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Prabal Talukdar

Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Delhi E-mail: prabal@mech.iitd.ac.in p

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Heat conduction at the surface in a selected direction = Heat convection at the surface in the same direction

In writing the equations for convection boundary conditions, we have selected the direction of heat transfer to be the positive x-direction at both surfaces. But those expressions are equally applicable when h h heat tt transfer f is i i in th the opposite it direction

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Heat conduction Radiation exchange at the surface in a = at the surface in the selected direction same direction

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

The boundary conditions at an interface are based on the requirements that (1) two bodies in contact must have the same temperature at the h area of f contact and (2) an interface (which is a surface) cannot store any y energy, gy, and thus the heat flux on the two sides of an interface must be the same

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Heattransfer tothesurface inallmodes

=

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Differential Equation: Boundary Condition:

T

2

dx

= 0

T (0 ) = T 1

Applying the boundary condition to the general solution:

T(x ) = C1x + C 2

Integrate:

dT = C1 dx

Integrate again:

T (x ) = C 1 x + C 2

G General lS Solution l ti A bit Arbitrary C Constants t t

T1

Substituting:

T1 = C1.0 + C 2

C 2 = T1

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Cylindrical

Differential Equation:

dT d ) = 0 (r dr dr

Spherical

Differential Equation:

d dT (r 2 ) = 0 dr dr

Integrate:

r dT = C1 dr

Integrate:

r2 dT = C1 dr

Divide by r (r 0) :

C dT = 1 dr r

Divide by r2 (r 0) :

C dT = 1 dr r2

Integrate again:

T (r ) = C 1 ln r + C 2

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Integrate again:

T (r ) = C1 + C2 r

During steady one-dimensional heat conduction in a spherical (or cylindrical) container, the total rate of heat transfer remains constant, but the heat flux decreases with i increasing i radius. di

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Heat Generation

Under steady conditions, the energy balance for this solid can be expressed as

Vg hA s

Ts = T +

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

A large plane wall of thickness 2L (As = 2Awall and V = 2LAwall), ) A long solid cylinder of radius ro (As = 2ro L and V= r2o L), A solid sphere of radius r0 (As = 4r2o L and V= 4/3r3o )

Ts = T +

Vg hA s

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Under steady y conditions, , the entire heat generated within the medium is conducted through the outer surface of the cylinder. cylinder

The heat g generated within this inner cylinder y must be equal to the heat conducted through the outer surface of this inner cylinder

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

The maximum temperature in a symmetrical solid with uniform heat generation occurs at its center

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Energy balance

Rate of heat transfer into the wall Rate of heat transfer out of the wall

Q in Q out =

dE wall dt

dEwall =0 dt

Therefore, the rate of heat transfer into the wall must be equal to the rate of heat transfer out of it. In other words, the rate of heat transfer through the wall must be constant, Qcond, wall constant. Fouriers law of heat conduction for the wall

L x=0

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Q cond, wall = kA

dT dx

Qcond,wall dx d = kAdT

T=T1

T2

constant t t

Temp profile

Q cond , wall = kA

T1 T2 L

(W)

The rate of heat conduction through a plane wall is proportional to the average thermal conductivity, conductivity the wall area, and the temperature difference, but is inversely proportional i l to the h wall ll thickness hi k

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Temp profile

1 D steady state heat conduction equation Integrate the above equation twice

Boundary conditions

T (x ) = C 1 x + C 2

d dT (k )=0 dx dx

T(0) = Ts,1

and

T ( L) = Ts, 2

Ts,1 = C2

Ts,2 = C1L + C2 = C1L + Ts,1

Ts,2 Ts,1 L = C1

T(x) =

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Ts,2 Ts,1 L

x + Ts,1

R wall =

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

(W)

L kA

(oC/W)

Convection Resistance

Q convection

Q convection i

= hA s ( T s T )

= Ts T R convection

(W)

1 R convection = hA s

(oC/W)

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Radiation Resistance

4 Q rad = A s ( T s4 T surr ) = h rad A s ( T s T surr ) =

T s T surr R rad

(W)

rad

1 h rad A s

(K/W)

h rad = Q rad 2 = ( T s2 + T surr )( T s + T surr ) A s ( T s T surr )

= h conv + h rad

(W/m2K)

h combined

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

(W/m2K)

The thermal resistance network for heat transfer through a plane wall subjected to convection on both sides, and the electrical analogy

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

Rate of heat convection into = the wall

T1 T2 = h2 A(T2 T 2 ) Q = h1 A(T1 T1 ) = kA L

Q=

T 1 T1 T1 T2 T2 T 2 = = 1 h1 A L kA 1 h2 A

Q=

T 1 T 2 R total

(W)

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

L 1 1 + + h1 A kA h2 A

Q=

T1 T 2 Rtotal

(W)

The ratio of the temperature drop to the thermal resistance across any layer is constant, and thus the temperature drop across any layer l i is proportional ti lt to th the thermal resistance of the layer. The larger the resistance, the larger the temperature drop. p

T = Q R

(oC)

This indicates that the temperature drop across any layer is equal to the rate of heat transfer times the thermal resistance across that layer

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

It is sometimes convenient to express heat transfer through a medium in an analogous manner to Newtons law of cooling as

Q = UAT

& = T Q R total

(W)

UA =

The surface temperature of the wall can be determined using the thermal resistance concept, but by taking the surface at which the temperature is to be determined as one of the terminal surfaces.

1 R total

T1 T1 T1 T1 Q= = 1 Rconv,1 h1 A

Known

PTalukdar/Mech-IITD

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