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Original Title: Pafnuty Chebyshev - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

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Born May 16, 1821

Akatovo, Kaluga Governorate,

Russian Empire

Died December 8, 1894 (aged 73)

St. Petersburg, Russian Empire

Nationality Russian

Fields Mathematician

Institutions St. Petersburg University

Alma mater Moscow University

Doctoral

advisor

Nikolai Brashman

Doctoral

students

Dmitry Grave

Aleksandr Korkin

Aleksandr Lyapunov

Andrey Markov

Vladimir Andreevich Markov

Konstantin Posse

Known for probability, statistics, mechanics,

and analytical geometry

Notable

awards

Demidov Prize (1849)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (Russian:

May 4] 1821 December 8 [O.S. November 26] 1894)

[1]

was a

Russian mathematician. His name can be alternatively

transliterated as Chebychev, Chebysheff, Chebyshov,

Tchebychev or Tchebycheff, or Tschebyschev or Tschebyscheff

(the latter two pairs are French and German transcriptions).

1 Biography

2 Mathematical contributions

3 Legacy

4 Publications

5 See also

6 References

7 External links

One of nine children, Chebyshev was born in the central

Russian village of Akatovo near Borovsk, to Agrafena

Ivanova Pozniakova and Lev Pavlovich Chebyshev. His

father had fought as an officer against Napoleon Bonaparte's

invading army.

Chebyshev was originally home schooled by his mother and

his cousin, Avdotia Kvintillianova Soukhareva. He learned

French early in life, which later helped him communicate

with other mathematicians. A stunted leg prevented him from

playing with other children, leading him to concentrate on his

studies instead.

Chebyshev studied at the college level at Moscow University,

where he earned his bachelor's degree in 1841. At Moscow

University, Chebyshev was a graduate student of Nikolai

Brashman.

After Chebyshev became a professor of mathematics in Moscow himself, his two most illustrious graduate

students were Andrei Andreyevich Markov (the elder) and Aleksandr Lyapunov.

Pafnuty Chebyshev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pafnuty_Chebyshev

1 of 4 7/28/2014 1:07 AM

Pafnuty Chebyshev on a stamp of the

Soviet Union in 1946.

Later he moved to St. Petersburg, where he founded one of the most important schools of mathematics in

Russia, and there is today a research institute in mathematics called the Chebyshev Laboratory in that city.

Chebyshev is known for his work in the fields of probability, statistics, mechanics, and number theory. The

Chebyshev inequality states that if is a random variable with standard deviation , then the probability that

the outcome of is no less than away from its mean is no more than :

The Chebyshev inequality is used to prove the Weak Law of Large Numbers.

The BertrandChebyshev theorem (1845|1850) states that for any , there exists a prime number such

that . This is a consequence of the Chebyshev inequalities for the number of prime

numbers less than , which state that is of the order of . A more precise form is given by the

celebrated prime number theorem: the quotient of the two expressions approaches 1.0 as tends to infinity.

Chebyshev is also known for the Chebyshev polynomials and the Chebyshev bias the difference between the

number of primes that are 3 (modulo 4) and 1 (modulo 4).

Chebyshev is considered to be a founding father of Russian

mathematics. Among his well-known students were the prolific

mathematicians Dmitry Grave, Aleksandr Korkin, Aleksandr Lyapunov,

and Andrei Markov. According to the Mathematics Genealogy Project,

Chebyshev has 7,483 mathematical "descendants" as of 2010.

[2]

The lunar crater Chebyshev and the asteroid 2010 Chebyshev were

named in his honour.

Tchebychef, P. L. (1899), Markov, Andre Andreevich; Sonin, N.,

eds., Oeuvres (http://www.archive.org/stream

/oeuvresdepltche01chebrich) I, New York: Commissionaires de

l'Acadmie impriale des sciences, MR 0147353

(https://www.ams.org/mathscinet-getitem?mr=0147353),

Reprinted by Chelsea 1962

Tchebychef, P. L. (1907), Markov, Andre Andreevich; Sonin, N.,

eds., Oeuvres (http://books.google.com/books?id=1mBtAAAAMAAJ) II, New York: Commissionaires

de l'Acadmie impriale des sciences, MR 0147353 (https://www.ams.org/mathscinet-

Pafnuty Chebyshev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pafnuty_Chebyshev

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getitem?mr=0147353), Reprinted by Chelsea 1962

Butzer, P. L. Chebyshev (18211894): A Guide to his Life and Work, doi:10.1006/jath.1998.3289

(http://dx.doi.org/10.1006%2Fjath.1998.3289)

Chebyshev cube root

Chebyshev distance

Chebyshev filter, a family of analog filters in electronics and signal processing

Chebyshev function in number theory

Chebyshev polynomials and the "Chebyshev form"

Chebyshev's inequality in probability and statistics

Chebyshev's sum inequality

Chebyshev equation

Chebyshev linkage, a straight line generating linkages

RobertsChebyshev theorem on the generation of cognate coupler-curves.

ChebyshevMarkovStieltjes inequalities

ChebychevGrblerKutzbach criterion for the mobility analysis of linkages

Chebyshev nodes

Chebyshev rational functions

Chebyshev's bias

Discrete Chebyshev polynomials

Chebyshev integral

^ Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev Britannica Online Encyclopedia (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9022729

/Pafnuty-Lvovich-Chebyshev)

1.

^ Pafnuty Chebyshev (http://www.genealogy.ams.org/id.php?id=12542) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project 2.

Mechanisms by Chebyshev (http://tcheb.ru) short 3d films embodiment of Tchebishev's inventions

Pafnuty Chebyshev (http://www.genealogy.ams.org/id.php?id=12542) at the Mathematics Genealogy

Project

O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Pafnuty Chebyshev" (http://www-history.mcs.st-

andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Chebyshev.html), MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St

Andrews.

Pafnuty Chebyshev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pafnuty_Chebyshev

3 of 4 7/28/2014 1:07 AM

Works by or about Pafnuty Chebyshev (http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n85-344734) in libraries

(WorldCat catalog)

Biography (http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/tarhov/russian/chebish.htm), another one

(http://www.mathsoc.spb.ru/pantheon/chebyshe/b-e.html), and yet another (http://www.univer.omsk.su

/omsk/Edu/Math/chchebishev.htm) (all in Russian).

uvres de P.L. Tchebychef (https://archive.org/details/oeuvresdepltche02chebrich) (in French)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pafnuty_Chebyshev&oldid=607666681"

Categories: 1821 births 1894 deaths People from Zhukovsky District, Kaluga Oblast

People from Kaluga Governorate 19th-century Russian mathematicians Probability theorists

Imperial Russian inventors Number theorists Numerical analysts Ballistics experts

Imperial Russian statisticians Moscow State University alumni

Full Members of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences Members of the French Academy of Sciences

Demidov Prize laureates Foreign Members of the Royal Society Russian mathematicians

This page was last modified on 8 May 2014 at 18:30.

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may

apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered

trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Pafnuty Chebyshev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pafnuty_Chebyshev

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