms. both their Sums mufl at laft be equal. j. a Quantity firft than the Sum. begining at different Quantities. fuppofe the firft Term of fuch a Progreflion ~ . and confecjuently if .-i 4- 8 j becaufe both their to 2. W^. i to ~ then a = -}- f f ~ f r^ 4 5. the Sum of fuch a Procollecting C c c grcffion. . and of the (Ratio of the Terms. for Exemple. r to T fuppofed. for the Term of the Series. and put the fecond and then Term of the *I(atio unknown. then in that Cafe. different fl^f/Vj.-. a to i . laft all equal lefs . be a^ and therefore the Geometrical i continually defcending. and going on in whole Sums. begining ac a different given Quantity. may be at for if you pur.of Natural fttUgtott* equal to the 33 of another Progre/fion. D z Progreffion. Sums an are at laft equal And thus s Infinite Number of different Series may be found.

that ks Denominator. = ^ . + - i - infimtum. rrr *7 .14 to ^I)tiofc|)!)ical equal to the Quantity given. 9 fo thatnow 3 fuch to find an infinite Number of Geometrical Progteffions.- . and going on in different tifytioSy We have no more to do._ 01 ._ . i. then Progreffions. if it of the Series {ought . . begining at different Quan tities. wherefore. which Series (hould be equal. and ~. and having ~ to j. * confiftins. r Sum -^-=: (in s this Cafe) * rAb^fesss v 3 - 9 9 17 f := a.^. & of cwo Terms. to the of either of the two preceding which were equal to 2. their Sums fhould be equal j you it greffio^make which all will find the unknown Term Excmple. Term i of the Q(ajf tio^ i/i the Sfnw it felf is. for 9 2. for to find & Series begirjing at its Q(atio were required ~. confequently 5 the firft Term of the Smes^nd of the ^at\o } = being and the fecond ^-. but to form an improper Fraction (as it s calTd) whofe Numerator being any Number fuch.

part. wfiwtum. Again . Let 00 . in equal parts be ~ 4. $ we fhall have the 7 4 Series s fought ]0 &quot. ~. for then per forming the iDmf/Joif. the the . join d by the Sign us Value may be equal to 2 . Ihall be (by the Method ufcd in the preceding Article ) the firft Term be /. laft thctifytio of Terms : i to j.let the fitft + \ + f &c m * &amp. continued the firft finite. according to the Arithmetick of Cojjick Quantities. of a Progreffion infinite r then x or the infinitely fmall Sum of (uch a Progrcfequal part of the lion. for Exemple. Suppofe the Geometrical laft Term&quot. of the Sum this infinitely equal fmall of the Progreffion Hull the be | Or Progreffion reduc fliall d to ics equivalent. XIV.of ffiatutal aaeltgtom or ? 5 .gt.= -^ equal afterwards all 9~5 15 65 Reafon why all thefe &n&tj confiding of at laft Terms to io different are one another. % Ccc . thus. Numbers. fhall be fliewn.

and infinite j thus if to the Progreffion.*~ 5 then 5= By fuch may have an infinite Multiple or to any other on Submultiple. three s +3 4-3 +?&amp. be i. and ending at oo . we may Quantity. the infinitely fmall equal part. going in any affignable Progreffion. fhall be or the Progreffion it felf.firft Term be * . to ~. means. and s ifd 4 ^^ ^. you if &amp.lt.. then5=|. fliali 3. &c.. and having tffytio firft ries the laft Unity. the the laft c* 5 the of the Terms i. be equal to an ^ infinite Number of in infinitum. Term ot its Term of the Se . And thus reduce any Geometrical Pro begining at a finite greffion afcending. =a. which begining firft at Unity. infinite. gining at and ending at oo and going on . and having the alfo. to an infinite Number of equal parts. begining at the Unity. of the Sum of fuch a Progreffion. finite may Number have Term of its tf^atio its Sum equal to Unity an in- fuch as 4. ~. of any given equal parts. If it be defied to find a Geometrical Pro greffion.gt.

