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RADIOACTIVE DECAY and NUCLEAR EQUATIONS

Radioactive decay is the ability of some atoms/elements to spontaneously


give off energy as particles or rays. It can also be defined as the process by
which an unstable atomic nucleus of an atom disintegrates and further
emits energy in the form of subatomic particles. This phenomenon occurs
when the nucleus is unstable. The parent nuclide is thereby transformed to
different nuclides, more often called as daughter nuclides. It will continue to
decay until the forces in the nucleus are balanced.

The instability of a nucleus may result from an excess of either neutrons or
protons. An unstable nucleus will continually vibrate, disintegrate and attempt
to reach stability by the following means:

- Ejecting neutrons and protons
- Converting one to the other with the ejection of a beta particle or positron
- Releasing the additional energy by photon (i.e., gamma ray) emission.

When elements undergo radioactive decay, they change from one element to
another. This happens by losing high energy alpha or beta particles, or beta
emitting positrons. This process is also called nuclear transmutation. Nuclear
equations are used to track the changes that occur during radioactive decay or
transmutation. When writing nuclear equations, it is important to remember
the following rules.

Rules for Writing Nuclear Equations

1. The masses on each side of the equation must be equal.
2. The charges on each side of the equation must be equal.
3. The nuclear charge is the atomic number, and can be used to identify
any new elements that form.

General Form of a Nuclear Equation:

A A a a
Z Z z z
X Y x

+


where A refers to the mass number of the element
Z refers to the atomic number
X for the chemical symbol of the original element
Y for the chemical symbol of the new element
x for the particle/radioactive decay responsible for
emission/bombardment.
COMMON TYPES OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY

Radioactive nuclei can undergo decomposition or decay in a variety of ways.
The spontaneous decay process can produce particles such as alpha, beta and
positron emission. The alternate form of emission is that of electromagnetic
radiation such as x-rays or gamma-rays.

a. Alpha Emission or Decay-- Alpha particles have a positive charge and are
equivalent in size to a helium nucleus, and so they are symbolized as

.
Alpha particles are the largest and the most massive radioactive particles to be
emitted. This type of radioactivity results in a decrease in the atomic number
by 2 and a decrease in the mass number by 4. It is usually in the form;

4 4 4
2 2 2
(or )
A A
Z Z
X Y He o

+


Example: The alpha decay of Uranium-234 (U-234) yields Thorium-230 (Th-
230).

234 230 4 4
92 90 2 2
(or ) U Th He o +


b. Beta Emission or Decaythis occurs when the nucleus emits a beta
particle. Beta particles have a negative charge and are much smaller than
alpha particles. Theyre equivalent to high-speed electrons and are symbolized
by or e. This type of radioactivity causes an increase in the atomic number
by 1 but no change in mass number. A neutron is composed of a combination
of proton and an electron (hence, its charge is neutral). Thus, in beta decay,
the electron is emitted from the nucleus, while the proton part remains behind,
thus increasing the atomic number by 1.

0 0
1 1 1
(or e)
A A
Z Z
X Y |
+
+


Example: The beta decay of Arsenic-80 (Ar-80) yields Selenium-80 (Se-80).

80 80 0 0
33 34 1 1
(or e) As Se |

+



c. Positron Emission or Beta Positive Decay- occurs when an atom becomes
more stable by emitting a positron +e, which is the same size and mass as an
electron but has a positive charge. This process converts a proton into a
neutron; the positron is emitted and the neutron remains behind in the
nucleus, decreasing the atomic number by 1.

0 0
1 1 1
(or e)
A A
Z Z
X Y |
+ +
+


Example: The decay of Magnesium-23 (Mg-23) yields a positron and Sodium-23
(Na-23).

23 23 0 0
11 10 1 1
(or e) Mg Na |
+ +
+



d. Gamma Radiation-- Gamma decay consists of the emission of pure
electromagnetic energy; no particles are emitted during this process, and it
is symbolized by . After beta, positron, or alpha decay, the nucleus is left in a
high-energy state, and at this point it will often emit gamma rays, which allows
it to relax to its lower-energy ground state. The emission of gamma rays does
not alter the number of protons or neutrons in the nucleus but instead has
the effect of moving the nucleus from a higher to a lower energy state
(unstable to stable).

* 0
0
( or )
(energy)
A A a a
Z Z z z
A A
Z Z
X Y
Y Y
o |

+
+



Example: The decay of Radium-226 (Ra-226) to Radon-222 (Rn-222) forms an
alpha particle and a subsequent energy release of Radon 222 via gamma
radiation

226 222 4
88 86 2
222 222 0
86 86 0
(energy)
Ra Rn
Rn Rn
o

+
+



e. Nuclear Transmutationthis is a process of converting an element from
another element by natural or artificial means. A certain element is usually
bombarded by a certain particle or another element in order to produce
changes in the atomic structure of the element. Stable atoms can be
transformed into radioactive atoms by bombardment with high speed particles.


