You are on page 1of 16

Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.

Chronicles encourages faithful
Temple worship out of a loyal
heart for Yahweh by chronicling
the blessings enjoyed by the
Davidic line in faithful worship.
The books of First and Second
Chronicles were originally one
continuous work in the Hebrew. The
Hebrew title ymyh yrbd dibre
hayyamim! can be translated "the
e#ents words, accounts, annals! of
the days i.e. times!.$ The same phrase occurs in references to sources used by the author or
compiler of %ings translated "annals$ in, e.g., 1 %gs 1&'1(, )(* 1+',, )-, -1* 1.'+, 1&, )/,
),* ))'&.!. The Septuagint translators translators of the 0ld Testament into 1reek! di#ided it
into two parts and ga#e both the name Paraleipomevnwn Paraleipomenon! "of things
omitted,$ indicating that they regarded them as a supplement to Samuel and %ings.
3.4. -&,5&)/!, translator of the 6atin 7ulgate 3.4. -8+5&/+!, suggested that a more
appropriate title would be "Chronicle of the whole sacred history.$ 6uther took o#er this
suggestion in his 1erman #ersion, and others, such as most 9nglish translations ha#e
followed him by using the title "Chronicles.$
The te:t does not identify the author. 3ccording to ancient 2ewish tradition in the Talmud,
9;ra the priest wrote Chronicles, 9;ra and <ehemiah, but this cannot be established with
certainty. =t must be acknowledged that the author, if not 9;ra himself, at least shared many
basic concerns with that reforming priest such as emphasis on the temple, the priesthood, and
the theocratic line of 4a#id in the southern kingdom of 2udah. 3 priestly perspecti#e is
demonstrated by the inclusion of genealogies, temple worship, ministry of the priesthood and
obedience to the law of 1od, though Chronicles is not so narrowly "priestly$ in its
perspecti#e as was long affirmed. =n addition, the closing #erses of Second Chronicles
-.'))5)-! are repeated with minor changes as the opening #erses of 9;ra 1'15-!.
First and Second Chronicles were addressed to the returned >emnant see below' 4ate!.
Chronicles spends a disproportionate amount on the reigns of 4a#id and Solomon because
they bring the nation to its ultimate e:pression of a theocracy. The >emnant is ob#iously in
need of encouragement concerning their heritage and reminding that they must remain
Some copies add the phrase, Basileon Iouda, "Concerning the %ings of 2udah.$
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.)
faithful as the co#enant people of 1od. This would be especially needed in the coming
difficult times.
"ate o# $riting:
3 growing consensus dates Chronicles in the latter half of the fifth century B.C., thus
possibly within 9;ra?s lifetime. This is appro:imately one century after the initial return +-8
B.C.! 1 @ ) Chronicles present a special situation since they deal with the pre5e:ilic time
period of the kings but are written in the post5e:ilic time period for that audience.
Historical Conte%t:
The books of Chronicles contain a genealogy of the 2ewish people from 3dam to the time
of Cyrus. Special attention is gi#en to the Hebrew patriarchs and the twel#e sons of 2acob.
The actual historical period under consideration in Chronicles e:tends from the death of Saul
1/1/ B.C.! until the decree of Cyrus +-8 B.C.!. The Chronicler focuses on se#eral
significant things in his recording of history' the 4a#idic and Solomonic kingships, the ark of
the co#enant, the temple, and the southern kingdom.
The historical conte:t for the writing down of the material is as follows' in +./ B.C.,
during the e:ile, 2ehoiachin, former king of 2udah, was ele#ated by 9wal Aarduk, king of
Babylon. =n +-( B.C. Cyrus in#aded Babylon and then issued his famous decree allowing
capti#e peoples and religions to return home. =saiah &+'1 speaks of Cyrus as the ser#ant of
the 6ord.
The 2ewish remnant that returned faced a difficult situation. 9conomically, religiously,
politically, and morally, the returning 2ews ran into great difficulty see 9;ra, <ehemiah,
Haggai, Bechariah, and Aalachi!. 2udah remained an insignificant pro#ince during the
Cersian and 1reek periods. The Chronicler pro#ides co#enant continuity and encouragement
to the e:iles e#en though they are li#ing in the times of the gentiles 4an (')&5),!.
Theological Conte%t:
Chronicles function as a di#ine commentary on =srael?s history concerning the function of
the theocracy in =srael. 1od?s direct acti#ity, patterns of retribution, temple components, etc.
all seek to demonstrate how =srael was a theocracy and a true co#enant community of
Dahweh?s. This is true despite sin, the separation of the kingdoms, disappearance of the
northern tribes, the destruction of the southern tribes, and the e#entual return of only a small
group of 2ews to 2erusalem. 3s the argument will show, Chronicles focuses on the
importance of the temple, the ark, the 4a#idic line, 2erusalem, obedience to the law, and the
hope of a complete fulfillment of the 4a#idic co#enant.