Unities. cTerm of the Series. then is 5 = -^-^ = ~ Number obcainU fo that no fuch an Geometrical Progreflion. having its Sum in any given proportion to any other Geometrical Progreffion and affigned 5 confecjuently you may s. infinitum + -f 4 you fliould be triple of this. I fay. in have a Progrefllon. = oo 2. firfl you may thus find luch a Series.of Natural met&totu on -|- 37 1 in the ^(atio of i to 2. vi^. infinite con finite fiding of of Terms can. poffibly be unfaerfall)) And you may find a Geome* tried Series begining at any given Quan lefs than the fecond Term of the ^atio 9 tity. and having qual to the the firft Term of the Quarto. i 8 -f- would 16. whofe Sum you will had it you would have a fliould be equal to an If &ritt. infinite Sum Number of whofe oo . a then s and r = ~ Ccc = ^Vo . find an Geometrical Series finite Quantities. begining infinity of at different tits all ~= and having different 3^ Let r *a* equal to one another. &c.

H(atto. Huofc H T 5 sr Let there be a Curve dlfciffes 2&amp. let 336 . you may find gratia the other . 4K^.gt.lt. infinitely all different Geometrical whofe Sums may be equal.fo that fuppofing one of the Terms of the afTum d at pleafure. and making the firft Term of the Series begin with the firft Term of the &amp.F. in are the fixt point computed from the ^xe A1H. A. you may have Progreflions.

i infinitum&amp. . to c c 4 C . . Unity. (b that (mall equal part.e* AiBCDELfi^ indefinite will be :*!_ and will the be . Now if n i then the Equation of the Curve will be y =3 i .*/ = Crt&amp.of ffiatutal aaelfgiom 39 = then tiires. IE be i.^nd I j~ i. then ( becaufe 71 D^~~~^ AGLFGf^l x = y~~~ m where ~ | be &quot.gt. t ac Cafe) as alfo it becomes i _TI. that evident. is the continued infinitely in infinitum.gt. that the fpace adjacent. x. of the Area of the ^polhnian Hyperbola. * 9$ J and the Area AftC DELI^ will W be equal to** i = i i i i = + + + i i i i + 1+5 &c.* becomes in =~ fo ^r 1 4it + + + i^&c. ~ 1 . n n 1 is that i ^re&amp. If the Indefinite Area required.gt.lt. e and the Equation of the be ) = -^^ Area by the common Methods of Quadra* the indefinite &amp.

A CD Lf^. becomes I.lt. i. the Area oo 2 &amp.?c. n 2. = ~ =^i =2.40 to both the is Hyperbola. r and fo the interminated Space. fince the infinite its fmall equal part. would be equal to an as alfo infinite Number of two s. Hyfcrbolick when becaufe &amp. Now this firft is is a Geometrical Prois greffion.B . by the preceding Arti will be x cle. * .BEFH the Space i = __ a z i . or oo 2.lt. whofe Term laft i i. in this Hyperloloid. Afymptotes of the Apollonian infinite $ and the whole Space on both If n = A/ywptotes 2. contained between the CurVe and its Afymptote. this Space would be double of Space. &amp. and the Apollonian And y = i like wile. or ( computing only to the Area * where 4- 1 6. and t 3 if it be continued only till its Q(atio of the Terms ly be oo to 2.lt.

2 upon fupthat the = pofition that the greateft Term of its un* i. A1ET&amp. 5 equal to oo | =| +| +| +| 3 &amp. and jf=i a i only op the ^re^ is i. oo z.gt.o Bcligion&amp. would be oo 2 4. ) .1 4. . and if ABEFH and the &amp. = + j +i + ^ ^w hoi eAfymptotick Space of this is Hyperfoloid. of the Terms i -i.= (by the Seftim f + f + f + | O^c. upon i that Suppofition.C= ifx= = + + + + Term of the Series then the Space w4 n n M j^ infi laft whofe nitely fmall equal part ( fuppofing the oo i. or z to the therefore by the is preceding Article.1 4 J &c.Crc. whofc firft Term fl^if/0 1. and the i. 4 is i 2 4.6rc. Sum of the Terms ^ = i. equal Progreffion were only Infinite or eo If i. = So whole Jfymptotical Space of 2 the Hyperbola whofe Equation is jf x i.&c. and to laft o. then the ^r^ and 5 n= = ^= preceding 1 x= AlEDC + 5 + j + i7.lt. when n the laft Term = i. =~. 1 3 And Univerfally.of Natural -I..) only by the pre ceding .lt.gt.

