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Glra ph iilc [lles'~1 -:

f~ne ,Art or :S"cu:'iall Scie'n,ce'?



TOW-A. 'II! A'T loii:lirieJH !j,jlljC:[j(~O~ -' jllflill ~ 1i.j!~"[Ii[ D i5;(QN Gliiphic Esign IkIS' io.;t~ lQr'lf! ':-ft,QiigJ (Of I~~ role I '!;(Jc--e'), to I::!.! ~,as-

under:stood_ ~"i!'f.ul'lli rdl 'l!:GtW'f, iJt ul,.jre.Q~ thefille aru.1'i.

d'fi p!:!d I i~h th r I i II:~ fll6l'1. I~ 1b1~ . ~ lntn

j;~15tK.ated practice in a P:e!:~ I f.aslion, - %2Jne.r-ed ff'Ort5. .:.lmM

he . 'rl~ 01 !;iJb rrJ ,wld!1 u po1'!.@I'1011" t.:!l, but J c J

thie t; til k.J npillJifiltLtS..n I lterature or tn'l! di~iog\lo present i ~hihl!(; ture,

Oil(' :lP Jph If de51g lll~t 5 at· acted SiJm~ iii ~l,Iul~r I

kCLJ5.5. on st' s s ral ' ~W-~;

- i t;YitN:' ;:;ohll'§ilo:::$1 ne' Irnpor!!1i "<!2 af tbe vlsua stl'lK1LJ~ I Li'ilrl

f«rms.1i Jilt;!" s, ~[J::;,

- I .emlu llii!' Importanc'l! irl td a a'§.

pr I~t(l til

IIk'Hll a I m.iII n I ptik t I~ n;

" ·1

T '1"51:' f1~ h~ led 10 s;~'!'ral aii.tDrtiOil1i!i, t "f11J~ 1i ,r)'fi(:.:,mt

I ~():ugt1t abo by'L/itI:: lHiIi ~ of l"IWl)dern a\'a.m-G" rr::ll! t:fpogl< P~), I-'Io-n

I'wi. I" rdio;; of I Lrl11 t [011 'TrLi,",,"'"'nlrt

pact on a :II!'« typogr.aphiot d~~ler:io who!i.e woril' 111 gro!iPhk: ~'§-~n

, I" t. I!iy ~ J'l e t pi".:i t (0 t rid I.t!!l)~. Ii'" I Inh'fIQs or 1 iOs~ rJ a';i"an~ ·t::ar • r I i 'l of ti,e time. But OW:<lS U~sitdrf~ Otlltlflu~lo, r.e.all),iPO:!ift ".e~ His 'l'lsu~ J.ilr'l~~ ....

I r ,~y: f1.Jp'I}1 ~rl 10 !11 OIl'!> nnll M= tl n ""I u Soch. t r':I!

II hK:" tor \J:!II kan nk we...:! in;roprojilfiatl!' "W tnt: prod IL~_ Pei an In

rDl' lin dJ ..... I u I~ (.IIIIt;" ph)'. TIIJ1. pi' 1E te !l.urroon by

I"" ~r-t l~I ;t.pti.v, blao::k .tiM red bars, a 00 rC'[.in~l~ Nol only dflll

! ImJ:gNY not Jpte t ~ pr c. ,1tkJ t It did! M~ f:!'~~ rel ,.:' ~(I LtJt.

th ... iI L

l~'SIItl~ W-3S i tl!'r~s!I.~ i III lrn pr.:::l'I!'lIi'18 (.00' m un·catioo. as iI!i wri ~

'I"'" I<"'~./ 1.0 Ixt J'I;' - 8 r . rLl. rn .!!'I' 'Ill ttl,",

unl oe'o'l!! "Dpmen', (If I!:riC\Phic de!;j~nl ':'I.rt ~ My also riil:5ie(l -.hE' irq;l:ort.otf"lI1:c

Lh~ J~:5.t .e!I.:: ro to a point Ml;:rco UI ¢~l'lIinu !of 1I 11'1.

I h I"{{l r ~d;j r ~'~ ing brl[lke- dow I'! , ~ 5ee-m not t'D baY(!

1"1; ,...,.,~ 'J:!' ["~t (jOO' FIl ~atl[J I1I!q . I!'!:. tbe ~i;~ I i~ ;:)f codes. A1rtl1t:Jush

11 r need m r 'I,. to .tI!y on ~tr ll:[J~,.,,11 ~~lFj J 1M it/<!rd Ih.r.-

es Or the j)J,ibl ic: l~ ~ shou Id nrk wit n 't.Ile- pub5t ;:tin(! ini!Pl o-;..J!' Its.

