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Pafnuty Chebyshev

Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev


Born May 16, 1821
Akatovo, Kaluga Governorate,
Russian Empire
Died December 8, 1894 (aged 73)
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
Nationality Russian
Fields Mathematician
Institutions St. Petersburg University
Alma mater Moscow University
Doctoral
advisor
Nikolai Brashman
Doctoral
students
Dmitry Grave
Aleksandr Korkin
Aleksandr Lyapunov
Andrey Markov
Vladimir Andreevich Markov
Konstantin Posse
Known for probability, statistics, mechanics,
and analytical geometry
Notable
awards
Demidov Prize (1849)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (Russian:

; IPA: [pf'n ut(j) 'lvovt

b'of]) (May 16 [O.S.


May 4] 1821 December 8 [O.S. November 26] 1894)
[1]
was a
Russian mathematician. His name can be alternatively
transliterated as Chebychev, Chebysheff, Chebyshov,
Tchebychev or Tchebycheff, or Tschebyschev or Tschebyscheff
(the latter two pairs are French and German transcriptions).
1 Biography
2 Mathematical contributions
3 Legacy
4 Publications
5 See also
6 References
7 External links
One of nine children, Chebyshev was born in the central
Russian village of Akatovo near Borovsk, to Agrafena
Ivanova Pozniakova and Lev Pavlovich Chebyshev. His
father had fought as an officer against Napoleon Bonaparte's
invading army.
Chebyshev was originally home schooled by his mother and
his cousin, Avdotia Kvintillianova Soukhareva. He learned
French early in life, which later helped him communicate
with other mathematicians. A stunted leg prevented him from
playing with other children, leading him to concentrate on his
studies instead.
Chebyshev studied at the college level at Moscow University,
where he earned his bachelor's degree in 1841. At Moscow
University, Chebyshev was a graduate student of Nikolai
Brashman.
After Chebyshev became a professor of mathematics in Moscow himself, his two most illustrious graduate
students were Andrei Andreyevich Markov (the elder) and Aleksandr Lyapunov.
Pafnuty Chebyshev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pafnuty_Chebyshev
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Pafnuty Chebyshev on a stamp of the
Soviet Union in 1946.
Later he moved to St. Petersburg, where he founded one of the most important schools of mathematics in
Russia, and there is today a research institute in mathematics called the Chebyshev Laboratory in that city.
Chebyshev is known for his work in the fields of probability, statistics, mechanics, and number theory. The
Chebyshev inequality states that if is a random variable with standard deviation , then the probability that
the outcome of is no less than away from its mean is no more than :
The Chebyshev inequality is used to prove the Weak Law of Large Numbers.
The BertrandChebyshev theorem (1845|1850) states that for any , there exists a prime number such
that . This is a consequence of the Chebyshev inequalities for the number of prime
numbers less than , which state that is of the order of . A more precise form is given by the
celebrated prime number theorem: the quotient of the two expressions approaches 1.0 as tends to infinity.
Chebyshev is also known for the Chebyshev polynomials and the Chebyshev bias the difference between the
number of primes that are 3 (modulo 4) and 1 (modulo 4).
Chebyshev is considered to be a founding father of Russian
mathematics. Among his well-known students were the prolific
mathematicians Dmitry Grave, Aleksandr Korkin, Aleksandr Lyapunov,
and Andrei Markov. According to the Mathematics Genealogy Project,
Chebyshev has 7,483 mathematical "descendants" as of 2010.
[2]
The lunar crater Chebyshev and the asteroid 2010 Chebyshev were
named in his honour.
Tchebychef, P. L. (1899), Markov, Andre Andreevich; Sonin, N.,
eds., Oeuvres (http://www.archive.org/stream
/oeuvresdepltche01chebrich) I, New York: Commissionaires de
l'Acadmie impriale des sciences, MR 0147353
(https://www.ams.org/mathscinet-getitem?mr=0147353),
Reprinted by Chelsea 1962
Tchebychef, P. L. (1907), Markov, Andre Andreevich; Sonin, N.,
eds., Oeuvres (http://books.google.com/books?id=1mBtAAAAMAAJ) II, New York: Commissionaires
de l'Acadmie impriale des sciences, MR 0147353 (https://www.ams.org/mathscinet-
Pafnuty Chebyshev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pafnuty_Chebyshev
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getitem?mr=0147353), Reprinted by Chelsea 1962
Butzer, P. L. Chebyshev (18211894): A Guide to his Life and Work, doi:10.1006/jath.1998.3289
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1006%2Fjath.1998.3289)
Chebyshev cube root
Chebyshev distance
Chebyshev filter, a family of analog filters in electronics and signal processing
Chebyshev function in number theory
Chebyshev polynomials and the "Chebyshev form"
Chebyshev's inequality in probability and statistics
Chebyshev's sum inequality
Chebyshev equation
Chebyshev linkage, a straight line generating linkages
RobertsChebyshev theorem on the generation of cognate coupler-curves.
ChebyshevMarkovStieltjes inequalities
ChebychevGrblerKutzbach criterion for the mobility analysis of linkages
Chebyshev nodes
Chebyshev rational functions
Chebyshev's bias
Discrete Chebyshev polynomials
Chebyshev integral
^ Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev Britannica Online Encyclopedia (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9022729
/Pafnuty-Lvovich-Chebyshev)
1.
^ Pafnuty Chebyshev (http://www.genealogy.ams.org/id.php?id=12542) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project 2.
Mechanisms by Chebyshev (http://tcheb.ru) short 3d films embodiment of Tchebishev's inventions
Pafnuty Chebyshev (http://www.genealogy.ams.org/id.php?id=12542) at the Mathematics Genealogy
Project
O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Pafnuty Chebyshev" (http://www-history.mcs.st-
andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Chebyshev.html), MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St
Andrews.
Pafnuty Chebyshev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pafnuty_Chebyshev
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Works by or about Pafnuty Chebyshev (http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n85-344734) in libraries
(WorldCat catalog)
Biography (http://www.bashedu.ru/konkurs/tarhov/russian/chebish.htm), another one
(http://www.mathsoc.spb.ru/pantheon/chebyshe/b-e.html), and yet another (http://www.univer.omsk.su
/omsk/Edu/Math/chchebishev.htm) (all in Russian).
uvres de P.L. Tchebychef (https://archive.org/details/oeuvresdepltche02chebrich) (in French)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pafnuty_Chebyshev&oldid=607666681"
Categories: 1821 births 1894 deaths People from Zhukovsky District, Kaluga Oblast
People from Kaluga Governorate 19th-century Russian mathematicians Probability theorists
Imperial Russian inventors Number theorists Numerical analysts Ballistics experts
Imperial Russian statisticians Moscow State University alumni
Full Members of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences Members of the French Academy of Sciences
Demidov Prize laureates Foreign Members of the Royal Society Russian mathematicians
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