"i##erences &et'een Sa(uel)*ings An+ Chronicles:
Chronicles should not be regarded as a mere supplement nor a parallel account to
SamuelE%ings. =t has a different purpose and audience* it can assume a knowledge of the
materials of SamuelE%ings now a#ailable for o#er a century and therefore is selecti#e in what it
omits and what it includes.
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.-
Sa(uel)*ings Chronicles
The continuation of =sraelFs history from the
united kingdom, through the di#ided kingdom, to
the two capti#ities
Focuses on the southern kingdom and therefore
4a#id and the 4a#idic dynasty
Gritten by authors soon after the e#ents Gritten many years after the e#ents but as an
rele#ant account for the history of =srael
Colitical history >eligious history H?#e religious interest!
9mphasi;es kings and prophets 9mphasi;es the ark, temple and priests. Auch
material on 4a#id and Solomon are de#oted to the
preparations and building of the temple 1 Chr )15
)(* ) Chr )5,!. They couldnFt reestablish the
kingship at this time but they could reestablish
wholehearted religious de#otion to 1od as
e:emplified in much of Chronicles.
Aore negati#eIrebellion and tragedy Aore positi#eIapostasy, but hope in spite of
tragedy. 6ittle on the sins of 4a#id and Solomon.
>etribution is prominent for post5Solomonic kings
principle of ) Chr ,'1&!
Aessage of Judgment needed to warn of coming
Aessage of hope needed in light of present and
coming difficulties!. Ceople who fear 1od can
e:pect di#ine fa#or and blessing.
AanFs failings 1odFs faithfulnessIChronicles ser#es as a proper
background for the restored 2ewish state and their
need to trust the 60>4
Crophetic authorship' emphasi;es the prophetic
ministry and moral concerns
Criestly authorship probable' emphasi;es the
priestly ministry and spiritual concerns
=n Hebrew Scriptures, part of the former prophets =n Hebrew ScripturesIput at the end of the
Kethubim the writings!, at the #ery end of the
Hebrew Bible
<o account gi#en of the establishment of the
northern kingdom under 2eroboam
6ittle information on =srael unless it is definitely
related to de#elopments in 2udah
Det, the Chronicler seeks to show that 1odFs
people both kingdoms! are still a unity, a #iable
entity, e#en in his own day.
3ttitude of the heart humble #s. proud* willing,
Joyful #s. reluctant!, not Just mere outward
obedience, is e:tremely important to the
Second Chronicles is more e:plicit in the
See e#idence gi#en in Howard, 2r., 4a#id, An Introduction to the Old Testament Historical Boos,
Chicago' Aoody Cress!, )+&5+..
=bid., ).&5...
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.&
de#elopment of earlier theological themes such as
the Blessings of >est, Ceace and Security,
Spiritual Fame,

7ictory of Dahweh.
=t also de#elops the theological concept of the
Curses and Curses of the Final
cf. 4eut )8 and 6e# ).!.
The 4a#idic Co#enant,
as could be e:pected, also
recei#es e:tensi#e treatment.
To the remnantIto encourage reform and re#i#al
as in 4a#idFs time
There are fi#e maJor prayers, all by good kings, in
1 and ) Chronicles
Literar, -eatures:
=n his recounting of pre5e:ilic history the Chronicler relied on many written sources.
3bout +/K his work was taken from Samuel and %ings* he also drew on the Centateuch,
2udges, >uth, Csalms, =saiah, 2eremiah, 6amentations and Bechariah though he used te:ts of
these books that #aried somewhat from those that ha#e been preser#ed in the later
standardi;ed Hebrew te:ts!. There are freLuent references to still other sources' "the book of
>est, Ceace and SecurityI) Chr 1-')/, )1* 1&'1, +58* 1+'1+, 1(* 1,'1/* )/'-/* -)')).
1reat <ameI) Chr 1,'+, 1/51)* ).'8* ),'+5..
Spiritual FameI) Chr 1+'(* 1,'1/* )/')(* -)')-.
CrosperityI) Chr 1-')1* 1&',* 1,'+, 11* 18'1* )/')+* ).',51+* ),'+5.* -1'+5,* -1'1/, )1* -)')-, ),5-/*
7ictoryI) Chr )+'1151)* ).'.5,* ),'+* -)'))b.
