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1) What is SQL server?

Micro soft SQL server 2005 is a database platform for large-scale online transaction processing (OLTP) data !are"o#sing and e-commerce applications$ it is also a b#siness platform for data integration anal%sis and reporting sol#tions 2) What are the versions available in SQL server? SQL server !as developed b% Microsoft in &'() and t"e versions are *+0 *+5 )+0 (+0(2000) '+0(2005) &0(200()+ 3) What is the difference between SQL server 2000 and 2005? SQL server-2000 T-SQL 0nterprise manager SQL server-2005 T-SQL as !ell as ,LSSMS SQL server-2008 ,ompress bac.#p file option 1 min for storing t"e bac.#p file SQL Server 2012 Col !nstore "nde#es -- T"is a cool ne! feat#re t"at is completel% #ni/#e to SQL Server $ser-%efined Server &oles -- 234s "ave al!a%s "ad t"e abilit% to create c#stom database role b#t never server !ide 367 data s#pport 'lwa(s)n 'vailabilit( *ro +s -T"is feat#re ta.es database mirroring to a !"ole ne! level :indo!s server core s#pport(,M2 Prompt)

Q#er% 4nal%5er 2TS 9o -eporting Tools

Q#er% editor SS6S SS-S

Stores large files in s/l server immigrated for Oracle 2ate 8 time data t%pes 9e! feat#res added li.e ,MS(central mngt server) allo!s %o# to mngt m#ltiple SQL server into once+ P3M-polic% based mngt+ it allo!s %o# to define 8 enforce policies for config#ring 8 managing SQL server to %o#r enterprise+

9o 0;ception "andling in 2TS ,an create #p to &* instances <sa= blan. pass!ord 9o database mirroring

0;ception "andling in SS6S ,an create #p to 50 instances 0nforce pass!ord polic% 2atabase mirroring Ob>ect oriented programming ,ommon lang#age r#ntime

,) What are the editions available for SQL server 2005? T"ere are si; editions available in SQL Server 2005 4) 0nterprise 0dition 3) Standard 0dition ,) 2eveloper 0dition 2) :or.gro#p 0dition 0) Mobile 0dition ?) 0;press 0dition 5) What are the tools available in SQL Server 2000 and 2005? Sl & 2000 0nterprise manager 8 Q#er% anal%5er 2005 Management St#dio

2 1 @ 5 * )

9et!or. client #tilities SQL profiler Service manager

,onfig#ration manager Profiler S#rface area config#ration -eporting services config#ration 2atabase t#ning advisor ,ommand prompt #tilities

6) What are services available in SQL server? -here are 3 services available in SQL server 2005. A) SQL server service A 6t is responsible for r#nning databases s%stem stored proced#res s%stem inde;es #ser
login information and pass!ords+ B) SQL server agent serviceA it is responsible for r#nning >obs alerts notif%ing t"e operators+ C) 2istrib#ted Transaction ,oordinatorA it is responsible for moving data among instances(one 23 to anot"er 23) /) 0ow !an( wa(s to r n services? Services are r#n b% 5 !a%s t"e% are 4) 4t tas. paneBrig"t clic. on server and clic. startCstop 3) Management st#dioBrig"t clic. on server and clic. startCstopCrestart+ ,) S#rface area config#ration 2) ,ommand promptB 9et startCstop mss/lserver 0) SQL server config#ration managerBrig"t clic. on server and clic. startCstopCrestart+

8) What is a window ' thentication?


:"en !indo!s a#t"entication is #sed to connect SQL server Microsoft !indo!s is completel% responsible for a#t"enticating t"e client b% identif%ing its !indo!s #ser acco#nt+ 1) What is SQL Server a thentication? :"en SQL Serve a#t"entication is #sed SQL Server a#t"enticates t"e client b% comparing #ser name and pass!ord !it" #ser names and pass!ords maintained !it"in SQL Server+ 10) What is the difference between Windows ' thentication and SQL Server a thentication? a) :indo!s a#t"entication is "ig"l% sec#re t"an SQL Server a#t"entication !"% beca#se !e need not provide an% login details+ So t"e c"ance of tracing login details from code b% t"e #na#t"ori5ed person !ill be less !indo!s a#t"entication #ses t"e defa#lt !indo!s login credentials+ b) :indo!s a#t"entication !ill #ses t"e credentials of t"e c#rrentl% logged #ser to login in to t"e SQL Server database+ Do#r application need not to s#ppl% t"e #ser name and pass!ord+ c) ?or SQL Server a#t"entication !e "ave to s#ppl% t"e SQL database #ser name and pass!ord+ T"at !ill be #sed to get t"e privileges and rig"t of t"e #ser+

11) What is 'W2? 0ow confi3 re d(na!ic !e!or( allocation?


7enerall% SQL Server reserves onl% a small portion of memor%+ Sometimes reserved memor% is not s#fficient to SQL server and re/#ired additional memor%+ 4:0 is #sed to s#pport ver% large amo#nts of p"%sical memor%+ :"en 4:0 is enabled t"e operating s%stem d%namicall% allocates memor% to SQL server based on t"e Min server memory and max server memory settings+ &) :in+ Server 2001 S0 s#pports #p to @73 2) 00 #p to 1273 1) 2, #p to *@73+ To ,onfig#re 4:0A rig"t clic. on instanceBpropertiesBmemor%Benable 4:0Bset Min and Ma; memor% etc+ 9oteA 4:0 is not needed and cannot be config#red on *@-bit operating s%stems+

12) What is the lin4ed server? 0ow to connect to it and test it?
One server connected !it" anot"er server to e;ec#te /#eries against OL023 data so#rces on remote servers+

OL023 ProviderA an OL023 provider is a 2LL t"at manages and interacts !it" a specific data so#rces s#c" as SQL Server-)+0 4ccess 0;cel O23, Oracle 232 Local file s%stem 0;c"ange Server etc+ SQL 9ative client (P-O762ASQL9,L6) is t"e official OL023 provider for SQL server+ -o connect to lin4ed server sin3 )L2%5 +rovider6 FserverG=servername= Fsrvprod#ctG=SQLServerCOracle= -ests the connection to a lin4ed server6 spEtestlin.edserverHserver nameB 7ote6 select I from s%s+servers select stateEdesc from databases spEaddlin.edserver

13) What is + r+ose of re3istered servers? -egistering a server to store t"e server connection information for f#t#re connections+ 1,) What do (o !ean b( collation? ,ollation is basicall% t"e sort order+ T"ere are t"ree t%pes of sort orders a) 2ictionar% case sensitive b) 2ictionar% case insensitive c) 3inar% 15) What are the +rotocols sed in 7etwor4in3? What is the defa lt +ort n !ber of -C89"8? T"e protocols #ses in net!or.ing are T,PC6P 94M02 P6P0S J64 SK4-02 M0MO-D :%edicated ad!in connection)+ T"e defa#lt port no of T,PC6P isA &@11+ 1;) What is the s(nta# sed for find the SQL server version? 4) Select FFversion 3) ,lic. on serverBs#mmar% reportsBserver das"boardBconfig#ration detailsBsee prod#ct version+ 7ote6 select server +ro+ert( :edition< +rod ct version< +rod ct level) 1/) What is bloc4in3? 0ow to identif( and resolve the bloc4in3s? 3loc.ing "appens !"en one #ser "olds an e;cl#sive loc. on an ob>ect and a second #ser re/#ires an e;cl#sive loc. on t"e same ob>ect+ T"is forces t"e second #ser to !ait bloc. on t"e first+ (s%stem+23EoperationalEstats) %eter!ine 5loc4in3 sessions6 activit% monitor sp!"o2 spEloc. s%s+s%sprocess s%s+dmEe;ecEre/#ets s%s+dmEosE!aitingEtas.s+ &esolve 5loc4in3 session6 &) rig"t clic. on session and .ill in 4ctivit% monitor 2) .ill sessionEid :s(sd!=e#ec=> er(=stats)

18) What is %eadloc4? ?@ill S8"% with stats onl(A


4 deadloc. occ#rs !"en #sers tr% to place e;cl#sive loc.s on eac" ot"er=s ob>ects+ 0;A #ser-& places an e;cl#sive loc. on table-& and t"en tries to place an e;cl#sive loc. on table-2+ Lser-2 alread% "as an e;cl#sive loc. on table-2 and #ser-2 tries to p#t an e;cl#sive on table-&+ T"is condition ca#ses endless loop of !aiting for t"e loc.s to be released+ T"e data base engine pic.s one of t"e victim(#sers) and .ills t"eir /#er% and send an error message to #sers M%o# are t"e victim of a deadloc. and tr% again laterN+ %eadloc4 *ra+h 2vent6 loc4 6 deadloc. 8 deadloc. c"ain event+ %eadloc4 infor!ation tools6 %5CC -&'C2 )7:1222< -1)

a) Trace flagsA 23,, T-4,0O9 (&20@) 8 23,, T-4,0O9 (&222)+ :"en t"ese trace flags is enabling t"e
deadloc. information capt#red b% t"e SQL Server error log+

b) 2eadloc. grap" event in SQL ProfilerA SQL server profiler grap"icall% representation of tas.s and reso#rces
involved in a deadloc.+(loc.A deadloc. and loc.A deadloc. c"ain events in t"e loc.s events)

c) S%stem vie!sA !e can find t"e bloc.ing sessions b% !riting t"e follo!ing /#er%
select sessionEid stat#s bloc.ingEsessionEid from s%s+dmEe;ecEre/#ests !"ere bloc.ingEsessionEidB0

d) -esolving deadloc.A after find t"e session ca#sing t"e problem !e can #se O6LL command+
BO6LL processEid 11) What are the t(+es of Loc4s? 2#+lain each? T"ere are ) loc.s t%pes are available in SQL server 2005+ a) S"ared loc.A s"ared(s) loc.s allo! conc#rrent transactions to read (S0L0,T) a reso#rce #nder pessimistic conc#rrenc% control+ b) Lpdate loc.A #sed on reso#rces t"at can be #pdated+ Prevents a common form of deadloc. t"at occ#rs !"en m#ltiple sessions are reading loc.ing and potentiall% #pdating reso#rces later+ c) 0;cl#sive loc.A 0;cl#sive(;) loc.s prevent access to a reso#rce b% conc#rrence transactions d) 6ntent loc.A #sed to establis" a loc. "ierarc"%+ T"e t%pes of intent loc.s are A intent s"ared(6S) intent e;cl#sive(6P) and s"ared !it" intent e;cl#sive(S6P)+ e) Sc"emaA #sed !"en an operation dependent on t"e sc"ema of a table is e;ec#ting+ f) 3#l. LpdateA #sed !"en b#l. cop%ing data into a table and t"e T43LO,O "int is specified+ g) Oe%--angeA protects t"e range of ro!s read b% a /#er% !"en #sing t"e seriali5able transaction isolation level 7ote6 +date loc4 +revents co!!on fo nd of dead loc4s. 20) What are the Co!+onents can be installed with SQL server 2005? :e can install t"e follo!ing components !it" Microsoft SQL server 2005 4) SQL server database engine 3) 4nal%sis services ,) -eporting services 2) 9otification services 0) 6ntegration services ?) Management services 7) 2oc#mentation and samples 21) What are the SQL server 2ditions of SQL server 2005? SQL server 2005 is available in 12-bit and *@-bit editions+ a) SQL server 2005 0nterprise 0dition(12-bit8*@-bit) b) SQL server 2005 0val#ation 0dition(12-bit8*@-bit) c) SQL server 2005 Standard 0dition(12-bit8*@-bit) d) SQL server 2005 !or.gro#p 0dition(12-bit onl%) e) SQL server 2005 2eveloper 0dition(12-bit8*@-bit) f) SQL server 2005 0;press 0dition(12-bit onl%) g) SQL server 2005 ,ompact 0dition(12-bit onl%) ") SQL server 2005 -#ntime 0dition(1-bit 8 *@-bit) 22) what is the +rocess of installation? lo3ical file na!e6 p"%sical location name of t"e folder pat" location

Software &e> ire!ents to install SQL server 20056 o o 66S +90T frame!or. 1+5

o o o o o o

SQL 9ative client !indo!s installer @+5 60 *+0 or later SQL server s#pport files s%stem config#ration c"ec.er sec#rit%

0ardware &e> ire!ent for SQL Server 20056 o

o
o

minim#m --B 5&2 M3 -4M Minim#m -- B Penti#m 1 processor 4ppro;imatel% (00 M3 "ard drive 0nterprise edition s#pports onl% in server editions Q:692O:S 2000 2005 200(R+