i -f- +w+n + ? upon fuch a Suppofi* Hence it appears in fome part. i. which might be. ^-^j-. ^ == oo they confifted. comprehended between thefe Curves^ in infinitum.lt. of fuch exterior Hyperbololds.ceding Seftion. thus the Area of the Apollonian Hyperbolaj confifts of an infinite Number ot Unities. which in their Language were call d plufquam Infinite or more than infinite. of an infinite Num ber . the Area of the Hyperbola. ( putting - A &amp. that iome of thefe HyferMick Spaces. ) is equal to. and both Ajymptotes.B = ?i AI= 4 4 w . fo that the whole Space. then the the Sum of which is ^ n ~~ . is is ~-^ to oo this Series J[- ^ equal ~ = ^ + -~ confequently if &amp. whei^thc laft Term of the -Series was only oo . * is jfx = f. whofe 7 Equation. in certain Ratio s to one another. . thofe Geometers meant by the Area s of thefe Hyperbolc ids. had the equal parts of which rc. what tion. atid -f ~-^ &rc and = i i .gt.

4. of two s $ whofe Equation s is 3 i &amp. be a. let the Hyperbola. to exhauft thq whole Area of the Afymptotick Space. Let the Multiple or Sub. then it s plain that muft be equal to fl and confequencly H- 7 . Expreffion of the given which contains with the AC. and confequencly the given . that fhall with the AJymptote If it AftCDEL only oo fymptote. be required. for the whole Space in this. is greater than the whole in either of the other two. as fliall be afterwards (hewn.gt. A the given infinite Space. muft be much greater than the infinite Number of two the former of which equal parts. to find the Equation of a Hyperboloid.x of an infinite infinite Number of ~ j but here the Num ber of equal parts. let the given quation be y ^. for Exetjiple. be y = x~*. i Suppoiing the laft Term . $ fo that though the Parts be the Sum muft be more. confifts. of which the Area of this Curve confifts. multiple required. as every Body knows lefs.ber 4? of ffiamcal aaeltgton* the Area of the Hyperbola.

becaufe. and i . to fome People. their . it is infinitum impoffible. the Sums fhould be equal. or defcending. in to OQ or o. and j felf = + +3 + ? ? 4-?&amp. may appear a little odd.lt. and yec &amp. the Sums cannot be equal the fame Objection parts are . that might be made againft them . that of an Arithmeticaly or Geometrical Progreffion. afcending. i -j-i J|-i -j. whofe Terms have begin different at different and which given Quantities.gt.%atios. for fince all the fuppos d to be unequal. takes place in Geometrical Progreffions. If it be objeft- ed.i -j-i^ Space and let ic be required to find another infinite = infinite Space. &c in infinitum* Now. whofe equal parts i triple r of this. and perhaps falfe. to an infinite Number of equal parts.44 given Cfrc. thcnw~ a and fo the Equation a -part of the infinite Space = will be y = ^ it may i be = ~ z 3 ~~ . to fave the trouble of Animadverfiom ( if it be poffible ) I fliall here obviate fome Objections. fome of thefe Inferences. aor fcending defcending to oo or o .

&c. &amp. as above an infinite Number of Unities. to oo . that there an infinite Num ber of Series s.lt. as their Sums arc In Anfwer to thefe. whofe Sums may actually below an infinite Number of Uni infinite. us Confider. for Exemple.&c. i. the Number of the Terms become 001. or in a given to one another . continued to oo fliould be equal to 2 till +2 + 2+2 + ber of O*c. continued the Terms be Sum oo i of 1+1+4 + 8. continued i fhould l be j_ss + ssj_2_LS2^ ~ i ^ a * c.lt. How 5 1 + 1+4-1-8 + 16. . equal to o &amp.&amp. as Well as above Exemple.rc.&c. of i +1 +~+ all continued to oo . have no fuch Proportion.lt.lt. Num How the continued to jfliould be but the third part of the Sum &amp.of Natural their fyttio afrcligt om Sums fuppos d equal. the parts of the firft and the parts two Equations of the third. it 5 for ties. of three s. equal to continued till equal to &amp. Since are unequal.lt. of is an infinite Number folltt . lee fuppos d to have. i. how are i the Series +1 + 3+4+5+6. there of two s. j].