~ fll, ~ Jl'M5 b!., wi tnout t.r king

DmI'l1J,Jn- dti uEltzky nr ed -t-I'i a wi d r~i'!se f p~t5, somi? D ! h@' ,argIHbI),

I ~t'1I1 U~ no' bLJ", II t,Jik,y I'~h ~I~d by

I ln~ conta p0riiil1liiltls',fl![H5 iJ.!tI design h saer an:; is e pe~SOIiI)'ji'l(l

,uLK .. d LI b~lr,ild., constrll( .I ... I~'!., r . ." bi pi L"!..

~ ! !--ou th ipiIl it)' 1:1( Lissit~iI;y' se+ . ue' OI1'1'd "he.;:. 'i'"m

rs"i 1ISft!. III th ~ f!!f.iN nh iloJtloOrtS, Id~ib, .:! i!d pub~lcaIJCI'I~ (i11l

u.1 ~ [U "('I yl dt .!Iir th.L~ ·If !J II

,I " ~ pp.

. pl'"OlTlOtilJl"l of, ~ i'$ own ~ lrIiblUon, In C ter ~ FMtI v "'1 S<I)'S ~

1m ~ ~ivili

fI!COg!1I.l';:: il'.phl, !M-!.I~n u i"lVlklln i:l~lnt:.' ~h"m &T mrt (lnl'!,

F rrtJritl (If.@!".iS. a IT art tOI m, grilpfik d@5i~r'i i, vr,ew~ tj)' fro! in

oesthi! jc pe-l:ectrre, wlt/WJ"t ~r\Ough CiJlII'5JIjet tl.iM, Fe (OmmYl1il~li01l

'lOC' 11 ",I. fie 0((1, 'S!I 'Illy ,11n6li(: is i ll'Ip(!rt ~, blut - b1 no rfli:'illI1S

ir.e sole mnM!~' f()j"qual"ty,

Oh.tlJJ~i. ah loll ~t rl VI.I 1"!'t;Ir fljol d ftn I~ iQf'I: 1\ ~hI -"lIsn

ar:t '~y tlVt "~2J?i W3f<fClII (.I)It1l ation )1'1 ~i.e[y, ~ CIJfI(""rw:ll

U t l!'iflOl!!l1'l:Y 0/ (OfMll1lI1lIcJltk;.11, !M ~,!!(hn.DI1IlI8'i u e'iiI rer !

'Jilpl ~ntii' rt, iIdI the Kl[iL! i I KI ,~F1 b-i, Olh r .... -ords,itt'§.

soci~1 'PD'rISi il it~ ifhe I'Ieed f(Jf corn Flk.aUv-e t i I1C)' I a r~pDml!'

i.e bl<1.t! min r ~ fi ~Gil' ~ C'14I' L - - 01 Y Cd i!:f ;: d 1'1:

SO'Ii!I!I:~~ has sQl'Tll?thrl"lg to O!)IT,ntI nicolh:: ¢llo6l1i1e<1ne else, T"I~ Iiwolwi?s,

tll g71!a ter 01 les.ser e:o.tl!1'll, <.! rcep<iAI l.a

~F1; jlIt!.,11 r m ~ ~1s.1l..J1 del tioo roble-ms s'li . 'l iind

ft:l m m nlc.:rllQn ~rm;s. i311 t~ ~I me, 'Jr.DbH:m~ ,0 '{I~tec~iOn alldJ

(ll1I1i'! Inunl Jil on 111 ... ~ , 'i"on.ibi 111)\. ilbilllty,.md ,1- I!p H! ~h vlo«: !

(;On . of! .as"o <:0 th the way rg:>/'! j-:Jld.: com

1I II t'.Jdes. nd I:!4!h~r of ' til k ludl-C(l(1il ,M.'i!'rthhl:(!: d "'~"l II i!' pee «I

10;1 rrl.llkt! pe~ bu)' proouc !i, 'N y.'i(e-o:~ r.or. -cal Of -deoiogkal

~p;tg c ada Is expec ttd r,Q affed p Cipl;:' lefs .and aC~w:w!$: r~ul~i. 'f

i'lli N1 hi ,I)' ~ 11'11 1\ '0 101: I~ b 'Of l~ ill ; tlll In in

aiG:; 'IIT~ ~upp:.5ed - irnr;vOo.'e Ie.; rning peri~iIi"Ial"i(e: ha Ii'IMe50 .are

des g~<I 19 I~~ fOl"gi! r:f dilfirc:uj! FId tdont u ~I of CoIW OOII! Ft Ion

from' -I e s)'_ H1i s i ' tlite i"!!.3~ e;suroll of Ihe perfurrn.afilQe of .an)' amd