7ictory of DahwehI) Chr 1-'8, 1), 1&518* 1&'1151-* )/'1+, )/5-/* )+'8* -)',58, )/5)).
Garning CurseI4iseaseI) Chr 1.'1)* )1'1+, 18* -/')/M
Garning CurseI0ppression and 4efeatI) Chr )1'1.51,* )&')-* )+'))5)&* )8'+5., 1,51(* --'11* -.'.,
Garning CurseIChildren Capti#eI) Chr )1'1.51,* )8',58* )('(..
Curses of the Final 4estructionI4istant =n#adersI) Chr -.'1,.
Curses of the Final 4estructionIFinal SiegeI) Chr -.'18.
Curses of the Final 4estructionI4esecrated High ClacesI) Chr -.'1851(.
Curses of the Final 4estructionIFallen FortressesI) Chr -.'1(.
Curses of the Final 4estructionISla#eryE9:ileI) Chr -.')/.
Curses of the Final 4estructionI6and laid wasteI) Chr -.')1.
>eturn to >ebuildI) Chr -.')-.
4a#idic Co#enantI>estIsee abo#e.
4a#idic Co#enantIShepherdI) Chr 18'1..
4a#idic Co#enantITempleI) Chr 1+'8, 18* )/'85(* )-'-51(* )&'&51&, 18* )8')&* )('1+51,* -/'15-1')1*
--'&, 1+* -&'851-* -+'151(* -.',, 1/, 1+.
4a#idic Co#enantI9ternal 6ine of 4a#idI) Chr 1-'+, 8, )1* )1',, 1)51,* ))'8511* )-'-, )/* )&'-.
4a#idic Co#enantI>odI) Chr 1.'(* )1'+51/* )&'))5)-* )+')/5)&* )8'158, 1.51(* --'1/511* -.'+5., (5
4a#idic Co#enantI4a#idic StandardI) Chr 1,'-* )8'1* )(')* -)'--...
1 Chr 1,'1.5),* )('1/51(* ) Chr .'1)5&)* )/'+51)* -/'1851(.
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.+
the kings of =srael$ ('1* ) Chr )/'-&* cf. ) Chr --'18!, "the book of the annals of %ing
4a#id$ ),')&!, "the book of the kings of 2udah and =srael$ or". . . of =srael and 2udah$ )
Chr 1.'11* )+').* ),',* )8').* -)'-)* -+'),* -.'8!, "the annotations on the book of the
kings$ ) Chr )&'),!. =t is unclear whether these all refer to the same source or to different
sources, and what their relationship is to Samuel and %ings or to the royal annals referred to
in %ings. =n addition, the author cites a number of prophetic writings' those of "Samuel the
seer$ )(')(!, "<athan the prophet$ )(')(* ) Chr (')(!, "1ad the seer$ )(')(!, "3hiJah the
Shilonite$ ) Chr (')(!, "=ddo the seer$ ) Chr (')(* 1)'1+* 1-'))!, "Shemaiah the prophet$
) Chr 1)'1+!, "the prophet =saiah$ ) Chr ).'))!, "the seers$ ) Chr --'1(!. 3ll these he
used, often with only minor changes, to tell his own story of the past. The conser#ati#e #iew
is that he did not in#ent, but he did select, arrange and integrate his sources to compose a
narrati#e "sermon$ for poste:ilic =srael as she struggled to reorient herself as the people of
1od in a new situation. His perspecti#e was not a mere history, which they already had in
SamuelE%ings, but a theological perspecti#e on their history with rele#ance to the
contemporary society.
Some belie#e the te:t contains e#idence here and there of later e:pansions after the basic
work had been composed. Ghile editorial re#isions are not unlikely nor in opposition to
inspiration, all specific proposals regarding them remain tentati#e.
Curpose' to encourage faithful Temple worship by chronicling the blessings enJoyed by
the 4a#idic line in faithful worship in #iew of the promised seed. 2ust as 4euteronomy was
gi#en as a reiteration of =sraelFs history as a nation up to the point of conLuest so that it might
ser#e as a framework for the conLuest generationFs nationFs! commitment to 1od in the
renewal of the co#enant, so Chronicles, as a selecti#e history, ser#es as a framework for the
post5e:ilic generationFs remnantFs! commitment to worship and obedience to the co#enant.
The remnant does not ha#e all the national hopes of the generations prior to the e:ile but it
still can anticipate the promised seed who will return them to their position of Na kingdom of
priests and a holy nationN.
"escripti/e Outline:
A0 The .atriarchs 5#ro( A+a( to Israel #or 'ho( the nation is na(e+6 ch0 1!
1. 3dam to <oah 1'15&!