may be the Sum of another infinite Series parts be all infinite 5 equal tho 1 their unequal. O*c. and both have an the yet Number of parts. nued to oo be may be equal to 2 till + * *H * firft 4.5- infinite Quantity and therefore to Sum of minjwite Series. below an infinite Number Number of Unities. . in fc&amp. i.lt. and (b \ on. and oo 5 = + V+ ? -f 5. be infinite.^ &c. conunued pares. the other a Leis ple. and fo forth fo below oo i there and oo i -4. they may be different infinits.ffrpofopfrtcal fours. Greater. for all which infinite- are real infinite Quantities an Number. 1 -[- 1 j e^r. vi%* as i i 4.c. 6^c. the one a thus for &*c.^f.gt. infinitum.gt. there are an iw/zwrt of halv s.lt. infirittunt . of makes the air finite Quantities whatfoever. all whofeSums above is &amp. ^c.2 r i + 2 i are actually i Infinite. oo z z 3 0&quot. becaufe the . all the Number of Se ries equal to oo i. tho* Number of parts in both. there . Exemconti i-j-2-j~4-}~S-{-i6. becaufe. = + + J 4.*&amp. * j &amp. of one thirds of one In fourths..

$ 4? and always doubles the preceding Term. then r V ar f .bf jgafttral meligiom n&amp. than the Number of Terms But 5 . not therefore the Number of Terms. of na at . in the fecond for let the Number of Terms of a ed. Now is certain that infinitely oo theLogarithm of lefs. only. z.gt. it v = oo 11 becomes than oo the ^. be. into the Sum of the Terms . greateft t &amp. becaufe both the laft. Geometrical in this Cafe. therefore i + 14-5+4+5 &c. larly. and a is t ~^. begining bccaufe the Sum of ending equal all fuch is to the half of the Rectangle of the greaccft. continued to oo =: and the -.gt. is con- fiderably left.. and fo quickly arrives ac oo i. Sum of the . in the Arithmetical Progreflion at i and tural Numbers. fo that there is not fo encreafes faft ? great a as Number of ^ Terms in the firft Series. more particu in the fecond Serai. whereas the fecond on at the goes fame equable Rate. in firft Series. . the and cheleaft a. = where r = . i . Progreffion continu the fytio of the Terras r.

or oo i . in like manner in the Geometrical from i Progreffion continually afcending. is equal to ao i oo i _ = . then as for the Geometri in cal Progreffion i Afcending infinitum. ufque ad is double of all the 1 Term preceding + 3 Terms. K^. it is evi Term here is equal to the Sum + i. is Sum of the is laft. than +2 + 4+8 i -]- +9 3 . and therefore the laft. ufque ad oo . is greater. that the Series i continued to eo i.the Terms is oo . therefore the Sum of all the Terms except the laft. + ) ( by the Rules of Addition to oo z. with all the preceding. and becaufe the laft Term is oo i . to oo in the^dft oof i to 3. vi^ + z -f 4 + is i dent. i 15 and confcquently the and of all the preceding Terms. and fince the laft Term fore oo _ i fuppos d i. oo + ^ oo i = ( by the Rules of Addition ) \ . every of all the former 8 &c. becaufe every 9-1-17 &c. is infinite. there equal to the Sum of all the foregoing Terms. vable. where it is obfertrc. i + 3 o .

the Geometrical Progreffion and going on continually to oo &amp. is --^confequently the Sum of the the _ . i isi=I Every Term Sum of all the preceding. Series s tsrc. viz.lt. and of all the ( 00 1 w = ~i i -[ preceding. Terms in the than in the fecond the fecond di- verging fafter. the -}- of i to n. +1 +4 + 8. /. _ i -[- n -f n* all preceding. and at a greater Rate than the firft. begining at i i. Number of Terms than ihe bo likewife.%atio. and confccjucntiy the Sum of all oo 4 and + ~ = - univerfaily. caufe firft. continued to GO i. if the Series be i 4-4 16 643 &c.of ffiatutai meltstotu + 9+27. &-c.. therefore the Sum of Crc. an a laft. and becaufe the laft is oo i. arrives at oo i /ooner. continued to oo j. is by the Rules of Addition oo ) to Laftly. *. continued to oo & Odd and . be- there are more . after a fewer firft. j n the n -f n\ times. then i is of all the Sum every Term triple of the preceding Terms. as for the two.

