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HAWK-EYE SEMINAR REPORT

On

HAWK-EYE
Carried out at

St. JOHNS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY


Yemmiganur 518360, Kurnool (Dist) A.P. A Seminar report Submitted to the

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, ANANTAPUR


Carried out by:

G. SRIMAN NARAYANA 08G31A0530


Under the guidance of

Mr. M. SIVAPRASAD M.Tech


Assistant Professor

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

St. JOHNS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,


Yerrakota, Yemmiganur 518 360, Kurnool (Dist) A.P. (Affiliated to JNT University, Anantapur) 2011-2012 Dept Of CSE SJCET Page 1

HAWK-EYE
St. JOHNS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Yerrakota, Yemmiganur 518 360, Kurnool (Dist) A.P. (Affiliated to JNT University, Anantapur)

Department of COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Seminar entitled HAWK-EYE is bonafide work carried out by G. SRIMAN NARAYANA, Regd. No.08G31A0530, at St. Johns College of Engineering & Technology, Yemmiganur, Kurnool (Dist) A.P, affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur, during the year 2011-2012.

Mr.M. SIVAPRASAD M.Tech

Mr. V. Chandra Sekhar M.Tech (Ph.D)

Seminar Guide

Head of the Department, CSE

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We wish to express our sincere thanks and warmest personal regards to our beloved guide Mr. SIVAPRASAD M.Tech, Associate professor of Computer Science & Engineering, for the valuable guidance and suggestions, keen interest and thorough encouragement extended throughout period of project work. We express our sincere thanks to V.CHANDRASEKHAR, professor and Head of the deportment of CSE&IT, St. Johns College of engineering and technology, and Yemmiganur for giving us the opportunity to do this project work. We also express our special thanks to Dr. P. Mallikarjuna Reddy, Principal for making us this much responsible to complete our project work successfully within the given time. Finally, we are thankful to all those who helped directly or indirectly in making this endeavor a success. We wish to all Teaching and non-teaching Staff, Deportment of Computer Science and Engineering for their help.

By

SRIMAN NARAYANA G

Dept Of CSE

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HAWK-EYE

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HAWK-EYE
ABSTRACT
Hawk-Eye is the most sophisticated officiating tool used in any sport. It is accurate, reliable and practical: fans now expect and demand it to be a part of every event. Hawk-Eye first made its name in Cricket broadcasting, yet the brand has diversified into Tennis, Snooker and Coaching. Hawk-Eye is currently developing a system for Football (Soccer). In Tennis the technology is an integral part of the ATP, WTA and ITF tennis tours, featuring at the ATP World Tour Masters 1000 Series, US Open, Australian Open, Wimbledon Championships and all high-profile events. Hawk-Eye is the only ball-tracking device to have passed stringent ITF testing measures.
Hawk-Eyes Cricket System were used by host broadcasters at the 2006 ICC Champion Trophy, the World cup and have been present at major Test and ODI series around the world since 2001. Hawk-Eye offers a unique blend of innovation, experience and accuracy that has revolutionized the sporting world.

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Introduction
Hawk-Eye is the most sophisticated officiating tool used in any sport. HawkEye a sophisticated, virtual reality system that can tell a ball is in or out as well as analyze a player match strategy. Hawk Eye is the name of a line=calling system which trace a balls trajectory and sends is a virtual reality machine.

Method
Hawk-Eye uses six or more computer-linked television cameras situated around the field of play. The computer reads in the video in real time, and tracks the path of the ball on each camera. These six separate views are then combined together to produce an accurate 3D representation of the path of the ball. Hawk-Eye first made its name in Cricket broadcasting, yet the brand has diversified into Tennis, Snooker and Coaching. Hawk-Eye is Currently developing a system for football(Soccer).

Uses
The system was first used during a Test match between Pakistan and England at Lord's Cricket Ground, on 21 April 2001, in the TV coverage by Channel 4. Since then it has been an indispensable tool for cricket commentators around the world. It is used primarily by the majority of television networks to track the trajectory of balls in flight, mostly for analyzing leg before wicket decisions. In this case, Hawk-Eye is able to project the likely path of the ball forward, through the batsman's legs, to see if it would have hit the wicket. Currently this information is not used by the umpires to adjudicate on LBW decisions - it is only available to television viewers, although in the future it may be adopted by the third umpire. Currently the central umpire only get to see it once - and they have to make their minds up instantly.

