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GENERAL Scope This teaching document shows the calculation of sign board frame installation on a given offshore structure. The case study is that the sign board is required to be installed in a cellar deck of a platform. The scope of work is to design sign board frame and structure that can withstand wind load of 35.8 m/s. The structure should also withstand ground motion of UBC 1997 region 3. Executive Summary The sign board frame is designed as a steel structure. Structure computer modelling is using SAP 2000 is shown in Figure 1.

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Figure 1. Sign Board Frame Structure Front View

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Figure 2. Sign Board Frame Structure Back View The frame to support the sign board will be installed on the edge of cellar deck, bolted on its leg, and clamped to the tubular column. As shown in Figure 2, there are four legs that had been modelled as fix restraint and 2 clamps in the middle of the frame board that had been modelled vertically as hinge restraint.

Figure 3. Key Plan

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References The structural design calculation and analysis was performed in compliance with the following references at minimum. Design Codes and Standards AISC ANSI 360-05 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings AISC LRFD Manual of Steel Construction Load & Resistance Factor Design

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SNI 03-1726-2002 UBC 1997 ACI 318 05 1.4

Indonesian Standard for Seismic Load Uniform building Code Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

Units International system of units (S.I.) was used for all dimensions and weights in the design and details. Language The report was written in English. COMPUTER MODELING The entire structure was modelled as a 3D space frame.

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LOADING The following loads were considered for the computer analysis:

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Dead Load & Super Imposed Dead Load (SIDL) Dead load comprised the structural self-weight automatically generated by the SAP computer program. Super imposed dead load comprised the weight of the board (without frame). The board is aluminium with density of 2700 kg/m3 and thickness of 2 mm. SIDL = 2700 kg/m3 x 0.002 m SIDL = 5.4 kg/m2 = 5.4 x 9.8 kg.f/m2 = 0.52 kN/m2 F = 0.52 kN/m2 x (sign board area) = 0.52 x (3.05 x 1.5) = 2.379 kN F, per 4 length = 2.379 /4 = 0.59475 kN F, per length = 0.59475 / 3.05 = 0.195 kN/m = 1.95 x 10-4 kN/mm

Figure 4. SIDL Assigned on Frame (Y-Z View)

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Live Load Live load is assumed working on top frame during installation and maintenance. This is based on assumption that only one worker will stand on top of the frame hen assembling the structure. Point load P = 100 kg = 980 kg.f = 9.61 kN

Figure 5. Live Load Assigned on Frame (Y-Z View)

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Rain Load Refer to ASCE, rain load is designed 10 kg/m2. This load is distributed on top of the frame. Lw = 10 kg/m2 = 0.96 kN/m2 Prain = 0.96 kN/m2 Upper frame area = 3050 x 75 = 228750 mm2 = 0.22875 m2 Frain = 0.96 kN/m2 x 0.22875 m2 = 0.2196 kN = 7.08 x 10-5 kN/mm

Figure 6. Rain Load Assigned on Frame (Y-Z View)

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Wind load Design wind pressures for buildings and structures and elements therein shall be determined for any height in accordance with the following formula:

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P = Ce Cq qs Iw Where P = Design wind pressure (kN/m2) Ce = Combined height, exposure and gust factor coefficient (Ref. UBC 1997 Chapter 16 Table 16-G). The exposure is categorized in Exposure D due to the fact that the sign board is installed in the offshore area. Cq = Pressure coefficient for the structure or portion of structure (Ref. UBC1997 Chapter 16 Table 16-H), see Figure 4. qs = Wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 10 m. = 0.78556 kN/m2 for Basic Wind Speed : 35.8 m/s (= 129 km/h) (Ref. UBC1997 Chapter 16 Table 16-F). The Basic Wind Speed refer to the Exposure D definition. (Ref. UBC1997 Chapter 16 Section 1616). Iw = Importance factor (Ref. UBC1997 Chapter 16 Table 16-K and S-900-1220-001 Project Design Data section 2.1)

Figure 7. Wind pressure Coefficient Cq Wind Calculation Based on the above equation, wind pressure was calculated on for every side of board. The board is assumed as a wall with small segment of z axis as the thickness. This value of thickness is considered too small to has an impact from z direction wind (Cq = 0). Due to this adjustment, the leeward wind is also assumed has the same number of windward Cq and not reduced to 0.5. Figure 5 shows wall naming and Table 1 shows wind pressures acting on each side of wall.
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Figure 8. Wall Designation Table 1. Wind Pressure