in the on ^TT&quot.lt.gt. that the Hyperbolick i . a r* which fecond in the Log. and 2.50 and the i +1 + p+ of as has firft &amp. than that of the fe cond. Area ( fee the following Figure ) is found -]. taking AB= i to the Infcri- bed fquare) yet the Area of the Infinitely is no more than B A FG long Tarallehgram i _p i -|- i ^it i from whence the jfrCt continued in infinitum. for the much Number of Terms been fliewn.&r. is fewer than in the fecond. but the Denominator of the firft is much greater. To . both which have the fame Numerators. would feem to follow that Space ^FPCS. 7 Log. Number of Terms It is much lefs.. and confequently the Number of Terms in the firft. becomes ^-^. is t = ^-^ Log.i -J-^c con equal to i -jtinued till the Number of Terms be infi 1 4FDCB and ( may be objected. it is evident that Number Terms in the firft. were equal to the which is abfurd. nite. ~!&amp. than the in the fecond.

c = oo AFG=\-iri i/ x 1 5 where than and therefore fo. becaufe that Number. is becaufe (kho* both FCand FG meet at sn in both.gt. AFGftt? AFDCft. And i = AFDCft^ + + + i confequently i we i+i. than J*G with^S. e. Diftance. d. let A^ To = GL (fee 2 .. is not the fame infinite and the reafon why that infinite Number. i. this is be equal anfwered. than the Hyperbolick Area.\(l may be al~ oo low d to (peak fo) then b will FG = /&amp.gt. and the Diftance between A and ft ( the FD =&amp. infinite fuppofing the Diftance between A and B oo a and Aft) (the Concurfe of . i ? and H-i-l-i greater crc. chat tho each of to an infinite Number of Unities. is oo c fi x . Not only but a Pwallelo- gram. with Aft. and whofc Length is oo a ) (or the Diftance between A and the Concurfe of FC with Aft) is greater. whofe Breadth is i. is not the lame in both.of Natural ic ffieugtotu To thefe. make this yet more Ddd plain. yec the Spaces are not equal. Concurfe of with Aft. be greater than (hall have C^c. yet) F C meets fooner with Aft. a.

for i . at an Diftancc from A. be. j both LED But they all meet with AC.5* ( ^pofopptcai the fee KiLy. from i. 3 jx GL. and (hall have a ) longer Orthan the former. when GL infinite is o. longer Curve meet with the Afymptote AC. which has i confequently the point i) fliall L in the to firft (yx*=: i approach nearer in ^C. of two Curves y x* AG . which GL 5 3 in refped of the fame Abfcifs i Exemple. vi%. then y = oc~ . Let n be an =1E n Number. = ( of which the former gives GL =~ y x == the other GL = 3 ~~} v^J^ that which has w 5 ?i = 2. than the point ^ : L the fecond (yx in ) wheg you and take AG the fame therefore the greater you the it will before the fuppofe w. and Al be i. G L. that the greater you fuppofe n to be. the longer will the ordinate be. integer preceding Figures ) be call d x.= -^- flhews. and .e. exprefles the Nature of an this infinity you have x = ~ of Hyperboloids.

n Suppofe rr = oo in then GL = K * ^O 1 *^CX5 f GL. .of thefe Hyperboloids y x whofe Concurfe with the Afymftote A Cy we ftiall denote by oo a and y x i we fiiall dewhofe Concurfe with 3 . Ordinate conftantly which is the proper ty of the Parallelogram fhews that all the ACXGL. duly confidered will remove all the Diffi culties arifeing in the different Expreffions. z = . AC^ before .gt. among of the Hyperbolick Spaces.of Natural and therefore thefe infinite Diftances AC muft be different according to the different Values of of n . note by 09 ^ I a fay that 3 iis lefs than -v/&amp. in infinite Parallelogram^ refpe&amp. and confequcntly of i any two .gt. meet with the dfymptote /L. AC&amp. i is the becaufc y x ^ Equation for the = infinite Parallelogram^ it may be reckoned Thefe things the Hyperboloids. meet with it as alfo infinitely produced. = b. only the d d Number of D Terms . which n ByferMtidt y x = i . is which Cafe the i.5t of the is for the Unity the the Came in both.lt.