). <oah to 3braham 1'+5),!
a. 6ine of 2apheth 1'+5,!
b. 6ine of Ham 1'851.!
c. Chosen 6ine of Shem 1'1,5),!
d. 6ine of 3braham 1')85-&!
i. 4escendants of Hagar 1')(5-1!
ii. 4escendants of %eturah 1'-)5--!
iii! 4escendants of Sarah O9sau and =saacP 1'-&!
e. 6ine of 9sau 1'-+5&)!
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p..
f. 6ist of 9domite kings 1'&-5+&!
&0 The 12 Sons o# 7aco8 )Israel 'ith -ocus on 7u+ah +o'n to "a/i+ 2:1399!
1. 3 summary of the sons of =srael )'15)!
). 1enealogy from 2udah through He;ron to %ing 4a#id )'-51,!
-. <on5kingly 3lternate lines of He;ron through Caleb )'185)&!
&. <on5kingly 6ine of 2erahmeel )')+5&1!
+. <on5kingly 6ine of Caleb )'&)5++!
C0 The *ingl, Line #ro( "a/i+ ::132;!
1. 4a#idFs =mmediate Family -'15(!
a. 4a#idFs line born in Hebron -'15&!
b. 4a#idFs line born in 2erusalem -'+5(!
). The %ingly 6ine to Bedekiah O3thaliah not mentionedP -'1/51.!
-. 4a#idFs line in the 9:ilic and Cost5e:ilic periods -'1,5)&!
"0 The 12 Sons o# 7aco8 )Israel 'hich A/oi+s -ocus on the "a/i+ic line 'ithin
7u+ah ;:13<:;=!
1. 0ther 6ines of 2udah OFourth bornP &'15)-!
). 6ine of Simeon OSecond bornP &')&5&-!
Simeon, which was assimilated into 2udahFs territory, and 2udah were the
two southern tribes that constituted the kingdom of 2udah 2osh 1('1b!.
-. 6ine of >euben OFirst bornP +'151/!
&. 6ine of 1ad OSe#enth bornP +'115))!
7erses 185)+ contain a narrati#e on the TransJordan tribes
+. 6ine of the Half5tribe of Aanasseh on the east side of the 2ordan OSon of
9le#enth born 2osephP +')-5).!
Chapter + contains the genealogies of the ) 1E) TransJordan tribes.
.. 6ine of 6e#i OThird bornP .'1581!
The amount of space de#oted to the descendants of 6e#i through his three
sons, and the inclusion of their musical appointments, indicates the
emphasis the Chronicler is placing on the 6e#itical work in the temple
,. 6ine of =ssachar O<inth bornP ,'15+!
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.,
8. 6ine of BenJamin OTwelfth bornP ,'.51)!
(. 6ine of <aphtali OSi:th bornP ,'1-!
1/. 6ine of the Half5tribe of Aanasseh on the west side of the 2ordan OSon of
9le#enth born 2osephP ,'1&51(!
11. 6ine of 9phraim OSon of 9le#enth born 2osephP ,')/5)(!
1). 6ine of 3sher O9ighth bornP ,'-/5&/!
1-. Second and 4ifferent 6ist of the 6ine of BenJamin Qsee ,'.51) and ('-+5&&R
OTwelfth bornP 8'15&/!
The tribes of 4an and Bebulun are not e#en mentioned.
E0 The Recor+ o# the Re(nant in 7erusale( 4:13:;!
1. =ntroductionI2udah was taken into capti#ity because of unfaithfulness ('1!
). 3 6isting of Ceople =nhabiting 2erusalem in the post5e:ilic period (')5-&!
a. 3 list of =sraelites O"the people$P ('-5(!
b. 3 list of priests ('1/51-!
c. 3 list of 6e#ites ('1&51.!
d. 3 list of temple ser#ants ('1,5-&!
i. The gatekeepers ('1,5),!
ii. The people in charge of the utensils (')85-)!
iii. The singers ('--5-&!
-0 A Repeate+ 1enealog, o# Saul 5see <:243;=6 4::93;;!
II0 THE REI1N O- "A>I" 1 CHR 1=324!
A0 The Chronicler2s perspecti/e on Israel2s -irst *ing? Saul as seen through his
+eath an+ 8urial ch0 1=!
1. SaulFs death is recorded 1/'151/!
=t is necessary to mention SaulFs death both to recount the reason for his
reJection by 1od and to show the rise of 4a#id, the messianic ideal.
). The deeds of the 2abesh51ileadites at SaulFs death is recorded 1/'1151)!