23) -he +rocess and review of SQL server installation? A) To install SQL server-2005A to prepare %o#r comp#ter for SQL server-2005 revie! "ard!are and soft!are re/#irements s%stem config#ration c"ec.er re/#irements and bloc.ing iss#es and sec#rit% considerations+ B) 6nstall SQL server 2005A To install SQL server 2005 r#n set#p #sing t"e SQL server-2005 installation !i5ard or install from t"e command prompt+ Do# can also add components to an instance of SQL server 2005 or #pgrade to SQL server 2005 rfom a previo#s SQL server version+ C) ,onfig#re %o#r SQL server 2005 6nstallation A 4fter set#p completes t"e installation of SQL server 2005 %o# can config#re SQL server #sing grap"ical and command prompt #tilities+ 7ote6 To c"ange t"e installation of e;isting components --B 4-P:-4PP02,) What is the virt al !e!or(? 0ow to assi3n virt al !e!or( B how ! ch s+ace re> ired for virt al !e!or(? 4 reserved dis. space to maintain transactions !"enever memor% (-4M) is f#ll+ Jirt#al memor% si5e is at least &5 times of t"e p"%sical memor% installed in t"e comp#ter+ To set virt#al memor%A rig"t clic. on s%stemBselect s%stem properties advancedB performance settingsBadvancedBvirt#al memor%Bc"angeBselect director%Bprovide min and ma; val#es+ 7ote6 Jirt#al memor% needs to be c"anged at director% level. 7ote6 Min log file si5e is 5&2 O3 25. -ell !e the +rocess of +3radtion ? $+3radationA moving t"e instances and its db=s from lo!er version to "ig"er version 1.in+lace +3radtion :+ac4a3e !i3ration wiCard)6 moves s/l 2000 to instance to s/l 2005+so %o#r older version !onSt be visible+ t"is re/#ires do!n time+ in s/l 2000 services+msc s"o!s t"e instance service as MSSQL T HinstanceEnameB before #pgrade of s/l 2000 instance ma.e s#re %o#r instance latest service pac. on s/l 2000 t"en proceed for #pgradation to 2005 2.side b( side +3radtion : +3rade advisor)6 ?s>l /D2000 to 2005A ta.e t"e f#ll bac.#p of all db=s in 2000U) for preca#tionar% p#rpose+ script all t"e logins and >obs in 2000U)+ install s/l server 2005+ detac" all t"e #ser db=s in s/l )U2000 and cop% t"e files+ attac" all t"e #ser db=s in s/l 2005 r#n t"e script ta.en in step 2(to re create loginsC>obs) in order to migrate dts pac.ages to SS6S+ Once ever%t"ing completed login and c"ec. t"e application f#nctionalit%

%o# can

(ma.e s#re t"at to c"ange t"e compatibilit% level to '0(s/l 2005) for !"atever t"e #ser db=s !e transferred &+r#n 23,, #pdate#sage 23,, LP24T0LS470 (<dbEname=) !it" co#ntEro!s 6n s/l 2000 sometimes t"e metadata !ill be o#t of s%nc b#t in s/l 2005 it !as ta.en care 4fter r#nning t"e 23,, LP24T0LS470 cmd if it doesn=t ret#rn an% error t"e it means t"e db is good +if t"ere is some error t"e it fi;es and s"o!s #p t"e errors 2+r#n 23,, c"ec. 23 23,, c"ec.db (<dbEname=) !it" 4LLE0--O-M37S

%'-'5'S2 1) What is database? What are the files created while creatin3 a database? 4 database is a collection of meaningf#l and related data t"at are stored in ro! and col#mns format (table)+ :"ile creating a database is SQL server t"ere are t!o data files are reated called master data file(+mdf) log data file(+ldf) and !e can add one or more optional 9-2imensional data files(+ndf)+ 7ote6 ser data and obEects --F +ri!ar( data file. 2) 2#+lain abo t data files:.!df< .ldf< .ndf):file str ct re)? 8ri!ar( data file:.!df)6 Primar% data files "olds #ser data ans ob>ects+ 0ver% database "as one primar% data file+ Secondar( data file:.ndf)6 Secondar% data file(+ndf) is optional and "old #ser data and ob>ects t"at do-not fit in t"e primar% data file+ :e can add 9 no+ Of secondar% data files(+ndf)+ Lo3 data files:.ldf)6 T+log records all t"e transactions and database modifications made b% eac" transaction and it is #sed to recover t"e database+ 4t least one transaction log file re/#ired for eac" 23+ Min log file si5e is 5&2 O3+ 3) What is laC( writer? la5% !riter monitors t"e si5eC#se of b#ffer cac"e and it scans t"e !"ole data cac"e to age o#t an% pages t"at "avenSt #ses for a !"ile+ 7ote6 JSO scans monitors t"e free p"%sical memor% on t"e server and releases t"e memor% from t"e b#ffer list bac. to !indo!s ,) 0ow store the data in SQL server? What is +a3e and +a3e siCe? What is 2#tent and 2#tent siCe? T"e f#ndamental #nit of data storage in SQL server is t"e P470+ T"e si5e of t"e page is ( .b+ ,ollection of eig"t contig#o#s pages is .no!n as an 0PT09T+ T"e si5e of an e;tent is *@ .b((;()+ 6n a 23 & M3 G &* e;tents

2ate Page &

& 0;tent 5) What is fill factor? 0ow to assi3n fill factor? 4 fill factor is reserved free space on eac" leaf level page !"ic" is #sed for f#t#re gro!t" of data or inde; in a table and red#ces t"e page splits+ 'ssi3n Gill factor6 rig"t clic. on serverBpropertiesBdatabase settingsBdefa#lt inde; ?ill factorBprovide t"e val#e+ ;) -ell !e abo t s(ste! database and ser database in 2000 and 2005? SQL server-2000A&)Master 2)Model 1)MS23 @)Temp 23 SQL server-2005A &)Master 2)Model 1)MS23 @)Temp 23 5)-eso#rce 23

/) 2#+lain abo t s(ste! databases in SQL server-2005? T"ere are five s%stem databases available in SQL server-2005+ A) Haster database6 records server level ob>ects s#c" as login acco#nts 0nd points lin.ed servers s%stem config#ration settings location of t"e database files and initiali5ation information for SQL server+ SQL server cannot starts if Master 23 is #navailable+ B) Hodel databaseA t"e model 23 is #sed as a template for all databases created on instances of SQL server+ 6f !e create a ne! database t"e model 23 str#ct#re !ill be in"erited to ne! database+ C) HS%5 database6 t"e MS23 database is #sed b% SQL server agent for sc"ed#ling alerts and >obs and b% ot"er feat#res s#c" as service bro.er and database mail+ SQL server a#tomaticall% maintain completed online bac.#p and restore "istor% in MS23+ D) -e!+%5A Temp 23 is a global reso#rce 23+ 6t stores #ser ob>ects (global or local temporar% tables stored proced#res table variables or c#rsors) internal ob>ects intermediate res#lts for spools or sorting) and versions(onine inde; operations m#ltiple active res#lt sets(M4-S) and 4?T0- triggers)+ :e cannot bac#p t"e temp 23 beca#se !"en SQL server start or stop t"e Temp 23 can be deleted permanentl% or refres" Temp 23+ 7ote6 te!+%5 is reso rce 3lobal %5. it contains 3lobal te!+orar( tables< and local te!+orar( tables. E) &eso rce %atabase6 T"e -eso#rce database is a "idden (read onl%)database t"at contains all t"e s%stem ob>ects s#c" as s%s+ob>ects t"at are incl#ded !it" SQL server 2005+ T"e reso#rce database ma.es #pgrading process easier and faster+ 8) "f !odel and HS%5 database will crash what (o will do? 0ow to reb ild Haster database? :e can re-create model and MS23 databases b% re b#ild t"e master database+ SQL server 2000 (-eb#ild Master 23A startBr#nBreb#ild+e;e SQL server 2005 (-eb#ild Master 23) AstartB r#nB set#p+e;e

9) 0ow to !ove !odel< HS%5< -e!+%5? a. ,"ec. t"e pat" of temp 23 t"ro#g" spE"elp23 temp 23 b. 4LT0- 24T434S0 tempdb MO26?D ?6L0 (94M0 G tempdev ?6L094M0 G =0AUtempdb +mdf=)
c+ Stop t"e services d+ Move t"e files to desired location e+ -estart t"e services f+ ,"ec. t"e pat" of temp23 t"ro#g" spE"elp23 temp23 7ote6 -ecovering model msdb tempdb can be done b% reb#ilding master startC !ait+ Trace 1*0) recovers master+ 10) 0ow to !ove !aster database? a+ ,"ec. t"e pat" of master db t"ro#g" spE"elp23 master b+ Stop t"e services c+ ,"ange t"e pat" at start#p parameters SQL server config#ration managerB servicesB rig"t clic. on serviceB propertiesB advancedB add ne!Epat" at start#p parameters d+ Move t"e files to desired location e+ -estart t"e services f+ ,"ec. t"e pat" of master 23 t"ro#g" spE"elp23 master &25$"L%"7* H'S-2& %'-'5'S2 Start C !ait set#p+e;eCin H69ST49,0 94M0B --B -einstall G SQL engine

reb#ild database G SmasterS G & 7ote6 3% re-b#ilding master database !e can re-create model and msdb+ 11) What are the database states and e#+lain the!? T"e main database states are online offline restoring recovering reso#rce pending s#spect and emergenc%+

12) What is database sna+shot? *ive the s(nta#? Snaps"ots doesn=t contain #n-committed transactions at t"e time of snaps"ot !as ta.en+ 6t is ver% #sef#l for report /#eries+ (t"is option is available in 2005 00 edition) 0;A ,-04T0 24T434S0 42J09TL-0 :O-OSE23SS&(00 O9(94M0 G 4dvent#re!or.sEdata ?6L094M0 G=cAUprogramfilesUMicrosoft SQL ServerUMSSQL+&UMSSQLU 2ataU 4dvent#re!or.s EdataE&(00+ss=) 4S S94PSKOT O? 4dvent#re!or.s$ 13) What is -ransaction? What are -ransaction :'C"%) +ro+erties? Transaction is a set of logical #nit of !or. and it contains one or more database operations+ 4 valid transaction s"o#ld be met (4,62) 4tomicit% ,onsistenc% 6solation 2#rabilit% properties+ a. 4tomicit%A 4 transaction m#st be an atomic #nit of !or. eit"er all of it data modification are performed or none of t"em is performed+ b. ,onsistenc%A !"en completed a transaction m#st leave all data in consistent state+ 6n a relational database all r#les m#st be applied to transactions modifications to maintain all data integrit%+ 4ll internal data str#ct#res s#c" as 3-tree inde;es(or) do#ble lin.ed lists m#st be correct at end of transaction+ c. 6solationA modifications made b% conc#rrent transactions m#st be isolated from t"e modifications made b% t"e ot"er conse/#ent transactions+ 4 transaction eit"er sees a data in t"e state it !as in before anot"er conc#rrent transaction modified it (or) sees t"e data after second transaction completed+ d. 2#rabilit%A 4fter a transaction "as completed its effects are permanentl% in place in t"e s%stem+ T"e modification persists even in t"e event of a s%stem fail#re+ 7ote6 there are transaction 1) "!+licit transactions and 2) e#+licit transaction. 1,) What are transaction "solation levels? 4n 6solation level determines t"e degree of isolation of data bet!een conc#rrent transactions+ T"e defa#lt isolation level is read committed+ a+ -ead #ncommitted b+ -ead committed c+ -epeatable read d. seriali5able "S)L'-")7 --F -o! versioning is possible+ Sna+shot "solation6 allo!ing #pdates+

15) What is + r+ose of LS7 n !bers?


0ver% record in t"e transaction log is #ni/#el% identified b% a log se/#ence n#mber(LS9)+ LS9s are #sed internall% d#ring a -0STO-0 se/#ence to trac. t"e point in time to !"ic" data "as been restored+ 1;) 2#+lain abo t &'"% and &'"% levels? -462 stands for -ed#ndant 4rra% of 6ndependent 2is.s+ -462 is a dis. s%stem t"at contains arra%s to provide greater performance reliabilit% storage capacit% and lo!er cost+ T%picall% 0 & and 5 -462 levels are #sed in SQL server+ 7ote6 transaction lo3 &'"% 1< data files &'"% 5. 1/) "f a database in sin3le ser !ode? 0ow to chan3e into H lti- ser !ode? 4fter database Hdatabase nameB set m#ltiE#ser

18) Hini!al !ode and sin3le ser !ode?