54 Terms all in all of them lefs is different. whofe equal parts are 2 -f. of the Hyperbntoidj whofe Equation z is j/x = i confifts. the equal parts of which the Areas of the dfywftotical Space. But the Difficulty will raniQi.z -J. if we ap has been already faid to this Cafe. (where n is an in infinitum teger Number.2 + i + 2. &c. why for Exemple.. ^-\-^-\-^J^ ^-\-^) &c. of the in others bormAj (hould be leis..) Areas of yet its certain.*x z. for Exemjplej^. in than the Number of Terms It the infinite (parallelogram. and in of them. may likewife feem odd. be equal to oo ^ ? the Number . ply what for it s certain that the Number greater firft. (if of Terms than the of thefe laft. And Area of the whofe Equation is yof == f. the thefe )aft are than the greater firft. the equal parts of which the Area of the Afymptotical Space. muft be Number of Terms in the we fuppofe that theie equal parts exhauft the whole Areas t ) for if the Number of Terms in the firft. and yet. in fhould be m/tfH mto.

gt. and greateft Number) Ib by thefe means an infinite Number of the this Suppofition. -j- flop. ni whofe .c. which expreffes the 4/ymptotical Spaces of its AlEDC. that all thefe Series s flop at oo i and go no further. equal parrs. whereas to give the true Hyperboltck Spaces. obtained upon cannot be equal to the iw^i^Number of un conftitute the Area . pie. (chofe. But the Truth of the Matter is. in their at oo i . than others. Hyperbohids. thus equal parts which Dd d 4 i + . infinitum. equal parts are J JL e&amp. for Exerru all Series in -f- n -J. in the that they i unequal Progreffions.of ffiatutal ^Religion* 5 y Number of Terms w i in the others. then e muft be greater than a. to go on. tr where 2 ^ be or the Ground of . they muft be all fuppos d. that the Invention. Tv^. diverging finite n is the fafter. where arrive at QQ t fooner. equal Parts in is of theft thedfymptotical Space of thefe the Difcovery.n* J- n* -}-n* n\ &c. an equal Number of in Times* Now fome of em. on the Suppofition. jI u yfer -f K j n i equal to oo e. the Invention infinitely fmM part ^-^ depends up .

riving at or Slownefs thereof. whereas the febut | + \ +& +~. + i + + 1 -h 2. is taken from its ar the And oo i without confideration of the . and as the Area of this laft. &c. from the Number of Terms . cho in the time.^. If it werepoffiblc to find the fmall infinitely equal parts. reduced to equal parts. but the 2. arrives fooner at oo i . is greater i -f + + 3 than that of the firft.gt.gt.of the l Spaces.which diverge tafteft. they make the greateft Area j an equal infinite Number of parts are taken. whofe Equation = I . is equal to the Ais yx&quot. but the reafon of this divcrfity is. than the nitely Denomination of the infi fmall equal part.7 *9. fo that the Quicknefs unequal part.&c. which cond i is &amp. and 1. 1 rea of the Curve i + 4+8 5 1 6&amp. as they fliould do.s. becaufe the fe cond Area firft. than the former .56 4.&c.have the leaft infinitely mean when fmall equal parts. firft fo are the parts refpe- dively is .equal to -f 9 the ^red of the Curve whofe Equation is jy x E= i . whereas the parts are lefs fecond Area is greater than the firft .

gible nent. fuppofe the Exponent of the AbJclfs of the one be /?. even of the Relative Natures of thefe infinite Spaces. for thefe equal parts. it feems impoffible. are equally unintelli to find the Expo whofe fuppofe/?. to n+ n l .of Natural Beligfon* given 57 or oo a . oftheO^w. . or as r p+ . have the Relation of one another . Infinite equal in the Relati is ons. do not at all extend to the whole to an Alfcifs. I know no way. at leaft. Space veil Qtytio. but which them all. but one of thefe two. can be exprels d. of the other n. then we Qiould infallibly. J. of thefe J/jmptotical Spaces to one another. then thefe i Spaces i fliall be one another. in it s pofitive Nature. f n both p i i which Expreffions. which I have uied to reprefent in fome manner their Re* lations. with- Terms being = oo i out knowing what the Logarithm of an infi nite Quantity is. but if we defire (hall be in a gi fuppofe i to m y to . f as to j . Spaces. but to thefe Spaces to me. ever to arrive at a compleat Comprehenfion.

. which fhall Jfymptotical Space. equally dithe Series. and the Spaces are (puting isj^l x i) i ^-2 of the Cwwe. be thefe Cafes. that the Equation have its infinite of that whofe Expreffion is y x *. i. if /&amp. ftant the fecond Term for Exemple. = 2. becaufe thofe Terms the ter in remoter. is -2. and if Exponent Power . m =2. become firft than the fame after the firft Terms of in num- bred from the begining.to the other .f then -^ n . which happens. i.and this in always an affignable Term.. in the reft fecond. is from the begining of comes equal. = 7. and p then /? =~ _= -i. = ~. in the firft is 2. and the the of the Terms of the afcend refpedively in the Powers of thefe Numbers.and n = 2. w=== where 5. double = = = +4+8^16.iftt . is fon why is this laft Space the double of the of the lat greater firft.gt. Term both.