BIery 0:: or ~fi:Jphk dlMig:n .(lind t.1 e' proo ' lil '!, t'a~I~k: dl!l5lg(llh! .1i"1O~

b ' I,j n r'l1 ilO!I In 1IO!~ti Social rn' ~

- ihl!! I cflfl'nlurilt

<lII1Ji1 tbo wol in whkh its: oolHe ! Intl enCC'!! p opl~:

- Ihe llilPilCt Nt _ 1 ... 15u cornmu 1 i.;.ack\n "'ars In II. vlsi..IJll

env ronn- .. :

- "erne ~ to eliHilJ I =' ~1~2t oornmllllill(~1 fIIllS n:;lati?iil re ~t.~ ~F~t)' or

the [JI)mi'i'lU lLy tl1 I pl-men'l" ,

Til is btid" rn.a SMtfl'ITS ~. lhl!! pradi e O'f eriiphil[ r:IeV.jj:ilI tT.JlfIsci!Drl-s

e50th;f! ks, PUJr~!.!1 a' iJM; plol"il:tl~~ tI'

"~

Yo h¥il'l,

1'1 OIl or ~ J rr I

t al so !be dirrllVl d r~m (om j)1i'l om 11 t

tnll"! o!ma:nn and Gi. .. I'll P1f1t~ - :en UI!e

~~t 'c rom: [.I' Ion to

;[OO\I!I"iU - atioo F1il:i~r;.e~.. thQLl'fJh HoR .aIilIH:rl'J<!t~ ~I i)e;:IIutlful !i~l;'le.

PiM,,1 I ed a ~r:t,ilU!r . ,;Ibl ')', . !poi't !'If!'

'n'l/lli(l:!! II ~ ii'~'!l'll ts. m the con1.riblLrt~ of

ilf, j' fI1IlY~ than tlni rtJ' y~.a s,

!!I LhQ~l~h ~ , ooccpli of COI'II'Im Lin

e (i n " ooml'1"fD(j denamiJ;J.a Of"$, ~

Inti ill: I

;<IllI'r ic design,

5~ rilil '1'I1~r'~ dll erences, Ie pend. ng on ~ I pll18,

Ttw;: th-~ I':F lc dfllgllJl!'r§. '5i1lJ'Uid kn , to I!«tmo~e t:~ 'Ylle o miU~iare very df ~I'ffit fro th~ I:hE'Y n~ to knl;1'l'i' to 'tel ~e'ye,ar·old

'. , he; rrJ-d, ~ y LI U f phI;;: ~ ,I r.cr r II 'i whh to h-l"i"I'tl1

oblectl1ie5 -or 11iil1l p:!~~ C6iinmooh:-tj.oo! t I;: tiM'''' i~eij)l 1119 natura

;;.tor II:he proi'e:551oo becOOl ::;

m.IIiRot rre: ;J j}f't~. o:J!l' an I'll 1t,Iu.l ter ~o ~lIny I'!1Ii!

T - cert.IIJln y ~ lrnpertant im ;a tiQ if! ,eb Ion -'0 • file Ie! .. I J tioQf'J of

grl hi 1ki18n (ju,llI, nd '1.0 ~1:1~ rnLlcilllo1l til r. p,," des. l1'1el'!.

THII IPft'QiIU,M OF' 1!il~,""ILII1r II 1"..II.AI"I1I<: il:iU!J!:iJI'oI

r: eli! 0 lh ' F fill tI, D f 11:! i d n ~ nc • u

de - nitk..-i rlJr ~Ii ty in grapilk G:eslg:..'1 is .also ~eG:l;,1iry: QwNty!

5Iro¥.liJC ~ .. d~'ll ~ r.mrnlJ..lH d ~ d'JIC' ~~ I~ prilldJ}('('s tfl ~4~rnc.c'. rile

ff'ID'rI'em t 8W firorn ~U £' istic innO~i(i (j Hd~ten -nano,

CIt' /II III, ~te ted In 'IllM! -111 lilIvestl8al.oOf1::i re t d ~o

pomoii pt ... .lil ps')II;hgl • 1~",r,fC~1 I' , the (j(j~~i! '~(;hQQII, PJ! l;I!I'ilIlfld sorru

tbeer t' I (lJoM.ept~ 'Or ~.jru>al 'Fu~1'I'l I~ (OOf'Se;' ar :s.ch~

r I I Mil ilIrul tI rule! ' lor...... t w _ HIII<i"d 0Jtlt1 00"'"