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The ball by ball tracking by the Hawk-Eye system allows the broadcasters to showcase many other features of the game, such as comparing the bowlers' speeds, spin, swing, line and length.

Hawk-eye Technology in Cricket:


Hawk-Eyes Cricket System were used by host broadcasters at the 2006 ICC Champion Trophy, the World cup and have been present at major Test and ODI series around the world since 2001

UK, Australia, India, South Africa, West Indies, Pakistan, Sri Lanka: Hawk-Eye has been implemented in all of these Test status nations. The technology was also in place at the ICC Champions Trophy in 2006 and Hawk-Eye sent four units to the 2007 World Cup in the West Indies. How does Hawk-Eye work

Hawk-Eye uses 6 high speed specialist vision processing cameras which are positioned around the ground and calibrated. In addition the system uses the two Mat broadcast cameras and calibrates them so that the graphic is always overlaid in the right place. All cameras have anti wobble software to deal with camera movement. When a ball is bowled, the system is able to automatically find the ball within each frame of video from each camera. By combining the positions of the ball in each of the cameras, the 3d position of the ball is measured through-out the delivery. The delivery is broken down in to two independent components: delivery to bounce and bounce to impact. No intrinsic characteristics of the pitch are required as part of the system apart from deliveries which hit the batsman on the full. By measuring the position of the ball at multiple frames post bounce, the speed, direction of travel, swing and dip can be calculated for that specific delivery. Using these measured characteristics of the balls flight up to impact, the future path is predicted.

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Examples of Hawk-Eye statistics include:

LBWs
Viewers now expect Hawk-Eyes verdict on lbw shouts; a testimony to Hawk-Eyes reputation for accuracy and reliability. The companys experienced operators will deliver the relevant trajectory, half-mixed with the equivalent video sequence, in time for the first replay. This gives commentators and viewers adequate time to discuss and digest the result before the next ball has been bowled.

Hawk-Eye helps to resolve the following three issues:


Would the ball have hit the stumps? Did the ball pitch in-line? Did the ball hit the batsman in-line?

Wagon Wheels
The singles, 2s, 3s, 4s and 6s that make up quick-fire 50s or vital centuries are represented by the different colours of the Wagon Wheel, which shows the areas of the field that the batsman has been targeting. Hawk-Eye now has the ability to display wagon wheels over photo realistic or virtual realistic backgrounds, giving broadcasters even more scope to taylor the Hawk-Eye 'look' towards the style of their

production.

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DeSpin
Hawk-Eye DeSpin Graphics demonstrate how far a delivery has deviated after pitching. Whilst the blue trajectory below represents a ball that does not spin or seam, the red actual delivery shows just how much turn the spinner has achieved.

Pitch Maps
Simple yet effective; Pitch Maps make a useful pause for reflection after the frenetic exchanges of the opening overs and highlight a bowlers consistency or expensiveness, line and length. Hawk-Eye can now display comparative Pitch Maps in a split screen format, as shown in the example to the right.

Beehives
Beehives show where the ball has passed the batsman.As with the Pitch Map, the coloured balls correspond to the number of runs that the batsman has achieved from that delivery. Hawk-Eye Beehives can now be shown against a photo realistic or virtual realistic world, as with the Wagon Wheel feature.

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RailCam
The RailCam (side view) shot of the VR World can be used to represent differences in speed, bounce and delivery. The trajectories are animated, whilst the speeds provide further evidence of a bowlers variation or a telling comparison between athletes.

Ball Speeds
Hawk-Eye now has the ability to supply ball speeds as reliably as a radar gun, as demonstrated during the ICC World Twenty20 in South Africa.

Reaction Time
A Hawk-Eye Reaction Time is a simple yet valuable tool for demonstrating how quickly a particular bowler is pitching. The graphic can also be applied to a catch, thus quantifying a spectacular replay or slow-motion shot.

