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EDITORIAL BOARD

Prof. Dr. Mohammad Aslam Uqaili
Prof. Dr. Hafeez Ur Rehman Memon
Prof. Dr. Sarfaraz H. Solangi
Prof. Dr. Abdul Ghani Pathan
Prof. Dr. Rasool Bux Mahar
Prof. Dr. Khan Mohammad Brohi
Prof. Dr. Khanji Harijan
Prof. Dr. Suhail A. Soomro
Prof. Dr. Shaheen Aziz


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The ICC2013 organizing committee acknowledges the research
contributions from the authors who presented and shared the recent
research work with the fellow researchers from all over the world.
Special gratitude to the keynote speaker from China, Turkey, Japan,
USA, Bangladesh and Saudi Arabia who traveled all the ways and shared
knowledge and research.

The conference would not be possible without the cooperation of Higher
Education Commission, Pakistan Science Foundation, Sindh Engro Coal
Mining Company (GOLD sponsor) and Changhsa Kaiyuan Instruments
Co., Ltd. (CKIC), China (GOLD sponsor) for their generous cooperation
to meet the financial matters of the conference.
In the last, the conference chair appreciates the day and night efforts of
the organizing sub-committees conveners and members for their untiring
work since the announcement of the ICC2013.


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SPONSOR PROFILE

Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company (GOLD SPONSORS)

Thar Block II Coal Project Overview

The Thar coal field has total lignite
reserves of 175 Billion tons which can be
utilized to produce 100,000 MW for over
200 years and could also replace the
imported coal currently being used by
Cement industry and Brick Kilns.

Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company (SECMC) was established in 2009 as a
Joint Venture between the Government of Sindh (GoS) and Engro Powergen
Limited (EPL). Company aims to develop a Coal Mining Project in Thar Block
II and utilize the large reserves of coal to spur economic and social development
in the region and bring energy security to the country.

Bankable Feasibility Study (BFS) for Thar Block II Coal Mining Project has
been completed by internationally renowned Consultants such as RWE-
Germany, SRK-UK, Sinocoal-China in compliance with International Standards.
BFS confirmed that total lignite reserve in Thar Block II are 2 B tons with
exploitable reserve of 1.57 B tons which can support 5,000 MW for 50 years.
Moreover, it has also been confirmed that there are no significant or
unmanageable environmental threats and social implications associated with the
Coal Mining Project in Thar Block II. SECMC has obtained the NOC from
Sindh Environmental Protection Agency and Coal Reserves certification from
RWE Germany and project is ready to start.

The overall aim of the project is to ultimately generate electric power from the
lignite resources in Thar. Our aim is to scale up mining operations to generate
up to 4,000 MW of electric power generation capacity and to meet the lignite
production and e coal demand of local industry. In the first phase, we plan to
develop Coal Mining & Power Projects with a capacity of 3.5 Mt/a & 600 MW
respectively. The target for Financial close of the project is June 2014 and the
project will be completed in 3.5 years.

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SPONSOR PROFILE

Changhsa Kaiyuan Instruments Co., Ltd. (CKIC), China
(GOLD SPONSORS)
For more than 2 decades, CKIC
(China) offered equipment and
solutions (Coal Sampling, Sample
Preparation & Coal Analysis) have
been recognized by Coal Suppliers,
Coal Consumers and Commercial
Inspection Laboratories in over 35
countries around the world as the most
RELIABLE & Cost Effective
available solutions

OTHER MAJOR SPONSORS

Higher Education Commission, Islamabad

INSPIRE program under Higher Education Commission and
British Council, Pakistan

Pakistan Science Foundation, Islamabad

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PREFACE

Coal is indeed the issue of national importance to address the energy
crises in Pakistan. The country is facing the worse energy crises of all
times. The energy crisis is because of multi dimensional issues that are
not only concerned with fuel used but also ever increasing cost of power
production. This is the high time to address the issue by utilizing
indigenous resources; lessen the dependence on the import of oil & gas
for sustainable energy supply. The energy crises is not only affecting the
industrial sector but also affecting the public in general.
Mehran University plays a vital role in research areas of national
importance. The faculty is actively engaged in coal research. Coal
mining, purification & up-gradation, coal gasification, emissions and
combustion residues are the areas of research work that are in progress at
Mehran UET. In addition, research work on simulation & modeling had
also been carried out using CFD & other modeling techniques.
Prototype gasifier that can produce Syngas were also designed and
fabricated to test run the gasification process on Thar Coal. Number of
equipment is also available to support the research work in the area of
coal.
One of the prominent research scholar, Prof. Dr. A. Ghani Pathan, who
spent his life on coal research also earned funding from British Council
& Higher Education Commission under INSPIRE program. Nottingham
University, UK, Tsinghuo University, China, Shenyang Aerospace
University, China, Hacettepe University, Turkey are the other partners
in the project.
The Mehran University is also working closely with Sindh University to
establish Research Group to jointly work on coal resources of Pakistan
as a prime responsibility as most of the coal reserves lies in the province
of sindh.
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The Mehran UET had also hold pre Conference Symposium On Thar
Coal: Utilization Issues and Possible Solutions on July 9, 2013 through
video conference. The symposium attracted audience from all over
Pakistan. The participant from Sindh Coal Authority, Sindh Coal And
Energy Board, Geological Survey Of Pakistan, Lakhra Coal Power
Company in addition to prominent research scholars had contributed and
shared the knowledge.
In this context, the university had taken initiative to hold the
International Coal Conference (ICC2013), November 7-9, 2013 in
collaboration with Nottingham University, UK, Tsinghua University,
China, Shenyang Aerospace University, China, Hacettepe University,
Turkey and Sindh University, Jamshoro. Prominent, scholars from
Turkey, China, Japan, USA, UK and Saudi Arabia and from Pakistan had
presented their research work. In addition, policy makers, stake holder,
coal producers and coal based power plant experts are also invited and
participated in the mega event.


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ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

Technical Committee/Panel of Experts
INTERNATIONAL NATIONAL
Dr. R.N.Singh, UK
Dr. Bahtiyar Unver,
Turkey
Dr. Yoichi Kodera, Japan
Mr. Zahoor Abbasi, USA
Dr. A.J. Chaudhary, UK
Dr. Zuo Jiane, China
Dr. Ahmed Hussain,
Saudi Arabia
Ms. Julia Lauder, UK
Dr. Wang Lijuin, China
Dr. Li Rung Dong, China


Prof. Dr. M. Aslam Uqaili,
Mehran UET
Prof. Dr. Niaz Akhter, NTU,
Faisalabad
Prof. Dr. Hafeez Ur Rehman
Memon, Mehran UET
Prof. Dr. Mansoor Hamid
Inayat, PIEAS, Islamabad
Prof. Dr. Sarfraz H. Solangi,
Univ. of Sindh
Prof. Dr. A. Ghani Pathan,
Mehran UET
Dr. Tayyab Javaid, PIEAS,
Islamabad
Dr. Moinuddin Ghori,
COMSATS, Lahore
Dr. Inayatullah Memon,
NED University, Karachi
Prof. Dr. Suhail A. Soomro,
Mehran UET
Prof. Dr. Shaheen Aziz,
Mehran UET
Dr. Imdadullah Siddiqui
Univ. of Sindh

Advisory Committee
Prof. Dr. M.Aslam Uqaili Conference Chair &
Vice Chancellor
Prof. Dr. Hafeez Ur Rehman Memon Conference Co-Chair
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Prof. Dr. Sarfraz H. Solangi Conference Co-Chair
Prof. Dr. Abdul Ghani Pathan Conference Co-Chair
Prof. Dr. B. S. Chowdhry
Prof. G. B. Khaskheli
Prof. Dr. Pir Roshan Shah Rashdi
Engr. Ghulam Sarwar Kandhir
Prof. Dr. Tauha Hussain Ali
Mr. Munir A. Shaikh

Steering Committee
Prof. Dr. M.Aslam Uqaili Conference Chair
Prof. Dr. Hafeez Ur Rehman Memon Conference Co-Chair
Prof. Dr. Sarfraz H. Solangi Conference Co-Chair
Prof. Dr. Suhail A. Soomro Conference Secretary
Dr. Imdadullah Siddiqui Conference Co-Secretary

Members
Prof. Dr. Mujeeb uddin Memon
Prof. Dr. Shaheen Aziz
Prof. Dr. Khanji Harijan
Prof. Dr. Khan M. Brohi
Prof. Dr. Rasool Bux Mahar
Engr. Fahad Irfan Siddiqui
Engr. Sikander M.Almani

Funding Committee
Prof. Dr. M. Aslam Uqaili - Convener
Prof. Dr. Khan M. Brohi
Prof. Dr. Suhail A. Soomro
Mr. Munir A. Shaikh
Dr. Imdadullah Siddiqui
Mr. Fawad Lashari
Mr. Aftab Ansari
Mr. Lachman Das

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Protocol and Registration Committee
Prof. Dr. Khanji Harijan
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ali Shah
Prof. Dr. Farman A. Shah Convener
Prof. Dr. Shaheen Aziz
Dr. Noorullah Soomro
Engr. Ashfaque H. Pirzada
Engr. Muhammad Ali Memon
Engr. Ahsan Ali Memon
Engr. Aziza Aftab
Engr. Safiullah Memon
Engr. Munawar Ali Pinjaro
Engr. Zulfiqar Solangi
Ms. Murk Memon

Security Committee
Prof. Dr. Tauha Hussain Ali - Convener
Mr. Ghazi Parhiyar
Mr. Yameen Halepoto
Mr. Akram Ali Thebo


Printing and Publication
Prof. Dr. Suhail A. Soomro-Convener
Prof. Dr. Khanji Harijan
Prof. Dr. Shaheen Aziz
Dr. A. Rehman Memon
Dr. Hasan Agheem
Engr. Fahad Irfan Siddiqui
Engr. Sikander M.Almani

Boarding and Lodging Committee
Dr. Zubair Memon - Convener
Dr. Imdadullah Siddiqui
Dr. Noorullah Soomro
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Engr. Ashfaque Pirzada
Engr. Zulfiqar Bhatti
Mr. Yameen Halepoto

Transport Committee
Prof. Dr. Hasan Ali Durani- Convener
Dr. Syed Feroz Shah
Mr. Ghulam Sarwar Siddiqui
Dr. Imdadullah Siddiqui
Mr. Abdul Majeed
Engr. A. Qadeer Leghari

Food and Entertainment Committee
Prof. Dr. Khan M. Brohi- Convener
Dr. Syed Feroz Shah
Engr. Mohammad Yaqoob Behan
Engr. Sikandar Ali Memon
Engr. Zulfiqar Bhatti
Engr. Munawar Ali Pinjaro

Conference Hall & Stage Committee
Prof. Dr. Suhail A. Soomro - Convener
Prof. Parwaiz Shakeel Pathan
Engr. Fahad Irfan Siddiqui
Ms. Qurat ul Ain
Engr. Aziza Aftab
Engr. Habib ur Rehman Memon
Ms. Sahiba
Engr. Masroor Abro
Engr. Sikander M.Almani
Engr. Riaz Qazi
Engr. Ayesha Effandi
Engr. Zeenat M.Ali
Mir Shoukat Talpur
Mr. Samad Shaikh
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PROGRAM

Time
7th November, 2013 DAY 01
MUET Auditorium
08.30am
Registration of the Participants
09.00am
Guest to be seated
INAUGURATION CEREMONY
09.25am
Recitation from the Holy Quran
09.30am
Overview of ICC 2013 & Welcome Address by Prof.Dr.Hafeez ur
Rehman, Conference Co-Chairman
09.40am
Keynote-1 Dr. Bahtiyar Unver Road Map of a Coal Mining
Project-From Exploration to
Production
10.10am
Sindh Engro Coal Mining Company Overview
10.25am
Changhsa Kaiyuan Instruments Co., Ltd. (CKIC), China Company
Overview
10.40am
Address by Prof. Dr. M.Aslam Uqaili, Vice Chancellor Mehran UET ,
Jamshoro
10.45am
Address by Prof. Dr. Nazir Ahmed Mughal, Vice Chancellor,
University of Sindh
10.50am
Address by Chief Guest, Prof. Dr. Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto, Pakistan
Science Foundation
10.55am
Address by Guest of Honour
11.00am
Vote of Thanks by Prof. Dr. Sarfraz Hussain Solangi
INAUGURATION OF COAL EXHIBITION
11:00-
11:30
Tea break
TECHNICAL
SESSION I
Coal Mining
Conference Chair Dr. Bahtiyar Unver
Conference Secretary Prof. Dr. Mohammad Ali Shah
11.30pm Keynote-1 Prof. Dr. Abdul
Ghani Pathan
Thar Coal: A Cheap and
Sustainable Energy Resource
of Sindh for Pakistan
11.45pm Keynote-2 Dr.Mansoor M Khan
12.00pm Keynote-3 Dr. Farid Malik Reaching for Bulk Samples
through Aquifers at Thar Coal
Fields in Pakistan'
12:00pm Keynote-4 Dr. Ahmed Hussain Utilization of Low Grade Coals
of Pakistan for Sustainable
Energy Future
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12.10pm CM-01 Asadullah
Memon,Bilal Shams
Memon,Faisal Hussain
Memon, Hafeez-ur
Rahman, A.H Tunio
Challenges, Strategies and Risk
Management during
underground Coal Gasification
12.25pm CM-02 Faisal Karim
Shaikh,Nafeesa Zaki,
B S Chowdhry
Wireless Sensor Network
Applications for Coal Mines
12.40pm CM-03 Fahad Irfan
Siddiqui,Abdul Ghani
Pathan, Bahtiyar
NVER
Integrated Openpit Mine
Design at Thar Lignite Field
12:55pm CM-04 Farhad Ali
Panhwar,Riaz
Ahmed,Waheed Ali
Panhwar
Coal Mine Safety Regulation in
Sindh as compare to USA
01.10pm CM-05 Shah Murad Regulation of Occupational
Health and Safety in the
Pakistans Coal Mining Sector
01.20pm CM-06 Agha Shafi
Mohammad, Abdul
Ghani Pathan, Fahad
Irfan Siddiqui
Probabilistic and FEM analysis
of slope stability at Thar coal
field
01:30-
02.00pm
Lunch Break
TECHNICAL SESSION
II
Coal Geology
Conference Chair Prof.Dr.M. Mansoor Khan
Conference Secretary Prof Dr. Sarfraz Hussain Solangi
02.00pm Keynote-1 Prof. Dr. Sarfraz
Hussain Solangi
GIS Based CoalField
Assessment:A Case of Thar
CoalField of Pakistan
02.20am Keynote-2 Dr.Zahoor A.
Abbasi
Understanding Thar Coal
02.40pm C-Geo-01 Asgher Ali- Daahar
Hakro,Imdadullah
Siddique, Mashooque
Ali Warar
Bulk Mineralogy of the Coal
bearing formation (Bara) from
SB-24&S24 Boreholes, Thar
Coalfield of Sindh Province.
02.55pm C-Geo-02 Imdadullah
Siddiqui,Sarfraz
Hussain
Solangi,Mashoque Ali
Warar
Pore Volume,Pore Diameter
and Surface Area of
THAR,LAKHRA and meting
Coals of Sindh,Pakistan
TECHNICAL SESSION
III
Coal Characterization & Up Gradation
Conference Chair Dr.Shah Zulfiqar Haider
Conference Secretary Mr.Gulzar Hussain Jhatial
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03.10pm Keynote-1 Dr Yoichi
KODERA
Gasification
TechnologyAdvances and
Obstacles
03.30pm Keynote-2 Shah Zulfiqar
Haider
Future of Coal -
International Perspective
03.50pm CCUP-01 Muddasar
Habib,Amad Ullah
Khan, Shah Saud
Khan, Unsia Habib,
Jameel Ahmed,
Naveed ul
Hasan,Sultan Ali
Strenght Evaluation of
Indiginiously Developed KPK
Coal Briquettes.
04.05pm CCUP-02
Suhail A.Soomro,
Anand Parkash,
Shaheen Aziz,
Sikander M.Almani
Designing and Fabrication of
Indigenous Mechanical Press
for Preparation of Coal
Briquettes
04.20pm CCUP-03
Amad Ullah Khan,
M.Babar,Muddasar
Habib,Unsia Habib,
Jameel Ahmed,Naveed
ul Hasan,Sultan Ali
Evaluation of optimum
composition of starch as a
binding material for square
coal briquettes
04.40 Tea Break
TECHNICAL SESSION
IV
Emission & their Control
Conference Chair Prof. Dr. Jiane Zuo
Conference Secretary Prof. Dr. Rasool Bux Mahar
04.35pm Keynote-1 Dr. Jiane Zuo Coal Mines Wastewater
Characteristics and Their
Treatment and Disposal
Technologies in China
04.55pm Keynote-2 Dr.A.K.Ansari Environmental Assessment
of THAR coal fields
05.35pm EC-01 Cyril Maqsood
Khokhar, Rasool Bux
Mahar
Environmental Effect and Cost
Benefit Analysis (CBA) of
Washed & Un-washed Coal at
Lakhra Coal Power Plant
05.50pm EC-02 Razia
begum,Toobahaq,
Suhail soomro ,Kamal
sheikh ,Aliabano, Naiz
ahmed
Physico chemical analysis of
local coal at sindh and
refrence to its use for different
industries. A case study
06.05pm EC-03
Zeenat M.Ali,Shuaib
M.Laghari,A.Jabbar
Laghari
Efficient use of burnt coal
against industrial dye waters
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06.20pm EC-04 Tasaddaq
Younas,Saif Ur
Rehman,
Mian Tauseef
Raza,Azam Khan
Geochemistry Of Coal Seams
In Patala Formation From
Sohai River Gorge And Pail-
Khushab Road Investigation
Of Environmental Impacts Of
Sub-Bituminous Coals
06.35pm EC-05
Shuaib M.Laghari,
Zeenat
M.Ali,,A.Jabbar
Laghari
Use of Combined flyash of
Coal and Palm Fiber as
adsorbent for treatment of dye
waste water.
06.50pm EC-06 Mahboob Ali
Kalhoro, Gulzar
Hussain Jhatial,
Santosh Kumar, Syed
Najam Ul Islam
Estimation of gross calorific
value and C, H, N, O, S, and
physical parameters
07.05pm EC-07
Zakiuddin Ahmed,
Gulzar Hussain Jhatial,
Mateen Muhammad
Khan, Nadir Buksh
The control of sulphur, a
major pollutant and problem
in the coal dynamics, for the
better utilization of lakhra
coal reserves present in
pakistan.
TECHNICAL SESSION
V
Coal General
Conference Chair Dr.Fareed Malik
Conference Secretary Dr.Mujeeb uddin Memon
07.20pm CG-01 Anwar Ali Shah
G.Syed,
Faiz.M.Shaikh
Energy Crisis in Pakistan and
Thar Coal is Untapped Wealth
and Solution
07.30pm CG-02 Muhammad Nawaz
Tunio,Pir Irfan Shah
Rashdi,Qazi
Moinuddin Abro
Real status of coal in Sindh
and local and world priorities
to avail
08.00 Conference Dinner ( Only by Invitation )
Time
8th November, 2013 DAY 02
MUET Auditorium
Conference Chair Dr Yoichi KODERA
Conference Secretary Dr.Hafeez ur Rehman Memon
08.30am Keynote-1 Prof. Dr.
Mohammad Aslam
Uqaili
Energy Crises in Pakistan:
Consequences and Solutions
09.00am Keynote-2 Prof. Dr. Shaheen
Aziz
Critical Study of Clean Coal
Technology in FBC Power
Plant at Khanote
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9.15 am Keynote-3 Shah Zulfiqar
Haider
Clean Coal- Solution to
Global Warming
9.30 am Keynote-4 Dr. Mohammad
Afzal Ghouri
Status of Coal
Biotechnology in Pakistan
TECHNICAL SESSION
IV
Coal Utilization & Clean Coal Technology
09.40am CUCCT-01 Mohammad Younas Chemical Looping
Combustion (CLC) based
power production from syn
gas with inherent CO
2