~ il'r~~d I ril!lb 1f!n:31lzatioo of part g1 ;,c' ~I!gl'l j)roct!~'5. '. nd \'.r.!S

pill L I ill) de~lO~tt'Ii:Ots In Ihe ~';ucl~ Oil . ;!l.lb ly" oMilt:.i luelf 'Wa'! the

rill (61 r 11 r, p«! C!n1,J ~ ~ LOF i 1'1 tl'i me ..uri'"'

11''' HI

, I

P,l

i!na. I to~t'l '\...~, jjr(Jd 'I, pO!Ctll1 10' j t 'r~ 'I ~ ... It 'l(I IJ Il'I:' ",litH "toll

des ~ L!sI!~ ~·f~r.:;-1l (If -[0'- ~!O II ~ .. Ii!! r:r co ..... ""1Urii~' OIl.

.Ire''lwo !:h"litiift nt e ;:fJ'fi::"!~I1)I'I!J.(l F t ~ rl c-on;:("rl'1 {r!;:; 'i} ~ex~fth.;lt" -Iopeod by trlC' U, '~d Sta :t~ ~ 'met! btt'5 !;iii!.:':!!' "ll¥!t;r!~ 'IJ;)II II ;(Nil t~ In ~~i'i{l O'f sq ~ Ipm a m. lnstn.ctlon :stratI!;!! 1~5i and Inklll"m,jbCin :Ji.ini: I~ h~rodlJ(Cld ~ OO!"ll;;"(,ffil flil' (;gITc../T1I,Jr! 11;:03 tiQl1 t:ffil;;i~JlIl;]!' s-rr-.!i tiil"ll;:'01.o!3 ~'" the _ \I"4;J Ig~' 1:"11' of IBi0rrr~~liOn the-Dr)" ccrnrruncaton thi!cry_ and sem intks, Sign!:

h '';', rn' ~~ ~rm r "l:f~t~rri'I~ ... 00 i~ bt'c ... m~' Hco.,~IY.J"c ifl,'-MI Li~"'J " Surl.:lill1g;, iashioo. <lnd 'fe~t~s started to lie analyzeQ iF1 COIiTi 1l!1!u.rW:;;Jt-oo te-! I'i~~ rl'ic' rece R! rs of EWliphk cles.l~fI ffIf'!lsal!!:f'!. were subseque nt 'i

d 1!;(O!.\iH~ JS lin act I~ ll,Jrt of HH! (oolrNJ11ic,ajlon pl'oc!!:5s..IJlI tI81y, ~!';:;'~", tlu;!se r~.;-I~ 'i.~"'"!;! ~ert;.el ... ed l!!.."l~k~l)! :;.~ ~tI"S_

71il· ot;je-rt M of .g.«lFl h k dei~Ig.ifl('r! WJ"! tQ :!ifOd1,K;C' -:;1" r

corn unj.t"ti0n:;.. On l.:p:l~~i,gnCr'~ in •. (: ~r'ti~i'!f: i)l;,o:!lilii-en ~ re cooc~ rn~~ wfth olt er eli!mc: 'Its In IIliM: p::~l(l rmillC!!:' r.J ~hi::ill" 00:51 ~rn.I"!<!~, sa s, A~ .t.!lt ~':i ~oi!r" ~.!';;;k ;J t~!'!l '~:..! it b"'collile 1;1';',1 tli;!li dleFl~;s.' acccunts d'e DenlIed 00 eli e"oo· !-lK.C'!!,~!- and the t a(iv!!1'(si ~

cl '!l.I.t}11 'o'I.I~ :lI1:f"'~i'Ill;Ultng f-ilewr 'Ill ti'lL' illM:~li!:.j, 0' .1 bl.l~liiilj!ij,l. rll~

W ooem f a·l'" s a 1!?5. .a 111 a pet'S 1.II a:;» n i 'I fu!. adYe rt is; n ~ 11 ekI 1!?IiI to ~ ha

ee rumiLrUOili ~r mul th::its£Ipl.ln..:lI)' tfl!!iiJjS 06 fllEifl~ r~! iNfl~e~ sac l~agl ~ts. p~)!Ch:iI{)fl.eSt5;i :md -di?~n!?rn ~ hi:! 1:000triooledi tiJ the- ~~<lb ~llI"U!nII: of' 1'Il!!J1 eti nB l!I~ ~ ill ~l"Idl ~peiI~b e (.:;.,mponel'l~ flf the "d\lef~l$b-s lieDIil.