Side A Wind 0 Board X1 B X2 o Wind 180 Board X1 X2
o

Cq

Ce

qs 2 (kN/m )

Iw

P 2 (kN/m )

Direction

0.8 0.8

1.73 1.73

0.78556 0.78556

1 1

1.087 1.087

inward outward

0.8 0.8

1.73 1.73

0.78556 0.78556

1 1

1.087 1.087

outward inward

P = 1.73 x 0.8 x 0.78556 x 1 = 1.087 kN/m2 F=PxA = 1.087 x (3.05 x 1.5) = 4.974 kN Wind load is assigned in kN per meter. The load is distributed uniformly in all frame section. Length of frame in total = 22.7 m P, per frame length = 4.974 / 22.7 = 0.22 kN/m = 2.2 X 10-4 kN/mm W0 = Px1 + Px2 = 2.2 X 10-4 + 2.2 X 10-4 = 4.4 X 10-4 kN/mm W180 = Px1 + Px2 = 2.2 X 10-4 + 2.2 X 10-4 = 4.4 X 10-4 kN/mm

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Figure 9. Wind 0o Load Assigned on Frame (Y-Z View)

Figure 10. Wind 180o Load Assigned on Frame (Y-Z View) 3.5 Seismic Load Seismic load is applied by using response spectrum analysis according to UBC 97. The following criteria are used as input to the SAP2000 software. - Response Spectrum Curve Seismic region = 3 Soil condition = SD Ca Cv = 0.36 = 0.54

Damping ratio = 0.05 Importance Factor (I) = 1 Reduction factor (R) = 4.5 (Ordinary Moment Frame) Load configuration

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Seismic load configuration is given in two major directions as shown on Figure 6.

X axis
30% Eq Y 100% Eq Y

X axis Y axis
30% Eq X

Y axis

100% Eq X

Figure 11. Seismic Load Configuration

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Load Combination Load combination is assigned based on AISC LRFD manual of steel construction. The following load combinations are used: 1 1.4 D + 1.4 SIDL 2 1.2 D + 1.2 SIDL + 1.6L + 0.5 R 3 1.2 D + 1.2 SIDL + 1.6L + 0.5 R + 0.8 W0 4 1.2 D + 1.2 SIDL + 1.6L + 0.5 R + 0.8 W180 5 1.2 D + 1.2 SIDL + 1.3W0 + 0.5L + 0.5 R 6 1.2 D + 1.2 SIDL + 1.3W180 + 0.5L + 0.5 R 7 1.2 D + 1.2 SIDL + 1EX + 0.5L 8 1.2 D + 1.2 SIDL + 1EY + 0.5L 9 0.9 D + 0.9 SIDL + 1.3W0 10 0.9 D + 0.9 SIDL + 1.3W180 MEMBER DESIGN AND STRESS RATIO The maximum stress ratio occurred are shown in the table below: Table 2. Required Member Profile
No. 1 2 3 Description Base frame L 75x75x8 Main frame L 75x75x8 Inner frame L 30x30x3 Stress Ratio 0.27105 0.35125 0.144577 Remark Pass Pass Pass

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Figure 12. Deformed Shape 5. DEFLECTION AND SWAY Maximum deflection in X and Y direction is 5.461 mm and 0.002 mm, less than max deflection of beam L/200 = 7.5 mm (ok). In Z direction, the maximum deflection is 0.234 mm, less than max deflection of beam L/200 = 7.5 mm. (ok). The maximum sway of the upper structure is happened on the X direction with the value of 5.461 mm, less than max sway of the structure h/200 = 7.5 mm. (ok). The particular frames with the maximum deflection are show in Table 3. Table 3. Joint Displacements
Load combination: Envelope Frame Joint Direction 12 U1 U2 20,21,22 U3 23 U1 U2 U3 23 U1 U2 23,24,25 U3 8 U1 U2 U3 Diplacement Deflection (mm) Deflection (mm) L/200 (mm) (mm) 5.4607 U1 5.461 X 5.461 7.5 0.0016 0.2342 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.4607 0.0016 0.2342 U2 U3 U1 U2 U3 0.002 0.234 -5.461 -0.002 -0.234 Y Z X Y Z 0.002 0.234 5.461 0.002 0.234 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 Remark