Minimal modeA start-Br#n-Bcommand prompt-BSQLS0-J0-+0P0-f Single #ser modeA start-Br#n-Bcommand prompt-B SQLS0-J0-+0P0-m 11) )r+haned sers? 0ow to find or+haned sers and resolve the!? :"en a 23 is move+ 4ttac" 8 detac" restoring to different instance or corresponding login is dropped t"e #sers of t"e S62 (Sec#rit% 6dentifier) in t"e ne! instance+ To detect orp"aned #sersA spEc"angeE#sersElogin=-eport= To resolve orp"aned #sersA spEc"angeE#sersElogin=#pdateEone= =dbE#ser= =loginEname=

7ote6 %5 sers not !a++ed to sec rit( identifier. 20) What is row siCe of a database? -o! si5e of database is (0*0 b%tes+ 21) What is hea+ table? 4 table !it"o#t a cl#stered inde; is called as "eap table+ 22) What is chec4 +oint? ,"ec. point is a operations t"at s%nc"roni5es t"e p"%sical data !it" t"e c#rrent state of t"e b#ffer cac"e b% !riting o#t all modified data pages in b#ffer cac"e to dis.+ 7ote6 Trace flag 1502--B #ndoc#mented trace flag t"at records in t"e error log !"en ,"ec. Point startCstop s%nc"roni5es t"e p"%sical data !it" state of b#ffer cac"e+ c"ec. point fl#s"es dirt% pages from b#ffer cac"e to data file+ c"ec. point does not remove t"e page form cac"e+ c"ec. point is t"e point in time created b% c"ec. point process+ 23) 0ow !an( wa(s (o can !ove the data or databases between servers and databases? SS6S 2TS 4TT4,K 8 20T4,K 3#l. cop% program b#l. 6nsert 8 importand 0;port !i5ard+ 2,) S(nta# for find o t the database "%? Select dbEid(dbEname) 25) S(nta# for find o t Lo3ins? C rrent ser? To find o#t loginsA selectIfrom s%s+s%slogins To find o#t c#rrent #sersA select c#rrentE#ser 2;) 5ac4 + and &ecover( errors? 4fter a f#ll bac.#p of 23 -B restore verif% onl% from dis. G S,AU23E?LLL+ba.S -es#ltsA t"e bac.#p is valid+ bac4 + 2rrors6 &+ Media errors 2+ 3ac.#p fails 1+ ,"ec.s#m errors+ Hedia 2rrors6 ,annot cop% to t"e 9C: drive (Permission problem) Specified 9C: drive not accessible( location cannot detect)+ 5ac4 + Gails6 6f bac.ing #p t"e tranElog 8 if t"e recover% model is simple t"en error o#t+ :"ile bac.ing #p t"e T-Log c"ec. t"ere s"o#ld be a f#ll bac.#p+ Chec4s ! 2rrorsA 6f !e c"ec. t"e option bac.#p !it" c"ec.ing t"en it verifies t"e pages t"at "ad c"ec.s#m calc#lates t"e trace flag option c"ec.s#m+ 6f it doesnSt matc" t"en errors o#t+ --B ,ontin#e after error+ 2/) What will (o do if the -e!+%5 is f ll? &+ Move temp23 from one drive to anot"er drive+ 2+ Tr#ncate t"e transaction log file of temp23+ 3. Ma.e s#re t"at temp23 is set to S4LTO7-O:S Q9oteA 2O not set M4P si5e for temp23R+ @+ Lse temp23 7O 0P0, SPEK0LpL690 7O )$-8$-A 94M0 ?60L2 ?6L094M0 ?6L07-OLP S6V0 #se master go alter database tempdb modif% file (name G tempdev filename G S2AUdatatemp23+mdfS) 28) 2rrors we will 3et when we are accessin3 data files ?iles permission at OS level+

database ma% be s#spect mode files ma% be removed logical dis. drive f#ll trace or log files present in SQL server log folder in real director%+ SQL server >ob failed+
21) List so!e %5CC Co!!ands? 23,, c"ec.23 23,, s"rin.file 23,, c"ec.ident 23,, #pdate#sage 23,, 23reinde; 23,, s"o!contig 23,, s"rin.database 23,, c"ec.table 23,, inde;defrag

&2C)I2&J H)%2LS6

1. What is recover( !odel? 5enefits of recover( !odels?


N4 recover% model is a database propert% t"at controls t"e basic be"avior of t"e bac.#p and restore operations for a 23N+ -ecover% models are designed to control transaction log maintenance+("o! it can be tr#ncated and reg#lated) 2. 2#+lain f ll< b l4-lo33ed B si!+le recover( !odels? a. G ll6 !it" f#ll recover% model !e can recover t"e data #p to t"e min#te of cras" (point in time) beca#se itrecords ever%operation in t"e transaction log+ b. 5 l4-lo33edA !it" b#l. logged recover% model !e can recover most of t"e data+ 3#t !e !ill lost b#l.operations beca#set"ose are not recorded in to t"e log+ :e can set t"is option >#st beforeperforming a b#l.insert operation to speed #p t"e b#l. insert+ 7ote6 b#l. operations --B insert into 3,P create inde; alter inde; !rite te;t blog+ c. Si!+leA !it" simple recover% model !e can recover t"e data onl% #p to t"e last bac.#p beca#se not"ing is recorded in t"e transactional log+an% c"anges made todatabase after t"e last bac.#p !as performed !ill be lostbeca#se t"e% are not recorded in t"e transaction log+ 7enerall% it is #sef#l for test and development databases or data !are"o#ses b#t it is not appropriate c"oice for prod#ction database+ Which %5s can we se si!+le recover( !odel? Simple recover% model is #sef#l for development test databases data !are"o#ses or not often c"anged databases+ "n which recover( !odels +oint-in-ti!e recover( is +ossible? Point-in-time recover% is possible onl% in f#ll and b#l.-logged recover% models+ b#l.-logged recover% model pointin-time recover% is ma% or ma% not possible+ 7)-26 &ecover( !odels are sed for controllin3 transaction-lo3 !aintenance.

3. ,.

5.

"n s(ste! %5s what are the defa lt recover( !odels sed? Master -simple Model -f#ll MS23 -simple Temp23 -simple Wh( in si!+le recover( !odel we canKt ta4e -.Lo3 bac4 +? 6n simple recover% model t"e Transaction logs are tr#ncated+ 6n simple recover% model ever% transaction is logged into transaction log b#t at reg#lar intervals !"en c"ec. point occ#rs t-log file is tr#ncated+ :e can ta.e differential bac.#p in simple recover% model beca#se it belongs to +mdf

;.

7. Can we ta4e %iff. bac4 + in si!+le recover( !odel?

5'C@$8S 1. What is bac4 +s? -(+es of bac4 +s? Ma cop% of data t"at is #sed to restore and recover t"e data after a s%stem fail#res+N T"ere are fo#r t%pes of bac.#ps available &+f#ll bac.#ps 2+ 2ifferential bac.#p 1+ Transaction log bac.#p @+fileCfile gro#p bac.#p What is se of bac4 +s? 3ac.#p is safe g#ard to databases beca#se data ma% can loss d#e to man% fail#res s#c" as media fail#res #ser errors "ard!are fail#res and nat#ral disasters etc+ !it" good bac.#ps !e can recover database from fail#res+

2.

3. What is f ll< diff< -.Lo3 bac4 +s? 2#+lain each? a. G ll bac4 +6 f#ll bac.#p bac.s #p t"e entire database incl#ding transaction log+ :it" f#ll bac.#p point-in-time
recover% is possible beca#se it contains +mdf and +ldf+ it offers complete protection against media fail#res+ b. %ifferential bac4 +6 differential bac.#p records onl% t"e data t"at "as c"ange or modified e;tents since t"e last f#ll bac.#p+ c. -.lo3 bac4 +A transaction log t"at records all transactions since last transaction log bac.#p or differential bac.#p+ 6t can be #sed for recover t"e data to t"e point of fail#re(or) specific point-in-time+ d. Gile-file 3ro + bac4 +A file and file gro#p bac.#ps are speciali5ed form of 23 bac.#p+ 6n !"ic" onl% certain individ#al file (or) file gro#ps from a 23 are bac.#p+ W'L: write ahead transactional lo3) 6T comes in file and file gro#p+ S/l server #ses(:4L) !"ic" generates t"at no modifications are !ritten to dis. before t"e associated log record is ,. Can we ta4e %iff. bac4 +s witho t f ll bac4 +s? 9o it is not possible+ 7oteA Q#er% to .no! t"e W of bac.#p completed select I from s%s+dmEe;ecEre/#est !"ere sessionE62 G HSP62B What are the s(nta#es for bac4 +s? a. G ll bac4 +6 3ac.#p database dbname to dis.GNpat"N b. %iff.5ac4 +A 3ac.#p database dbname to dis.GNpat"N !it" differential

5.

c. -.lo3bac4 +A bac.#p log dbname to dis.GNpat"N


;. 2#+lain abo t -ail of lo3? *ive the s(nta#? T"e tail-log bac.#p is t"e last bac.#p t"at "ave not been bac.ed #p earlier to recover t"e database to point of a fail#re+ (4 bac.#p ta.en t"at "ave not been bac.ed #p >#st before restoring a database)+ Q er(6 bac.#p log databaseEname to dis. G SPat"X !it" stop at G StailS !it" no tr#ncate no recover% 7ote64ctive part of log !ill be bc.ed#p+ !it" t"e 23 in s#spect t"en S!it" noEtr#ncate

/.

5ac4 +Ks strate3(? 7enerall% bac.#ps are done b% client re/#irement+ 3#t most of t"e companies are follo!ing t"is strateg%+ 1. G ll bac4 +A ever% Sat#rda% evening *+00PM 2. %ifferential bac4 +A ever% da% evening *+00PM 3. -ransaction lo3 bac4 +A ever% one "o#r &2S-)&2

1.

What is &estore? What are the recover( states? 2#+lain each? -estore means recover t"e data from bac.#ps+ T"ere are t"ree recover% states for restore+ a) :it" recover% b) :it" no recover% c) Standb%

a) With recover(6 !it" recover% database !ill comes to online and get read% to #sing database+ 7enerall% !"ile
restoring recent (last)T+log !e can c"oose !it" recover% option+ b) With no-recover(6 !it" no-recover% databases !ill comes to offline and and !e can=t access 23+ 7enerall% e;cept recent log !e can c"oose !it" no-recover% option+ c) Standb(6 !it" standb% databases !ill comes to online and #sers can "ave read onl% access+ 7enerall% e;cept recent log !e can c"oose standb% option for read onl% access+ 2. What are the co!!on scenarios to restorin3 the data? 1. To restore t"e lost and corr#pted data after a s%stem fail#re 2. To restore a database onto a development s%stem for #ser b% application developers !"ile developing and testing ne! code+ 3. To restore a database onto a test s%stem to load test applications and database feat#res+ ,. To restore a database on separate server as a read-onl% database to perform /#eries for reports+ "n which edition on-line restoration +ossible? On-line restoration is possible onl% in enterprise edition What are the s(nta#es for restore? A. :it" recover%A restore database dbname from dis.GNpat"N !it" recover% B. :it" no-recover%A restore database dbname from dis.GNpat"N !it" norecover% ,+ Standb%A restore database dbname from dis.GNpat" !it" no standb%+N What is +oint-in-ti!e restore and se of that? Point-in-time restore is #sed to restore t"e data base to a partic#lar time >#st before a fail#re "as occ#rred or before corr#pt data+ 2#+lain abo t S-)8'- cla se? STOP4T cla#se is #sed to restore a database at point of time+

3. ,.

5.

;.

/.