.ilil ~ho-. I!!;!' bi ~r~1 ;!Ind !ni!j! 1111 IlIfJrlrl i' III i;; 1;(!P1 i!'\ In ptl~11 Ii:

att itudes ~ -3 COffieqllE"fli::e oi desl(lfl has sa far' b.~el'l i""11~~ ~t) ,lclvfit.I~11 n till!'! 'F ioall: ,I L! -, YoIhoI-' '!If lOr r!:1.phk desl g..~ mlgll' !-Llggest thit spoclJlk t JnSi!'5.ln athhJd'~ J!nd ~hij",-~ ;J!ft, if'!d~, th-=fm a lrn oI8rilj:ilIC a~~f'! In 1lf!M.\ oZIl'\:ti:>. I ~ hss been '&lId rTl<Jny tlr~~ that Ill'!!' 1ii!'S~.e;nL"r It n p!ffib li!'iTi ~Q - -j' Of .... hl;:.1 tllllfnrl"M.!l .... i.;~ I fQmo: ;;jndll;l~ ol! dl'i::"M"':5. need~. &.! !~l;t soJo..t1~ ~ ~ t(ii!t"YJ ~ih1'.i f.!i 1'1001:' the' f:MOOlK.tm 'Of .fIN' rt14mJ roi'l~Ji'lou.'IiJCii'I.oo.: U I'l: ~Ili!f if"i.!(J.'fi.OO~kNl ~ PrJ_:!l i!l~ IdLitie!l M db;1 ;iCj If! -!Me ~ -Dr i!'f";ot~F', This mad ifKiitioo can ~ a c~)!!, .Mo11'1l '!iwltchl ng rom!llfM! product ~.o .a nome r n In qu n~ns Snlonk..ng:: 3

H(r'I~r~ ... ;nrriit, H irl 1 h!:l !!;iIJ~~ iil-~ !Il:II!JF.;:I!;! 1I1'!Q;! r gl"'!1I"11l n'lO'f FilOtJlt(i:;' ~ D

C h-3rlti~!-, (.r dl'inr.jn~ rTIf!)re 1TlII[!!':: Of ~ :fac ht3tlon..fi:5 1/'1 I h.:!' ease ~r

rud ~'::Ifll!:l iJ-.i:! ;!!Mlpi '111y fll fi!'.I{! In-g. OI:i~T;!;!!~I,e: !!I1T1,!'!::n1oo, -Dr or- r=~III1;g one5l!! f in ,<I 11t!'t.'ii pl~,;:E'.

The f/l!!Jnli)' ol ~ke- id'~~ 1fJ!f1.1o p~ ill re !llIgn tc 1ilI1~ lOOva i"'!o;,a,mpj'll'5- wLll !)~ d!!'t~mlij"J iNI ~ 'I.I~ i1~IIl'I~f ~r ~®i* wilt;;! '!,witl;i. 'tog ~ hI!' de~Jfed [Hodi,ict. wb.;:;. ~it ~i ng. and so mr1l CiafWy.a "J;!! faeal.lty do 11t1l 'l -',,\,j rlly -ikhlrll"llfi'f ooJi!'~U~ ~rel11t!!¥"llifi'li!fi~i .!"iIi I":IfIU£" .1It!j.' uaun i "!1 -CDfII·ib~i I e to :!;uc~c:.;~, I' ~ra~ d~'gncrs wi:5-/) lID bE rerogolI-ed j'§; pr~m ~rs, it Is oolspemablJ! that 1hey ~ rn !l1erru;eh<-e~ ~J 1~1h HI" rnl ill ~ Q~ tJv;rili ~ I~I('~I fi""'d bit o!J;;;hItc"'i"!"!»{'n~ Gal' ~t]lll ~.;: lI;'iJ"l thJ.t :g;crwriited '~i!' I"!e€d for the produmon oi: ihe '1/ SlI;il1 oDOOlmlll·I~~11On i I~ 'ItliI!UlDfi . .i\!i!~Il.Il,~.N! :lij)ptiftpr IIIIi,!F!~t JF!d tfIt!.J !~)' .[Ire, ~ ~OLM"Ji!:l. {f"fl I nl)' ef Ir>igh i rnpertarxe, 00411 II ~ t:actOFji 11!t~~ ~Ih~t ~rfOfmilM~' ~ncl ;K

J4!!pailIs lb ~Ie~ Iilcslglli,;1$ h _ to t Ot.!fi'1it!..Jn 1), K!.!..II.lhe rorcept crf

~!,J.lil :y ·Sol"i01.lld IJ,t; plil(~ I n fom~~.oJ .~ f!l'l.lItiJi:l;1'I to ~h· I iii"r dMiF:n KI;I;".;i, lI'hi!' i":Iest~:h: 0;]11 i!J'llYI)".a de1iE:1i do;:~ lio~. d':::~'eIJlili no r!!- CiW.!ffJ1'! qJ.Ja.'ity.