-. SaulFs reJection, which lead ultimately to his death, and the reasons for it are
recorded 1/'1-51&!
a. He was unfaithful to the 6ord and His word OHe did not carry out the herem
war against 3malekMP 1/'1-a!
b. He consulted the witch of 9n 4or 1/'1-b51&!
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.8
<ote the reasons as gi#en in 1 Samuel 1-51+.
&0 "a/i+2s Coronation an+ Capital 11:134!
1. 4a#id anointed %ing by 3ll =srael 11'15-!
). 4a#id captures 2erusalem 11'&5(!
C0 "a/i+2s Might, Men 11:1=312:;=!
1. The special soldiers are listed as in %ings 11'1/5&,!
). 3 list is gi#en of men who Joined 4a#id at Biklag be!ore he became king 1)'15
These men come from BenJamin, 1ad, more from BenJamin, 2udah, and
-. 3 numbers list of men who Joined 4a#id at Hebron is gi#en 1)')-5&/!
"0 "a/i+ an+ the Ar@ Narrati/es chs0 1:31A!
1. The remo#al of the ark from %iriath52earim and its subseLuent delay at 0bed5
9dom?s home ch. 1-!
). >ecord of 1odFs blessing on 4a#id ch. 1&!
-. The successful attempt of bringing the ark to 2erusalem Onote the importance of
the priests and 6e#itesP 1+'151.'.!
&. The appointment of 6e#ites to places of ministry and the Joy produced by 1odFs
presence 1+'1.51.'.!
+. 4a#id commits a Thanksgi#ing Csalm to 3saph, et al", for the new dwelling of
the ark 1.',5-.!
.. 3 list of ser#ants to the arkEtent is gi#en reflecting 4a#idFs concern for the
uni#ersal worship of Dahweh 1.'-,5&-!
E0 Institution o# the "a/i+ic Co/enant ch0 1B!
1. 4esire of 4a#id to build 1odFs House 1,'15)!
). 1odFs promise to built 4a#idFs "House$ 1,'151+!
-. 4a#idFs praise prayerEresponse to 1od 1,'1.5),!
-0 "a/i+Cs ConDuests chs0 1<32=!
1. 4a#idFs 9arly 7ictories are Summari;ed 18'151,!
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.(
a. 7ictory o#er Chilistia 18'1!
b. 7ictory o#er Aoab 18')!
c. 7ictory o#er Bobah Oapparently located in the BeLaa 7alley between
6ebanon and 3nti56ebanon mountainsP 18'-5&!
d. 7ictory o#er Syria O3rameans of 4amascusP and the Tribute from the %ing
of Hamath 18'+511!
e. 7ictory o#er 9dom 18'1)51-!
f. 3dministrati#e 0fficials in 4a#idFs %ingdom 18'1&51,!
). 4a#idFs 6ater 7ictories are Summari;ed 1('15)/'8!
a. Humiliation of 4a#idFs Ser#ants by the 3mmonites 1('15+!
b. SubseLuent 7ictory o#er the 3mmonites 1('.51+!
c. 7ictory o#er Syria 1('1.51(!
d. 3ddition 7ictory o#er the 3mmonites )/'15-!
e. 7ictory o#er the Chilistine 1iants )/'&58!
10 The Census: A .lace #or the Te(ple ch0 21!
1. The Census and the Cunishment )1'151,!
). 3 Clace for the Temple >esults from the termination of the plague and
subseLuent sacrifice )1'15))'1!
H0 .reparations o# Materials an+ Lea+ers #or the Construction o# the Te(ple
1. Aaterials gathered ))')5+!
). 9ncouragement and =nstructions for Solomon ))'.51.!
-. 9ncouragement and =nstructions for 6eaders ))'1,51(!
I0 A+(inistrati/e Structures o# the Te(ple Ser/ice chs0 2:32A!
1. 0rgani;ations of the 6e#itical Houses )-'15-)!
). 0rgani;ation of the Courses of the Criests )&'15-1!
-. 0rgani;ation of the 0rders of the Ausicians )+'15-1!
&. 0rgani;ation of the 1atekeepers ).'151(!
+. 0rgani;ation of the Treasuries of the Temple ).')/5)8!
.. 0rgani;ation of the 0fficers outside the Temple ).')(5-)!
70 A+(inistrati/e Structures o# the .olitical)Militar, *ing+o( ch0 2B!
1. The Twel#e Captains of =srael ),'151+!
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.1/
). The 6eaders of the Twel#e Tribes ),'1.5)&!
-. The >oyal 0#erseers of 4a#id?s Croperty ),')+5-1!
&. The Counselors of 4a#id ),'-)5-&!
*0 "a/i+Cs -inal .reparations #or Succession an+ #or the Te(ple 2<:1324::=!