&estore strate3(? a+ ?irst restore recent last f#ll bac.#p b+ T"en restore last 2iff+ bac.#p c. T"en restore all transaction log bac.#ps+

8. &estore with !ove o+tion6 restore 23 23name from dis. G Spat"+ba.S !it" move S23nameS to S9e!pat"Edata+mdfS move S23nameElogS to Sne!pat"Elog+ldfS stats G 5 no recover% 1. &estore 2rrors6 -estore !it" verif% onl% -estore contin#eEafterEerror 10. what are the %ifferent t(+es of restore )+tions? 1+ &estore verif( onl(A t"is verif% t"e bac.#p file (23+ba.) file is in readable format t"is doesnSt restore t"e 23+ >#st c"ec. t"e bac.#p file+ 2+ &estore header onl(6 6f t"ere are m#ltiple databases bac.#ps in t"e bac.#p device+ %o# !ant to .no! 23 belongs to !"ic" bac.#p file t"en t"is option to see al t"e information+ 3+ &estore label onl(6 T"is describes t"e information of t"e media set t"at is #sed to bac.#p t"e information+ ,+ &estore with 7o-recover(6 23 is offline still able to restore more transactions+ 5+ &estore with standb(6 23 is visible still able to restore more transactions+ ;+ &estore with recover(6 23 is online not able to restore transactions+ L)*S0"88"7*

1. What is lo shi++in3 and + r+ose of lo3 shi++in3?


To ac"ieve "ig" availabilit% and "ig" protection log s"ipping copies transactions from a <primar% serve= to one or more =secondar% servers=+ 6n log s"ipping T+log bac.#ps are sent to one or more secondar% servers and t"en restored to t"e destination servers individ#all%+ 6f t"e primar% database becomes #navailable an% of t"e secondar% database can bro#g"t into online man#all%+ T"e secondar% server acts as a bac.#p server and provides read-onl% /#er% processing to red#ce t"e load on t"e primar% server+(for /#er% processing secondar% servers s"o#ld be config#re in standb% mode) 2. What is +ri!ar( server< secondar( server B !onitor server? a. Primar% serverA primar% server is a prod#ction server !"ic" "olds t"e original cop% of t"e database+ Log s"ipping config#ration and administrating !ill be done from t"e primar% server+ b. Secondar% serverA secondar% servers "old t"e standb% cop% of t"e database+ :e m#st initiali5e t"e 23 on a secondar% server b% restoring a bac.#p from t"e primar% server #sing eit"er 9O-0,OJ0-D option or t"e ST4923D option+ 3% #sing ST4923D option #sers can "ave read onl% access to it+ c. Monitor serverA an optional server is called as monitor server t"at records "istor% and stat#s of bac.#p cop% and restore operations and raises alerts if an% operations fail+ T"e monitors m#ltiple log s"ipping config#rations+ What are the Lobs r nnin3 for lo3 shi++in3 and e#+lain the!? Log s"ipping "aving fo#r operations !"ic" are "andled b% SQL server 4gent >ob+ a. 3ac.#p >obA bac.#p >ob is created on primar% server instance and it performs bac.#p operation+ 6t logs "istor% on t"e local server and monitor servers and deletes old bac.#p files and "istor% information+ b. ,op% >obA cop% >ob is created on secondar% server instance and it performs copies t"e bac.#p files from primar% server to secondar% server+ 6t logs "istor% on t"e secondar% server and monitor server+

3.

c. -estore >obA restore >ob is created on t"e secondar% server instance and it performs restore operation+ 6t logs "istor% on t"e local server and monitor server and deletes old files and "istor% information+ d. 4lert >obA if a monitor server is #sed t"e alert >obs is created on t"e monitor server instance and it raises alerts if an% operations "ave not completed s#ccessf#ll%+ ,. &e> ire!ents for lo3 shi++in3? A. SQL server 2005 standard edition !or.gro#p edition or enterprise edition m#st be installed on a l instances involved in log s"ipping+ 3+ 4ll servers s"o#ld "ave t"e same case sensitivit% settings+ ,+ T"e databases m#st #se t"e f#ll recover% model or b#l.-logged recover% model+ 0ow to confi3 re lo3 shi++in3? a+ ,"oose primar% server secondar% servers and optional monitor server+ b. ,reate a file s"are to .eep transaction log bac.#ps(best to place on a separate comp#ter) c+ ,reate a folder for eac" secondar% server into !"ic" transaction log bac.#p copies+ d+ ,"oose bac.#p sc"ed#le for primar% database e+ ,"oose cop% and restore sc"ed#le for secondar% database+ f+ ,"oose alert >ob sc"ed#ling for monitor server if config#red+ What are +er!issions re> ired for lo3 shi++in3? :e m#st "ave s%sadmin on eac" server instance to config#re log s"ipping+ :e can #se eit"er f#ll or b#l. logged recover% model for log s"ipping+ 8. Where (o !onitorin3 lo3 shi++in3 and how? :e can monitoring t"e log s"ipping in t"e follo!ing !a%s+ 1. Honitor server:)histor( tables6 monitor server trac.s all statistics stat#s and errors t"at co#ld be "appen d#ring log s"ipping+ a+ LogEs"ippingEmonitorEprimar%A stores primar% server stat#s b+ Log-s"ippingEmonitorEseconder%A stores secondar% servers stat#s c+ Log-s"ippingEmonitorE"istor%-detailAcontains "istor% details for log s"ipping agents+ d+ Log-s"ippingEmonitorEerrorEdetailAstores error details for log s"ipping >obs+ e+ Log-s"ippingEmonitorEalertA stores slert >ob 62+ 2. S(ste! stored +roced res:HS%5)6 s%stem stored proced#res gives t"e "istor% information abo#t t"e specified server t"at are config#red in log s"ipping+ a. SpE"elpElogEs"ippingEmonitor (r#n at monitor server) b. SpE"elpElogEs"ippingEmonitor Eprimar%Fprimar%EdatabaseG=239ame=(r#n at MS) c. SpE"elpElogEs"ippingEmonitorEsecondar%Fsecondar%EdatabaseG=239ame= (r#n at MS) d. SpE"elpElogEs"ippingEalertE>ob(r#n at Mon Server) e. SpE"elpElogEs"ippingEprimar%EdatabaseFdatabaseG=239ame=(r#n at primar% server) f+ SpE"elpElogEs"ippingEsecondar%EdatabaseFdatabaseG=239ame=(r#n at sec server) 3. -ransaction lo3 shi++in3 stat s re+ort:s !!ar( re+orts)6 t"is report s"o!a t"e stat#s of log s"ipping config#rations for !"ic" t"is server instance is a primar% secondar% or monitor+ @+ SQL Server agent >ob "istor% 5+ ,"ec.ing t"e SQL server log+ 6f t"e primar% server !ill become #n-available do t"e follo!ing steps+ a+ Ta.e t"e tail of log from primar% server b. -estore tail of log into all secondar% database c+ -emove lo s"ipping config#ration from primar% server d. Select an% one of secondar% server and bring into online !it" alter database 239ame set online server

5.

;.

7. "n lo3 shi++in3 which recover( !odels can we sed?

9. 0ow secondar( server will bro 3ht into online< if the +ri!ar( server beco!es navailable?

e+ f+

-ig"t clic. on primar% database and generate script for #ser and logins+ T"en move t"e scrpt to secondar% server to create #sers and logins+

10. What are errors occ rred in lo3 shi++in3? T"ere are t!o errors are occ#rred d#ring log s"ipping &+ &@@20A t"is error occ#rs !"en t"e bac.#p >ob fails 2+ &@@2&A t"is error occ#rs !"en t"e restoring >ob fails H"&&)&"7* 1. What is !irrorin3? What are the benefits of that? Mdatabase mirroring is a met"od of increasing database availabilit%N !"ic" s#pports a#tomatic failover !it" no loss of data+ 3enefitsA a+ 6ncreases data protection b+ 6ncreases availabilit% of a database c+ 6mproves t"e availabilit% of t"e prod#ction database d#ring #pgrades+ 7ote6 Mirroring #ses f#ll recover% mode+ Morror server m#st be #sed !it" S9o recover%S What are the +rere> isites for database !irrorin3? A. bot" servers are re/#ires same edition eit"er standard edition or enterprise edition B. if !itness server config#red t"e server s"o#ld be installed standard edition enterprise edition !or. gro#p edition or e;press edition+ ,+ 4ll servers s"o#ld #se t"e same master code page and collation 2+ Mirror server "as same database name and #se onl% !it" 9o recover% option 0+ Mirroring #ses t"e f#ll recover% model(simple and b#l.-logged not s#pported) F. 4ll logins for connecting principle database s"o#ld be reside on mirror database+ What are the restrictions for database !irrorin3? a+ Ma;im#m &0 databases per instance can s#pport on 12-bit s%stem b. 2atabase mirroring is not s#pported !it" eit"er cross-database transactions or distrib#ted transactions+

2.

3.

4. 2#+lain abo t +rinci+al !irror and witness servers? 1. 8rinci+al-serverA one server serve t"e database to client is called principal server and it "aving original data+
,an "ave onl% one principal server and it "as to be on separate server+ 2. Hirror serverA ot"er server instance acts as a "ot or !arm standb% server is c5lled mirror server and it "aving cop% of database+ 3. Witness serverA t"e !itness server is an optional server and it controls a#tomatic failover to t"e mirror if t"e principal becomes #navailable+ To s#pport a#tomatic failover a database mirroring session m#st be config#red in "ig"-availabilit%+ 5. "n which o+erations are r nnin3 the o+eratin3 !odes? 4s%nc"rono#sA #nder as%nc"rono#s operation t"e principal server does not !ait for a response from mirror server after sending long b#ffer+ S%nc"rono#sA #nder t"e s%nc"rono#s operation t"e principal server sends t"e long b#ffer to t"e mirror server and t"en !aits for a response from t"e mirror server+ What are the o+eratin3 !odes and e#+lain the!? a. hi3h availabilit(A "ig" availabilit% mode r#n s%nc"rono#sl%+ -e/#ires a !itness server instance+ T"e principal server sends t"e log b#ffer to t"e mirror server and t"en !aits for a response from t"e mirror servers+

;.

b. 0i3h-+rotection6 "ig"-protection mode r#ns s%nc"rono#sl%+ 4l!a%s commit c"anges at bot" principal and
mirror+ c. 0i3h-+erfor!ance6 "ig"-performance mode r#ns as%nc"rono#sl% and t"e transactions safet% set to off+ T"e principal server does not !ait for a response from t"e mirror server after sending t"e log b#ffer+ T"e principal server r#nning nice and fast b#t co#ld lose b#t co#ld data on t"e mirror server+ /. What is the defa lt of +ort n !bers of +rinci+al and !irror servers? 0ow to find the +ort n !bers? T"e defa#lt port n#mbers of principal and mirror servers are 5022 and 5021+ To find port n#mberA S0L0,T name port ?-OM s%s+tcpEendpoints+ What is the end +oint ? how (o create end +oint? 4n end point is a net!or. protocol !"ic" is #sed to comm#nicate over t"e net!or.+ ,reation of an end-pointA ,reate endpoint H endpoint name B StateGstartedCstoppedCdisabled as tcp(listener portG5022C5021) for databaseEmirroring (roleGpartnerC!itness) Which trace fla3 is sed in !irrorin3? Trace flags are #sed to temporaril% set specific server c"aracteristic or to s!itc" offCon partic#lar be"avior+ &@00trace flag is s#ed in mirroring+ To set trace flag for database mirroringA config#ration managerB rig"t clic. on server instanceB propertiesBadvanced tabB start#p parametersB -t &@00(add)+

8.

1.

10. "n which recover( !odel we can se in !irrorin3? 6n mirroring t"e principal and mirror databases are #sed onl% f#ll recover% model+ 11. What is role Mswitchin3? 6nterc"anging of roles li.e principal and mirror are called role s!itc"ing+ 7ote6 4lter database H23B Set G partner ?ailover+ 12. What is s(nta# to sto+ the database !irrorin3? 4lter database Hdatabase nameB set partner off+ 13. 0ow to confi3 re !irrorin3? a. ,"oose t"e principal server mirror server and optional !itness server + b. T"e principal and mirror server instance m#st be r#nning t"e same edition eit"er standard edition or enterprise edition+ c. T"e !itness server instance can r#n on SQL Server standard edition enterprise edition !or.gro#p edition or e;press edition+ d. mirror database re/#ires restoring a recent bac.#p and one or more T+log bac.#ps of t"e principal database(!it" no recover%) 7ote6 Modification are !ritten to dis. onl% after t"e associated log records is !ritten to dis.+ Hirror Confi3 ration6 --F ,lic. on config#re sec#rit%+ --B provide t"e end points for !itness server I 23,, S"o! config (table 6nde;) Local ?ragmentation 8 0;ternal ?ragmentationA W of o#t of order pages ret#rned from scanning t"e leaf pages of inde;+ t"is n#mber is not relieved to "eaps+ W of o#t of order e;tends ret#rned from scanning t"e leaf page of inde;+ %atabase Hirrorin3 states6 S%nc"roni5ing S%nc"roni5ed s#spended pending failover 2isconnected

1,. What is the +rocess of !onitorin3 !irrorin3? a. SQL server management st#dioA a green arro! on t"e mirror server is indicates r#nning !ell+ 4 red arro! indicates problems t"at need to investigation+ b. SQL server logA it provides information of mirroring establis"ment and stat#s+ 6f an% error occ#rs it !ill be logged to SQL server log and !indo!s event log+ c. Performance monitorA it can provides real time information abo#t database mirroring+ :e can #se performance co#nters to get stat#s of t"e database mirroring s#c" as b%tes receivedCsec b%tes sentCsec transaction dela% etc+ d. ProfilerA profiler man% events are providing t"e stat#s of t"e database mirroring+ e. 2atabase mirroring monitorA database mirroring monitor is a 7L6 tool t"at s"o!s #pdate stat#s and to config#re !arning t"res"olds+ To open 2M monitorA rig"t clic. on principal databaseBtas.sB select la#nc" database mirroring monitor+ f. S%stem stored proced#resA SpEdbmmonitoraddmonitoring SpEdbmmonitorc"angemonitoring SpEdbmmonitor"elpmonitoring SpEdbmmonitordropmonitoring

15. What is hardenin3? 4s /#ic.l% as possible t"e log b#ffer is !ritten to t"e transactions log on dis. a process

called "ardening+

1;. What is lo3 b ffer? 4 log b#ffer is special location in memor% (-4M)+ SQL server stores t"e c"anges in t"e database=s log b#ffer+ --F %atabase files +artici+atin3 in !irrorin3 canNt be shrin4 b( sin3 tr ncate onl( o+tion. --B to s"rin. t"e log file of 2+3 participating in mirroring &) bac.#p t"e log file to an% location 2) c"ec. !"et"er all t"e transactions are !ritten to dis.+ 23,, LO769?O (2394M0) 1) S"rin. file --B 23,, SK-69O?6L0 (?6L0 94M0 M69 S6V0) 'ctive Lo36 Min LS9 to last !ritten log record+ recovered for f#ll recover% of 23+ 4ctive part of log can never be tr#ncated+ Write a head transaction lo36 W'L Conce+t 6 Write a head lo3in. Modifications are !ritten to dis. onl% after t"e associated log records are !ritten comes inn files and file gro#ps+

17. 0ow to set witness server to database !irrorin3?