capture: Profile study of a lab
scale packed bed reactor
09:55am CUCCT-02 Imran Nazir
Unar,Lijun Wang,
Abdul Ghani Pathan,
Rasool Bux Mehar,
Rundong Li, M. Aslam
Uqaili
Study the Coal/Oxidant
Distribution Effects in a Two-
stage Dry-Feed Coal Gasifier
with Numerical Simulations
10.10pm CUCCT-03 Fahim Uddin,
Inayatullah Memon
,Syed Ali Ammar
Taqvi
Mitigating Energy Crisis by
Coal Gasification using Steam
- Sensitivity Analysis using
Aspen-Plus

Simulation
10:25am CUCCT-04
Shaheen Aziz,
Sikander M.Almani,
Wali-ur-
Rehman,Suhail.
A.Soomro,Abdul
Jabbar Abbasi
Potential of Di-Methyl Ether
(DME) from Indigenous Coal
by Gasification_ As a
substitute of Diesel and LPG
10.40am CUCCT-05
Ashfaque
H.Pirzada,Khurrum
Nawaz, F. A Shah,
Aziza Aftab,Ayesha
Kousar
Case Study Of Underground
Coal Gasification
10.50am CUCCT-06 Abdul Malik Memon Utilization of Indigenous Coal
11:00-11:30 Tea break
Conference Chair Dr Zahoor A.Abbasi
Conference Secretary Dr.Khanji Harijan
11.30am CUCCT-06
Shaheen Aziz,Abdul
Rehman Memon,
Hafeez Ur Rahman
Memon, Suhail
Ahmad
Soomro,Yaseen
Shaikh
Stoichiometric Optimization
of Process Efficiency of Coal
Combustion Together with
Limestone during Fluidized
Bed Combustion
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11.45am CUCCT-07 Javaid Iqbal Large Eddy Simulation Of
Turbulence Inside A Co Fired
Combustor
12.00noon CUCCT-08
Shaheen Aziz, Suhail.
A.Soomro, Ambreen
Shaikh, Ashique A.
Laghari, G.M.Mahar
Production of Syn Gas From
Thar Coal By Gasification
Process Through Fixed Bed
Gasifier
12.15pm CUCCT-09 Mian Tauseef
Raza,Azam
Khan,Tasaddaq
Younas
Unique Approaches, Tools
and Lessons Learnt in
Development of Coalbed
Methane
12.30pm CUCCT-10 Muhammad Noman
Khan
Enhanced Gas Recovery and
CO
2
Storage in Coalbed-
Methane Reservoirs:
Optimized Injected-Gas
Composition for Mature
Basins of Various Coal Rank
12.45pm CUCCT-11
Suhail A. Soomro,
Hafeez ur Rahman
Memon, Abdul Sattar
Jatoi,Shaheen
Aziz,Sikander
M.Almani
Effect of Coal and Biomass
Ratio on Calorific Value And
Their Emissions Through Co
Combustion- A Review Paper
01.00pm CUCCT-12 Syed Ali Ammar
Taqvi, Fahim Uddin,
Inayatullah Memon
To Study the Behavior of
Gasifier and Simulation of
Coal Gasification Using
Steam Using Aspen-Plus
Model (Geometric Analysis)
01.15-
02.30
LUNCH & FRIDAY PRAYER
Conference Chair Dr. Abdul Ghani Pathan
Conference Secretary Dr. Mohammad Afzal Ghouri
02.30pm CUCCT-13
Izhar Mithal Jiskani,
Waqar A.Qazi,
Mohammad Yakoob
Behan and Fahad Irfan
Siddiqui
Blending of Local and
Imported Coal for Cement
Industries
02.45pm CUCCT-14 Rashid Abro Thar coal utilization for
production of coal tar
03.00pm CUCCT-15
Salman khanzada,
Imran Nazir, Masroor
Abro, Talha khan
Niazi,Awais Aftab
,Furqan khan
Study of coal combustion
characteristics using
Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD)
03.15pm CUCCT-16
M.H.Jokhio,Suhail
Soomro,Aslam
Uquali,M.M Baloch,
M.I.Abro
Utilization of THAR coal for
iron and steel industries
19

03.30pm CUCCT-17
Sikander M.Almani,
Zulfiqar Bhatti,
Zulfiqar
A.Solangi,Tahir Nabi
kalhoro,Mukhtiar
A.Mirani,Babar Ali
Magsi
A review Paper on
CHEMICAL-LOOPING
COMBUSTION (CLC) FOR
THAR COAL A glance to
future.
03.45pm CUCCT-18
Saqib Nawaz Talpur,
Suhail. A. Soomro,
Salman
Talpur,Shaheen Aziz,
Sikander M.Almani
Demineralization &
Desulfurization Of Lignite
Coal By Acid Leaching To
Increase The Calorific Value
and reduction in SOx
emissions For Power
Generation
04.00pm CUCCT-19
Santosh Kumar,
Gulzar Hussain Jhatial,
Anila Sarwar and Syed
Kabir Shah
Conversion of Indigenous Coal
into Substitute of Natural Gas and
Petroleum Products By non-
conventional Technology:
Underground coal gasification
CONCLUDING CEREMONY
04.15pm
Guest to be seated
04.20pm
Recitation from the Holy Quran
04.25pm
Welcome Address
04.35pm
Conference Report & Recommendations
04.45pm
ICC 2013 Concluding Remarks
05.00pm
Address by Prof.Dr M.Aslam Uqaili,Vice Chancellor Mehran UET
05.10pm Address by Chief Guest, Mr. Ejaz Ahmed Khan, Secretary, Energy
& Coal Department Govt. of Sindh
05.15pm
Address by Guest of Honour, Prof. Dr. Nazir Mughal
05.20pm
Vote of Thanks
REFRESHMENT

Time 9th November, 2013 DAY 03
Only for Registered Participants for field visit
08.00am Departure from Mehran UET, Auditorium
10.30am Arrival at Ranikot Fort
Visit of Ranikot
01.30pm Departure from Ranikot Fort
04.00pm Arrival at Mehran UET.
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Table of Contents
EDITORIAL BOARD .......................................................................... 1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................. 4
SPONSOR PROFILE ....................................................................... 5
PREFACE ............................................................................................ 7
ORGANIZING COMMITTEE ............................................................. 9
ABSTRACTS ....................................................................................27
THEME 1: .........................................................................................28
COAL MINING .................................................................................28
Road Map of a Coal Mining Project From Exploration to Production 29
Dr. Bahtiyar NVER ...........................................................................29
Thar Coal: A Cheap and Sustainable Energy Resource of Sindh for
Pakistan ...............................................................................................30
Dr. Abdul Ghani Pathan .......................................................................30
Challenges, Strategies And Risk Management During Underground Coal
Gasification .........................................................................................31
Asadullah Memon
1
, Bilal Shams Memon
1
, Faisal Hussain Memon
1
,
Hafeez-ur-Rahman
2
, Abdul Haque Tunio .............................................31
Wireless Sensor Network Applications for Coal Mines ........................32
Faisal Karim Shaikh, Nafeesa Zaki, Bhawani Shankar Chowdhry ........32
Integrated Openpit Mine Design at Thar Lignite Field: A Proposed Study
............................................................................................................33
Fahad Irfan Siddiqui
1
, Abdul Ghani Pathan
1
and Bahtiyar NVER
2
.....33
21

Farhad Ali Panhwar
1
, Riaz Ahmed
1
and Waheed Ali Panhwar
2
............34
Regulation of Occupational Health and Safety in the Pakistans Coal
Mining Sector ......................................................................................35
Shah Murad .........................................................................................35
THEME 2: .........................................................................................36
COAL GEOLOGY ............................................................................36
GIS Based Coalfield Assessment: A Case Study of Thar Coalfield of
Pakistan ...............................................................................................37
Sarfraz Hussain Solangi*, Imdadullah Siddiqui*, Imdad Ali Brohi*,
Abdul Salam Soomro**, and Agha Asadullah* ....................................37
Understanding Thar Coal .....................................................................40
Zahoor A. Abbasi.................................................................................40
Bulk Mineralogy Of The Coal Bearing Formation (Bara) From SB-24 &
ST-24 Boreholes, Thar Coalfield Of Sindh Province ............................41
Asgher Ali- Daahar Hakro, Imdadullah Siddiqui and Mashooque Ali
Warar...................................................................................................41
Pore Volume, Pore Diameter And Surface Area Of Thar, Lakhra And
Meting Coals Of Sindh, Pakistan ..........................................................42
Imdadullah Siddiqui, Sarfraz Hussain Solangi and Mashoque Ali Warar
............................................................................................................42
THEME 3: .........................................................................................45
COAL CHARACTERIZATION AND UPGRADATION .............45
Gasification Technology - Advances and Obstacles ..............................46
Yoichi Kodera .....................................................................................46
Future of Coal - International Perspective.............................................49
Shah Zulfiqar Haider ............................................................................49
Strength Evaluation of Indigenously Developed KPK Coal Briquettes ..51
22

Muddasar Habib
1
, Amad Ullah Khan
1
, Shah Saud Khan
2
, Unsia Habib
1
,
Jameel Ahmed
1
, Naveed ul Hasan
1
, and Sultan Ali
1
. .............................51
Designing and Fabrication of Indigenous Mechanical Press for
Preparation Of Coal Briquettes .............................................................52
Suhail A.Soomro, Anand Parkash, Shaheen Aziz, Sikander M.Almani .52
Evaluation of Optimum Composition of Starch as a Binding Material for
Square Coal Briquettes .........................................................................53
Amad Ullah Khan, Muhammad Babar, Muddasar Habib, Unsia Habib,
Jameel Ahmed, Naveed ul Hasan, and Sultan Ali .................................53
THEME 4: EMISSION AND THEIR CONTROL .............54
Jiane Zuo, Jian Zhao, Lili Gan and Dongbei Yue .................................55
Environmental Assessment of Thar Coal fields ....................................56
A.K Ansari, M.A.Shishmahal, Mariam Mangi, .....................................56
Environmental Effect and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) Of Washed &
Un-Washed Coal at Lakhra Coal Power Plant ......................................57
Cyril Maqsood Khokhar
1
and Rasool Bux Mahar
2
................................57
Physico Chemical Analysis of Local Coal at Sindh and Reference to Its
Use for Different Industries: A Case Study ...........................................58
1
Raziabegum,
1
Toobahaq,
2
Suhail A. Soomro ,
1
Kamal Sheikh ,
1
Aliabano and
1
Naiz Ahmed .................................................................58
Efficient Use of Burnt Coal against Industrial Dye Waters ...................58
Zeenat M.Ali
1
, Shuaib M. Laghari
2
and A. Jabbar Laghari
3
..................58
Geochemistry of Coal Seams in Patala Formation from Sohai River
Gorge and Pail-Khushab Road, Pakistan: Investigation of Environmental
Impacts of Sub-Bituminous Coals ........................................................60
Tasaddaq Younas
1
, Saif Ur Rehman
1
, Mian Tauseef Raza
2
, Azam Khan
2
............................................................................................................60
23