1. Final 9:hortations of 4a#id as He Cublicly Commissions Solomon )8'151/!
). Final Cro#isions Clan and 1ifts! for the Temple )8'115)('(!
-. Final Crayer of Thanksgi#ing by 4a#id )('1/51(!
&. Coronation of Solomon )(')/5)+!
+. 4eath and 9#aluation of 4a#id )(').5-/!
A0 Solo(on2s 1reatness: $is+o( an+ .rosperit, ch0 1!
&0 &uil+ing an+ "e+ication o# the Te(ple 2:139:1!
1. Creparations to Build the Temple )'1518!
). Construction of the Temple -'15+'1!
C0 "e+ication o# the Te(ple 9:23B:1=!
1. The =nstallation of the 3rk +')51)!
). The 1lory of the 6ord fills the Temple +'1-51&!
-. Sermon by Solomon .'1511!
&. Crayer by Solomon .'1)5&)!
+. The Fire of the 6ord Consumes the Sacrifices ,'15-!
.. The <ation 0ffers Sacrifices ,'&5,!
,. The <ation Celebrates the Feast of Tabernacles ,'851/!
"0 The Lor+ Con#ir(s the Mosaic 5&lessings an+ Cursings! an+ "a/i+ic
Co/enants B:11322!
E0 Solo(onCs Other Acti/ities 'hich "e(onstrate His 1reatness ch0 <!
1. 9nlargement of SolomonFs Territory 8'15.!
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.11
). SubJugation of the <on52ewish >emnant in the 6and 8',51/!
-. >eligious and Cultic Cractices of Solomon 8'1151.!
&. 9conomic 3cti#ities, Gisdom, and Splendor of Solomon 8'1,5(')8!
-0 Solo(onCs "eath 4:243:1!
CHR 1=3:A!
A0 Reho8oa( chs0 1=312!
1. The di#ision of the nation 1/'1511'&!
). >ehoboamFs kingdom and family established 11'+5)-!
-. Shishak of 9gyptFs =n#asion 1)'151)!
&. >ehoboamFs e#aluation and death 1)'1-51.!
&0 A8iGah 1::131;:1!
C0 Asa 1;:231A:1;!
1. 3sa?s wisdom and greatness ch. 1&!
). 3sa?s religious reforms ch. 1+!
-. 3sa?s failure to trust 1od in his war against =srael 1.'151/!
&. 3sa?s e#aluation and death 1.'1151&!
"0 7ehoshaphat 1B:1321:1a!
1. Summary of 2ehoshaphat?s reign 1,'15.!
). 2ehoshaphat?s 1reatness and Faithfulness 1,',51(!
-. 2ehoshaphat and 3hab 18'151('-!
&. 2ehoshaphat*s appointment of Judges 1('&511!
+. 7ictory o#er the Aoabite53mmonite alliance )/'15-/!
.. 2ehoshaphat?s failures )/'-15)1'1a!
E0 7ehora( 21:1832=!
-0 AhaHiah 22:134!
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.1)
10 Athaliah an+ 7oash 22:1=32;:2B!
1. 3thaliahFs Sei;ure of Cower ))'1/51)!
). 2ehoiada?s >e#olt )-'15)1!
-. 2oash? >eign ch. )&!
H0 A(aHiah ch0 29!
I0 EHHiah ch0 2A!
70 7otha( ch0 2B!
*0 AhaH ch0 2<!
L0 HeHe@iah chs0 243:2!
1. The cleansing and rededication of the temple ch. )(!
). The Casso#er Celebration -/'15-1'1!
-. He;ekiah?s pro#ision for the re5establishment of proper temple worship -1')5
&. Sennacherib threatens 2erusalem -)'15)-!
+. He;ekiah?s e#aluation pride, success! and death -)')&5--!
M0 Manasseh :::132=!
N0 A(on :::21329!
O0 7osiah :;:13:A:1!
1. 2osiah?s reforms ch. -&!
). 2osiah?s Casso#er -+'151(!
-. 2osiah?s death -+')/5),!
.0 7osiahCs Successors: Last -our *ings o# 7u+ah :A:231;!
1. 2ehoaha; -.'15&!
). 2ehoiakim -.'+58!
-. 2ehoiachin -.'(51/!
&. Bedekiah -.'1151&!
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.1-
I0 E%ile an+ Restoration :A:1932:!