SSMSA rig"t clic. on principal databaseB tas.sBmirrorB clic. on config#re sec#rit%B provide t"e end point for !itness serverB clic. o.+ T-SQLA 4LT0- 24T434S0 advent#re !or.s S0T :6T90SSG=T,PACCprassad+local$502@=(2o t"is from t"e principal server) 18. 0ow to re!ove a witness server fro! database !irrorin3? SSMSA rig"t clic. on principal database B tas.BmirrorBremove tcp address from t"e !itnessBclic. o.+ T-SQLA 4LT0- database advent#re !or.s S0T :6T90SS O??+

19. 0ow to set + f ll( > alified na!es for database !irrorin3? I. GQ%7 2rror6 One or more of t"e server net!or. addresses lac.s of f#ll% /#alified domain name(?Q29)+
Specif% t"e ?Q29 for eac" server and clic. start mirror again+ T"e s%nta; for a f#ll% /#alified T,P address isA T,PACCHcomp#terEnameB+HdomainEsegmentBQ+HdomainEsegmentBRAHportB "". &2C-"G"GJ"7* G$LLJ Q$'L"G"2% 7'H26 1. To vie! end pointsA S0L0,TI?-OM s%s+databaseEmirroringEendpoint$

2+ -emove e;isting all end points from t"e principal mirror and !itness servers$2-OP 092 PO69TQ092PO69TE94M0R 1+ 4dding MlocalN as t"e primar% 29S s#ffi; as follo!sA a. -ig"t clic. M% comp#ter and t"en clic. properties+ T"e s%stem properties dialog bo; !ill appear+ b+ ,lic. "e comp#ter name tab+ c+ ,lic. c"ange+ T"e comp#ter name c"anges dialog bo; !ill appear+ d+ ,lic. more+ T"e 29S s#ffi; and 9et36OS comp#ter name dialog bo; !ill appear+ e+ 0nter appropriate 29s s#ffi; for t"e domain f+ Select t"e c"anges primar% 29S s#ffi; !"en domain members"ip c"anges c"ec. bo;+ g. ,lic. OO to save t"e c"anges and t"en clic. OO to e;it t"e comp#ter name c"anges dialog bo;+ h. ,lic. OO to close t"e s%stem properties dialog bo; and t"en restart t"e comp#ter for t"e c"ange to ta.e effect+ @+ -econfig#re t"e database mirroring eit"er 7L6 or T-SQL+

20. What are the !irrorin3 states?


&+ SJ7C0&)7"O"7*A (Transaction safet% set to "ig") T"e contents of t"e mirror database are lagging be"ind t"e contents of t"e principal database+ T"e principal server is sending log records to t"e mirror server !"ic" is appl%ing t"e c"anges to t"e mirror database to roll it for!ard+ 4t t"e start of a database mirroring session t"e database is in t"e SD9,K-O96V697 state+ T"e principal server is serving t"e database and t"e mirror is tr%ing catc" #p + 2+ SJ7C0&)7"O2%A (4#tomatic failover 8 man#al failover are s#pported) :"en t"e mirror server becomes s#fficientl% ca#g"t #p to t"e principal server t"e mirroring state c"anges to SD9,K-O96V02+ T"e database remains in t"is state as long as t"e principal server contin#es to send c"anges to t"e mirror server and t"e mirror server contin#es to appl% c"anges to t"e mirror database+ 6f transactions safet% is set to ?LLL a#tomatic failover and man#al failover are bot" s#pported in t"e SD9,K-O96V02 state t"ere is no data loss after a failover+ 6f transaction safet% is off some data loss is al!a%s possible even in t"e SD9,K-O96V02 stat+ 1+S$S827%2%A T"e mirror cop% of t"e database is not available+ T"e principal database is r#nning !it"o#t sending an% logs to t"e mirror server a condition .no!n as r#nning e;posed+ T"is is t"e state after a failover+ 4 session can also become SLSP09202 as a res#lt of redo errors or if t"e administrator pa#ses t"e session+ SLSP09202 is a persistent state t"at s#rvives partner s"#t do!n and start#ps+ 1. 827%"7* G'"L)I2&6 T"is state is fo#nd onl% on t"e principal server after a failover beg#n b#t t"e server "as not transitioned into t"e mirror role+ :"en t"e failover is initiated t"e principal database goes into t"e P092697E?46LOJ0- state /#ic.l% terminates an% #ser connections and ta.es over t"e mirror role soon t"ereafter+ 2. %"SC)772C-2%A T"e partner "as lost comm#nication !it" t"e ot"er partner+ 21. %ifference 5etween Lo3 Shi++in3 and Hirrorin3 ? Log S"ipping &+ Man#al 2+ Secondar% 23Ss can be an% 9#mber of 1+ 2epends on SQL 4gent Mirroring &+ 4#tomatic option available 2+ Onl% one secondar% 23 for a primar% 23 1+ 2epends on 23 0ngine @+ Operations in 2 modes -he two o+eration !odes in !irrorin3 are6

&+ S%nc"rono#sA Principal server sends t"e log b#ffer to t"e mirror server 8 !aits for a response from a mirror server+ 2+ 4s%nc"rono#sA T"e principal server doesnSt !ait for a response from t"e mirror server after sending log b#ffer+ &28L"C'-")7 1. What is re+lication? M-eplication is t"e process of cop%ing and distrib#ting data bet!een databases to different servers t"ro#g"o#t t"e enterpriseN -eplication is a set of tec"nologies for cop%ing and distrib#ting data and database ob>ects from one database to anot"er and t"e s%nc"roni5ing bet!een databases to maintain consistenc%+ Lses Of -eplicationA 4llo!s 234Ss to distrib#te data to different servers t"ro#g"o#t an organi5ation+ ?or load balancing offline processing red#ndanc% offline batc" processing+ 9oteA t"ere are 2 main components &+ P#blis"er 2+ S#bscriber+ What are the ses of re+lication? a+ Server to server replicationA &+ 6mproving scalabilit% and availabilit%+ 2. 2ata !are"o#sing and reporting+ 1+ 6ntegrating data from m#ltiple sites+ @+ 6ntegrating "eterogeneo#s data 5+ Offloading batc" processing+ b. Server to client replicationA 1. 0;c"anging data !it" mobile #sers 2. -etail point of sale(POS)applications 1+ 6ntegrating data from m#ltiple sites -(+es of re+lication and e#+lain each? a. Snaps"ot replicationA snaps"ot replication ta.es a pict#re or a snaps"ot of t"e database and propagated to t"e s#bscribers+ 6t red#ce t"e over"ead on t"e p#blis"ers and s#bscribers beca#se it does not monitor data #pdates+ Snaps"ot replication is ver% #sef#l !"en t"e so#rce data is c"anges occasionall% (reporting) + b. Transactional replicationA transactional replication starts !it" a snaps"ot of t"e p#blis"er=s database+ :it" transactional replication an% c"anges made to t"e articles are capt#red from t"e transactional log and propagated to t"e distrib#tors contin#o#sl% and a#tomaticall%+ Lsing transactional replication !e can .eep t"e p#blis"er=s and s#bscribers in almost e;actl% t"e same state+ c. Merge replicationA merge replication starts !it" a snaps"ot of t"e p#blis"ers database+ S#bse/#ent data c"anges and sc"ema modifications made at t"e p#blis"ers and s#bscribers are trac.ed !it" triggers+ T"e s#bscriber s%nc"roni5es !it" t"e p#blis"ers !"en connected to t"e net!or. and e;c"anges all ro!s t"at "ave c"anged bet!een t"e polis"er and s#bscriber since t"e last time s%nc"roni5ation occ#rred+ 7ote6 SPE422 PL3L6,4T6O9 SPE422 4-T6,L0 SPE2-OP SL3,-6PT6O9 SPEK0LPELO7-0420-E4709T 2#+lain abo t + blisher< s bscribers and distrib ters? a. P#blis"ersA t"e p#blis"er is a database t"at ma.es data available for replication+ T"e p#blis"er can "ave one or more p#blications+ b. 2istrib#terA t"e distrib#ter is t"e intermediar% bet!een t"e p#blis"ers and s#bscriber+ 6t receives p#blis"ed transactions or snaps"ots and t"en stores and for!ards t"ese p#blications to t"e s#bscribers+ c. S#bscribersA s#bscribers are database server t"at store t"e replicated data and receive #pdates+ 4 s#bscriber can t"e p#blis"er or rep#blis" t"e data to ot"er s#bscribers+ 5. 0;plain abo#t article p#blication s#bscriptionY

2.

3.

,.

a. 4rticlesA an article is t"e data transactions or stored proced#res t"at are stored !it" in a p#blication+ T"is is t"e
act#al information t"at is going to be replicated+ b. P#blicationA t"e p#blication is t"e storage container for different articles+ 4 s#bscriber can s#bscribe to an individ#al article or an entire p#blication+ c. S#bscriptionA t"e s#bscription is re/#est b% t"e s#bscriber to receive t"e p#blication+ ;. /. Which recover( !odels are sed for re+lication? ?LLL and 3#l.-logged recover% models+ 0ow to !onitor the re+lication? a. -eplication monitorA replication monitor is a 7L6 tool provides detailed information on t"e stat#s and performance of p#blications and s#bscription+ 3% #sing replication monitor !e can find o#t+ &) !"ic" s#bscription are slo! 2)!"% is an agent not r#nning 1) time ta.en to transaction commit @) !"% merge replication is slo! 5) "o! far be"ind s#bscription etc+ To la#nc" replication monitorA connect instanceBrig"t clic. on replication folderBselect la#nc" replication monitor+ b. Management St#dioA b% #sing management st#dio !e can see vie! snaps"ot agent stat#s vie! log reader agent stat#s vie! s%nc"roni5ation stat#s etc+ T"ro#g" SSMS connect instance B rig"t clic. on p#blicationB select t"e option

c. S%stem monitorA provides information on t"e performance of vario#s processes of replication+


4gent 4ll agents Snaps"ot agent Snaps"ot agent Log reader agent Log reader agent Log reader agent 2istrib#tion agent 2istrib#tion agent 2istrib#tion agent Merge agent Merge agent Merge agent 8. Performance ob>ect -eplication agent -eplication snaps"ot -eplication snaps"ot -eplication log reader -eplication log reader -eplication log reader -eplication 2ist+ -eplication 2ist+ -eplication 2ist+ -eplication Merge -eplication Merge -eplication Merge ,o#nter -#nning Snaps"otA delivered ,mdsCsec Snaps"otAdelivered transCsec Log readerA delivered ,mdsCsec Log readerA delivered TransCsec Log readerA deliver% Latenc% 2istA delivered cmdsCsec 2istA delivered transCsec 2istA deliver% latenc% ,onflictsCsec 2o!nloaded c"angesCsec Lploaded c"angesCsec