111!~. 'l~ls i't;]'S wide Imp !CD tio5ll!l 001 In 'li!ti'li1:!l c;j1 prcrrH:! Ifli'i.!il proKhee and of dhign II.'dIJCi!ti~!1, llil lh~ ~Qr!?5'54Dnillll1!i! lm, ~pi?CIJ!li:;:ts cth r than .gra.p lc cl4!st:!l,n.eors ,al'eo reo!plJ lrsd !o In'iiEil"prei. P"lI bll!: ~'E'~~ I iJ t"ll • .iuoIl'!" di':.i~ l~M9I"nl~II!l;(l, Oind til !!.,J.'h ft':g-ilrdlrj1l [!~prf-l~f rl'1nd fi!:at]Qr( of 1he cOfi1lif1unkatlc-~ s~~.ati:'SJes \\ han b.!t'l:er ~i,!lI1.~, JIfE!

!I ~ d II !i!i>lJl'!'fi1 I ~ Fl'd (o~ 'i i'i$ t:"i H rn._y ~~ '! rl)lrl on pr'O'l~'!i!on

Ilt;i , nQ .. h:'l!~, bulln lflell1e ill they ~hould preY.ll"ll,fl~ ~Q~ fro"i1l t~!- 11·1 of fiYlkt!t~ '5.oIX1b1.;.g)'. N~d\ok:;gy, I',d ~'i.! ClitlO~ -!iii~ci pl"MS

"""h, n~i! [nn.;: .... rll1'u~ '111 I:oi:-h~r G!I" I'Irlh.,.du"I:lo 3i1l'i-~1 H,fC1rj;!, -oj( ~I-

Jlrt,1 m ~ ~f I ~ IIYprt"t I"'rfl:, ~I,!~nt ify~, ;11'Ji!i (j!Jl~ ~ryi",g i -r~ I'JIatiOii OIS we I

r"( .. I C li 1I

in i liil:il;iun'5 fOli gl"alpl; ic Iii! '5ijl1 ~,z:afiDlTl are Just as (Jl:Mous~ th~ - racl!JOO.ai art. scboel can at Il'fil'li! de a fu II amSWe-lo QI!J.\r-IoosIYI the

t _,1th d 'Ill !'" Job r" !'lOt 'Ii

des.tg is ~o.dL.JCed 3Inm dleU ... ered, t)i' I

p.!lI'1!Gftl'l£!.t1 ~I de~n problem k net he prooucUon 0 '!firm I'M i!Jl,Il1

~U?e wrrwnUI'I .' I 11 SUiiteo f~1' ~ prrnr tkwl of iKcldC:'llo.H IS, Iltoli eMU fDrt ~"'/ b I 'ill b be IU if .el

~ fa· s, bv H~ - ail ~:!;b!r~ oJ the ~'a it of t

(mnlrlblJ~ Ion to IIhI! fl!!E! tiM n~ liE~iltI"rmL!Ii.

t b ."t~ '1:0 Ydlrll'aoons .' ·llliIiiI th ",'o'a lUi ian .;M'dE'il;;:n

q l!.IB -1 r::I~all'4!r mil wil beotlIl!r equ p (5 - con- j oote mare

'. . tly ~o til KJlJjJ lion _ r nrs' prDb~ s , Alid 00' t CQifT'i/'l'l Lm~iI tlan

prtolems, becauseas alfe::!I1::1 Il'Idl>!;~~£!d, 'trJe Jim ~r I!I hoJf'ofJll .. 'e a,f Jf'l.!ei)'

/:iflm In

T H I I D bI'(;!IIi. T 10. I'll 0" '!Ii A I!'1H ~ ~ 1:1'. ~ I (l1'!I II 1'1::11

A. *IC d J I ty Qf gr;!i!ph~ d~1lI beeemes .aPPim!1i1t ..un til!!< rorrn;: tlon

of pi U. r H oom,j flr ~,wh !!ok if , ~I fie, U) EI i, jl~

Grapi i.;: d ign ~ bot Ii ratiolial aoo an ,- istlc acltivi . he decisionmil n~ iY6i!:iI!5S In graph t mJsll1 a fn~tl!j!l b~lp,;eel'l I .a f~le~ i""n '!;if ~I;;tivt' i~lfr;;rlll.atiO'll ml 0 tuiti"!lll !NI~, TIl a Ii:Dill ~ FI".iJ:rtI~la r-m.