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ELEMENT
The Hawk-Eye Coaching System comprises of two main elements: a Tracking System and a Video Replay System. The Video Replay System offers the optional component of a high-speed camera, which can provide more in-depth biomechanical analysis. Tracking System High speed vision processing cameras track all the balls hit during match play or drill situations. The system will automatically calculate the following information:

The speed of the ball leaving the racket (first, second serve or a groundstroke). The reaction time for the receiver (first or second serve). The topspin, sidespin and/or backspin imparted on the ball during a serve or groundstroke. Where the ball bounced during a serve, groundstroke or volley. From where the returns have been played (first or second serve). Where the returns have landed (first and second serve). First serve percentage, first serve points won and second serve points won. The height of ball over the net during a groundstroke or serve

All of this information will be stored in the systems unique archive facility. A simple -to-use interface will be provided so that a non-technical person can interrogate the information in a number of different ways, with the data being displayed numerically and graphically.

Video Replay System


Whilst the tracking data provides coaches and players with the information for HOW they have performed, it only partly answers the question of WHY. For this, a Video Replay System is an important tool. Hawk-Eye has installed Video Replay Systems at its cricket academies and feedback shows that coaches find it simple to operate and extremely beneficial.

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Each individual cameras field of view can be controlled remotely from the Analysis Suite (see Figure 3), or programmed to specific presets depending on the activity that is being analysed. The video will be captured, synchronised and stored digitally on hard disk and in the Video Archive. This, in turn, will be connected to the customers network, which means that users with access to a networked PC can see their data from anywhere around the world. Several features for replaying the video will be provided: Continuous delayed feedback (approx. eight seconds behind the live action). Record and find mechanism Play forwards and back at any speed, including a frame in advance. A direct link between tracking information and the relevant piece of video. Half and split screen options to show up to four cameras on one screen. Cameras with high shutter speeds so that images are clear without any motion blur. Archived data in formats compatible for use on other biomechanical software, e.g. Silicon Coach.

The Analysis Suite is the show piece for the Hawk-Eye Coaching System. Essentially dedicated to accommodate Digital Recorders and camera power units, the Analysis Suite also forms a quiet area for in-depth technical analysis.

Hawk-Eye Technology in Tennis


The Hawk-Eye Officiating System is the first and first and only ball-tracking system to have Passed stringer ITF testing measures. It is accurate, reliable and practical. In Tennis , BBC sport asked Founder Paul Hawkins, who introduced his invention to the Wimbledon commentary team in 2002, to explain how it works. In Tennis the technology is an integral part of the ATP, WTA and ITF tennis tours, featuring at the Master Cup in Shanghai, the US Open, the Australian Open, the Wimbledon Championships and all high-profile events.Hawk-Eye is the only ball-tracking device to have passed stringent testing measures. Dept Of CSE SJCET Page 12

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Many of you will be aware that Hawk-Eye has been part of the BBCs tennis coverage for the past two years . That ball was on the line The professional game is won and lost on the smallest of margins. Players leave no margin for error in their practice, preparation or play. Why should line calling be any different?

That looked out to me. Television audiences now expect Hawk-Eyes verdict on a close line calling decision. Ardent tennis fans are fascinated by Hawk-Eyes graphical representation of statistics, which have brought a whole new dimension to television coverage.

Instant Replay
In tournaments in which the Hawk-Eye Officiating System is utilised, players are usually granted two incorrect challenges per set: if they call correctly their tally remains the same, but they lose a challenge is they are wrong. A further challenge is often granted if the set goes to a tie break. This provision ensures that players do not waste challenges on a whim, thus making sure that the tempo of the game is not interrupted. When players do make a challenge, Hawk-Eye displays the results within 2-3 seconds, making the process much quicker than on a clay court.

Accurate and Reliable


During ITF testing in 2006 Hawk-Eye made the correct call in 100% of all tests, showing an average error of only 3.6mm. The system recorded 100% of all rallies. Tests have always been conducted outdoors, encompassing situations that take the following factors into consideration:

Wind (and therefore camera wobble); Bright sunlight at different times of the day; Shadows covering part or the majority of the court; Dark or overcast conditions; Artifical floodlights.

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Indoor venues are obviously easier in which to track because conditions are far less variable. Quite simply, Hawk-Eye can track accurately and reliable in any conditions, on any surface. Although the accuracy of the existing system has been tried and tested, the company is constantly trying to develop and refine the system. Hawk-Eye listens to feedback from customers and officials to ensure that Hawk-Eye remains the very best in the market.
WORKING 2D (x,y)

Vision processing is used to identify the centre of the ball within each frame of each camera. Camera movement is compensated for by also tracking the lines of the court.