What are the a3ents available for re+lication and e#+lain each? SQL server agent "osts and sc"ed#les t"e agents #sed in replication and also controls and monitors operation o#tside of replication+ a. Snaps"ot agentA t"e snaps"ot agent is t%picall% #sed for all t%pes of replication+ 6t is responsible for cop%ing t"e sc"ema and data from t"e p#blis"er to t"e s#bscribers stores t"e snaps"ot files and records information abo#t s%nc"roni5ation in t"e distrib#tion database+ T"e snaps"ot agent r#ns at t"e distrib#ter+

b. Log reader agentA t"e log reader agent is #sed for transactional replication+ 6t moves information from t"e
transaction log on t"e p#blis"er to t"e distrib#tion database+ c. %istrib tion a3entA t"e distrib#tion agent is #sed for snaps"ot replication and transactional replication+ 6t is responsible for moving t"e stored transactions from t"e distrib#tor to t"e s#bscribers+ d. Q e e reader a3entA t"e /#e#e reader agent is #sed for transactional replication !it" t"e /#e#ed #pdating option+ 6t r#ns on t"e distrib#ter and is responsible for reading messages from t"e /#e#e on t"e s#bscribers and appl%ing t"em to t"e appropriate p#blication+ &e+lication Sna+shot6 :ill be located on Sdistrib#tor instance "ome director%S MSSQL G -0PL24T4 replication agent+ -ransactional with +datable s bscri+tion6 Transaction replication and merge replication bot" t"ese replication starts !it" snaps"ot of p#blis"er database+ Merge replication modifications are trac.ed+ 1. What are the a3ents sed for transactional re+lication? a+ Snaps"ot agent b+ Log reader agent c+ 2istrib#tion agent a+ b+ Snaps"ot agent Merge agent

10. What are the a3ents sed for !er3e re+lication?

11. What is the +rocess of transactional re+lication? T"ree agents are doing t"e process for transactional replication+ 12. ) t of s(nch iss e in re+lication6 ,ondition of replication in monitor replication trac. do!n t"e error #nder action message( Transaction se/#ence n#mber - TS9) violation of Sprimar% .e% constraint co#ld not insert d#plicate .e%+

H'7'*2H271. 2. What is Haintenance +lan? Maintenance plans create a !or.flo! for database optimi5ation and ma.e free from inconsistencies+ %atabase !ail? 2atabase mail is an enterprise sol#tion for sending 0-mail messages from t"e Microsoft SQL server 2005 database engine+ Lsing database mail %o#r database applications can send e-mail messages to #sers+ T"e messages can contain /#er% res#lts and can also incl#de files from an% reso#rce on %o#r net!or.+ 2atabase mail is designed for reliabilit% scalabilit% sec#rit% and s#pportabilit%+ 82&G)&H'7C2 -$7"7*6 1. Which tools are sed for +erfor!ance t nin3? T"ere are man% tools are #sed for performance t#ning+ a. :indo!s tools for monitoring applicationsA performance monitor performance co#nter and logs tas.s manager net!or. manager+ b. SQL server tools for monitoring componentsA SQL trace SQL profiler 2MJs s%stem stored proced#res grap"ical s"o! plans activit% monitor 23,, b#ilt-in-f#nctions trace flags+

S0T SKO: PL49E4LL O9CO?? S0T SKO: PL49ET0PT O9CO??

2. 0ow to identif( lon3est r nnin3 > eries ?


T"ere are t!o !a%s to identif% slo! r#nning /#eries 1 profiler (b% #sing d#ration of /#er%) 2 s%s + dm E e;ecE /#er%E starts and s%s+ 2mE e;ec E re/#ests 2MJs 1 23,, OP09T-49 @23,, LO769?O (2394M0) LS0?LL 2MJSsA &+ SDSE2MEOSESDSE69?O$ SDS+2ME0P0,E,O990,T6O9 2+ SDS+2MEOSEKOSTS 1+ SDS+2MEOSES,K02LL0-S @+ SDS+2M+OSEM0MO-DE,L0-OS 5+ SDS+2ME23E6920PELS470EST4TS 3. &easons for Slow & nnin3 Q er( ? T"ere are a n#mber of common reasons for slo!- r#nning /#erier a) Lac. of #sef#l inde;es Lac. of #sef#l data striping (-462)+ b) 3loc.ings Table scans Lac. of #sef#l partitioning c) Missing or o#t of date statistics (# p date statistics) d) Slo! net!or. comm#nication+ e) 6ns#fficient memor% available for SQL Server+ f) 6ns#fficient dis. space+ g) 0;cess recompilations of Stored Proced#res ") Proced#res and Triggers !it"o#t S0T 9O,OL9T on 0ow to anal(Ce > er( +erfor!ance? :e can an anal%5e /#er% performance in t"ree !a%s 1) T-SQLA S0T SKO:PL49 E 4LL O9C O?? S0T SKO:PL49 ET0PT O9CO??+ 2) SSMSA 0stimated 0;ec#tion Plan 8 4ct#al 0;ec#tion plan+ 1) ProfilerA To displa% te;t and PML e;ec#tion plans see 2ispla%ing 0;ec#tion plans b% Lsing SQL Server Profiler 0vent ,lasses+ 7ote6 S/l server ret#rns detailed information for eac" statement+ 7or!aliCation6 T"e goal of normali5ation is to red#ce problems !it" t"e data consistenc% b% red#cing red#ndanc%+ t"ere are @ normali5ation formsA &9?A 9o repetitive col#mns in table+ Lse primar% .e% to "ave related data in t"e same table !it" #ni/#e col#mns+ 29?A Primar% .e% 8 ,ol#mn #se temporar% tables instead of c#rsors+ 19?A remove col#mns t"at are not dependent on primar% .e%+ 0ow to increase > er( +erfor!ance? :e can improve /#er% performance in t"e follo!ing !a%s+ &+ 4dd inde;es if re/#ired+ 2+ -#n Lpdate statistics for o#t of date statistics+ 3. -esolving 3loc.ing iss#es+ @+ 4dd space to 23 files or Temp23 if t"at are not "aving eno#g" space+ 5+ -ed#ce t"e too m#c" normali5ation+ *+ Lsing Temporar% tables instead of ,#rsors+ )+ SPS and Triggers are !it" Set 9O,OL9T on+ 2#+lain abo t +rofiler? What are the ses of +rofiler?

,.

5.

6.

SQL profiler can capt#re SQL server events from t"e server to anal%5e or tro#bles"oot performance problems s#c" as finding slo!-r#nning /#eries and monitoring performance etc+ profiler is #sef#l for maintaining sec#rit% tro#bles"ooting monitoring and optimi5ation+ $ses of SQL +rofiler6 a+ find t"e !orst-performing /#eries b+ identif% t"e ca#se of a deadloc. c+ monitor stored proced#res performance d. a#dit SQL server activit% e+ monitoring T-SQL activit% per #ser f+ collect a representative sample of events for stress testing g+ collect a sample of events for t#ning t"e p"%sical database design b% #sing database engine t#ning advisor 7ote6 MS2T,A 6tSs a !indo!s service providing transact infrastr#ct#re for distrib#ted s%stem+ Transaction 4,62 properties+ /. What are the events is ca+t red SQL +rofiler? :e can capt#re t"e events s#c" as a+ T-SQL statements stored proced#res b+ ,#rsors loc.s(deadloc.) c+ 2atabase ob>ects and a#to gro!t" of si5e of data 8 log files d+ 0rrors 8 !arnings(s%nta; errors) e+ Performance(s"o! plan) f+ Table scans g. Sec#rit% a#dits(failed logins pass!ord c"anges) "+ Monitor server control memor% c"anges(cp# reads !rites) i+ Sessions transactions t#ning+ 2#+lain abo t database t nin3 advisor? What is wor4 load? 2atabase t#ning advisor can anal%5e t"e performance effects of !or.loads r#n against one or more databases or a SQL profiler trace (t"e% ma% contain T-SQL batc" or remote proced#re call)+ 4fter anal%5ing it recommends to add remove or modif% p"%sical design str#ct#res s#c" as cl#stered and non-cl#stered inde;es inde;ed vie!s and portioning+ Wor4load6 a !or. load is set of transact-SQL statements t"at e;ec#tes against databases %o# !ant to t#ne+ What is d(na!ic !ana3e!ent views? 2MJs ret#rn server state information t"at !e can #se to monitor t"e "ealt" of a server instance diagnose problems and t#ne performance+ T"ere are t!o t%pes 2MJs a. ServerMsco+ed %HIs6 re/#ire t"e J60: S0-J0- ST4T0 permission on t"e server+ b. %atabase-sco+ed %HIs6 re/#ire t"e J60: 24T434S0 ST4T0 permission on t"e database+ 24, is stands for 2edicated 4dministrator ,onnection+ T"is diagnostic connection allo!s an administrator to access r#nning instance to tro#bles"oot problems or e;ec#te diagnostic /#eries on t"e server Z even !"en SQL server is not responding to standard connection re/#ests+ T"is connection #ses &@1@ port and can connect onl% one connection for instance+ -o connect %'C6 a. SQLCH%6 -sadminAHinstanceEnameB+ b. *$"6 SSMS /#er% editor b% connecting to 42M69 AHinstanceEnameB+

8.

1.

10. What is %'C? 0ow to connect %'C?

11. 2#+lain abo t database console co!!ands:%5CC)?


23,, commands are #sed to c"ec. t"e consistenc% of t"e database or database ob>ects+ :"ile e;ec#ting 23,, commands t"e 23 engine creates a database snaps"ot and t"en r#ns t"e c"ec.s against t"is snaps"ot+ 4fter t"e 23,, command is completed t"is snaps"ot is dropped+

12. What is stored +roced re? What are the t(+es of stored +roced res available in SQL server and e#+lain each? 4 stored proced#re is a pre-compiled e;ec#table ob>ect t"at contains one or more transacts-SQL statements+ a. $ser defined stored +roced re6 stored proced#re are mod#les or ro#tines t"at encaps#late code for re#se+ 4 stored proced#res can ta.e inp#t parameters ret#rn tab#lar or scalar res#lts and messages to t"e client+ b. S(ste! stored +roced res6 s%stem stored proced#res are #sed to perform man% administrative and informational activities+ c. 2#tended stored +roced res6 t"ese are #sed to create o!n e;ternal ro#tines in a programming lang#age s#c" as c+ e;tended stored proced#re are 2LLs t"at an instance of Microsoft SQL server can d%namicall% load and r#n+

13. What is activit( !onitor and se of that? What are the +er!issions re> ired to se activit( !onitor?
4ctivit% monitor is #sed to get information abo#t #sers connections to t"e database engine and t"e loc.s t"at t"e% "old+ 4ctivit% monitor is #sed to tro#bles"ooting database loc.ing iss#es and to terminate deadloc.ed or #nresponsive process+ -o se activit( !onitor6 J60: S0-J0- ST4T0 permission on server and S0L0,T permission to t"e s%sprocesses 8s%sloc.s tables in t"e master database+ -o 4ill a +rocess6 s%sadmin and processadmin database roles and pemissions are re/#ired to O6LL a process+

14. What is e#ec tion +lan and e#+lain it?


0;ec#tion plan grap"icall% displace t"e data retrieval met"ods c"osen b% SQL server+ 6t represents t"e e;ec#tion cost of specific statements and /#eries in SQL server+ T"is grap"ical approac" is ver% #sef#l for #nderstanding t"e performance of t"e /#er%+ Q#er% e;ec#tion plan G /#er% optimi5er G 4vg+ estimate time+ 15. What is trace fla3? *ive so!e trace fla3s? Trace flags are #sed to temporaril% set specific server c"aracteristics or to s!itc" offCon a partic#lar be"avior+ T"ere are t!o t%pes of trace flagsA session and global+ Session trace flags are active for a connection and are visible onl% to tat connection+ 7lobal trace flags are set at t"e server level and are visible to ever% connection on t"e server+ Some flags can onl% be enabled as global and some can be enabled eit"er global or session scope+ &)2*0 2)&20@ 1)&2&& @)&222 5)&22@ *)252( ))1205 ()1*25 ')@*&* &0))(0* &&)&@00 -o set on9off trace fla36 &+23,, T-4,0 O9 2+ 23,, T-4,0 O?? -o enable trace fla3 3loball(6 23,, T-4,0 O9 !it" t"e -& arg#ment (0;A 23,, T-4,0 O9252( -&)+

16. What are the ca ses of database fail res?


T"ere are t"ree common iss#es !ill ca#ses database fail#re+ Log file vie!er if ver% #sef#l to diagnose t"ese problems t"at !ill occ#r in SQL server 2005+ 1. %atabase has r n o t of dis4 s+ace6 a. 6f a database is online and r#nning o#t of dis. space t"e data !e cannot be inserted into t"e database+ b. if t"e database d#ring recover% and t"e data file becomes f#ll t"e database engine mar.s t"e database as Mresource pendingN 2. --lo3 is f ll6 a. if t"e database is online and t"e T-log becomes f#ll t"e database engine iss#es '002 error it "as in read-onl% state and !ill not allo! #pdates+ b. if t"e database d#ring recover% and t"e T-log becomes f#ll t"e database engine mar.s t"e database as Mreso#rce pendingN 3. -e!+ %5 has r n o t of dis4 s+ace6 Temp 23 stores #ser ob>ects internal ob>ects and version stores+ 6f t"e temp 23 database r#ns o#t of space it ca#ses significant problems for SQL server 2005+ T"e errors are !ritten to SQL server log and t"ese errors (&&0& &&05 1'5' 1'*) 1'5( 1'** ) indicates temp 23 "as ins#fficient space+

17. 0ow to nderstand database en3ine errors?