~hDl Id In.e .!l b~ thelr Iskwts,.as m LKh 2<5, plXSlbl:e !!WI 0 e~th'e

. ! b!<l~ Ih 11, In Ili" eM Id h.i1~ r 1Il1" Ii

of a liStie tu tion-' . t Is, Dr deciYol'l51"i'1a1;1e ~id.e -ers. (Ii'l ~

il)r eJEt)e-rl I"I(~ t ~ 15. c! ell I~ ~o ([L!llIltlf;tl Cir ~:o;p 1rl1l',!hOI [(11),- G rn ~(

des n In , "Ie 15- ,bh: G! - J1r;. in - qr 1)$1't i. II re

~ iI 'I~t wlii!di a bod, I) _ .. ledge has. llJ' ~ ~PpJ d t!Hf)CrIOC

~t!u,lil n &. ~ ~ r J t 10 I F'"Ui'I b i1.h-f(!F.

Ihe OOlla.n{~ Ibctnu artis.lii'C and Ifatiooo.a i I!'le:ments in 11 prr.acfCJ(! or

tl!'rlMtli!rs II w • .y~1lt th II

J;:;:!I line: of

lei e pr ~§, UWl C~t5 " lIy :I-

J;l1~.jII I~ ~ m;l 'P" ~"' ...

I st 10 II'1ti!'{pll"@~ l

fl;r Ill.,. r I 1111 lid 1111

No;;' o;.;;:h~oI HIIJ Id atCel'f"il)~ to de>!1 iIo'Ilh .~II 011-1;... IiOO\llr rrtl:!Ot5. In

ry a!'1!i3 of Inoife~5Joo.;.1 fii'.1r.::~1 • Ad~rtis°ng. ill1flMmatkllll, IIIr.rs;tra[loiTi,

! L r-I I I n Itt! 11'01 ! ! d4' 1m'"

II

re ~ mil~1 WI"I{ rns t III\' ~ble.

ll'~ DO... tMI i wouli:I be dc!II'i!iblli!', Fi!lDC!'I.I1l'1 .tIiI1~ 01

. :s.1tou'd be p-,e--~ I in I ~r;:t i d~n W!;rl!:wouId IIOt

_ ,te hlflg ula P \l!'Wnl ill 14!"'I!'k< o~ the actl ty-~

J!"1~kin I, he e jjjjlJ J,tf • thf"~ (h 'I, nd

tg oil r QlJI;1ign gl U1C' [OOC (fit'! .lpptaC!F"I' tl;l I j pM ~5ig III this contaxt. an mpOi'i,.:l ~'t d tiliK::iJ}tJ ca b!? madE'

I I ~ 11'1 port If de-s.1

'{C pin °ndi· <II same ;:11 iI hlgruf ii n.1 l"'lfJ c:wr tri 11"1' ~o '~I lid!.ilrKtIJI I1't ~

I" fl

lop:! b \i 1M o widler ~J:f'hc3t;OfJ, iloll'l. 1'iI:"I ''1 Ii rnes p'5)'( loglc.a

i ~h L ~ c ng Il'S- rl!""...ul ~5 I ~ pplifd

.u~f • but iM50e d;r1i1' l;!I1inoM pI C

i"IlI ~ 0 I~ If1VI'll~ilh.l· ~

'to MFi~merd;31 h .ma n reeds :fffe on '~he unl ... '~l'5it)' ~ iI r I(r.e

I'or .. I;' ~I !\H: :l61~111oIiI'l. T r l I ~ iii t"iiI ttl ~ 6 SA!!'ltiral riwn' 5.i

- reoiferel"Ke cen1'1!(s, l...nere e:aisti nl£ "nra rlTi3fon ca n OC' stored

i'I FellI1~" Lid d, lo

- mQIC II y m 11()f1 'liNw d be ge 'u!'roilted I'1I'OU I!J j Mis of

r~~~ rch ~(tl .. ,~Iioi.:~= ~'1;c;erl ~i1t~CIoil, ':'00 crltcal dls.:msioo

d ll1 ' ,t FIr I~t k:

,- c rr I;Ink<l~i n..;:i;.. I rks st>I}I,J' oj 10, a .'t'I(Ji"€

II!",;.~ [Mrs, I cll PIC ~ l>e~ to COOIr{1I nil 1I1~ e Il!r~~. "ri,J

WDf'Stto iir'l,liJ'itf d~ic.a·ion,

G I d~l.;.t pretg,l,~.ms I", gJa~ des gn :si"oul d dUlN ~"'- along l

pri!'Cedl II nl!'~ Oif 1'Je' rali: dles'i n '5Glu'tiol1s f!llil' 51~ . 'fi pi Of - U, I ~'l,

d~' rly p-flSS, m . IJ I I~I ~f ott.:Ilitj' 'n the ~rof~~ionaJ i!!ld and th.ar

I - (10m mod'" I of ~i: 111!1I~ lOI' pw;t~ -n' k. h[;!l'(r::'!!'er, V!(lY _ b~ moe loped ha ti'leor!!till n~1 of' d usl g.fl. 'WI "011 ,