3D (x,y,z) The system triangulates the information from each calibrated camera to provide the 3D position of the ball.

4D (x,y,z,t)

This process is repeated for each frame so that the 3D positions of the ball can be combined to produce a single trajectory of the flight of the ball.

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Bounce Mark
The trajectory is then used to calculate at exact bounce contact area the ball made with the court.

"There are five high-speed cameras high up in the roofs of Centre Court and Court One which accurately track the ball as it flies through the air," says Hawkins. "A computer captures the image from each camera and works out where the ball is. "By finding the ball in multiple cameras we can find out where the ball is in 3D space - where it is in the real world if you like. "The computer then combines all this information and traces the trajectory of the ball in each rally. "This information is then sent to the virtual reality machine which produces the graphic images that you see on the television. "So Hawk-Eye is able to show where the ball landed in every point played."

The Hawk-Eye technology was used in the 2007 Dubai Tennis Championships with some minor controversies. Defending champion Rafael Nadal accused the system of incorrectly declaring an out ball to be in following his exit. The umpire had called a ball out; when Mikhail Youzhny challenged the decision, Hawk-Eye said it was in by 3mm.[9] Youzhny said afterwards that he himself thought the mark may have been wide but then offered that this kind of technology error could easily have been made by linesmen and umpires. Nadal could only shrug, saying that had this system been on clay, the mark would have clearly shown Hawk-Eye to be wrong

Hawk-Eye in Snooker
Hawk-Eyes most recent development has brought the company into the world of snooker. Working in tandem with the expert views of commentators and pundits, the HawkEye Snooker Software offers a wide range of options to enhance the TV spectators viewing experience. These include
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Hawk-Eye at the World Snooker Championships
Hawk-Eye first introduced its snooker technology at the Snooker Grand Prix in Aberdeen. It then progressed to the Masters at Wembley and, most recently, stepped up to the largest stage in snooker, the renowned Crucible in Sheffield, at the World Snooker Championships. Hawk-Eye was proud to be a part of the BBC's coverage, enticing one of the largest television audiences across the world.

Players Eye View


Hawk-Eye can show exactly what is in a player's line of vision when they are taking on a shot. If a player is playing an escape shot, attempting a long pot, or just looking to see if one ball can squeeze past another, Hawk-Eye can produce a Players-Eye View of the table. This gives the viewer an indication of just how difficult the shot is to play.

Blue Dot
Players can strike the cue-ball in many places, causing the ball to react in a variety of different ways. Hawk-Eye can illustrate to the viewer exactly where contact with the cue ball should be made in order to produce the desired effect. The viewer is able to appreciate the complexity of the shot and can also take these lessons away to help their own play.

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Animated Shots
Commentators often debate the shot that a player could, or perhaps should, have attempted to play. Hawk-Eye can visually recreate this discussion by recreating the shot in its Virtual World. Possible uses for this application include:

A player miscuing a shot (or getting a kick), leaving the cue ball in the wrong position. Hawk-Eye can show where the cue-ball would have gone if the shot was played as it was intended.

A player electing not to play a particular shot as he decides it is too risky (maybe the cue ball would go in a pocket, or cannon into another ball). Hawk-Eye can illustrate what could have happened if they had chosen the risky shot, illustrating the danger in playing it.

A player choosing an unconventional shot, possibly with a higher risk factor than the expected shot. Hawk-Eye can show the shot that people were expecting to see.

If a player is snookered, Hawk-Eye can produce animations to illustrate possible routes of escape.

Hawk-Eye can show what would have happened if a player had chosen to break a pack of reds instead of playing safe, or if they had attacked the shot slightly differently.

Shadow
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The shadow effect can be used to show the area of the table that the cue ball cannot directly access, as another ball is in its way. This gives the viewer an instant appreciation of the ball positions on the table and allows them to understand the eventual shot selection of the player.