4a#id The BestI"a
man after 1odFs
own heart$
1 Samuel 1-'1& Aany preparations 1 Chr ))'1&51(*
)-5).* )8'15
Solomon Built @ dedicated
the temple
) Chr )5,
>ehoboam 9#il ) Chr 1)'1& Temple treasures
carried off by
) Chr 1)'( =gnored counsel of
) Chr 1-'&51)
1 %gs 1+'-
6e#itical priests and
) Chr 1-'1/51) Aultiplied wi#es )
Chr 1-')1
3sa 1ood
Foolish in his
last year
) Chr 1&')
) Chr 1.'(
>epaired the altar of
the 6ord
Took from the
treasuries of the
60>4?s temple
) Chr 1+'8
) Chr 1.')
2ehoshaphat 1ood early
alliances with
3hab and
3ha;iah, kings
of =srael
) Chr 1,'-
) Chr 1(')5-*
2ehoram 9#il ) Chr )1'. Aarried 3hab?s
daughter ) Chr )1'.
3ha;iah 9#il ) Chr ))'& Followed the counsel
of the house of 3hab )
Chr ))'&
O3thaliahP Gicked ) Chr )&', Her sons broke into
the temple and used
its sacred obJects
for the Baals
) Chr )&', %illed the royal family
of the house of 2udah
) Chr ))'1/
2oash 1ood
) Chr )&')
) Chr )&')/
>epaired the temple
3bandoned the
temple @ killed
Bechariah in the
temple courtyard
) Chr )&'&
) Chr )&')1
3ma;iah 1ood ) Chr )+') 0beyed the law of
4eut )&'1.* ) Chr
0beyed the "man of
1od$ ) Chr )+',51/
S;;iah 1ood
) Chr ).'&5+
) Chr ).'1.
9ntered the temple
to burn incense and
was fore#er
e:cluded from the
) Chr ).'1.5)1
2otham 1ood ) Chr ),'), . 4id not enter the
) Chr ),')
3ha; 9#il ) Chr )8'1 Took some temple ) Chr )8')1 =dolater, sacrificed his
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.1&
articles and
presented them to
the Tiglath5Cileser,
%ing of 3ssyria
Shut the temple
) Chr )8')&
sons ) Chr )8'-5&
Sent to 3ssyria for
help ) Chr )8'1.
He;ekiah 1ood ) Chr )(') Curified the temple
4e#eloped the
temple worship and
duties again
Showed the temple
) Chr )(
) Chr -1
) Chr -)'-1*
cp., ) %gs
Celebrated the
Casso#er ) Chr -/
Aanasseh 9#il
>epented in his
later life and
remo#ed much
of his e#il
) Chr --')
) Chr --'1+51.
4esecrated the
) Chr --'&5+, , =dolater ) Chr --'-5&
Sacrificed sons,
practiced witchcraft )
Chr --'.
3mon 9#il ) Chr )) =dolater ) Chr --'))5
2osiah 1ood ) Chr -&') >epaired and
purified the temple
) Chr -&'851- >emo#ed idols ) Chr
>enewed the co#enant
after the 6aw was
found and read ) Chr
2ehoaha; 9#il ) %gs )-'-)
2ehoiakim 9#il ) Chr -.'+ 3rticles from the
temple taken to
Babylon during his
) Chr -.',
2ehoiachin 9#il ) Chr -.'( 3rticles from the
temple taken to
Babylon along with
the king
) Chr -.'1/
Bedekiah 9#il ) Chr -.'1) The people defiled
the temple
) Chr -.'1& >efused to humble
himself before the
prophet 2eremiah and
refused to trust the
60>4 ) Chr -.'1)51-
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.1+
Interpreti/e .ro8le(s:
So(e Allege+ Contra+ictions an+ Har(oniHation
&et'een Sa(uel)*ings an+ Chronicles
Sa(uel)*ings Chronicles Har(oniHation
) Sam 8'& 4a#id captured a 1,///
and ,// O1,,//P charioteers Oin
ATP and )/,/// foot soldiers.
1 Chr 18'& 4a#id captured 1///
chariots, ,// charioteers and
)/,/// foot soldiers.
Cossible scribal error in Samuel
so the <=7 has followed the
6TT, 4SS, and 1 Chr 18'&!
) Sam 1/'18 )T! 4a#id killed ,//
charioteers and &/,/// of their
1 Chr 1('18 )T! 4a#id killed
,,/// 3ramean charioteers and
&/,/// foot soldiers.
The ,// in Sam is consistent with
the use of it abo#e in ) Sam 8'&.
=t appears that the horsemen of
Sam should be read foot soldiers
in keeping with the conte:t.
) Sam )-'8 8// men killed. 1 Chr 11'11 -// men killed. Cossible scribal error in Chr
=nfluenced by the number "-/$ in
the same #erse or the similar
wording in #erse )/..