Z

A B F C
Z E G D
X x Y
where
A B F C
Z E G D
+ +
+ = +
+ = +



Example: Palladium-106 (Pd-106) is bombarded with an alpha particle to
produce Silver-109 (Ag-109) nucleus with an ejection of a proton.

106 4 109 1
46 2 47 1
Pd He Ag p + +


g. Transfer Reactionsthis type of nuclear reaction that transfers a nucleon
between the beam and the target, and producing the final state nucleus of
the reaction either as an intermediate or final state in the laboratory reaction.
The nucleon varies depending on the method or goal of the reaction. The
popular transfer reactions involve the use of protons and neutrons. These
reactions are typically employed to indirectly study thermonuclear reactions
and explosions via mimicry of some capture reactions.

Example: The neutron transfer from Oxygen-17 (O-17) to Carbon-12 (C-12).
The product yields Oxygen-16 (O-16) and Carbon-13 (C-13).

17 12 16 13
8 6 8 6
O C O C + +


Radioactive Decay Series

When a nucleus decays, the daughter nucleus itself may still be unstable. In
this case, the daughter nucleus is now the parent nucleus and will go through
decay. By this process a nucleus may go through several decays before
reaching a nucleus stable enough to stay the same for a while. This bunch of
decays is called a decay series, and can be written several ways.

Example: The decay series of Thorium-226 (Th-226) to Astatine-214 (At-214).

226 222 4
90 88 2
222 222 0
88 89 1
222 218 4
89 87 2
218 214 4
87 85 2
Th Ra
Ra Ac
Ac Fr
Fr At
o
| v
o
o

+
+ +
+
+


EXAMPLES OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY


ALPHA DECAY

1. The decay of Uranium-233 (U-233) yields an alpha particle and Thorium-229
(Th-229).
233 229 4 4
92 90 2 2
(or ) U Th He o +


2. The decay of Gadolinium-149 (Gd-149) yields an alpha particle and
Samarium-145 (Sm-145).
149 145 4 4
64 90 2 2
(or ) Gd Sm He o +


3. The decay of Thorium-232 (Th-232) yields an alpha particle and Radium-228
(Ra-228).
232 228 4 4
90 88 2 2
(or ) Th Ra He o +


4. The decay of Platinum-175 (Pt-175) yields an alpha particle and Osmium-
171 (Os-171).
175 171 4 4
78 76 2 2
(or ) Pt Os He o +


5. The decay of Neptunium-237 (Np-237) yields an alpha particle and
Protactinium-233 (Pa-233).
237 233 4 4
93 91 2 2
(or ) Np Pa He o +


6. The decay of Lawrencium-256 (Lr-256) yields an alpha particle and
Mendelevium-252 (Md-252).
256 252 4 4
103 101 2 2
(or ) Lr Md He o +


7. The decay of Protactinium-231 (Pa-231) yields an alpha particle and
Actinium-227 (Ac-227).
231 227 4 4
91 89 2 2
(or ) Pa Ac He o +


8. The decay of Francium-211 (Fr-211) yields an alpha particle and Astatine-
207 (At-207).
211 207 4 4
87 85 2 2
(or ) Fr At He o +



9. The decay of Actinium-225 (Ac-225) yields an alpha particle and Francium-
221 (Fr-221).
225 221 4 4
89 87 2 2
(or ) Ac Fr He o +


10. The decay of Gold-185 (Au-185) yields an alpha particle and Iridium-181
(Ir-181).
185 181 4 4
79 77 2 2
(or ) Au Ir He o +



BETA DECAY

1. The decay of Strontium-90 (Sr-90) yields a beta particle and Yttrium-90 (Y-
90).
90 90 0 0
38 39 1 1
(or e) Sr Y |

+



2. The decay of Neptunium-239 (Np-239) yields a beta particle and Plutonium-
239 (Pu-239).
239 239 0 0
93 94 1 1
(or e) Np Pu |

+



3. The decay of Americium-247 (Am-247) yields a beta particle and Curium-
247 (Cm-247).
247 247 0 0
95 96 1 1
(or e) Am Cm |

+


4. The decay of Bromine-82 (Br-82) yields a beta particle and Krypton-82 (Kr-
82).
82 82 0 0
35 36 1 1
(or e) Br Kr |

+


5. The decay of Technetium-99 (Tc-99) yields a beta particle and Ruthenium-99
(Ru-99).
99 99 0 0
43 44 1 1
(or e) Tc Ru |