Hawk Eye in Football Goal-Line Technology The lessons and expertise garnered on the tennis court have laid the foundations for HawkEyes camera-based football development. Progress began in earnest back in November 2006 when the development moved to the home ground of Fulham FC, Craven Cottage. Experienced members of Hawk-Eyes software development team were able to test their software in a real -time environment as cameras were rigged in the rafters around the goalmouth at Craven Cottages Putney End.

It's an exciting time to be working at the van guard of technology in sport, enthuses HawkEyes Technical Director, Paul McIlroy. The development team is relishing the opportunity to build on our experience from tennis and cricket in developing a brand new system for football." From Fulham Hawk-Eyes football development team moved to Hogwood Park, the training ground of Reading FC. Temporary scaffolds and Hawk-Eyes Outside Broadcast vehicle were put in place for further testing took place throughout the summer of 2007. WORKING

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As with all Hawk-Eye technology, every image is processed by a bank of computers in real time. This data is then sent to a central computer, which combines all the information to determine whether or not the ball has crossed the line. As soon as a ball has been tracked across the goal line, the central computer will transmit an automatic signal directly to the referee to inform him whether or not a goal has been scored. This information can be communicated to a watch or an ear piece as required.

Before one assumes that the technology could be used to determine whether a corner or goal kick should be awarded, it is interesting to note that the protocol will only apply to a ball that moves within the three dimensional space of the goal mouth. A signal would not be sent if a ball crossed the goal plane but went over the crossbar or wide of the posts. Hawk-Eyes system would be similarly astute if the ball crossed the goal line for only a fraction of a second. A ball travelling at 60 mph will move one metre per video frame on standard broadcast cameras, which operate at 25 frames per second, so Hawk-Eye utilises cameras that can operate at up to 500 frames per second.

The three dimensional space of a goal mouth is actually subject to quite a lot of movement. The goal posts can move as a result of the ball or players hitting them and cameras can wobble owing to wind or the vibrations of a stadium packed full of cheering football fan. Hawk-Eye has experienced similar challenges in cricket and tennis and has robust solutions for counteracting this issue.

Use in computer games


The use of the Hawk-Eye brand and simulation has been licensed to Codemasters for use in the video game Brian Lara International Cricket 2005 to make the game appear more like television coverage, and subsequently in Brian Lara International Cricket 2007, Ashes Cricket 2009 and International Cricket 2010. A similar version of the system has since been incorporated into the Xbox 360 version of Smash Court Tennis 3, but it is not present in the PSP version of the game, although it does feature a normal challenge of the ball which does not use the Hawk-Eye feature.

Advantages
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It is accurate, reliable and practical: now everyone expect and demand it to be a part
of every Event.

Hawk Eye offers a unique blend of innovation, experience and accuracy that as
revolutionized the sporting world.

Haw Eye is far more accurate than the human Eye Accurate
Accuracy and reliability are certainly the most important criteria for establishing the Hawk-Eye Football System. The FA Premier League has stipulated that a goal-line system must be accurate to 5mm and Hawk-Eye has risen to the task.

Instant
It is vital that the desired information is communicated to the referee in a quick, discreet manner. The IFAB has stipulated that an instant system must be implemented: Hawk-Eye will provide an answer is less than 0.5 seconds.

Conclusion
The application of the Hawk-Eye brand and simulation has been licensed to Code masters for use in the video game Brian Lara International Cricket 2005 to make the game seem more like television coverage. A similar version of the system has since been incorporated into the Xbox 360 version of Smash Court Tennis

Hawk-Eye first made its name in Cricket broadcasting, yet the brand has diversified into Tennis, Snooker and Coaching. Hawk-Eye is currently developing a system for Football (Soccer). In Tennis the technology is an integral part of the ATP, WTA and ITF tennis tours, featuring at the ATP World Tour Masters 1000 Series, US Open, Australian Open, Wimbledon Championships and all high-profile events. Hawk-Eye is the only ball-tracking device to have passed stringent ITF testing measures.

References
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1. www.topendsports.com/resources/technology.htm 2. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawk-Eye 3. www.hawkeyeinnovations.co.uk/ 4. tech2.in.com/features/...technology/hawkeye-technolog./197532 5. www.naval-technology.com/projects/e2-hawkeye/ 6. bleacherreport.com/.../725997-hawkeye-and-shot-spot-technology-o

7.

www.rafabenitez.com/web/index.php?act...1&id...

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