) Sam )&'( )T! 8//,/// men and
in 2udah +//,///
1 Chr )1'+ )T! 1,1//,/// men
and in 2udah &,/,///
Chr may ha#e included the
regular army of )88,/// 1 Chr
),'151+! in his total which Sam
rounded figure would then be
The second contradiction is hard
to harmoni;e unless it is seen as a
scribal error or a rounded figure
in Sam.
The census was incomplete 1
Chr ),')&.
) Sam )&'1- 1 Chr )1'1)
) Sam )&')& 1 Chr )1')+
1 %gs &'). Solomon had &/,///
Osee <=7 noteP stalls for chariot
horses and 1),/// horses.
) Chr (')+ Solomon had &,///
stalls for horses and chariots, and
1),/// horses.
1 %gs +'11 ) Chr )'1/
1 %gs +'1.* (')- -T! ) Chr )'), 18* 8'1/ -T!
1 %gs ,'1+51. ) Chr -'1+
1 %gs ,'). ) Chr &'+
1 %gs (')8 ) Chr 8'18
1 %gs 1/'1, ) Chr ('1.
1 %gs 1.'8 9lah, son of Baasha, ) Chr 1.'1 Baasha, king of =srael, 3sa began reigning in (11 B.C.
The <=7 has sought to harmoni;e many of the alleged contradictions and has often chosen not to
translate the Hebrew te:t and instead follow the Septuagint or some other te:t. The <=7 does make note of such
changes in the footnotes.
Bramer, 1 & 2 Chronicles, p.1.
became king of =srael in the ).
year of 3sa, king of 2udah.
was still fighting 2udah in the -.
year of 3saFs reign.
H-. U 8,.E+ B.C.!
Baasha reigned from (/(588.
) %gs 8'). ) Chr ))')
) %gs )&'8 2ehoiachin was 18
years old when he became king
and he reigned in 2erusalem -
) Chr -.'( 2ehoiachin was 8 Osee
<=7 noteP years old when he
became king, and he reigned in
2erusalem - months and 1/ days.
18 in Hebrew is 8 H 1/ plus the -
months. 0b#iously the 1/ has
been shifted in one of the
.ro8le(s 'ith 1enealogies
3nalysis of genealogies, both inside and outside the Bible, has disclosed that they ser#e a
#ariety of functions with different principles go#erning the lists!, that they #ary in form
some being segmented, others linear! and depth number of generations listed!, and that they
are often fluid subJect to change!.
There are three general areas in which genealogies function' the familial or domestic, the
legal5political, and the religious. =n the domestic area an indi#idual?s social status, pri#ileges
and obligations may be reflected in his placement in the lineage see ,'1&51(!* the rights of
the firstborn son and the secondary status of the children of concubines are e:amples from
the Bible. =n the political sphere genealogies substantiate claims to hereditary office or settle
competing claims when the office is contested. 6and organi;ation and territorial groupings of
social units may also be determined by genealogical reckoning I e.g., the di#ision of the
land among the 1) tribes. =n =srael military le#ies also proceeded along genealogical lines*
se#eral of the genealogies in Chronicles reflect military conscription +'15).* ,'151),-/5&/*
8'15&/!. 1enealogies function in the religious sphere primarily by establishing membership
among the priests and 6e#ites .'15-/* ('1/5-&* <eh ,'.15.+!.
3s to form, some genealogical lists trace se#eral lines of descent segmented
genealogies! while others are de#oted to a single line linear genealogies!.
Comparison of genealogical lists of the same tribal or family line often brings to light
surprising differences. This fluidity of the lists may reflect #ariation in function. But
sometimes changes in the status or relations of social structures are reflected in genealogies
by changes in the relationships of names in the genealogy see 1'-+5&)* .')),),! or by the
addition of names or segments to a lineage see +'115))* .'),* ,'.51)!. The most common
type of fluidity in Biblical materials is telescoping, the omission of names from the list.
Snimportant names are left out in order to relate an indi#idual to a prominent ancestor, or
possibly to achie#e the desired number of names in the genealogy. Some Biblical
genealogies, for e:ample, omit names to achie#e multiples of ,' For the period from 4a#id to
the e:ile Aatthew gi#es 1& generations ) times ,!, while 6uke gi#es )1 - times ,!, and the
same authors gi#e similar multiples of , for the period from the e:ile to 2esus Aatt 1'151,*
6k -')-5-8!.
The genealogies of Chronicles show #ariation in all these properties* the arrangements
often reflect the purpose for which the genealogies were composed prior to their being
adopted by the Chronicler as part of his record.
Some of this material has been taken from the =ntroduction to Chronicles in the #I$ %tudy Bible"