Use of Combined Fly Ash of Coal and Palm-Fiber as Adsorbent For
Treatment of Dye Wastewaters ............................................................61
Shuaib M. Laghari
1
, Zeenat M. Ali
2
and A. Jabbar Laghari
3
.................61
Estimation of gross calorific value and C, H, N, O, S, and physical
parameters ...........................................................................................62
Mahboob Ali Kalhoro, Gulzar Hussain Jhatial, Santosh Kumar and Syed
Najam Ul Islam ....................................................................................62
The Control of Sulphur, a Major Pollutant and Problem in the Coal
Dynamics, For the Better Utilization of Lakhra Coal Reserves Present In
Pakistan ...............................................................................................63
Zakiuddin Ahmed, Gulzar Hussain Jhatial, Mateen Muhammad Khan
and Nadir Buksh ..................................................................................63
THEME 5: .........................................................................................64
COAL GENERAL .............................................................................64
Energy Crisis in Pakistan and Thar Coal is Untapped Wealth and
Solution ...............................................................................................65
Anwar Ali Shah G.Syed
1
and Faiz.M.Shaikh
2
.......................................65
Real Status of Coal in Sindh and Local and World Priorities to Avail ...66
Muhammad Nawaz Tunio, Pir Irfan Shah Rashdi, Qazi Moinuddin Abro
............................................................................................................66
THEME 6: .........................................................................................67
COAL UTLIZATION AND CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY ......67
Critical Study of Clean Coal Technology in FBC Power Plant at
Khanote ...............................................................................................68
Dr. Shaheen Aziz .................................................................................68
Clean Coal Solution to Global Warming............................................69
Shah Zulfiqar Haider ............................................................................69
24

Status of Coal Biotechnology in Pakistan .............................................71
Ghauri, M. A., Akhtar, N., Haider, R., Akhtar, K..................................71
Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) Based Power Production from
Syn Gas With Inherent CO2 Capture: Profile Study of a Lab Scale
Packed Bed Reactor .............................................................................73
Dr. Mohammad Younas .......................................................................73
Study the Coal/Oxidant Distribution Effects in a Two-stage Dry-Feed
Coal Gasifier with Numerical Simulations............................................75
Imran Nazir Unar
1
, Lijun Wang
2
, Abdul Ghani Pathan
3
, Rasool Bux
Mehar
4
, Rundong Li
2
, M. Aslam Uqaili
5
..............................................75
Mitigating Energy Crisis by Coal Gasification using Steam - Sensitivity
Analysis using Aspen-Plus Simulation ..............................................76
Fahim Uddin, Inayatullah Memon and Syed Ali Ammar Taqvi ............76
Potential of Di-Methyl Ether (DME) from Indigenous Coal by
Gasification -As a Substitute of Diesel and LPG...................................77
Shaheen Aziz
1
, Sikander M.Almani
1
, Wali-ur-Rehman
2
, Suhail.
A.Soomro
1
, Abdul Jabbar Abbasi
1
........................................................77
Case Study of Underground Coal Gasification......................................78
Ashfaque H.Pirzada, Khurrum Nawaz, Farman Ali Shah, ....................78
Aziza Aftab,Ayesha Kousar .................................................................78
Stoichiometric Optimization Of Process Efficiency Of Coal Combustion
Together With Limestone During Fluidized Bed Combustion ...............79
Shaheen Aziz, Abdul Rehman Memon, Hafeez Ur Rahman Memon,
Suhail A. Soomro and Yaseen Shaikh .................................................79
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence inside a Co Fired Combustor .....80
Javaid Iqbal .........................................................................................80
25

Production of Syn Gas from Thar Coal by Gasification Process Through
Fixed Bed Gasifier ...............................................................................81
Shaheen Aziz, Suhail. A.Soomro, Ambreen Shaikh, Ashique A. Laghari
and G.M.Mahar....................................................................................81
Unique Approaches, Tools and Lessons Learnt In Development of Coal
Bed Methane........................................................................................82
Mian Tauseef Raza
1
, Azam Khan
1
, Tasaddaq Younas
2
.........................82
Enhanced Gas Recovery and CO
2
Storage in Coal bed-Methane
Reservoirs: Optimized Injected-Gas Composition for Mature Basins of
Various Coal Rank ...............................................................................84
Muhammad Noman Khan ....................................................................84
Effect of Coal and Biomass Ratio n Calorific Value and Their Emissions
Through Co Combustion- A Review Paper ...........................................86
Suhail A. Soomro
1
, Hafeez ur Rahman Memon
2
, Abdul Sattar Jatoi
1
,
Shaheen Aziz
1
, and Sikander M.Almani
1
..............................................86
To Study the Behavior of Gasifier and Simulation of Coal Gasification
Using Steam Using Aspen-Plus Model (Geometric Analysis) ............87
Syed Ali Ammar Taqvi, Inaytullah Memon and Fahim Uddin ..............87
Blending of Local and Imported Coal for Cement Industries ................88
Waqar A. Qazi, Izhar Mithal Jiskani, Mohammad Yakoob Behan and
Fahad Irfan Siddiqui ............................................................................88
Thar Coal Utilization for Production of Coal Tar ..................................89
Rashid Abro .........................................................................................89
Study of Coal Combustion Characteristics Using Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD) ..................................................................................90
Salman Khanzada, Imran Nazir, Masroor Abro, Talha khan Niazi,
Awais Aftab, Furqan khan....................................................................90
Utilization of Thar Coal for Iron and Steel Industries ...........................91
26

Mohammad Hayat Jokhio
1
, Suhail Soomro
2
, M. Aslam Uquali
3
, M.M
Baloch
1
and M.I.Abro
1
.........................................................................91
A review Paper on Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) for Thar
Coal: A glance to future .....................................................................92
Sikander M.Almani, Zulfiqar A. Solangi, Zulfiqar A. Bhatti, Tahir Nabi
kalhoro, Mukhtiar A.Mirani, Babar Ali Magsi ......................................92
Demineralization & Desulfurization of Lignite Coal by Acid Leaching to
Increase the Calorific Value and Reduction in SOx Emissions for Power
Generation ...........................................................................................94
Suhail. A. Soomro, Saqib Nawaz Talpur, and Shaheen Aziz .................94
Conversion of Indigenous Coal Into Substitute Of Natural Gas And
Petroleum Products By Non-Conventional Technology: Underground
Coal Gasification .................................................................................95
Santosh Kumar, Gulzar Hussain Jhatial, Anila Sarwar and Syed Kabir
Shah ....................................................................................................95
Utilization of Indigenous Coal .............................................................96
Engr. Abdul Malik Memon ..................................................................96












27




ABSTRACTS
















28





THEME 1:
COAL MINING

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Road Map of a Coal Mining Project From Exploration to
Production

Dr. Bahtiyar NVER
Department of Mining, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

There seems to be no viable alternative to coal for energy production in
the near future. In contrary to general belief, production of electricity
from coal can be environmentally friendly provided that necessary
precautions are taken properly. Wind and solar energy are expensive and
discontinuous. Hydraulic energy can be an efficient source of electricity
production if coupled with an irrigation project. However, it changes
ecological condition of the region which is established for millions of
years. Hydraulic energy is also a discontinuous source of energy. If there
is no enough water, electricity production may be halted. For base
electricity production, other alternatives such as natural gas, petrol and
nuclear cannot possible compete with coal in terms of cost of electricity
produced. Therefore, if a country has enough coal resources to produce
electricity, theyd better make use of it properly. Because, to maintain
development enough and affordable electrical energy is a must.

This keynote paper will presents the stages of a coal resource
development project from exploration to energy production. A special
emphasis will be given to Thar coal field. Project alternatives mainly on
the production strategies will be discussed. Surface and underground
alternatives will be critically compared. Thar coal field is very large. At
some locations stripping ratio is high that makes the surface mining
impossible. Therefore, underground mining possibility will be examined
both in terms of technical and capital and operational cost.

Keywords: Thar coal, surface mining, stripping ratio, longwall mining


1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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November, 2013
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Thar Coal: A Cheap and Sustainable Energy Resource of
Sindh for Pakistan

Dr. Abdul Ghani Pathan
Department of Mining, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology,
Jamshoro

Pakistan possesses the seventh largest lignite resource in the world with
193 billion tonnes of lignite/coal reserves mainly concentrated in Thar
region in the eastern part of Sindh Province. Practically all coal rich
nations, regardless of their stage of economic development, have made
appropriate use of indigenous coal resources to support their electricity
generation sector. For a nation whose identified resources of coal could
support, without doubt, its electricity needs for centuries, Pakistans
massive reliance on imported oil for electricity production should be
viewed as an anomaly. Development of Thar coal has been a dream of
the people of Pakistan since its discovery. Many efforts, made so far by
Pakistan has not yielded any concrete result due to multifarious reasons,
including technical, financial, geo-political and security

This paper encompasses various engineering aspects including resource
evaluation, coal mining methods, design alternatives, ground water
management and power generation at Thar lignite filed. According to the
findings of current research, both underground and surface mining
methods are suitable for Thar coal field based on the vertical stripping
ratio. The surface mining method is feasible for only 46% of the deposit
whereas the underground mining method (longwall mining method) is
suitable for 54% of the entire Thar deposit. The technical and
engineering comparison of surface and underground mining is presented.
It is concluded that the development of surface mine at Thar requires
USD 1114 million for 6.5 million ton capacity mine whereas an
underground mine with capacity of 3 million ton only requires USD 200
million. It is recommended that initially an underground mine may be
developed at Thar with development period of 3 years and requires less
capital cost as compared to opencast mining.

Keywords: Thar coal, surface mining, stripping ratio, longwall mining

1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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Challenges, Strategies And Risk Management During
Underground Coal Gasification

Asadullah Memon
1
, Bilal Shams Memon
1
, Faisal Hussain Memon
1
, Hafeez-
ur-Rahman
2
, Abdul Haque Tunio
1
Lecturer, Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Mehran
UET SZAB Khairpur
2
Professor, Institute of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Mehran UET
Jamshoro

Advancement in developing activities in coal mining has attempted to
enhance recoveries since last two decades. Basically, underground Coal
Gasification (UCG) converts coal to valuable gases and these gases are
an alternative to natural gas and potentially offer cost effective and
environmental friendly methods by eliminating coal mining, transport
and solid waste generated.

During UCG process, coal decomposes and generates four valuable
products like CO2, H2, CO and CH4. CO2 emissions and storage is one
of the most important challenges now days being faced as CO2
emissions cause global warming and ocean oxidization. Mitigation of
these emissions by converting low value fuel (CO2, H2 and CO) into a
Synthesis Gas and it can be used to produce power, hydrogen and basic
chemical like Methanol and Ammonia. Alternatively, Sequestration of
CO2 in un-mineable coal seams is an important strategy for the
mitigation of global warming, greenhouse gas effect and
anthropogenic hazards.

This research study covers the effective and efficient methodology by
utilization of all underground product gases which may results reducing
emissions, protect environment and to produce Power, Hydrogen and
Basic Chemical.

Keywords: Coal Bed Methane, CO2 emissions, Coal Gasification, CO2
Sequestration
1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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November, 2013
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Wireless Sensor Network Applications for Coal Mines

Faisal Karim Shaikh, Nafeesa Zaki, Bhawani Shankar Chowdhry
Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro

With the availability of cheap hardware and the standardization of
wireless communication standards, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are
reality now. This is evident from the increasing amount of research being
done in the area of WSN, and the growing number of off the shelf WSN
solutions. Accordingly, the WSN are utilized in diverse application
domains. Possible applications of WSN are of interest to the most diverse
fields. Environmental monitoring, warfare, child education, surveillance,
micro-surgery, agriculture, and coal mines are only a few examples.

In coal mines the wired network can be effective in many parts of the
mine due to its reliability and high data rates. However, it has
disadvantages for certain places due to complex topographic features and
equipment layout, such as the face and the goaf of the coal mine. Limited
by the complex underground conditions, WSN are more suitable for data
transmission in coal mines.

In this regard, we realize that there is a great need for an unambiguous
classification of WSN applications for Coal mines. Such a classification
scheme would benefit the WSN research and coal mining community.
We consider the spectrum of applications ranging from static WSN to the
heterogeneous applications for the classification. The classification
scheme is based on functionality of the application. The application
attributes are grouped into five broad categories: communication
standards, scalability, energy efficiency, sensing capabilities, and other
features. Each of these is further classified to provide sufficient details
that are required for a typical Coal mine WSN application.

Keywords: WSN, coal mines, communication
1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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Integrated Openpit Mine Design at Thar Lignite Field: A
Proposed Study

Fahad Irfan Siddiqui
1
, Abdul Ghani Pathan
1
and Bahtiyar NVER
2

1
Department of Mining, Mehran University of Engineering & Technology,
Jamshoro, Pakistan
2
Department of Mining, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

The current research work is an endeavor to conduct an integrated mine
design practice at Thar lignite field, Pakistan. Being an energy-deficient
country, Pakistan must have to develop and exploit the indigenous and
sustainable energy sources to fulfill its exponentially increasing energy
needs. The indigenous coal reserves of Pakistan can play an important
role to eradicate current energy crisis. Thar lignite field (the largest coal
reserves of Pakistan, approximately 175.506 billion tons) is still
unexploited due to various technical, economical, and geo-political
reasons. In this regard, a PhD research project has been envisaged to
facilitate the exploitation of Thar lignite reserves through an indigenous
research.

This research work will include collection of geological data from
existing boreholes in various exploration blocks of Thar, literature
review on basic geostatistics, geostatistical estimations and simulation,
block modeling techniques, ultimate pit limits algorithms, pit
optimization techniques, conduct of geostatistical estimation and
simulation for quantity and quality parameters of Thar lignite, pit and
waste dump design.

It is hoped that this research work will provide comprehensive solution
to the problems of Thar lignite field. The outcomes of the research will
furnish reliable insitu lignite reserve estimates with quantified
uncertainty; quality attributes maps for identification of favorable areas
for economical and productive exploitation and various mining scenarios
or alternatives for exploitation of Thar lignite.

Keywords: Thar coal, pit limits, pit optimization, SURPAC, geostatistics,
block models


1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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November, 2013
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Coal Mine Safety Regulation in Sindh as Compare to USA

Farhad Ali Panhwar
1
, Riaz Ahmed
1
and Waheed Ali Panhwar
2

1
Mehran University of Engineering and Science and Technology, Jamshoro
2
University of Sindh Jamshoro

USA and Sindh (Pakistan) are the worlds largest producers and
consumers of coal. Production of the coal is inherently risky. Its fatalities
are unavoidable in the large coal economic point of view. Sindh
(Pakistan) has developed complex system of law to regulate the coal
mine safety.

Inspite of similarities between the separate systems of mining law, the
Sindh significantly trails the USA in terms of coal mine safety. Instead of
large disparity in economic development, it may be inappropriate to
compare USA and Sindh. However, the Sindh mine safety record is
significantly worse than that of other large producers who are similarly
underdeveloped. It appears that the Pakistan (Sindh) has failed to
effectively implement its mining safety laws. Several arguments have
been made as to the cause of this failure, including lack of judicial
review of agency actions, lack of Meaningful trade unions, government
corruption and geographical difficulties of controlling rural mines with a
central government. Present study explores similarities and differences
between the coal economies of the Sindh (Pakistan) and USA, and
introduces some of the arguments used to explain the gap in safety.

Keywords: Sindh, safety, labour, mining, mine law




1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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9
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November, 2013
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Regulation of Occupational Health and Safety in the
Pakistans Coal Mining Sector

Shah Murad
Department of Law, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology,
Karachi.