6f an% error occ#rs t"e server !rites error messages to logs (database mail SQL agent SQL server and !indo!s 9T)+ T"ese logs "aving error n#mber error message severit% state proced#re name line n#mber+ :e can eas% to #nderstand errors b% vie!ing log file vie!er+

18. What is severit( level in event lo3? 't what severit( levels are written to the SQL server lo3?
T"e severit% level tell "o! bad t"e error is+ 4bove &' severit% levels errors are !ritten to t"e SQL server log+ 11. What is state 'ttrib te of an error !essa3e in event lo3? T"e state 4ttrib#tes provides details of !"at ca#se t"e error+ 20. What are the ca ses of +h(sical server fail res? T"ere are five common iss#es !ill ca#ses p"%sical server fail#res+ &+ 2is. fail#res 2+ Memor% fail#res 1+ Processor fail#res @+ 9et!or. card fail#re 5. -462 fail#re+ 21. "f lo3 file is f ll what (o will do? 6f t"e T+log file is f#ll t"e database iss#es 1002 error and it is in read-onl% state and !ill not allo! #pdates+ T"e follo!ing tas.s !ill responding T+log file+ &+ bac.ing #p t"e log 2+ adding one or more log files 1+ moving t"e log to anot"er dis.s @+ increasing log file si5e or enabling a#to gro!t" 5+ terminating long r#nning transactions 22. if data file is f ll what (o will do? 6f t"e primar% data file is f#ll !e can add secondar% data files+ 'ddin3 a file to database6 rig"t clic. on databaseBpropertiesB filesB clic. addB give t"e val#es for logical name file t%pe file gro#p initial si5e a#to gro!t" pat" file name+ 23. if a database is nder s s+ect !ode? What (o will do? SpEresetstat#sA resets t"e stat#s of s#spect database (spEresetstat#s =advent#re!or.s=) + 2,. if the server has co!+letel( failed< and how to all the bac4 +s restored on to a new server? a+ 3#ild t"e !indo!s server and restore t"e domain logins to s#pport !indo!s a#t"entication+ b+ 6nstall SQL server and an% service-pac. #pgrades+ c+ P#t SQL server in single-#ser mode and restore t"e master database+ d+ -estore t"e MS23 database e+ 6f t"e model database !as modified restore it f. -estore t"e #sers databases

"7%2P2S

25. What is an inde#? -(+es of inde#es? 0ow !an( cl stered inde#es and non-cl stered inde#es created on a
table?

7enerall% SQL server e;amines (table scan) ever% ro! in t"e table to satisf% t"e /#er% res#lt Minde; is a p"%sical str#ct#re containing pointers to t"e data !"ic" is #sed for retrieving data more /#ic.l% and improves t"e /#er% performanceN+ Cl stered inde#6 onl% one cl#stered inde; can create on a table+ :"en !e create a cl#stered inde; on a table all t"e ro!s in t"e table are stored in t"e order of t"e cl#stered inde; .e%+ 7on cl stered inde#6 2@' non-cl#stered inde;es can create on a table+non-cl#stered inde;es are stored 3-tree str#ct#res !it" t"e leaf level nodes "aving t"e inde; .e% and it=s ro! locator+ 9oteAsatisf%ing /#er% res#lt &+reorganise inde;avgEfragmentationEinEpercent B5 and H10 2+alter inde; reorgani5e online HG10W select I from s%s+dmEdbEinde;Ep"%sicalEstat 1+reb#ild t"e inde; avgEfragmentationEinEpercent B10 @+alter inde; reb#ildoffline B10W 2;. 0ow we reb ild an inde#? 3% #sing 23,, 23-06920P dbcc inde; defrag dbcc s"o!contig (or) s%s+dmEdbEinde;Ep"% 2/. WhatKs the difference between a +ri!ar( 4e( and a ni> e 4e(? 3ot" primar% .e% and #ni/#e .e% enforces #ni/#eness of t"e col#mn on !"ic" t"e% are defined+ SL & 2 Primar% .e% Primar% .a% creates a cl#stered inde; Primar% .e% does not allo! 9#lls Lni/#e .e% Lni/#e .e% creates a non-cl#stered inde; Lni/#e .e% allo!s one 9#ll onl%

28. What is stored +roced re? 4 stored proced#re is a pre-compiled SQL statement t"at are stored in server database to performing a tas.s+ 4 single proced#re can be #sed over t"e net!or. b% several clients #sing different inp#t data+ 4nd !"en t"e proced#re is modified all clients a#tomaticall% get t"e ne! version+ 'dvanta3es6 1. Stored proced#re can red#ce net!or. traffic beca#se /#eries e;ec#ted as a batc"+ 2. 6mproving t"e performance beca#se SPs are pre-compiled+ 1+ Stored proced#res provide better sec#rit% to %o#r data @+ 0asil% modif% t"e SPs !"en b#siness r#les c"ange 21. What is sers defined f nction? -(+es of $%Gs? Lser-defined f#nctions t"at allo! %o# to define %o#r o!n T-SQL f#nction t"at can accept 5ero or more parameters and ret#rns a single scalar data val#e or a table data t%pe + t"ere are 1-t%pes L2?s are available in SQL server 2005+ a. Scalar valid $%Gs6 a scalar valid L2? accepts parameters ret#rns a single scalar data t%pes (te;t nte;t image) b. -able valid $%Gs6 a table-valid L2? is a f#nction t"at accepts parameters and ret#rns t"e res#lts in t"e form of a table+ 30. What are the differences between stored +roced res and ser defined f nctions? sl & 2 Lser defined f#nctions ?#nctions are compiled and e;ec#ted at r#ntime ?#nctions can not affect t"e state of t"e database !"ic" means !e cannot perform insert delete #pdate and create operations on t"e databases Stored proced#res Stored proced#res are stored in parsed and compiled format in t"e database Stored proced#res can affect t"e state of t"e database b% #sing insert delete #pdate and create operation

?#nctions are basicall% #sed to comp#te val#es+ :e passes some parameters to f#nctions as inp#t and t"en it performs some operations on t"e parameter and ret#rn o#tp#t+ ?#nction cannot c"ange server environment and o#r operating s%stem environment+ ?#nction cannot be invo.ed from SQL statements+ 0;ec#te S0L0,T ?#nctions can r#n an e;ec#table file from SQL S0L0,T or an action /#er%

Stored proced#res are basicall% #sed to process t"e tas.s+ Stored proced#res can c"ange server environment and o#r operating s%stem environment+ Operating s%stem can be invo.ed from SQL statements e;ec#te S0L0,T Operating s%stem #se e;ec#te or e;ec to r#n

5 *

31. What is a tri33er? What are the tri33er !odels are available in SQL server 2005? 4 trigger is a set of T-SQL statements stored permanentl% in t"e database and a#tomaticall% fire !"en event is occ#rs+ T"e% are #sed to impose #ser defined restrictions or b#siness r#les and also provides "ig" sec#rit% on databaseCtables+ T"ere are t!o t%pes of trigger models available in SQL server 2005+ %HL tri33ers6 2ML triggers created on 2ML statements li.e insert #pdate and delete of database ob>ects+ %%L tri33ers6 22L triggers created on 22L statements li.e create alter and drop of 23 ob>ects or 23+

32. -(+es of tri33ers?


T"ere are t!o t%pes of triggers+ 1. 'fter -ri33ers6 4fter triggers !ill fires after t"e data is inserted into t"e table+ T"e t%pical #se for an after triggers is to log t"e action to an a#dit or logging table+ 2. 5efore tri33ers6 before triggers !ill fire before t"e data is inserted into t"e table+ 9OT0A2ML triggers fire before or after iss#e 22L triggers fire after t"e iss#e+ 33. What is a view and advanta3e of views? 4 vie! is a pre-defined SQL statements t"at t"e 23 engine e;ec#tes and retrieves d%namicall%+ 4 standard vie! acts as a virt#al table based on t"e res#lt set of S0L0,T statement+ T"e fields in vie! are fields from one or more real tables or anot"er vie!+ 'dvanta3es6 1. To restrict t"e #sers to specific ro!s 8 col#mns and "ide t"e col#mns !it" sensitive data+ 2+ Lser friendl% names can be provided instead of base table col#mn names+ 3,. -(+es of views? 2#+lain abo t inde#ed view? T"ere are t!o t%pes of vie!s &) standard vie!s 2) inde;ed vie!s 4n inde;ed vie! (materiali5ed vie!) is li.e standard vie! and it "as a #ni/#e cl#stered inde; created on it+ 6t stored p"%sicall% >#st li.e a table+ 'dvanta3e6 inde;ed vie!s !or.s best for /#eries t"at aggregates man% ro!s or "ave >oins t"at ca#se response time of t"e standard vie! to be slo!+

35. What is the difference between local and 3lobal te!+orar( tables?
Local te!+orar( table6 it e;ists onl% for t"e d#ration of connection or if defined inside compo#nd statement for t"e d#ration of t"e compo#nd statement+

*lobal te!+orar( table6 remains in t"e database permanentl% b#t t"e ro!s e;ists onl% !it"in a given connection+ :"en connection is closed t"e data in t"e global temporar% table disappears+ Ko!ever t"e table definition remains !it" t"e database for access !"en database is opened ne;t time+ 3;. What is 8&"H'&J @2J? 4 primar% .e% constraint is #ni/#e identifier for a ro! !it"in a database table+ 0ver% table s"o#ld "ave a primar% .e% constraint to #ni/#el% identif% eac" ro! and onl% one primar% .e% constraint can be created for eac" table+ T"e primar% .e% constraints are #sed to enforce entit% integrit%+ 3/. What is ni> e constraint? 4 #ni/#e constraint enforces t"e #ni/#eness of t"e val#es in a set of col#mns so no d#plicate val#es are entered+ T"e #ni/#e .e% constraints are #sed to enforce entit% integrit% as t"e primar% .e% constraints+ 38. What is forei3n 4e(? 4 foreign .e% constraint prevents an% action t"at !o#ld destro% lin.s bet!een tables !it" t"e corresponding data val#es+ 4 foreign .e% in one table points to a primar% .e% in anot"er table+ ?oreign .e% is prevent actions t"at !o#ld leave ro!s !it" foreign .e% val#es !"en t"ere are no primar% .e%s !it" t"at val#e+ T"e foreign .e% constraints are #sed to enforce referential integrit%+

39. What is chec4 constraints?


4 c"ec. constraint is #sed to limit t"e val#es t"at can be placed in a col#mn+ T"e c"ec. constraints are #sed to enforce domain integrit%+ ,0. What is a 7ot n ll constraint? 4 not n#ll constraint enforces t"at t"e col#mn !ill not accept n#ll val#es+ T"e not n#ll constraints are #sed to enforce domain integrit% as t"e c"ec. constraints+ CL$S-2&"7* &+ 4ctive Js Passive 9odes (,l#ster 4dmin)

2. S"ared 2is. 4rra%s TOO partitions

cl#stering server 6nstance+ 23=s Q#or#m 3. T"e Q#or#m Q#or#m drives of t"e stored dis. arra%+ 9oteA Log file database logs -ecords c"anges made on active node @+ P#blic and private net!or.s+ (,l#ster name 8 6P 4ddress) 5+ T"e virt#al server *+ Ko! a failover !or.s 7ew feat res of SQL server S@5 Cl sterin36 &+ 2+ 1+ @+ ( nodes *@ bit cl#stering & 73 -4M and 2073 free "ard dis. space 2 73 -4M and 50 73 ?ree "ard dis. space 5. -462 & 5 &0 *+ MS2Note: ,2 namedA =)0 cl#ster+lst= PAC[(*Cset#p director% 3ot" t"e nodes of t"e cl#ster server instance are p"%sicall% connected to databases dis. arra%+ 2is. arra% is s"ared dis.+ 3#t onl% (primar%) active node can access t"e instances databases+