Term. From the fixt Point the Indefinite right Line ^.- that as its Unity. is . own Square. the Parallelogram A FG B would con* x \ tain an w/witfe Space = oo =. FG.Power of i and | be required that fhall make them 2 both the fame 2** Number 2 w then _ L and = 5&quot. or own flfyof fo the rf/ymptottcal Space of the dppolhman Hyperbola multiple. is Cube ) O*c. fb that it muft be the firft and lowed infinite Space its .B. It . ^ x ^F. and Leg. F in 3n indefinite Parallel to It is evident. were produced turn. ^ = Log. 5. its own Multiple and Sub- XVI. which renders in other Cafes 3 If both equal.lt. and from A&amp. and fo on then ~ Multiple^ or Submuhiple which (hews that no of the Jfymptotkal the Jppollonian Hyperbola^ can be Space of found but it felf. that if AB. from n i ? which gives the beginning. ^ A draw draw infini- at ereft a y perpendicular AF i. and = z^H!the s .

e y FX&amp. which with the Afymftote A.gt. multiply d into any Number whatfoever.It is required to fiad the (hall Nature of a Cun&amp. be d a y the ordinate E D be /x the Abfclfs E A. x^/x-^x* where putting x =? and confequenly /x .gt. or equal to a finite Space. finite equal to Aft. of fignify the Logarithm then the Equation of the Curve (hall be x. reprefented ABC DP given call by any finite Number. contain an interminated Space. let this finite Number called y. and the Area i. x. and l let y= x^7~ equal to lx- for Exemple^ ^ let a be 4 then the Equation becomes y is = X-* /x.C.

AfcEFG I is x = dfymptotical and given calling i^the^r^is i. preceding Article . which. let the Num ber to which we would have the intermi- nated Space equal be a.4. let a 3 .) and let 6fi be produced i. = we have d. then = = ^^4. the Exponent of the Curve fliall be fought + n=-^r. we fhall have the remaining Area I E FG a.) this Area = AFC. the and fubftra6ting Unity (nzto Square A ft El) from the ^ra* thus found.gt. cuts the Axe (becaufe the Curve continued. and ktm=:a i . for the whole o. alfo 9.B=Al be i. becomes affum 4. If a 9.i) = 4 . and confequently intermediate .i the infinitum^ The fame may general Equation for the whole j&amp.lt. for Exemple. = 9 A F x AF Area + theruhat Space is 9 ~AF\* be obtained.-~? Space j. and = ~n. from the Hyperbolical Curves ( fee the Figure of the let A&amp.

. the Areais. from the fixe Point A.lt. 9 4 c r Sum or Difference of + 4=13 XVII. for in the and 9 former Solution.**- =. Having illuftrated the Ant\&amp. that involve Quantities Great.=4=1 + we * + f6 4. to the Axe AH y let the Curve.A*BG be defcribed.\x defcribed.- infinitely metical Operations of relative Infinites.? evident that different two interminated Areas of Curves may be whofe found. whofe Qrdinate its being y m ji x. in ibme few Problems.g. let a Semicircle and let it be required to find the Radius r. infinitely to fmall Quantities.gt. &c. gree . of the Circle which may have at the ftrtex A the fame De AlE.lt. Al/dfs with the Radius AC ks AD Equation is = x7 =r. may be equal to any finite Space. i/i from which fubftra&ing Unity (= have the the interminated Space 76 IE EG is = +f + two + Hcncc k H&amp. C&amp. let us now apply the fame.B &amp.gt.

e JF = i= Equation of the then I and cauft. AF. will be Equation z i r x ^. But if A and C the Circle fuppos d to have thcfe Points . tnuft likewife coincide beis . be the next Point in the Axe to and fo AC (hall become infinity fmall /= equal to the Fluxion of the Abfclfi x \ and then the of the Circle. x t j the an&amp.z.of 6 ^G. with the Curve defcrib d whofe Tangent to the Vertex is 4 or Let C. gree of Curvature.lt. = C. coincide.