Coal mining has played a dominant role in the socio-economic
development, employment generation and sustainable development
globally. Coal accounted the largest energy source for electricity
production in the world. Pakistan has also been endowed with
immense untapped coal reservoirs. Now Pakistan is increasingly looking
towards foreign investment in the mining sector to cope with ongoing
energy crisis in the country. Although application of modern technology
has improved safety in the mining sector but fatal accidents in the mines
are consistently increasing due to hazardous gas explosions and lack of
preventive measures. Pakistani coal mines are considered among the
world deadliest and claim several lives every year. However, at present,
there is no law in Pakistan to regulate the occupational health and safety
needs of miners. Mining often involves potential hazardous, accordingly
the International Labor Organization (ILO) adopted Safety and Health in
Mines Convention, 1995 (No. 176) and its accompanying
Recommendation No.183, which set out a guideline for bringing about
improvement in the working conditions of miners. In order to promote
decent work in the mining sector, government should devise adequate
legislative framework in conformity with the ILOs Conventions for the
occupational health and safety of miners. This paper addresses
deficiencies in the existing legal system of Pakistan in the context of
regulating the occupational health and safety in the mining industry and
proposes possible solutions.

Keywords: Occupational Health & Safety, Coal Mining, ILO, Legal
Regime

1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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9
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November, 2013
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THEME 2:
COAL GEOLOGY












1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
th
9
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November, 2013
37

GIS Based Coalfield Assessment: A Case Study of Thar
Coalfield of Pakistan

Sarfraz Hussain Solangi*, Imdadullah Siddiqui*, Imdad Ali Brohi*, Abdul
Salam Soomro**, and Agha Asadullah*
* Centre for Pure and Applied Geology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro,
Pakistan
** Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Mehran
University of Engineering and Technology,
Jamshoro, Pakistan

This paper develops a Geographic Information System (GIS) based
geodatabase for improved assessment of Thar coalfield of Pakistan (Fig.
1). Based on the existing data the GIS database in the form of spatial
maps and tables provide effective means of data analysis, quantitative
resource assessment and effective management. A number of reports
published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and
Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) summarize the results of Thar coal
exploration surveys carried out since 1992. Fassett and Durrani (1994)
first time produced a report about the occurrence, quantity, and quality of
Thar coal and designated the Thar coalfield as the eleventh largest coal
resource of world. Initial efforts of USGS and GSP include drilling of
total 38 exploratory boreholes from 1992 to 1994. Since then 12 blocks
ranging in size from 63 to 122 square km each (Fig. 2) within Thar
coalfield were thoroughly explored by boreholes drilled at 1 to 2 km
interval in order to gain in depth knowledge about the quality as well as
measured, indicated and inferred coal resources of each Block. Thus
there exist two types of analysis results. One are those of Fassett and
Durrani (1994) for the whole Thar coalfield produced on the basis of
borehole data obtained at an interval of 22km over an area of about 5000
sq. Km. The other results are those produced by high resolution drilling
data obtained from 12 blocks (Sindh Coal Authority reports) (Fig. 3).







1
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Fig. 1. Location map of Thar coalfield














Fig. 2. Isopach map of cumulative coal seam thickness in Thar coalfield
(modified after Fassett and Durrani, 1994) and location of 12 blocks












1
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Fig. 3.Isopach map of cumulative coal thickness of Block VIII (from
Sindh coal Authority report)

Based on the above results, satellite images, and high resolution ASTER
DEM data two separate geodatabases have been created for each of the
above analysis results. The geodatabases include shapefiles/layers and
data tables of borehole locations, data summary, isopach maps of
cumulative coal thickness, overburden and thickest bench of coal seam,
structure contour map, coal quality maps and coal resource estimate
tables. Various geological, geographical, and physiographic features
within the coalfield surroundings have also been compiled as shapefiles.

The integration of two geodatabases allowed to produce GIS based
refined isopach maps, 3D coal seam overlays, 3D terrain analysis maps,
and other coal characterization maps for whole Thar coalfield. The
calculation of coal resources based on modified isopach map using GIS
software has produced new resource estimates for Thar coalfield. The
GIS based comprehensive geodatabase facilitates quick, reliable, and
improved resource assessment which can be helpful in decision making
for the development of coalfield and other issues related to land use,
resettlement plan, and environment.


1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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9
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November, 2013
40

Understanding Thar Coal

Zahoor A. Abbasi
Delta Engineering Tetra Tech Group San Diego, California USA
Much has been talked about Thar Coal. Provincial and Federal
Governments have fought over its ownership, created numerous
organizations along the way without a clear vision. Lack of strategic
policy guidelines has resulted in a series of very costly ad-hoc decisions
in the past 20 years. Current energy crises has created a renewed interest
for including Thar Coal in the energy mix, especially due to declining
natural gas production and the skyrocketing imported Oil prices.

Govt. of Sindhs efforts for Development of Thar Coal have included
creating a Private/Public sector partnership with Engro, signing MOUs
with various investors and massively funding the experimental and
dangerously destructive technology of underground Coal Gasification
(UCG) which has the potential to endanger the entire Thar coal resource.
These efforts by the GOS, however well intentioned, have not worked
due to lack of professional capacity within the system for understanding
the fundamentals associated with a project of this kind and scope.

Past few years have seen a flurry of activity, tall claims of energy
production have been made by all and sundry, However after spending
billions we are no closer to creating energy from Thar Coal today than
we were 20 years ago, we may even be a few steps behind due to
confusion created by numerous ad hoc, counterproductive and
contradictory decisions which are costing the nation both ways.

Thar coal has become a bonanza for consultants, contractors and
opportunists who are clearly controlling the agenda. Due to energy
shortage in Pakistan the economy is suffering and there is social unrest.
Thar Coal obviously holds the key; it is the most viable and the cheapest
source of thermal energy in Pakistan at $2 per Mmbtu (Million British
Thermal Units), compared with Furnace Oil @ over $20 per Mmbtu.

Keywords: Thar coal, energy, consultancy, Sindh government


1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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November, 2013
41

Bulk Mineralogy Of The Coal Bearing Formation (Bara) From
SB-24 & ST-24 Boreholes, Thar Coalfield Of Sindh Province

Asgher Ali- Daahar Hakro, Imdadullah Siddiqui and Mashooque Ali
Warar
Centre for Pure and Applied Geology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
The rock samples from Thar coalfield of Sindh, Pakistan, have been
investigated for the mineral composition, and environments of the
deposition. Quartz, Kaolinite, Chlorite, K-and feldspar show their
presence under Scanning Electronic Microscopic study. Quartz and
kaolinite were major minerals, and muscovite showed as minor mineral
under the X-ray diffraction analyses. These minerals are indicated that
they were transported by denudation agents from the area where Igneous
and Metamorphic rocks exposures were exposed.

Keywords: Quartz (low), Bulk mineralogy, Thar coal field, XRD







1
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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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November, 2013
42

Pore Volume, Pore Diameter And Surface Area Of Thar,
Lakhra And Meting Coals Of Sindh, Pakistan

Imdadullah Siddiqui, Sarfraz Hussain Solangi and Mashoque Ali Warar
Centre for Pure and Applied Geology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
The coal is a porous material with wide range of pore size including
macro-, meso- and micro- porous systems. The porosity plays important
role in extraction of methane from coal seams, gasification and
liquification. The pore volume distribution may be used to predict the gas
adsorption capacity of coal. The primary mechanism of gas retention in
coal beds is adsorption on internal surface area, which is in general
function of micropore volume. In lower Indus basin (Sindh province)
four major coalfields are found, named as (1) Thar (2) Lakhra (in
Jamshoro district) (3) Meting-Jhimpir (4) Sonda (both in Thatta district).
These coal deposits occur in the Bara Formation (Middle Palaeocene)
and in the Sohnari Member of the Early Eocene Laki Formation. Thar
coalfield is the largest coalfield of Pakistan and is located on the Indus
Platform in Thar Desert in south-eastern corner of Pakistan. It covers an
area of about 9,000 sq. kms. In this study samples from Lakhra, Meting-
Jhimpir and Thar coalfield; were studied for the adsorption capacity of
coals. Nitogen porosometry analyses were performed using NOVA
2200e Quantachrome surface analyzer for the determination of Pore
volume, Pore diameter and Surface area in coal. The Brunauer Emmett
and Teller (BET) equation was applied for the determination of surface
area[1].

Table 1. Showing Pore diameter, Pore volume and BET surface area in
coal from Thar, Lakhra and Meting-Jhimpir coalfield.

Thar Block/Seam BJH BET Surface
area
Pore diameter

Pore volume
cc/g
S
BET
m
2
/g
Thar Block-VI 35.27 0.08 42.27
Thar Block-VII
Thar Block-VIII 118.15 2.36 143.29
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Thar Block-X / IV
(181m)
72.29 0.13 74.17
Thar Block-X (184m) 120.39 1.18 113.61
Thar Block-X (188m) 34.81 0.06 39.26
Lakhra 121.5 2.36 141.26
Meting-Jhimpir 75.78 0.14 70.10

In coal methane (CH4) is generated as primary or secondary biogeneic
gas, which is entrapped within coal molecules. The absorbability and
flowability of coalbed methane in coal depends upon the geometry of
pores[2]. As per IUPAC classification pores are classified as micropores,
having diameter of <20 , pores of 20-500 diameter are termed as
mesopores and macropores are those having >500 diameter[3]. The
pore diameter in investigated coal as displayed in Table.1, and shows
that pores in Thar coal block VI and X (at the depth of 181m) are nearly
mesopores pore (i.e. 35.27 and 34.81 diameter). While in block VII
and VIII of Thar coalfield, while in Thar coal at the depth of 184m in
block X, the size of the pore is increasing. In Lakhra and Meting-
Jhimpir coal pores are of mesopore size i.e. 121.5 and 75.78
diameter. And these pores may serve as transport pathways. From CBM
study point of view pores in coal are further divided into two levels and
six categories[4], pores in samples from Block VI of Thar coalfield are
characterized as surface diffusion, while samples from block-VII, VII
and X have pores that known as mixed diffusion i.e. surface and
Kundsen diffusion. The coal samples from Lakhra and Meting-Jhimpir
have pores that termed as transitional pore.

The surface area is inherently linked to the pore size distribution in coal,
whereby surface area progressively increases with decline pore size for a
given volume. BET surface area in Thar coal samples varies from 39.26
m2/g143.29 m2/g. And samples from Lakhra coalfield has surface area
141.26 m2/g, and Meting-Jhimpir coal samples has surface area 70.10
m2/g. The pore volume distribution is used to predict the adsorption
capacity in coal, In Thar coal, the pore volume ranges from 0.06
2.36cc/g, while the pore volume in Lakhra coal is 2.36cc/g and in
Meting-Jhimpir coal its volume is 0.14cc/g. The mesopore and
macropores in investigated samples will serve as transport path way, and
little gas may be stored in these pores in adsorbed state [5].
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THEME 3:
COAL
CHARACTERIZATION
AND UPGRADATION








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Gasification Technology - Advances and Obstacles

Yoichi Kodera
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST), Japan
Gasification technology has been applied to coal conversion, and
recently to waste-to-energy applications. Historically to say, the purpose
of coal gasification is for city gas production, followed by syngas
production for liquid fuel production like in SASOL process and for the
production of methanol and ammonia like in TEXCO process. Coal is
known to have the longer minable years than petroleum. Gasification
draws the more attentions as a clean way to generate hydrocarbons and
hydrogen. Recently, the conversion of wood, plastics, or agricultural
wastes into gaseous fuel has been studied by many researchers. Some
plants are commercial, but some are still under development. The waste-
to-energy technology often faces not only technical problems but also
socioeconomic obstacles to be established as a feasible system in
business. Table 1 shows the clarification of gasification technology.
Usually, gasification is the conversion of organic resources into gaseous
products, typically syngas, in the presence of a gasifying agent.
Pyrolysis under an inert atmosphere is a part of gasification because of
the formation of gaseous products from wood and plastics with the
generation of solid residue. Gasification under oxygen or air can be
considered as partial combustion, which is different from combustion
under excess air.

There are three major technologies, i.e. fixed-bed, fluidized-bed and
entrained-bed gasification. Some are used as commercial gasifiers for
power generation or syngas production. Coal gasification using a fixed-
bed gasifier is typically known as Lurgi process. Entrained-bed
gasification of coal is commercially operated in TEXACO process. A
fluidized-bed gasifier has been studies by many engineers and
researchers to establish a commercial process.

Table 1. Classification of gasification and the other technologies
Technology Conditions Feed and products
Gasification Thermal gasification with
the gasifying agent like
O
2
, H
2
O, CO
2
and H
2
.
Coal under O
2
,H
2
OSyngas
Carbon under CO
2
CO
Coal under H
2
CH
4
+H
2
+H
2
O
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Pyrolytic
gasification
Thermal gasification
under inert atmosphere.
Woodcharcoal+tar+H
2
, CO,
CO
2

Plasticshydrocarbon (oil and
gas)
Combustion Complete combustion
under enough air.
Coalhot flue gaschar
Woodhot flue gascharcoal
Plasticshot flue gas


One of the most important factors for successful operation of coal
gasification is to match the properties of coal with the type of gasifier.
Table 2 shows the features of gasification in three types of gasifiers in
relations to the features of coal. Clinker trouble, slugging and fouling are
the typical troubles that are caused by melting ash. And there are some
other factors to consider, for example, particle size of coal, selection of
gasifying agents and operation pressure.

For biomass and plastic wastes, there are the other factors to govern the
economic and technical feasibility to lead the success of gasification; for
example, cost and efficiency in collection system and transportation.

On April 2013, a coal gasification process for power generation started
its commercial operation after a long term of R&D on the integrated
gasification combined cycle (IGCC) since 1986. The Nakoso power
plant has five commercial facilities including plants of one (175 MW) by
heavy oil-fired process, three (250, 600, 600 MW) by conventional coal-
fired process and a new one (250 MW) by IGCC process. The new plant
achieved the higher generating efficiency around 40% and the lower
environmental impacts with the combination of newly-improved
equipment such as turbine and gas cleaning systems. The coal-
gasification power generation still competes with a pulverized-coal fired
power generation with super-critical steam generation for its generating
efficiency, cost and environmental impacts.
Table 2 Features of gasification of each gasifier and coal
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Example of
the features of
gasification
Fixed-bed
gasification
Fluidized-bed
gasification
Entrained-bed
gasification
Feeding shape
of coal
Lump coal 30 to
50 mm diameter.
Use of dust coal
should be
considered.
Pulverized coal
upto 3 mm
diameter. Use of
dust coal should
be considered.
Pulverized coal
upto 0.1 mm
diameter. Large
energy is
consumed for
crushing.
Temperature Under 900 C to
avoid clinker
trouble
Under 900 C to
avoid clinker
trouble
1350 to 1600 C
to promote ash
slugging
Dust
formation
escaping from
a gasifier
Less amounts Lager amounts of
ash and char.
Escape of char
lowers carbon
conversion.
Larger amounts
of fly ash

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Future of Coal - International Perspective

Shah Zulfiqar Haider
Narayanganj Palli Bidyut Samity
(Narayanganj Rural Electric Cooperative)
Nanakhi, Sonargaon, Narayanganj, Bangladesh.
World energy need is increasing at geometric rate. So far we mainly
depended on fossil fuel and mainly Coal. The rich developed Nuclear
power plants, but after Tsunami in Fukushima and nuclear disaster, the
dependency on Coal has further increased though it is main source of
global warming.

The major coal producing countries in the world are China, USA, India,
Australia, Russia, South Africa, Indonesia, Germany and Poland. Wheras
major coal consuming countries in the world are China, USA, India,
Germany, Russia, Japan, South Africa, Australia and Poland. So we find
China is the no 1 Coal producing and consuming country and India is
desperately following China. Why? Because it is easy to extract,
generate electricity and less costly.

Even in USA, maximum Energy production is through Coal followed by
natural gas, crude oil. Nuclear generation is in fourth position.