T"e s"ared dis. arra% m#st "ave at least t!o logical partitions+ One partition is used for storing. The
clustered instance SQL Server database and the other one is used for quorum. Q or !6 6t is stored on t"e /#or#m drive of t"e s"ared arra%+ Q#or#m is essentiall% a log file similar in concept to database logs+ 6ts p#rpose is to record an% c"ange made on t"e active node+ Q#or#m file m#st read reside on !"at is called <Q#or#m 2rive=+ Q#or#m drive is a logical drive on t"e s"ared arra% devoted to t"e f#nction of storing t"e Q#or#m+ Ha4in3 SQL do4in on cl ster environ!ent6 Opening ,LL42M69 7ro#ps on t"e left pane SQL 7ro#ps on t"e left pane select SQL server on rig"t pane ta.e offline+ 8 blic B 8rivate 7etwor4s6 (,l#ster+e;eC ,l#sterA H-edd%(,L+9)B -eso#rce <SQL Server= offline)+ &eso rce *ro +6 9odes \ S"ared dis. \ 9et!or. name \ 6P 4ddress+ 0ac" node of cl#ster m#st "ave at least t!o net!or.s cards one net!or. card !ill be connected to p#blic net!or. and ot"er to private net!or.+ T"e p#blic net!or. is t"e net!or. t"at t"e SQL server 2005 clients are attac"ed t"is is no! t"e% comm#nicate to cl#stered SQL server 2005 instance+ T"e private net!or. is safel% #sed for comm#nicate bC! t"e nodes of t"e cl#ster+ S%nc"roni5ation 8 "eart beat signal+ NoteA (-eso#rce fail#re) ,l#ster corr#ption iss#es+ ,l#ster dis. fail#re instance do!n+ Iirt al Server6 0ac" SQL server cl#ster instance is given a virt#al name 8 6P 4ddress+ T"is name once 6P address is #sed b% t"e active node to comm#nicate !it" clients+ :"en %o# create a cl#ster one of t"e step is to create cl#ster name and 6P address+ T"is cl#ster name and 6P 4ddress is Lsed to create comm#nications 3C! clients+ To see t"e errors 6n cl#ster log fileA open t"e cl#ster log (,T-L\?) t%pe t"e error c"ec. recent time stamp 5-1 da%s log details are maintained+ ,A C:indo!sC cl#sterCd#sterlog+logfle+ ,l#ster LO7A ,A C!inntCcl#sterCcl#sterlog &e3ister 2ntries6 KLOMC ,l#ster K6J0+ Ws%stem rootW cl#ster C cl#s23 file+ KJ0D Z local mac"ine Z cl#ster Z -eso#rce ,LLSSJ,+0P0 s%stem+

0ow a cl ster Gailover Wor4s6

4ctive node !ill be comm#nicating !it" bot" t"e databases and t"e /#or#m on t"e s"ared arra%+ 4ctive node is sending o#t "eart beat signals over t"e private net!or. and passive node is monitoring t"em to see if t"e% stop+ ,lient is also interacting !it" active node via virt#al name and 6P address r#nning prod#ction transactions+ ?or !"atever t"e reason t"e active node stops !or.ing beca#se of electricit% iss#e+ T"e passive node !"ic" is monitoring t"e "eart beat signals from active node+ 4fter a pre determined dela%+ T"e passive node ass#mes t"e active node no! t"e active node ta.es over t"e control of s"ared arra% and reads t"e /#or#m loo.ing for an% #ns%nc"roni5ed config#ration settings+ 6t also ta.es control t"e virt#al server name and 6P 4ddress+ 6n addition as t"e node ta.es over t"e database it "as to do SQL Server start#p #sing t"e databases >#st as if it is starting from a s"#tdo!n going t"ro#g" a database recover%+ Note: 2o SQL Server set#p !or. 2o SQL server #ncl#ster c"ec. database for instance+ T"e time is ta.es depends on man% factors incl#ding t"e speed of t"e s%stem and t"e n#mber of transactions t"at mig"t "ave to roll for!ard or bac. d#ring recover% process+ Once t"e recover% process is completed t"e ne! active node anno#nces itself on t"e net!or. !it" virt#al name and 6P address !"ic" allo!s client to reconnect and begin #sing SQL server 2005 instance !it" minimal interr#ption+ SQL Server cl ster set + B tro bleshootin3 technolo3ies6 :"at !ill %o# do if %o# don=t see t"e ne!l% added dis.s in t"e SQL cl#ster set#p !i5ardY :"at !ill %o# do if %o# don=t see t"e list of available nodes in SQL ,l#ster set#p ScreenY :"at if SQL cl#ster set#p !i5ard fails to config#re ot"er nodes in cl#sterY :e m#st be able to e;plain t"e mec"anism SQL set#p #ses to find t"e list of nodes lists of dis.s and list of interfaces available in cl#ster and also SQL cl#ster set#p 2LL(SQL cl#ster+2LL) !"ic" is responsible to do t"e initial pre-!or. for SQL set#p !i5ard+ Ko! SQL cl#ster set#p detects t"at is going to operate in cl#ster environment+ 4ll t"e registr% entries CSQL mod#les 8 files !"ic" are important for s#ccessf#l failover and "o! %o# can pla% !it" t"ese registr% entries and files to tro#bles"oot SQL server+ :"en SQL server set#p !i5ard reali5es t"at it is going to operate in a cl#ster environment t"e set#p !i5ard !ill gave %o# on option to create SQL server virt#al server+ 7ow we create a SQL Cl ster6 4fter selecting virt#al server option t"e set#p proceed to invo.e t"e SQL cl#ster mod#les and performs man% tas.s in bac.gro#nd+ Ko! does SQL set#p process detect t"at is going to operate cl#ster environment+ Ko! SQL set#p .noc.s !"ic" files to cop%Y :"ic" SQL mod#le is responsible for SQL cl#ster set#p and !"at all basic f#nctions for s#ccessf#l installation+ ?rom !"ere does SQL set#p gets lists of dis. nodes and interfaces available in t"e cl#ster+ KLOMC,LLST0- K6J0 Ws%stem root W cl#ster C cl#s23 file

KO0D Z local Z mac"ine C cl#ster C reso#rce SQL server cl#ster set#p tro#bles"ooting steps+ Ko! does SQL server cl#ster set#p config#re a second node to be cl#ster Z a!areY :"at all t"e registr% entries are created d#ring t"e set#p and t"eir importance in SQL cl#ster and stand aloneY :"at all t"e SQL cl#ster mod#les copied d#ring set#p and t"eir importance in SQL cl#ster+ 4 tec"ni/#e to man#all% #ninstall SQL server instance from cl#ster( !it"o#t r#nning SQL server !i5ard)

SQL server set + +rocesses B &e3istr( entries6 T"ree options to install t"e SQL server database engine Local comp#ter -emote comp#ter Jirt#al server

6nstall SQL server database engine in cl#ster+ Note: set#p !i5ard doesn=t c"ec. t"e registr% of t"e cl#ster service at KLOMUs%stemUc#rrent control setUservicesUcl#ssvc+ 6t c"ec.s cl#ssvc+e;e s%stem 0ow SQL set + 4nows files to co+(6 SQL server cl#ster set#p invo.es SQL,LLST0-+2LL from its 3699 director% to e;ec#te t"e follo!ing f#nctions+ 2O SQL cl#ster set#p !or.sA - 6nstalls SQL instance in ,l#ster+ 2O #n cl#ster set#pA - #ninstall ,"ec. database for instance SQL set#p copies files d#ring set#p process set#p doesn=t reall% .no! !"ic" files to cop%+ 6t reads a file on t"e ,2 named )0 cl#ster+LST+ T"is files resides at PAUP(*Uset#p director% "nstallin3 failover cl ster6 Pre-re/#isitesA &+ SQL server 2+ SQL Server 4gent 1+ ?TS f#ll te;t searc" service

T"e name of t"e named cl#ster m#st be #ni/#e to %o#r domain+ SQL server onl% ac.no!ledges virt#al 6P address created d#ring t"e installation of SQL server failover cl#ster+ Co!!on iss es are faced after cl sterin3 installation6 &+ it+ Performing failover form one node to ot"er node+ reasons service for

2. 6f a failover occ#rs t"en finding anal%sis !"% specific failover occ#rred a finding t"e 3. 4n% reso#rce fail#re d#e to man% reasons li.eA reso#rce "#ng reso#rce 2LL corr#pt
acco#nt iss#es+ 6n t"ese iss#es !e need to foc#s on n#mero#s t"ings li.e service acco#nt permissions iss#e+ resorts+

-eso#rce

4. 6nstance do!n !"ic" !o#ld re/#ire traditional tro#ble s"ooting and loo.ing into cl#ster log file to find o#t !"at ca#sed t"e iss#e+ 5. ,l#ster corr#ption iss#es t"is mig"t also re/#ire to b#ild t"e entire cl#ster or ma% be to tro#bles"oot occ#rring *+ ,l#ster dis. fail#res and ens#ring t"ese S49 drives and cl#stered drives are available+ 7. Memor% config#ring iss#es meaning ins#fficient memor% for t"e instance participating in cl#ster+
SQL S2&I2& 2005 CL$S-2&"7*6 :"at is cl#steringY 7ro#p of independent comp#ter s%stem referred as nodes !or.ing toget"er as #nified comp#ting reso#rce+ T"ere are 1 t%pes of cl#steringA &+ 2+ 1+ 9et!or. load balancing+ (9L3 cl#ster) Z 12 nodes Microsoft cl#ster service (MS,S) Z ( nodes ,omponent load balancing (,L3 cl#ster) Z ( nodes+

9et!or. load balancing acts as front end cl#ster distrib#ting incoming 6P traffic across a cl#ster of servers+ 12 members comp#ters r#iing a member of !indo!s server 2001 famil% can be connected to s"are t"e reso#rce+ ,lients 9C: load balancing 6CP balancing 12 nodes component load cl#ster service balancing

,l#ster service acts as bac. and cl#ster it provides "ig" availabilit%+


not"ing+ &+ 2+ 1+

0ac" node "as its o!n memor% s%stem dis. operating s%stem and s#bset of cl#ster reso#rces+ Microsoft cl#ster service is based on s"ared not"ing cl#stering model not"ing is s"ared in s"ared Microsoft cl#ster service is comprised of t"ree ma>or componentsA ,l#ster service -eso#rce 2LL=s -eso#rce monitor resource monitor physical disk resource DLL

.NET server Cluster services

DISK

IP address Resource DLL Generic application Resource DLL Custom resource DLL Q or !6 :contains !etadata)

NET !" K
C#$%&e'( $)a*a'e( a++#,ca&,-)
C#$%&e'(a*a'e( a++

,l#ster config#ration database+ T"e file named UmscsU/#olog+log+ t"e /#or#m is sometimes refered as /#or#m log+ 6t tells t"e cl#ster !"ic" node is active+ 6ts interfaces !"en comm#nication fails bC! nodes+ T"e partition t"at o.ins t"e /#or#m is allo!ed to contin#e !it" t"e cl#ster service t"e ot"er partition removed from cl#ster+ Standard /#or#m 8 M9S /#or#m ma>orit% node set /#or#m+ 0ac" node "as its o!n locall% stored cop% of databases+ 0ow cl sterin3 wor4s6 Private 9C: for internal access and p#blic 9C: for client access Private 9C! can be referred as "eart beat signal+ "%2 B SCS"6 6ntelligentC 6ntegrated drive electronic+ 620 is a standard t%pe of connection storage device in a P,+ 620 as adopted b% 49S6 is called 4T4( 4dvanced tec"nolog% attac"ment) and implemented in cl#stering SCS"6 ,reating private nC! 8 p#blic nC! virt#al nC! create+ Jirt#al dis. create fi;ed si5e dis.+ :e need to map /#or#m s"ared drive to S,S6 drive Creatin3 cl ster ser acco nt6 SQL Server 2 failover clustering!

Kard!areA - event logs 8 comp#ter s%stem report+ Operating s%stemA - operating s%stem errorA services fail#res 8 dis. fail#res 9et!or.ingA - 29S fail#res$ 96, fail#res+ Sec#rit%A - server access denied MS,SA -cl#ster server reporting iss#es in eventlog

SQL serverA - error logs 8 event logs Set + 5asics6 Tro#bles"ooting basicsA !e !ill "ave all t"ese reports in t"e form of 2 ,43 files+ :"ic" contains c#stomers event logs+

-evie! !indo!s event log -evie! SQL server set#p logs -evie! SQL server cl#ster log -evie! server error log -evie! !indo!s 9T cl#ster Log Test credentials Test connectivit% 8 name resol#tion+