Ah:hoI!!!lh M rl!' r\l ~ 1.;1 ~ !=l31d 100 ..... Iw.a~ sDphI~t katlen, air d

aU.h:ru~h -t be bil;,;:.d <of); Oil L~..e [21 ~81

Org<1I11! ~iI' I!' 'obj I;' ft· in rrr' 1" n, 11 ~Fof 16 ~d ~ 0 aM 'frCill b:eq a pLl"f'ly a/ili~tic !lr€:i!!"a'llOf ~ro bt1:.omJ s Q!,!~ ~h I(h ....... ~Lr.oa KoII.icl~ • I hoi :n"l!:h ,I ponihll.p OM !!J:.t(l!ilt III -,liiOfi PIOCI!'S,

11 order to II} rect radu.alle g aph it Q;:.5;igll '5-tudj'~ toWliro t~ d~ iop.m.el'l~ d nl!'lN koow N:lR ,eod ue lor! !!-1"IlII.Ild cooctll... tln~ 11"1 J1;

qu.'!~.rt 'I dl#fe r n from de' ad Jii e stiJdies ill

lfe O'F ;(D~:dt!l' ialnd ambit ems I r ,,111"!.c ilnd r t~

a-.:l"¥aBCe~t D

H pro ~ on .i!l -Ii 'o'f • 5ttJd~ ~ ran W, pr i g, Ind

eq Ing !OfII1the-ses, a'"ld teschi nl!: a' th' I,,!rtd n ~cl ~t

rc!(I rro; '" .. )'r r~ b

';;;()-h'lblJll'C"'!~ to. the profession. Nnert~~, nd rgrildUi! 1-Ll"ld -es.

I hJ 11.

ir h~1

educauon, Und.<ll'g.i~ I,!~'\.E! j;lrt>gfJlrns ~ul(! 2'm ali. !!rildu.a jn![l

r 11/".:.::1)' til De811.1i Ore1.1 I m

I I al:.aw iltwm to prtlii.::n~'5!o r'.fI ", Iy a i"'IdI to. eiWlc h '

pi :II ana 'a r~ss I) th ~'5 n" I ! robliems. ef iJra-phk de5.·~n tes Is I i1I1 poi"liini:.. G ra phh:: dl!"Stgl1 I~ :!;~ an~ f¢ol':iI'Ifls.

I~ wOO 0- Irurts a betl'll:l!'n ~"'e P" ~ :J It! 'tIlIf''''j r In rrM~ ~.o .. t"l,. p;r hi dM r-:m r~ rr ,t 1 D b pe-n n ~Irrn! as WE I as." SPi!{JIl.

111 L\YDI 1m I n O~ I" ~qLi~IIIt=Ii!~ ~ two'

niOl~ ID n. .!le en~trnert of i:u!SI3Ii"I;'t:IJ~

th P wrigIJ t Qf , ~ ,~po.!l.8f. I!.he- ~5IgAi!!f l ~pI 'i, M~riJ) ~lI.lt 9fT"i" i if! full t' l5.t~'l][!? only whl:fl .. hoo wltl'll the a iem:~ tak'H place.

.111 [1 So th dr"llg 1'5, c ter cI .. ~ ·n~l.p!1

I r • iN! (If 'II MeS!&J e. I" foliC/lloi'5 tha t:'c"s.iol1:> r ti 1'1 to " rt" ~f t./lc deli ;gn :>~I~I i);! based not 0010/ 00 COlT' po'51tlCil"lill II, 00. nd e i,.,nt, (II th~ !;~!Jd QIf 11Il!m..Jin .;:gmiT ItII""Cil~ iQ", on i!! r«rivcr, i~ a in. -e ':;:ilIl'I/emJon I scheme of

, IP.I" 'Dl!I1JO'!Ilt 100, 101 C \ '11!.l ~Q ~1I1 lot I1lu~lI:Jn d I~,.,

ntic rom:~pflJn of ~( :.~ ~elf·e~pre-uIQn,· 1.15

I o{ 11 o! tll!;t i ns fOl'lCepbDn:s oJ the pmfeUI;fIr"i.

u oc.re" thl! Urn has o It' tlJ' UrlrJ~ t.llr~d ~h<it til!!

sati!iliE!d (i~!f d i.ma.1

, h ~1I'!i

op.er.;' Dnal IQfI I ilnd ,I