Coal in the Developing World: In race for new power plants, coal rank
no 1. It is found that 483 power companies have proposed new coal-fired
plants across 59 countries. Most of these proposed plants are in
developing nationsmainly Chins and India. These two countries
account for 76 percent of the proposed new coal power capacity. New
coal-fired plants are also proposed in some developing countries where
theres currently limited or no domestic coal production, such as
Cambodia and Senegal. The United States ranks seventh out of all
countries, with 36 proposed plants with a capacity of more than 20,000
MW. Not all of these projects will necessarily be approved and
developedthe report only looks at proposed new plants. However, this
research shows a significantand troublinginterest in coal
development globally. Even in Bangladesh Coal is considered to be next
main primary fuel for electricity generation. The easiest solution to
electricity crises in Pakistan is through Coal generation.
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Environmental Impact due to coal generation: IECG and International
Electric hold in dispute many of the commonly held concepts about the
environmental impacts of coal fired electrical generation. We believe that
the benefits far outweigh any potential negative impacts. IECG and
CRPG work with the community and with recognized experts to
minimize and eliminate any potential environments hazards such as:

Coal mining causes severe erosion, resulting in the leaching of toxic
chemicals into nearby streams and aquifers, and destroys habitants.
About two-thirds of sulfur dioxide, one-third of carbon dioxide emissions
and one quarter of the nitrogen oxides emissions in the U.S. are produced
by coal burning. Its burning also results in the emission of fine particles
matter into the atmosphere. Nitrogen oxide and fine airborne particles
exacerbate asthma, reduce lung function and cause respiratory diseases
and premature death for many thousands of Americans. Smog formed by
nitrogen oxide and reactive organic gases causes crop, forest and
property damage. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides both combine with
water in the atmosphere to create acid rain. Acid rain acidifies the soils
and water killing off plants, fish, and the animals that depend on them.
Global warming is mainly caused by carbon dioxide emissions and is
responsible for at least half of the warming. But above all coal will lead
as main energy for electricity generation.

Key words: Greenhouse gas, Global warming, clean coal, Carbon
dioxide, Black cotton



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Strength Evaluation of Indigenously Developed KPK Coal
Briquettes

Muddasar Habib
1
, Amad Ullah Khan
1
, Shah Saud Khan
2
, Unsia Habib
1
,
Jameel Ahmed
1
, Naveed ul Hasan
1
, and Sultan Ali
1
.
1
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and
Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.
2
Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.
The present energy crisis in developing countries such as Pakistan has
forced the national and local governments to look into unitizing the
indigenous low cost energy resources. The Khyber Pukhtunkhuwa
(KPK) province, located in the North-West, has considerable reserves of
low ranked coal and its effective upgrading and utilization can help meet
the local energy needs. Grabbing on the opportunity of devising a
mechanism for the local and low cost coal up-gradation this work has
looked into developing coal briquettes of acceptable combustion and
mechanical properties. These have been achieved by identifying
optimum compositions of coal, binder and filler to give acceptable levels
of compression strength, ease in combustion both in confined and open
places. A simple briquetting machine was indigenously designed with
the aim of local technology transfer and to boost the affordability by the
local population. Coal briquettes used in this work were made by
varying the organic (Starch and poly vinyl acetate (PVA)) binder
strength with a fixed amount of powered coal. The briquettes were then
analyzed for their mechanical properties by the Universal Testing
Machine (UTM). The surface structure and/or composition were looked
into by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

The UTM results showed that briquettes made with starch binder had
good compression strength (4000N) in comparison with others. This was
also confirmed by SEM which showed low surface porosity for starch
blended briquettes. The low surface porosity resulted in showing high
water resistive and shatter indexes hence giving high compression
strength.

Key words: Coal, briquettes, binder, SEM, UTM, strength


1
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Designing and Fabrication of Indigenous Mechanical Press for
Preparation Of Coal Briquettes

Suhail A.Soomro, Anand Parkash, Shaheen Aziz, Sikander M.Almani
Department of Chemical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering &
Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan

Pakistan is facing crises in energy sector due to un-utilization of local energy
resources. Pakistan is 6th rank in coal rich countries. Coal present in Pakistan is
mostly lignite and it is also low rank coal because of high percentage of
moisture and sulphur. The directly usage of this low grade coal is harmful for
health & un-friendly to the environment. Coal Briquetting Technology is clean,
economical and most important environmental friendly technology for use of
Pakistans (Thar Coal) low grade coal reserves. Briquetted form of coal is free
from impurities like SO2 and CO which are hazardous to environment. These
impurities are main cause of global warming and acid rain. The briquetted form
of coal increased calorific value and decreased impurities like sulphur
compounds and fly ash with the using of different additives. Calcium carbonate
and calcium oxide (lime) are used as additive in coal briquetting. In our
research, we have used different samples of Thar and lakhra coal. By different
experiments, we get results that the ash and moisture contents in Thar coal are
low as compared to Lakhra coal therefore Thar coal is suitable for coal
briquetting as compared to Lakhra coal.

Our research work has been carried out on Designing and fabrication of
indigenous press for preparation of coal briquettes. The capacity of mechanical
press is up to fourteen briquettes and can produce different shapes of briquettes
in single batch. The briquettes produce by our mechanical press are cheap,
economical and environment friendly as shown by results. Coal briquetting
technology gives a path to utilize a Pakistan low grade coal resources in a better
way. Our prepare coal briquettes show positive results for sulphur tests and
calorific value tests. Sulphur is not producing which is very much successful
result. Calorific value results are also desirable if we properly dry briquettes in
sun or in drier then increment is sure. These coal briquettes can be utilized in
gasifiers, kilns and boilers etc. These are very much feasible and economical as
compare to the other fuel or sources of energy.

Keywords: Coal briquettes, Energy crises, Sulphur, Environment, Gasifier
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Evaluation of Optimum Composition of Starch as a Binding
Material for Square Coal Briquettes

Amad Ullah Khan, Muhammad Babar, Muddasar Habib, Unsia Habib,
Jameel Ahmed, Naveed ul Hasan, and Sultan Ali
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and
Technology Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

Various coal samples from Darra Adam Khel (KPK) region were
collected for making the square shaped coal briquettes. Starch solutions
of different concentrations were used as organic binding material. Coal
briquettes were made using an indigenously designed and fabricated lab
scale apparatus. The strength and porosity of the prepared samples was
analyzed by compression test carried out by Universal Testing Machine
(UTM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis respectively.
This resulted in data generation for determining strength of these
briquettes. The set of results obtained for these square coal briquettes
were then compared among themselves to find the optimum performance
value of starch solution as a binding material. The results in terms of
strength and combustion calculation of this research work will help in
gaining concentration of implementing bodies for application on a pilot
scale. This project is aimed to reduce load on the current trend of
extensive deforestation by providing an alternative energy source. Proper
utilization of this project will help our country in overcoming current
energy crisis.

Keywords: Coal briquettes, starch solution, binding materials.




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THEME 4:
EMISSION AND THEIR
CONTROL











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Coal Mines Wastewater Characteristics and Their Treatment
and Disposal Technologies in China

Jiane Zuo, Jian Zhao, Lili Gan and Dongbei Yue
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control,
School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

After introducing some basic information about Chinas coal storage and
coal mines distribution, the characteristics and treatment techniques of
wastewater from coal mining and coal washing processes and their
effects on environments were discussed, and the characteristics of
wastewater produced from different coal chemical industries including
coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and coal coking, etc., and some novel
treatment technologies were summarized.
Keywords: Coal, Mine water, waste water, washing effluent














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Environmental Assessment of Thar Coal fields

A.K Ansari, M.A.Shishmahal, Mariam Mangi,

The Government of Sindh intends to develop one of the worlds largest
coal deposits located in the Thar region of Sindh, for the generation of
much needed energy.

At present ten potential coal Development Blocks or areas have been
identified by Government of Sindh and two more area in the
development stages. Activities associated with the extraction, processing
and generation of power from coal have the potential to general
significant contamination to ground and surface water and the key to
minimizing this contamination is to develop controls at the source.

For this study, eleven water samples were collected from different
locations, considering a nearby village or water body from the ambient
air identified position and coordinates. The survey indicates that water is
unfit for human consumption. Chlorides and the total dissolved solids,
exceed WHO drinking water standards for almost all the wells, the total
hardness is above the standards limit. Similarly, aluminum, manganese,
lead, antimony and nickel also exceed the WHO limits in several wells,
the carcinogen arsenic was found to exceed the WHO limits in few wells.

Settlements constitute the anchor point of the infrastructure surveys.
Overall, the distribution of these settlements across entire Tharparkar
District includes the towns of Islam kot, charcharo and comparatively
larger villages of Khairo Ghulam Shah, Dhaklo, Rohi raro, Tilvai and
Thario Halepota. Majority settlements belong to chacharo talika and are
located within 3-4 kilometers of each other.

Settlements within the concession blocks have an average area of 0.9km2
varying between the lowest in block III and highest in block VII. It is
important to develop these coal fields in such a manner that there is no
major environmental impacts on water quality, settlements, ambient air
quality and wild life living in close surrounding.

Keywords: Thar coal, EIA, WHO, rehabilitation, wild life
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Environmental Effect and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) Of
Washed & Un-Washed Coal at Lakhra Coal Power Plant

Cyril Maqsood Khokhar
1
and Rasool Bux Mahar
2

1
Chemical Engineer, FBC Power Station Lakhra
2
Co-Director, Environmental Engg: and Management Dept. MUET, Jamshoro

The study has been carried out on Lakhra Coal Fired Power Plant, the
only Coal Power Plant in Public Sector, the Lakhra coal reserves were
the largest coal field while Thar coal was not explored. Lakhra coal is
known as a Brown Lignite having High Ash contents & High Sulfur
contents i.e. 30% & 7%respectivily. Lakhra Power Company contributes
3x50 MW, electricity generation in to the National Grid system.

This study has focused on the emissions of Sulfur Oxides & production
of Ash (Particulate Matters) in order to evaluate the existing emission &
its environmental effect as well as production of Ash (Particulate
Matters) by using washed coal. The emission produced by Lakhar Power
House has built up the sufficient levels to have adverse effects
particularly on the human health & to plants, vegetation & animals in
general.

The methodology of study based on collecting data of existing coal &
analyzed washed coal samples & also asses the difference in between
both the values for compare, either the project work is feasible or not.
From the Five months (July, August 2010 & Jan, Feb, Mar 2011) study,
during this time of study, it has been observed that all the existing values
(Ash, Moisture, V.M, F.C & S) of coal were high with low Calorific
value while the washed coal values (Ash, Moisture, V.M, F.C & S)
found low with high Heating value. It is concluded that the washed coal
of Lakhra is more feasible to save the environment as well as Cost
Benefit to produce maximum production of electricity.

Keywords: Lakhra coal, Environment, cost analysis, EIA




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Physico Chemical Analysis of Local Coal at Sindh and
Reference to Its Use for Different Industries: A Case Study

1
Raziabegum,
1
Toobahaq,
2
Suhail A. Soomro ,
1
Kamal Sheikh ,
1
Aliabano
and
1
Naiz Ahmed
1
Pakistan Council Scientific Industrial Research Karachi
2
Chemical Engineering Department MUET Jamshoro
Sindh is the south eastern and second largest province of Pakistan in
terms of population and physiographically known as the lower Indus
basin, here different cultural and ethnic groups also reside in Sindh. The
huge coal deposits are explored in sindh province and still the
exploration of other coal resources are underway. The coal deposits
explored so for include the thar, sonda, meting-jhimpair and lakhra
coalfields These coal deposits occur in bara formation and in the
sohanri member of the early Eocene laki formation. There is a greater
potential for exploration of coal deposits in the lower Indus basin of
sindh. among the recently explored coal deposits of sindh, the thar sonda
and meting-jhimpir coal fields are of greater importance because these
coal deposits will be exploited and utilized in the power generation
plants and in the other industries of Pakistan in near future.

The present study has been carried out to investigate the geological and
physico chemical analysis of local coal thar,sonda ,lakhara and meting-
jhimpir in order to ensure the maximum utilization of indigenous coal
which will reduce the cost as fuel in industries used boiler and high temp
kiln after raw mix designing with coal composition.

Keywords: Physico-chemical studies, Coal deposit, XRD, High temp
process industries.

Efficient Use of Burnt Coal against Industrial Dye Waters

Zeenat M.Ali
1
, Shuaib M. Laghari
2
and A. Jabbar Laghari
3

1
Chemical Engineering Department, MUET- Jamshoro, Pakistan
2
Department
of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia
3
IARSCS/ Hi-Tech Labs, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.
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Waste material of coal or burnt coal in the form of fly ash is continuously
being accumulated up to the tune of millions of tons per annum. In
present study burnt coal was collected from coal powered generation
house, characterized, converted into adsorbent material and utilized
against industrial dye waters. Efficiency was checked as adsorbent at
optimum dose of 4g/L, reduction of COD (54%), color (76%), turbidity
(72%) and TSS (98%) from dye waters. The adsorptive capacity of burnt
coal was declined on increasing adsorbent dose.
Key words: Adsorption, Burnt Coal, Dyes














1
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Geochemistry of Coal Seams in Patala Formation from Sohai
River Gorge and Pail-Khushab Road, Pakistan: Investigation
of Environmental Impacts of Sub-Bituminous Coals

Tasaddaq Younas
1
, Saif Ur Rehman
1
, Mian Tauseef Raza
2
, Azam Khan
2

1
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Sargodha, Pakistan
2
Petroleum and Gas Engineering Department, UET, Lahore, Pakistan

Salt Range is very important geologic area in Pakistan, not only for its
Precambrian to more recent lithological exposures and presence of different
Geologic structures but also for mineral deposits. It runs in east-west trend
and tectonically bounded by KalaBagh fault on its western side while
Jehlum fault on its eastern side, both faults are transform faults. Beside other
mineral deposits it is also rich in coal deposits. Coals of Patala Formation
(Eocene) are of most importance in the region. The coal-bearing sediments
mainly consist of sandstone, shale, siltstone, and carbonatic rocks. Several
coal seams with different thickness are interbedded with these sediments.
Different companies and firms are busy in exploitation of coal from Patala
Formation in the area.

Sohai River Gorge and Pail-Khushab road are two different localities present
in central part of Salt Range. Coal was sampled from these localities and
examined geochemically. Modern lab investigation data and geologic field
observations are interpreted in terms of the coal geochemistry. Patala coals
was found with calorific value (average of 9335 btu/lbs.), volatile matter
(average of 35.3%), ash (average of 20.78%), and sulphur (average of
5.92%) content. Like other coals Patala coals also contain many trace
elements that are released during combustion and end up in the atmosphere,
in local surface waters and in combustion waste residues. Some of the trace
elements in these coals are metals, including Nickel, Mercury, Arsenic,
Hafnium, Chromium and Cadmium. Other contaminants are sulfur, nitrogen,
magnesium, aluminum and calcium. The investigations show that Patala
coals are sub-bituminous and are not environment friendly fuels due to their
highly hazardous nature that effect ecosystem and environment. Different
processes can be made to diminish the hazardous nature of these coals. This
paper highlights environmental pollution potential of sub-bituminous coals
as well.

Key words: Geochemistry, salt region, Patala formation, sub-bituminous
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Use of Combined Fly Ash of Coal and Palm-Fiber as
Adsorbent For Treatment of Dye Wastewaters

Shuaib M. Laghari
1
, Zeenat M. Ali
2
and A. Jabbar Laghari
3

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia
2
Chemical Engineering Department, MUET- Jamshoro, Pakistan
3
IARSCS/ Hi-Tech Labs, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

Industries involving production of natural as well as synthetic dyes,
many of them toxic in nature are continuously being dumped and
disposed of into open lands and run through ravines, canals and sea. The
estimated 120 tons dye stuff toxic enough to damage the human food
chain obtained from marine and aquatic life because of polluted waters
and wastewaters. Present study examined combination of fly ash of coal
with palm fiber as adsorbent and checked against iron based coagulants
available commercially. All efforts were made to curtail pollution effects
found in wastewater of dyes chemicals. In this regard efficiencies of
individual and combined processes were carried out of coal and palm
fiber fly ash and iron based coagulants. The observed parameters from
dyes wastewater included; color, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS)
and chemical oxygen demand (COD).