equal j? m l9 then r x . when is a Wherefore the flowing Quantity. 1 + * a So 2 ifm= i. in refpedt of the Curvature of the GVc/e. If to one half of its Latns rettum. ture. Cm r then = JClldlJi-= oo. great at the Vertex. If m ti r. and lo to be thrown away and Circle. ^ 2 * == o. or between the Tangmt AF? and the ^ . the Cn* r becomes * 2 Parabola. The 3(adiiMo[ that has the fame degree of Curva is with the Apollonian Parabola.X yW &quot.e. no GVcfe can fall. is ortheC#minfinitly fwiof fuch Cr^w ^@G. and confequently common with the other 2 %r* # = xw y - =x!j^l = 2. and =^Il= JL + 2 but in this cafe finite # is infinity fmall in refpeft is of any a quantity.64 Points at the Vertex Curve. For in that Cafe . or infinitly fmall. I - is infinitly Radius AD is infinitly fmall. r becomes ~ i. and i to be fuppos d o. for in that Cafe x is x fmall in refpeft of i.

and fo the Curve A*B will fall within the GVcfe ^/. If m = then r ==Jr!i if = 3 r = two Curves* = &quot. reciprocally proportional to the G(adiu4 of the Circle which couches the Curve at that Vertex) in refpeft of the Curvature of a Circle. =- ^3 the E e .gt. = ^ then r &amp.gt. = ^ = ^-=o.. becomes Negative^and i in the fecond Term. Wo. being fuppos d infinity to ~ r becomes ao. there be whofe Equation* are^ = x&quot. Let let m be any Number^ iwf^ger or fraftion. X ~7 oo . 2 v. And fmall. If m 2 . and j&amp. Exemples. ^r -. at their Ver* is = fmall (for in the Curvature at the Vertex infinitly all is fuch Cafes.of $atttrai Cafe the Exponent of i in the fitftTerm of the Value of r. tex y equal fo the Curvature of fuch Curves. or the Circle will cut the Curve.

.2fy- dwj of the Curvature fzrtrt in the firft Cwm.gt. fmall.gt. 2 is A: 5:^ 2 :: &amp. the to one another. or o to i.-. y and - m be an or a fraction the &amp.lt.Hadiuis of their Curvatures at the will be. or 772 1 . of the be infinitely Greater or preceding.gt. XVIII.lt. cal Point if ^~ : A&amp.66 the ^po(bp!)i(cai &amp. in refpeft of as x to i.gt. nothing. that Infinites of all Kinds. I dull only fubjoin this General Reflexion upon the whole Difcourfe. Relations of Having Infinites thus explain d. for in that Cafe /y little. of the Exponents of fuch Curves. integer. may be found. And infinitly firft therefore the Curvature of the Kind of Curves. than Curvature of the immediatly following. in refpcd of that And thus infinities s of Se of the fecond.. qually . : . v/^&amp. is infinitly great. may ries s Smaller. But&amp. as to their are epofitive Nature. is w- of the in refpeft of the Radius Curvature in the fecond . of which the Curvature.

of qually Natural fteuston* 67 above our Ccniprehenfion. is involved. but to leave the Matter as we find it . all ftuck into the fame Concave Sphere. or infinitely infinite. and not belonging to our Province nity is : where Fi- only concerned. and pofirive Qualities. and be of u(e to us. adequate for fuch ^e/erches . their eflen- and pofmve Proprieties are equally be yond our reach. and hope for Succefs. as it were. God Almighty having given us Capacities. we ought to pafs over all thofe in which Infinity is concern d. it is the fame thing as to us. there we may la bour. but where ever Infinity in its absolute Nature. And ture therefore in our Inquiries about the Na and Proprieties of things. tho they be an various. about the Difficulties in the arifing conception of thofe things. in quieting our Minds. whether they be firnp\y tial infinite. arc and fuch are fe- veral . this Reflexion may where the pofitive Nature neceflary to be underftood $ of Infinites. there we have nothing to do. if not infinitely different Diftances from us. as the fixt Stars feem to our Eyes. as being without our Sphere.

. impoffible he fhould obtain. both of Philofophy and God Almighty cannot be fup- workContradi&ions. we muft partake of the efTential Natures of (uch. and if we be Creatures. nor be difquieted at what he can never JF I * I & . be of finite Capacities and Faculties. And no it s wife Man will at tempt what help. and by confequence. and fo ic for him to make us unis impoffible even derftand the pofitive Nature and Qualities poscl to of Infinites.Veral Subjects. Religion.

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