OK OK OK OK OK OK

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Figure 13. Deformed Shape and Displacement

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JOINT REACTION The summary of joint reaction calculation result is shown in the table below. Table 4. Maximum Support Reaction
Maximum Joint Forces Joint Type F1 KN 3.154 Compression 4.516 Compression 1.599 Shear 1.058 Shear 1.058 Shear 1.599 Shear F2 KN -0.224 Shear -0.163 Shear 0.211 Shear 0.077 Shear 0.077 Shear 0.211 Shear F3 KN 15.376 Shear 0.842 Shear 0.646 Tension 0.403 Tension 0.403 Tension 0.646 Tension M1 KN-mm 0.000 Moment 0.000 Moment 0.358 Moment 1.032 Moment 1.032 Moment 0.358 Moment M2 KN-mm 0.000 Moment 0.000 Moment 633.265 Moment 149.741 Moment 149.741 Moment 633.265 Moment M3 KN-mm 0.000 Moment 0.000 Moment 16.763 Moment 5.922 Moment 5.922 Moment 16.763 Moment

Restraint 23 Restraint 44 Restraint 4 Restraint 6 Restrain 41 Restraint 43

Hinge Hinge Fix Fix Fix Fix

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Figure 14. Joint Reaction 7. 7.1 CONNECTION Welded Connection Because of the restriction to do welding activity in platform, the board and the frame are assembled together in onshore area. The welded connection is used to enhance the board with the main and inner frame. A relatively small depth of material will become molten, and upon cooling, the structural steel and the weld material will act as one continuous part where they are joined. In this computer modelling, the welded connections are assigned as fix connection.

Figure 15. Frame Front View 7.2 Bolted Connection Type of bolt that is being used in the connection design is the High Strength Bolt A325. This bolt relies on initial force called proof load during the early fastening. The proof load

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will provide friction so that the bolt connection performs serviceability limit state before it goes to strength limit state under bigger load. For sign board designing, high strength bolts are sufficient because it is best used to resist alternating force.

Figure 16. Frame Deck Connection Table 5. Bolt Profile Type Quality db (mm) Proof Stress (MPa) 10 mm 70% fu = 585 Ultimate Strength, fu (MPa) 825

A325 High strength bolt

Figure 17. Sample Type of Tubular Clamp

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Figure 18. Bolt Connection Measurement Vu = 1.599 x 103 N Mu = 6.33265 x 105 N.mm Tu = 646 N Proof stress = 585 MPa n=2 Without screw on the sliding plane

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Shear and tensile combination check against Strength Limit State: Proof load = 0.75 x Ab x Proof Stress = 0.75 x x x 102 x 585 = 3.44 ton = 33735.048 N Vn = 1.13 x x Proof load x m = 1.13 x 0.35 x 3.44 x 1 = 1.36 ton = 13337.112 N = 1 , as in standard bolt Vn = 1 x 13337.112 = 13337.112 N Vu/n = 1599 / 2 = 799.5 N ( ) = 13224.11 N 799.5 N < 13224.11 N -------- OK Shear check against Serviceability Limit State: ( )

0.5 x x fub x m = 0.5 x 0.75 x 825 * 1 = 309.375 MPa ---OK Moment check: ft = 807 - 1.5 fuv 621 MPa = 807 - 1.5(10.2) 621 MPa = 791.5 MPa 621 MPa ft = 621 MPa a x fy x b = nl x (ni x Ab x ft) a = nl x (ni x Ab x ft) / (fy x b) = 2 x (1 x 78.5 x 621) / (240 x 75) = 5.42 mm Mn = (ni x Ab x ft) (41+130) (a x fy x b)a/2 = 48748.5 (41+130) 2643875.6 = 5692117.9 = 0.57 t.m = 5589819 N.mm Md = x Mn = 0.75 x 5589819 = 4192364.25 N.mm Mn > Mu (=6.33265 x 105 N.mm) -------- OK Bolt connection in the design can safely perform against maximum shear, tensile, and moment at the joint that connecting frame and platform deck.

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