Treatment efficiencies of iron based coagulants; FeCl3, FeSO4 and
combined adsorbent (CA) was 69%, 63% and 59% respectively. Hybrid
process of FeCl3-CA and FeSO4-CA reduced the concentration of
pollutants by approximately 78% and 71% respectively. The adsorptive
capacity and adsorption percent of combined adsorbent was determined.
The adsorption behavior of combined adsorbent in dyes wastewater
pollutants removal was determined by using Langmuir and freundlich
isotherm models, where Freundlich model found the best for present
studies.
Keywords: Adsorption, Dyes Wastewater, Coal, Palm-Fiber

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Estimation of gross calorific value and C, H, N, O, S, and
physical parameters

Mahboob Ali Kalhoro, Gulzar Hussain Jhatial, Santosh Kumar and Syed
Najam Ul Islam
Fuel Research Centre, Off University Road, Karachi-75280
Relationships of ultimate and proximate analysis of Pakistani coal
samples from 13 coal fields with gross calorific value (GCV) have been
investigated by regression and artificial neural networks (ANNs)
methods. Three set of inputs: (a) volatile matter, ash and moisture (b) C,
H, N, O, S and ash were used for the prediction of GCV by regression
and in the prediction of uncomplicated relationships between proximate
and ultimate analysis and coal GCV.

Keywords: Coal, Proximate analysis, Ultimate analysis, Artificial
Neural Networks













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The Control of Sulphur, a Major Pollutant and Problem in the
Coal Dynamics, For the Better Utilization of Lakhra Coal
Reserves Present In Pakistan

Zakiuddin Ahmed, Gulzar Hussain Jhatial, Mateen Muhammad Khan and
Nadir Buksh
Fuel Research Centre, Off University Road, Karachi-75280
Our coal contribution is only 0.3% besides having huge domestic
resources i.e. 185.175 billions tones of which 99.7% is found in Sindh
including Lakhra, Sonda, Thar and Jharrak etc. As our coal is mostly
lignite and there is an urgent need to produce electricity from this but it
would consequently increase the release of green house gases and trace
metals into the environment with hazardous impact on the eco-system. In
view of the increased coal usage, a comprehensive assessment and
evaluation of the coal quality including amount of trace elements also in
the ashes and combustive emissions into the atmosphere is of crucial
importance.

Sulphur is the main problem in coal, present in the form of pyretic,
sulphate, organic and elemental state. It is the big reason for
environmental pollution in the surrounding areas and a pretreatment is
very necessary to remove it totally or to reduce to an acceptable limit
otherwise.
Keywords: Coal beneficiation, washing of coal
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THEME 5:
COAL GENERAL















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Energy Crisis in Pakistan and Thar Coal is Untapped Wealth
and Solution

Anwar Ali Shah G.Syed
1
and Faiz.M.Shaikh
2

1
Pro-Vice Chancellor, MBBS-Campus Dadu-University Of Sindh-Jamshoro
2
Assistant Professor-SZABAC-Dokri-Larkana-Sindh-Pakistan

This research investigates the Energy crisis and Thar coal is untapped
and solution to engery problem in Pakistan. Data were collected from
various secondary sources ie Annual Reports, News paperd, magazine
and Reports fromThar coal development authority. It was revealed that
Thar coal that there is now some hope for economic uplift as its natural
wealth is being tapped. Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP), discovered
huge deposits of coal in 1922 at Thar during the research programme,
assisted by United State Geological Survey (USGS). Exploration carried
out over 356.5 sq. km. by drilling 219 holes, proved 9.715 billion tones
coal deposit. Thar coalfield is spread over an area of more then, 9,000 sq.
km. and posses 175.506 billion tones of coal. It is one of the largest
coalfields of the World and is sufficient to meet fuel requirements of
over a hundred years, if the basic infrastructure is established. The
province of Sindh is endowed with huge coal deposits, estimated at 184.
123 billion tones. Out of which, Thar coal deposit comprises 175. 506
billion tones, which constitutes around 99% of total coal deposits of the
country. It was further revealed that Government should developed
strategic planning to develop Thar coal to resolve the issue of Energy
crisis in Pakistan.

Key Words: Energy, Crisis Thar, Coal,





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Real Status of Coal in Sindh and Local and World Priorities to
Avail

Muhammad Nawaz Tunio, Pir Irfan Shah Rashdi, Qazi Moinuddin Abro
Mehran University Institute of Science, Technology and
Development (MUISTD)

Coal mine in Sindh is a great natural resource available to deal with all
energy issues of Pakistan. As maximum coal reserves of Pakistan are
found in Sindh. Approximately 184.623 billion tones are available in
different regions of Sindh like Lakhra, Sonda, Thatta, Jherruck, Thar and
others. Findings suggest that this challenging limit of coal found in Sindh
has fascinated global interest. World countries like China, United Arab
Emirates, Turkey, Poland, etc. have stepped forward to offer expert guide
and technical services for the significant utilization of this resource to
help the country in order to get rid of energy crisis. On the ground of
national priorities, different initiatives have been taken by the
Government to meet the energy needs of the Country through Coal.
Various projects have been launched and work process has been
accelerated to make environmental friendly use of this resource
effectively and efficiently. This is believed as a landmark achievement of
the government of Sindh. There is a potential interest of world and
national institutes/bodies to turn the economy of the country around
through coal mine available in Sindh.

Keywords: Coal, energy crises, economic instrument, environment










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THEME 6:
COAL UTLIZATION
AND CLEAN COAL
TECHNOLOGY









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68

Critical Study of Clean Coal Technology in FBC Power Plant
at Khanote

Dr. Shaheen Aziz
Chemical Engineering Department Mehran University of Engineering and
Technology Jamshoro Sindh Pakistan

Pakistan has largest coal reserves, major part of which is of low-grade
lignite coal containing high sulphur, moisture and ash contents. This low
quality coal, produced locally from Lakhra coal mines of Sindh province,
is used in fluidized bed combustor at Khanote coal Power Plant. The
FBC technology is new field in Pakistan for the generation of electricity.
Lakhra coal based FBC Power Plant is the first of its kind in Pakistan by
installing 3x50MW. However, its efficient utilization in proper manner is
necessary to avoid sulphur emissions from the process by using of lime
stone. But unfortunately, performance of Power Plant is showing that due
to non-availability of expertise, this project started facing problems such
as frequently shutdown of boilers, erosion of I.D fans, rupture of filter
bags and uncontrolled quantity of fly ash.

This study shows that root cause of the above problems is the presence of
silica in lime stone, very small size particles of coal and lime stone are
being used, ratio of coal and lime stone is also not being used as
requirement of clean coal technology. Further progress in the field of
FBC technology based on Pakistani coal is necessary for the utilization
of our coal reserves.

Keywords: Clean Coal Technology, Fluidization, Fluidized bed
combustor, Coal, Lime stone and Power Plant





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Clean Coal Solution to Global Warming

Shah Zulfiqar Haider
Narayanganj Palli Bidyut Samity
(Narayanganj Rural Electric Cooperative)
Nanakhi, Sonargaon, Narayanganj, Bangladesh.
Coal is one of the major sources of global warming. Coot emits sulfur
dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and heavy metals (such as mercury and
arsenic) and acid gases (such as hydrogen chloride), which have been
linked to acid rain, smog, and health issues. Coal also emits carbon
dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The Environmental Protection Agency has
found that in 2010, Coal based Power Plants were responsible for about
one-third of the countrys carbon dioxide, equivalent to 2.3 billion metric
tons. If energy can be obtained from coal without burning it, this number
should drop considerably.

Despite so many harmful effects of coal it is still a major source of
electricity generation and it is simply increasing, but why?
The damaging effects that result from burning coal may soon be
nonexistent. The scientists have found clean coal technique. They have
discovered a way to obtain the energy from coal without actually burning
it, eliminating nearly all of the pollution. The process is Coal-Direct
Chemical Looping (CDCL) technique which will almost eliminate more
than 95% pollution due to coal burning. This will have significant impact
on the rate of global warming.

Soot or Black cotton is defined as the matter released by the burning of
fossil fuels, mainly coal is called Soot. It is a black substance harmful
because the dark particles cause warming by absorbing heat in the air.
On a grand scale, black carbon also quickens the melting of glaciers,
whose newly-melted fresh water alters regional weather patterns. It is
now listed as the number two human contributor to climate change.
Carbon dioxide still reigns supreme atop the man-made contributors
affecting Earth; soot emissions from diesel engines and your chimneys
are having a huge impact on the environment. Drastically reducing soot
emissions globally would provide a litany of benefits, mostly health- and
climate-related. This technology is leading minimization of inefficient
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Coal plants and it is slowly making their way to the back burner as
natural gas and renewable energy take center stage.

Though coal-burning power plants are gradually shutdown in USA and
Europe, it is increasing in Asia i.e. India and China. The technology has
found a way to release the heat without burning of coal. Careful control
of the chemical reaction so that the coal never burns and it is consumed
chemically, and the carbon dioxide is entirely contained inside the
reactor. The metal from the iron-oxide is recyclable and the only waste
products are coal ash and water.

With the level of carbon emissions spiraling out of control globally, we
are in desperate need of a solution. As of right now, the CDCL seems to
be the only logical answer to reducing the current rate of global warming
without completely eliminating the use of coal, one of the main source of
energy.

Key words: Greenhouse gas, Global warming, Clean coal, Carbon
dioxide, Black cotton







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Status of Coal Biotechnology in Pakistan

Ghauri, M. A., Akhtar, N., Haider, R., Akhtar, K.
Industrial Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and
Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P. O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad,
Pakistan.
Well-developed coalfields of Pakistan are located in Punjab, Baluchistan
and Sindh. There are also coalfields in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which are
being exploited on small scale. Sindh Province has total coal reserves of
184 billion tonnes, including the largest coal reserve of Thar with 175
billion tonnes. The quality of coal is mostly lignite to sub-bituminous.
Baluchistan and Punjab provinces have 217 and 235 million tonnes of
coal reserves, respectively which range from sub-bituminous A to high
volatile bituminous. In energy sector, indigenous coal contributes only
1% for electricity generation. Coal is a heterogeneous material that
consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and other
minerals. The combustion of coal releases oxides of carbon, nitrogen and
sulphur, as well as some heavy metals such as mercury, into the
atmosphere. Coal combustion contributes maximum pollution generated
from any fossil fuel resource. A number of different coal conversion
technologies that employ thermal and/or chemical processes have been in
commercial use for many years but these processes convert coal to gases
and chemicals under high pressures and temperatures with high capital
and operating costs, relatively low thermodynamic efficiency and
generation of significant amounts of carbon dioxide and other gaseous
emissions. However, coal biotechnology can emerge as panacea for
upgrading the huge reserves of coal in Pakistan. In general, coal
biotechnology refers to biodesulphurization, biosolubilization and
biogasification of coal. NIBGE has long term interests in the field of coal
bioprocessing for tapping prime resources of indigenous coal.

Most of the Pakistani coal reserves are sub-bituminous or lignitic in
nature and contain 3-12 % sulphur. Existence of sulphur compounds in
coal limits its industrial application due to environmental as well as
technical problems. In NIBGE, lab scale experiments for coal
biodesulphurization led to 90% efficiency in sulphur removal. Heap
leaching was also carried out at the level of 10 and 20 tonnes coal heaps
with 60% sulphur removal efficiency. Furthermore, a prototype of 300
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tonnes coal heap was set up with a local cement industry and 75%
microbial desulphurization was achieved. The league of indigenously
isolated chemolithotrophic bacteria was used in coal desulphurization
studies.

For extraction of alternative fuel options, the potential of methane
generation from low rank coal was determined using methanogenic
microbial consortium. In this regard, two approaches were used, which
involved prior fungal treatment for the release of organics, serving as
methanogenic substrates and the direct methanogenesis of coal.
However, bacterial pretreatment remained relatively more effective in
case of direct methanogenesis, leading to the generation of methane up to
23moles/g of coal. The maximum production of methane from released
organics was 11moles/g of coal. Based on previous literature and the
experimental design used in this study, a modified model for biological
transformation of coal into methane has been proposed for understanding
the mechanisms of the series of the reactions involved in the ultimate
conversion of coal into methane. This model may give an insight of the
reaction phases, which may be worked out for enhanced methane
generation, subsequently.







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International Coal Conference (ICC2013) 7
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73

Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) Based Power
Production from Syn Gas With Inherent CO2 Capture: Profile
Study of a Lab Scale Packed Bed Reactor

Dr. Mohammad Younas
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and
Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.
P.O. Box 814, University Campus, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging and promising
technology for fossil fuel combustion, with a potential to reduce the cost
for CO2 capture. The produced gases, CO2 and H2O, leave the system as
a separate stream from the exit of the fuel reactor. The H2O can easily be
removed by condensation and pure CO2 is obtained. As a result, the
requirement of CO2 separation from flue gases, a major cost for CO2
capture, is circumvented [1, 2].

CLC process, conventionally, is operated in fluidized bed reactor but
large pressure drop, problems associated in solid gas separation make the
packed bed reactor a better alternative, in particular, for extremely high
pressure (20-25 bar) and temperature (1100-1200 0C) processes. The
CLC operated process in packed bed reactor (PBR) system is composed
of two cycles, oxidation and reduction, where the flue gas from the
reduction cycle contains CO2 and H2O and the flue gas from the
oxidation cycle contains only N2 and some unreacted O2. Thus, CO2
and H2O are inherently separated from the rest of the flue gases, and no
major energy is burned up for this separation. Thus only one reactor is
used where the solid particles are stationary with the alternate switching
of the feed gas e.g. air over to syngas and vice versa [3, 4].

Moreover, it is inevitable to analyze the performance of the packed bed
reactor under harsh conditions of temperature and pressure on larger
scale considering the actual operating conditions and syngas composition
found in any coal gasification plant. This study investigates the use of
natural ilmenite as promising oxygen carriers based on the reaction
kinetics from literature for the design of a demo packed bed CLC reactor
using syngas as a fuel. The performance of the demo packed bed reactor
will be assessed by analyzing the different options as base cases in order
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to achieve the hot exit gas for a sufficiently long time to run the gas and
steam turbines without fuel slip. A theoretical 1-D transient model will
be adapted to elaborate the suggested options and to optimize the
parameters to achieve the target parameters [5, 6].
Theoretical model approach of the packed bed reactor (PBR) is based on
the transient analysis of temperature of the reacting gas and
concentration changes of the solid catalyst material and reacting gases
along the length of the reactor. Numerical model is simulated, first, for
oxidation cycle and then the reduction cycle is started in the same PBR
taking the bed temperature profile obtained during the previous oxidation
cycle. Likewise, for the succeeding oxidation cycle, the bed temperature
profile of the first reduction cycle is assumed. During the oxidation, in
parallel to achieve the target temperature of exit air stream, the complete
oxidation of OCM will also be guaranteed at the end of cycle. Full
conversion of CO into CO2 will be the prime objective during the
reduction cycle and CO slip in the exit fuel stream of fuel reactor will not
be tolerated. 1-D transient model of CLC packed bed reactor is capable
to simulate and predict the instantaneous temperature profile along the
axis of the reactor which is useful in determining the maximum
temperature change within the reactor and cycle time of the respective
cycle.

Keywords: Chemical looping combustion






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Study the Coal/Oxidant Distribution Effects in a Two-stage
Dry-Feed Coal Gasifier with Numerical Simulations

Imran Nazir Unar
1
, Lijun Wang
2
, Abdul Ghani Pathan
3
, Rasool Bux
Mehar
4
, Rundong Li
2
, M. Aslam Uqaili
5

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, MUET Jamshoro, Pakistan
2
School of Energy and Environment, Shenyang Aerospace University China
3
Department of Mining Engineering, MUET Jamshoro, Pakistan
4
Department of Environmental Engineering, MUET Jamshoro, Pakistan
5
Department of Electrical Engineering, MUET Jamshoro, Pakistan

A detailed 2D CFD model for two-stage dry feed coal gasifier has been
developed in this paper. Various simulations were carried out in standard
CFD software FLUENT14 to see the effect of coal and oxidant
distribution between the two stages of the gasifier. Chemical process was
described by Finite Rate/Eddy Dissipation model. Heterogeneous and
homogeneous reactions were defined using the published kinetic data.
Body fitted tetrahedron mesh was adopted and k- RNG turbulent model
was used to solve the turbulence equations. Dispersed phase model
(DPM) were employed to describe the coupling effect between gas phase
and discrete phase, and Stochastic Tracking Method (STM) were used to
track turbulent dispersion of char particles and to consider the turbulent
disturbance effects on particle motion on gasification process. The
analysis of temperature and species concentrations of the two-stage
entrained flow coal gasifier for pulverized lignite coal shows that
coal/oxidant distribution between the stages has great effect on the
overall performance of gasification. The flame temperature and kinetics
of gasification reactions (reaction of char to CO2 and H2O) can be
controlled with the optimized coal/oxidant distribution between the
stages.

Keywords: coal, gasification, computational fluid dynamics (CFD),
coal/oxidant distribution


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Mitigating Energy Crisis by Coal Gasification using Steam -
Sensitivity Analysis using Aspen-Plus Simulation

Fahim Uddin, Inayatullah Memon and Syed Ali Ammar Taqvi
Department of Chemical Engineering,
NED University of Engineering & Technology,
Karachi, Pakistan

Sensitivity analysis of the coal gasification process was carried out using
steam as the gasifying medium. Among many parameters, the steam-to-
coal ratio was selected for this study. The coal was mixed with the steam
and then fed to the reactor where gasification took place. Heat
requirement for the reaction was fulfilled by the bayonets installed in the
reactor. Part of the Syngas produced was combusted in the furnace to
provide flue gases at high temperature which was then passed through
the bayonets to provide reaction heat. The models for the gasification and
the heat integration were developed using Aspen Plus Process
Simulator. It was found that a lower steam-to-coal ratio increases the
heat content of the syngas produced. Also, the carbon conversion
undergoes a maximum at the ratio 2.0. As the steam-to-coal ratio is
increased, the yields are better but inevitably reduce the quality of syngas
produced. Relatively lower steam-to-coal ratios have a solid edge of
quality over the higher ratios but some other ratios offers competitive
quantity criteria.

Keywords: Coal, Energy, Gasification, Syngas









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Potential of Di-Methyl Ether (DME) from Indigenous Coal by
Gasification -As a Substitute of Diesel and LPG

Shaheen Aziz
1
, Sikander M.Almani
1
, Wali-ur-Rehman
2
, Suhail. A.Soomro
1
,
Abdul Jabbar Abbasi
1

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering &
Technology, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan
2
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi,
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Pakistan has vast coal reserves and ranked 6th in coal rich countries.
Coal reserves of Pakistan are about 185.5 billion tones, which are greater
than oil and gas reserves of Iran and Saudi Arabia. Production of DME
fuel from indigenous coal by gasification will contribute in solving the
energy crisis of Pakistan and environment dilemma. An innovative
process of producing DME from coal is gasification along with DME
syntheses. The most realistic scenario for the introduction of DME fuel
in Pakistan is its promotion as a clean motor vehicle fuel and as a
substitute for diesel and liquefied petroleum gas.

Currently in Pakistan, the consumption of diesel is about 8 Million tons.
The annual consumption is increasing at a rate of 5%. Pakistan import
4.8 Million tons of diesel and spend $5.37 Billion that is huge burden on
the economy of Pakistan. Pakistan can save Billions of dollars per annum
by using DME instead of imported diesel.

This research study shows that DME can become economical alternative
fuel for Pakistan. Cost of DME is 40% less as compared to diesel when
crude oil price are equal or greater than 70$ per barrel. Pakistan can save
huge amount of import cost by using DME as an alternate of diesel fuel.
Large amount of DME can be produced from indigenous coal reserves
and it is estimated that 92 Billion tons of DME can be produced from
total coal reserves of Pakistan that are equal to 185 Billion tons

Keywords: Gasification, Indigenous Coal, Di methyl ether, Diesel,
Liquid petroleum gas

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Case Study of Underground Coal Gasification

Ashfaque H.Pirzada, Khurrum Nawaz, Farman Ali Shah,
Aziza Aftab,Ayesha Kousar
Department of Chemical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering &
Technology, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

Underground coal gasification is one of most environmental friendly
technique that is being used throughout the world to avoid environmental
hazards such as global warming, acid rain and damage of ozone layer.
Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is the process by which coal is
converted into a combustible gas that can be used as a fuel or chemical
feedstock. It is a process to convert unmixable underground coal/lignite
into combustible gases (i.e., combustible syngas a combination of
hydrogen and carbon monoxide) by gasifying. UCG uses a similar
process to surface gasification. The main difference between both
gasification processes is that in UCG the cavity itself becomes the
reactor so that the gasification of the coal takes place underground
instead of at the surface.

Through UCG we can produce syngas that will used to produce variety
of fuels, fertilizer, diesel and other chemicals that are widely used in
industries. Worldwide, coal reserves are quite vast over 10 trillion
tonnes. By coal gasification technology we can also produce diesel,
gasoline, ammonia, acetic acid, hydrogen etc. Thar coal field consist of
175 billion tones of Lignite coal that is essentially use in coal gasification
technology. If we use the Thar coal, we can generate 50,000 MG of
electricity per annum and we can also produce 100 million gallon of
diesel per annum. The most realistic scenario for the introduction of syn
gas fuel in Pakistan is its promotion as a motor vehicle fuel and as a
substitute for natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas.

Keywords: Underground coal gasification, Syn Gas, Thar coal and
Electricity

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Stoichiometric Optimization Of Process Efficiency Of Coal
Combustion Together With Limestone During Fluidized Bed
Combustion

Shaheen Aziz, Abdul Rehman Memon, Hafeez Ur Rahman Memon, Suhail
A. Soomro and Yaseen Shaikh
Mehran university of Engineering and Technology Jamshoro Sindh Pakistan

Pakistan has large reserves of coal, major part of which is of low-grade
lignite containing high moisture, ash and sulphur contents. This low
quality coal, produced locally from Lakhra coal mines of Sindh province,
is used in fluidized bed combustor at Khanote coal power plant at the
altar of process efficiency. However, its efficient utilization in proper
manner is necessary to avoid sulphur emissions being generated from the
process. The effect of limestone on low grade lignite coal combustion in
a fluidized bed combustor has been optimized with a suitable ratio of 5:1
to capture sulphur contents of coal. The results obtained were compared
with fluidized bed combustor in coal fired power plant at Khanote, which
uses limestone: coal ratio of 2:1 in the process. The study reveals that
60% lower amount of limestone used to capture sulphur contents of coal
during combustion produced almost same results when compared with
that when it is used in higher proportion in Khanote power plant. In
economic terms, to avoid various problems such as limestone
preparation, bagging, transportation, handling and utilization of coal in
excess, it is recommended that limestone: coal ratio during coal
combustion should be taken as 5:1 instead of 2:1.

Keywords: Coal combustion, Fluidized bed combustion, Limestone,
Power Plan




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Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence inside a Co Fired
Combustor

Javaid Iqbal
Balochistan University of Engineering and Technology, Khuzdar

Computational analysis of mixing and transport of air with the fuel in a
co fired combustor, carried out by three dimensional RANS simulation
and then by three dimensional Large Eddy Simulation (LES), are
presented here. The main objective is to investigate the better turbulence
level and mixing within the combustor before combustion of solid
biomass mixed with air and coal. The results show that there is a
difference in flow dynamics predicted by two methods, LES calculations
show better results than the RANS. Swirling flows in compressible flow
show more swirling effect near the releasing point and disappears soon
and velocity decays along axial and radial distance for swirling and non-
swirling jet both. The velocity near the wall is about zero, side walls
have a shear effect and due to the boundary layer the velocity decays
with radial distance from the centerline. Velocity is high in the centerline
for incompressible jet it decays suddenly after entering the tank for
compressible flow. RANS model was compared with LES viscous
model. The results showed that the LES gave better results for
incompressible swirling jets. The report gives the better numerical
solution for turbulent jet flow in a co -fired combustor before combustion

Keywords: Eddy simulations, co-combustion, LES, RANS





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Production of Syn Gas from Thar Coal by Gasification Process
Through Fixed Bed Gasifier

Shaheen Aziz, Suhail. A.Soomro, Ambreen Shaikh, Ashique A. Laghari
and G.M.Mahar
Department of Chemical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering &
Technology, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

Pakistan is seeking nonpetroleum based alternative fuels, along with
more advanced energy technologies to increase the efficiency of energy
use, because of growing concerns on energy security, environmental
pollution and future oil supplies. An innovative process of producing
syn gas from coal is gasification process. The most realistic scenario for
the introduction of syn gas fuel in Pakistan is its promotion as a
promotion as a motor vehicle fuel and as a substitute for natural gas and
liquefied petroleum gas.

Currently, Pakistan badly faces the many problems due the energy crisis
in the form of electricity because consumption rate of electricity is
increased every day due to the industrialization and population, by using
the syn gas we can solve this problem. Thar coal reserves can produce
10, 0000 MW electricity for the next 30 years which can fulfill the
energy requirement of Pakistan for the next 200 years.

This research work shows successful results of syn gas production after
the partial combustion of Thar coal under controlled conditions in 1Kg
capacity of fixed bed gasifier have been designed and fabricated. The
composition of syn gas was produced CO 40%, H2 8%, CO2 15%, H2O
10% and negligible amount of SO2 %

Key words: Coal, Gasification, Synthesis gas, Fuels and Energy


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Unique Approaches, Tools and Lessons Learnt In
Development of Coal Bed Methane

Mian Tauseef Raza
1
, Azam Khan
1
, Tasaddaq Younas
2

1
Department of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, University of Engineering and
Technology, Lahore.
2
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha

The fraction of gas production from coal seams is growing steadily
particularly in USA, Canada and Australia. Coal fields have several traits
in common which comprise extremely low permeability and they are
both, the source as well as the reservoir from which hydrocarbons are
produced. In hydrocarbon exploration terminology they are categorized
as Unconventional Resources. Very low permeability offered by coal
compels to develop special techniques to recover the CBM; the methane
gas present in coal seams as adsorbed or free gas. These techniques
include horizontal drilling, drilling multilateral wells and multistage
fracturing to recover the maximum possible of the methane gas. On-site
coal seam-specific drilling methods were decreasing the capital cost of
drilling a CBM well in last decade.

Pakistan has large coal reserves. CBM can be produced from operational
mines, abandoned coal mines, and from unmined coals using surface
boreholes. It is fast becoming an important energy source mainly because
of the declining conventional gas resources. Methane gas in coal seams
is present in two ways; free gas present in pore space and associated gas
adsorbed on the coal surface. Pore gas has smaller fraction and reservoir
pressure deplete rapidly, so, even after the multilaterals and horizontal
wells followed by multistage fracturing have less recovery. From 1990s
and onward, nitrogen gas was introduced as a recovery optimizing tool
through adsorbed gas recovery. Nitrogen has certain drawbacks. It is
difficult to obtain pipeline quality gas after nitrogen gets mixed with
methane resulting in increased operating costs. In this paper, carbon
dioxide flooding is discussed as a tool to recover least contaminated gas
in a cost effective manner. It has certain benefits over other methods
including environmental friendliness in the form of Carbon Credits.
This paper addresses the quality of coal to be a best candidate as CBM
reservoir, different methods used for recovery and their comparison, at
the end; carbon dioxide flooding and its advantages over the other
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methods are discussed. This paper will focus on how developed countries
are maximizing their CBM production what lessons can we learn from
them to partake in the energy crunch of Pakistan.

Key words: Coal, Gasification, CBM, drilling, abandoned mines























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Enhanced Gas Recovery and CO
2
Storage in Coal bed-
Methane Reservoirs: Optimized Injected-Gas Composition for
Mature Basins of Various Coal Rank

Muhammad Noman Khan
Institute Of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, Mehran University Of
Engineering & Technology

Nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) injection has been a subject of
enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM) and carbon capture and storage
(CCS) research during the past decade. N2 and CO2 injection produce
substantially different recovery processes. Coal has a higher affinity for
CO2 as compared to methane (CH4). Preferential adsorption of CO2, a
larger molecule than methane, onto the coal surface results in a dramatic
decrease in cleat permeability due to coal swelling. This ultimately
induces a loss of injectivity creating a significant technical hurdle for
CCS operations in coal. In contrast, N2 increases cleat permeability
because of its lower coal storage capacity relative to methane. As a
result, injectivity increases during N2-ECBM. Theoretically, the
injection of a mixture of CO2 and N2 will result in ECBM and CCS
without a loss of injectivity. This study presents an investigation of that
concept.

To identify key geological and reservoir parameters driving ECBM and
sequestration processes in deep unminable coal seams, a Monte Carlo
probabilistic approach was implemented. Results from tornado plots
confirmed the major role that coal rank (Langmuir isotherms) and
pressure-dependent permeability data play in ECBM processes. As coal
rank determines the maximum gas-in-place that could be stored per
volume of coal, average fracture permeability, matrix and pore
compressibility, and differential swelling factors are predominant in coal
capacity to flow water and gas phases, impacting both incremental
methane production as well as injectivity.
Additionally, cleat permeability will vary greatly in response to injected
gas composition during ECBM process. To better understand the
consequences of these permeability changes by coal rank, a parametric
study was designed. First results show that, for a specific coal rank,
ECBM can drastically improve by increase N2 content in the injected gas
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stream. However, methane incremental recovery due to high N2 content
will increase up to a maximum N2 concentration, or threshold: besides
this threshold, breakthrough occurs too rapidly to generate additional
methane recovery. This N2 threshold varies between coal ranks, as
pressure dependant parameters also vary relative to the rank.

Finally, 100%N2 injection scenarios per coal rank highlight permeability
behaviors easily explained in theory but which would probably need
additional laboratory measurements to better understand their physical
meaning while encountered during real world problems.

Key words: Coal, Gasification, Synthesis gas, Fuels and Energy, CO2 storage,
CBM














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86

Effect of Coal and Biomass Ratio n Calorific Value and Their
Emissions Through Co Combustion- A Review Paper

Suhail A. Soomro
1
, Hafeez ur Rahman Memon
2
, Abdul Sattar Jatoi
1
,
Shaheen Aziz
1
, and Sikander M.Almani
1

1
Department Of Chemical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering &
Technology, Jamshoro
2
Institute Of Petroleum & N.Gas Engineering, Mehran University of
Engineering & Technology, Jamshoro

The use of coal for the power generation is getting more importance;
keeping in view the reduction in fossil fuel reserves. The advancements
in clean coal technologies and in efficient emissions control had made
the coal as a cheap fuel in contrast to once known as bed fuel. In
addition, other option of coal utilization, such as co-combustion has also
been used widely throughout the world.

The current study is focused on the co-combustion technologies that had
been studied by the various researchers and are in operation globally to
utilize different types of coal, including lignite coal for the power
generation. As Pakistan is currently facing acute shortage of electricity
apart from having huge coal reserves that have not been utilized. The
study will give guidelines to the stack holders, policy makers and
investors for the proper utilization of indigenous coal reserves of
Pakistan.

Keywords: Co-Combustion, Coal, Lignite, Power Generation







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To Study the Behavior of Gasifier and Simulation of Coal
Gasification Using Steam Using Aspen-Plus Model
(Geometric Analysis)

Syed Ali Ammar Taqvi, Inaytullah Memon and Fahim Uddin
Department of Chemical Engineering,
NED University of Engineering & Technology,
Karachi, Pakistan

Coal is currently a major energy source, with regard to contributing the
worlds energy systems. In view of limited liquid fuels, in terms of crude
oil reserves and to reduce the use of constantly and rapidly diminishing
natural gas reserves, researchers are attracted towards Fisher Tropsch
reaction. This paper gives overview of the coal gasification process.
Simulation of coal gasification process is carried out by using Aspen
Plus. Purpose of this study, is entirely focusing on the production of
synthesis gas from coal, through a process of indirect gasification and
using only steam as the gasifying medium. The most important work
concern the modeling of the reactor by varying different geometric
aspects of the reactor, among many geometric parameters, L/D ratio was
selected for this study and also the heat integration were used in the
process by using indirect gasification technique. Some amount of the
Syngas was combusted in the furnace to provide flue gases at high
temperature, which were used in bayonets to provide reaction heat. The
results give the heat duty required for the process through the bayonet
heat exchangers comprised of coal particles. Results of given scheme are
presented to investigate the possibility of using Thar Coal in the defined
scheme. Because of low carbon content, high flow rates of coal are being
used.

Keywords: Aspen Plus Simulation; Bayonet Heat Exchanger; Coal
Gasification; Moving bed Gasifier; Syngas.

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Blending of Local and Imported Coal for Cement Industries

Waqar A. Qazi, Izhar Mithal Jiskani, Mohammad Yakoob Behan and
Fahad Irfan Siddiqui
Department of Mining, Mehran University of Engineering & Technology,
Jamshoro, Pakistan

The main purpose of the thesis work is to establish optimum blending
ratios of local and imported coal, in order to boost our local coal industry
and to support our countrys economy by decreasing the amount of coal
importation.

The blending technology is one of the cost-effective methods to utilize
the indigenous coal reserves. The local coal contain higher sulphur and
ash and lower heating value, hence undiserable to be used in cement
factories, coal fired power plants and other coal based industries.

An attempt has been made to determine the optimum blending
percentages though SUM-PRODUCT weighted technique in MS Excel.
It is found that Lakhra coal can be blended with imported coal upto 4%
and 9%, with Indonesian and South African/Australian coal respectively
and resulted into savings of upto 6.9% of foreign exchange. Similarly
Thar coal can be blended upto 40% and will results in net savings of
24.3% of foreign exchange.

Keywords: Blending, imported coal, cement factories, sum-product







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Thar Coal Utilization for Production of Coal Tar

Rashid Abro
PhD Student at Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China

Pakistan has 200 billion tons of coal reservoirs; more than 85% are in
Thar reservoirs. Thar coal is lignite in nature containing 45% moisture,
12%ash, 22.7% volatile components, 18.76 % fixed Carbon and 1.13%
sulphur. These Properties of coal are nearly similar to Texas and North
Dakota coal which are also lignite in nature, In Texas and North Dakota
the coal is processed underground for power generation and coal
gasification, But the geology of thar coal fields are entirely different
from Texas and North Dakota coal field, because of conditions for
underground processing are not suitable in Thar field and estimated
mining cost is also high.

This concept paper focuses on issues related to open bit mining in Thar
coal field and production of coal tar which is complex and variable
viscous mixture liquid of heterocyclic compounds, phenols, polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons, produced as a by-product of carbonization and
gasification of a coal. Coal tar have so many industrial applications such
as it can be used as fuel in Boilers, Photographic material, dyes, paints
and dephenolized cresylic acid etc. On distillation coal tar gives higher-
value fractions such as naphtha, creosote and pitch, it is being utilized in
so many companies of United Kingdom. These technologies will be
more beneficial in solving energy crises, for economic growth and impart
substitute to foreign exchange in Pakistan.

Key words: Open bit mining; Coal Tar, foreign exchange.






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Study of Coal Combustion Characteristics Using
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Salman Khanzada, Imran Nazir, Masroor Abro, Talha khan Niazi, Awais
Aftab, Furqan khan
Department of Chemical Engg:, Mehran University of Engineering &
Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan

Pakistan is facing energy crisis now a days. The proven huge coal
reserves in Thar could play a vital role to boost the economy of Pakistan
and get the country out from major electricity short falls but it requires a
sustainable, efficient and clean coal technology.

In Present work, a 2-D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of
downdraft entrained-flow coal combustor is developed for performing
numerical simulations of gasification process of indigenous coal. The
simulations are performed on commercial CFD software
FLUENT6.3.26. The non pre mixed combustion model has used to
solve transport equations for nine species along with Navier-Stokes
equations. To investigate the coal composition impacts on the
combustion performance, different simulations are performed by taking
Thar, Lakhra and Sonda coals as combustion feed stock. The study is
further extended by varying the coal injection flow rate, oxidizer
temperature and particle size of coal. According to the results, there is
great influence of coal composition and other operating conditions on
combustion. Our study can be enhanced by varying state functions on
coal combuster and closer to real world results.

Keywords: Energy Crisis, Coal Reserves, Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD) And Combustion



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Utilization of Thar Coal for Iron and Steel Industries

Mohammad Hayat Jokhio
1
, Suhail Soomro
2
, M. Aslam Uquali
3
, M.M
Baloch
1
and M.I.Abro
1

1
Department of metallurgical & Material Engineering
2
Department of Chemical Engineering
3
Department of Electrical Engineering
Mehran university of Engineering & Technology, Jamshoro Sindh Pakistan

Coal technology and Iron and steel technology are integrated with each
other and play a vital role for socio-economic developments of country
provide base for the developments of almost all types of industrial
sectors. Iron and steel are fundamental material for modern
developments used in construction of building, transportations system,
defense systems, agricultural system and even utilization in coal
technologies for power generation. Pakistan is rich in natural resources
but facing serious national and international socio-economic threats due
to lack of proper utilization of it natural resources especially in the area
of energy crises which is the major issue in recent times.

The present paper will provide a roadmap for future developments of
nation based on effective utilization of thar coal not only for power
generation but also be utilized for the development of iron and steel
industries in Pakistan. As coke is one of the major resources required in
the steel industry, the current study will reveal the potential of Thar coal
for the production of coke that will not only improve the socio economic
scenario of Pakistan but also reduce the foreign exchange burden on
exchequer that is spent on imported coke. By development and
integrating indigenous technologies such as coal and steel technologies
together would make a powerful nation of the world.

Keywords: Coke, coal, steel industry, indigenous resources


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A review Paper on Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) for
Thar Coal: A glance to future

Sikander M.Almani, Zulfiqar A. Solangi, Zulfiqar A. Bhatti, Tahir Nabi
kalhoro, Mukhtiar A.Mirani, Babar Ali Magsi
Department of Chemical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering &
Technology,Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

The reserves of Coal in Pakistan are abundant specially in THAR Sindh.
Coal reserves of Pakistan are about 185.5 billion tones. If these are
completely utilized they will generate energy more than the oil and gas
reserves of Iran and Saudi Arabia.

Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) is a new technique which
combusts indirectly solid fuel by providing oxygen from oxygen carrier
to produce electricity. The reaction path scheme separates the air from
the fuel source and achieves in situ CO2 capture, eliminating the need for
the additional CO2 separation unit. For the chemical looping concept,
coal is preferred because it is an abundant, inexpensive and stable source
of fuel.

In a series of two papers of chemical looping combustion (CLC) of two
Victorian brown coals (Loy Yang and Morwell) were investigated using
CuO as oxygen carrier. The experiments were conducted using a thermo
gravimetric analyzer (TGA) under CO, gasification environment with
CuO. This first paper reports the assessment of interaction between CuO
and minerals inherent in coals during one reduction and one reoxidation
cycle experiment. The experiments were performed at two different
operating temperatures of 800 C and 950 C. Also, the time for which
the CuO was exposed to experimental environment, was varied. It was
observed that at 950 C CuO could not be re-oxidized to its original state
due to sintering that significantly altered the morphology. However, the
variation of time did not impact severely on CuO performance in terms
of its reactivity and oxygen transport capacity.

Gain in weight during the last stage of reduction of CuO with Morwell
coal was observed due to strong interaction between minerals in coal and
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CuO. No such evidence of interaction between Loy Yang coal minerals
and CuO was observed. Hence, to further investigate this issue,
experiments were undertaken using raw and acid-washed Morwell coals.
As expected, no such gain in weight with acid-washed coal was observed
as acid washing leached almost all the minerals in coal. The solids
resulting from minerals interactions and their morphology were
characterized by SEMEDX. The presence of elements in solid residues,
as predicted by thermodynamic simulations under identical experimental
conditions, was similar to that observed by EDX. The part 2 of the paper
describes the assessment of performance of CuO during multi-cycle
experiments.

Keywords: Chemical-Looping Combustion, Acid-washing,
Thermodynamic simulations.
















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Demineralization & Desulfurization of Lignite Coal by Acid
Leaching to Increase the Calorific Value and Reduction in SOx
Emissions for Power Generation

Suhail. A. Soomro, Saqib Nawaz Talpur, and Shaheen Aziz
Department of Chemical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering &
Technology, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan

The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the particle size of
coal on acid washing. Hydrochloric acid was used for the
demineralization of coal. For the chemical treatment of coal, lignite coal
from Lakhra coal mines was selected. Lakhra coal contains higher
percentage of sulfur and moisture in addition to minerals that causes ash
formation that reduces the calorific value. Initially the coal was
pulverized and then sieved to obtain six sample sizes.

In process initially water washing was made to dissolve all the
dissolvable salts and metals and at final step water washing also done to
remove the acidic content of coal.

In this process temperature was maintained at 100 to 110
0
C and the time
for treatment was given 5 hrs. The analyses of the treated coal sample
were carried out by XRD, XRF, SEM. TEM and spectroscopy. The
referral studies of the process shows the significant results and the
significant changes in moisture, sulfur and mineral content are observed.

Keywords: leaching, lignite coal, calorific value, demineralization,
desulfurization, acid




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Conversion of Indigenous Coal Into Substitute Of Natural Gas
And Petroleum Products By Non-Conventional Technology:
Underground Coal Gasification

Santosh Kumar, Gulzar Hussain Jhatial, Anila Sarwar and Syed Kabir Shah
Fuel Research Centre, Off University Road, Karachi-75280

Coal can be utilized as the fuel in transportation and industry as well.
The conversion of coal into substitute of natural gas and hydrocarbons is
one of the most important needs of our country due to the worst energy
shortages in the areas of electricity, petroleum products and natural gas.
Pakistan has larger resources of low rank coal. It can be converted into a
mixture of synthesis gas, a mixture of predominantly CO, and H2, by
either partial oxidation or steam reforming processes. Indigenous coal
has been used for gasification purpose. The composition of the coal
derived syngas has been analyzed. It contains various impurities that
must be removed to convert coal into other products through GTL route
as they reduce the efficiency of the process. On the completion of the gas
treatment, the syngas is free of impurities and is rich in hydrogen and
carbon monoxide, which are the basic elements needed to manufacture
syncrude. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis combines carbon and hydrogen
molecules into chains by reacting carbon monoxide with hydrogen in the
presence of a metal catalyst, heat and pressure. The syncrude product
from the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is refined into higher value and
products through traditional refining process. Fischer-Tropsch diesel is
considered superior to conventional diesel as it has negligible sulfur, and
other aromatics. As the cetane number of the liquid product is high, it
provides excellent combustion properties. FT diesel has superior
environmental performance compared to conventional crude oil refinery
diesel. It reduces particulate matter in the emission gases such as NOx,
Sox, carbon monoxide, and light hydrocarbons.

Keywords: Coal, gasification, syngas, petroleum products
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Utilization of Indigenous Coal

Engr. Abdul Malik Memon
PEPCO, Lahore
Presently Pakistan is striving hard for its Energy Security & Stability .
The major issue is of the increasing gap between supply & demand of
electricity, besides the high import bill of furnace oil giving rise to the
issue of Circular Debt. The only remedy is to shift the Generation from
existing energy-mix with leading share of RFO to intelligent-mix
i.e. right mix of renewable energies (including hydel) and other sources
with major share of coal. The electricity generated on imported coal is
no doubt cheaper than RFO , but the ground reality reveals that the
energy produced by indigenous coal is much more cheaper & secure.

Environmentally it is believed that coal is the most dirty fuel. But the
present advanced technologies have almost redressed all its hazardous
impacts and thus coal is now acceptable & cheaper fuel worldwide i.e. 41
% of worlds total electrical energy is being produced on coal, with the
rising trend.

As estimated, Pakistan has a potential to produce a lot of energy (for 30
years) by utilization of indigenous coal e.g. 100,000 MW @ 536 mT/y
from Thar coal, 1000 MW @ 4.6 mT/y from Lakhra coal, 500 MW @
2.3 mT/y from Sondha/Jhampir coal,etc.

In a Thermal (Steam) Power Plant, fuel is burnt in the Boiler to produce
steam that spins turbine to rotate generator for producing electrical
energy. The conventional boilers (Subcritical) with efficiencies 325%,
use the pulverized coal. To mitigate the hazardous emissions like SOx
,Nox & Particulate Matter (PM) in pulverized coal boilers the Scrubbers
( Dry/wet ) are used to eliminate SOx ( this involves a lot of finance), the
De-nitrification Plant is installed to remove the NOx and the
ESP(Electro-Static Precipitators) are used to capture the PM prior to the
discharged of exhaust gases through the stack to the atmosphere ( post
combustion measures for the emissions control).
The Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC)boilers are developed specially for
burning low rank coals i.e. lignite, peat & in combination with solid
wastes like bagasse , rice husk , industrial , agricultural & municipal
wastes etc. The FBC boilers employing coal along with Lime
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Stone(CaCO3) eliminates the sulfur content of coal prior to the formation
of Sox, where as the low furnace temperatures ( 900OC) prevents the
formation of NOx (pre combustion measures for the emission control).

The Supercritical & Ultra Supercritical (once through) boilers having
efficiencies up to 48 % are commercially in use in many countries. In
Pakistan all the future coal Power Plants are proposed with Supercritical
boilers. The higher efficiencies lead to lesser fuel consumption & thus
reduced CO2 emissions (up to 1/3rd). That has been termed as the Clean
Coal Technology. The Reports of the Geological Field Surveys /
Feasibility Studies conducted in Pakistan, by a number of highly renown
agencies during last 4-5 decades, have not only estimated the indigenous
coal reserves but also reveal that it is much better than that is being used
in many countries worldwide for the generation of electrical energy.

The only 3x50 MW FBC Coal fired Power Plant in Pakistan is at Lakhra
commissioned in 1995 using the Lakhra coal . But unfortunately due to
lack of operational skills , negligence in timely maintenance & non
availability of spare parts due to financial constraints its two out of three
units have been cannibalized and only one Unit is operational at 30-36
MW load. If the proper maintenance is carried out with replacement of
the required spares, it can produce 135 MW using indigenous (Lakhra)
coal @ Rs. 6 to7/ kWh (presently it is @ Rs. 12 / kWh ) .

This concludes that the only way out to achieve the Energy Security &
Stability besides minimization of demand-supply gap with reduction in
import bill and redressed circular debt, is the Intelligent-mix of
energy having renewable energies inclusive of hydel , oil & gas with
dominating share of coal