+


6. The decay of Lithium-8 (Li-8) yields a beta particle and Beryllium-8 (Be-8).
8 8 0 0
3 4 1 1
(or e) Li Be |

+


7. The decay of Boron-13 (B-13) yields a beta particle and Carbon-13 (C-13).
13 13 0 0
5 6 1 1
(or e) B C |

+


8. The decay of Phosphorus-32 (P-32) yields a beta particle and Sulfur-30 (S-
30).
32 32 0 0
15 16 1 1
(or e) P S |

+



9. The decay of Fluorine-20 (F-20) yields a beta particle and Neon-20 (Ne-20).
20 20 0 0
9 10 1 1
(or e) F Ne |

+


10. The decay of Mercury-203 (Hg-203) yields a beta particle and Thallium-203
(Tl-203).
203 203 0 0
80 81 1 1
(or e) Hg Tl |

+





GAMMA RADIATION


1. The gamma radiation emitted by Mendelevium-252 (Md-252)
256 252 4
103 101 2
252 252 0
101 101 0
(energy)
Lr Md
Md Md
o

+
+


2. The gamma radiation emitted by Iridium-181 (Ir-181)
185 181 4
79 77 2
181 181 0
77 77 0
(energy)
Au Ir
Ir Ir
o

+
+


3. The gamma radiation emitted by Protactinium-233 (Pa-233)
237 233 4
93 91 2
233 233 0
91 91 0
(energy)
Np Pa
Pa Pa
o

+
+


4. The gamma radiation emitted by Ruthenium-99 (Ru-99)
99 99 0
43 44 1
99 99 0
44 44 0
(energy)
Tc Ru
Ru Ru
|

+
+


5. The gamma radiation emitted by Neon-20 (Ne-20)
20 20 0
9 10 1
20 20 0
10 10 0
(energy)
F Ne
Ne Ne
|

+
+



6. The gamma radiation emitted by Krypton-82 (Kr-82)
82 82 0
35 36 1
82 82 0
36 36 0
(energy)
Br Kr
Kr Kr
|

+
+


7. The gamma radiation emitted by Samarium-145 (Sm-145)
149 145 4
64 90 2
145 145 0
90 90 0
(energy)
Gd Sm
Sm Sm
o

+
+

8. The gamma radiation emitted by Curium-247 (Cm-247)
247 247 0
95 96 1
247 247 0
96 96 0
(energy)
Am Cm
Cm Cm
|

+
+


9. The gamma radiation emitted by Actinium-227 (Ac-227)
231 227 4
91 89 2
227 227 0
89 89 0
(energy)
Pa Ac
Ac Ac
o

+
+


10. The gamma radiation emitted by Yttrium-90 (Y-90)
90 90 0
38 39 1
90 90 0
39 39 0
(energy)
Sr Y
Y Y
|

+
+




POSITRON EMISSION

1. The decay of Carbon-11 (C-11) yields a positron and Boron-11 (B-11).
11 11 0 0
6 5 1 1
(or e) C B |
+ +
+


2. The decay of Manganese-50 (Mn-50) yields a positron and Chromium-50 (Cr-
50).
50 50 0 0
25 24 1 1
(or e) Mn Cr |
+ +
+


3. The decay of Chlorine-35 (Cl-35) yields a positron and Sulfur-35 (S-35).
35 35 0 0
17 16 1 1
(or e) Cl S |
+ +
+


4. The decay of Carbon-11 (C-11) yields a positron and Boron-11 (B-11).
81 81 0 0
36 35 1 1
(or e) Kr Br |
+ +
+


5. The decay of Sodium-22 (Na-22) yields a positron and Neon-22 (Ne-22).
22 22 0 0
11 10 1 1
(or e) Na Ne |
+ +
+


6. The decay of Oxygen-15 (O-15) yields a positron and Nitrogen-15 (N-15).
15 15 0 0
8 7 1 1
(or e) O N |
+ +
+


7. The decay of Beryllium-7 (Be-7) yields a positron and Lithium-7 (Li-7).
7 7 0 0
4 3 1 1
(or e) Be Li |
+ +
+


8. The decay of Fluorine-18 (F-18) yields a positron and Oxygen-18 (O-18).
18 18 0 0
9 8 1 1
(or e) F O |
+ +
+


9. The decay of Lead-210 (Pb-210) yields a positron and Thallium-210 (Tl-210).
210 210 0 0
82 81 1 1
(or e) Pb Tl |
+ +
+


10. The decay of Tellurium-111 (Te-111) yields a positron and Antimony-111
(Sb-11).
111 111 0 0
52 51 1 1
(or e) Te Sb |
+ +
+



NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION

1. Nitrogen-14 (N-14) reacted with a high speed helium nucleus to form
Oxygen-17 (O-17) and a proton.
14 4 17 1
7 2 8 1
N He O p + +



2. Formation of Carbon-14 (C-14) by bombarding Nitrogen-14 (N-14) with a
neutron.
14 1 14 1
7 0 6 1
N n C p + +


3. Aluminum-27 (Al-27) is bombarded with a helium nucleus to produce
Phosphorus-30 (P-30) and a neutron.
27 4 30 1
13 2 15 0
Al He P n + +


4. Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) is bombarded with alpha particle to form Curium-
242 (Cm-242) and a neutron.
239 4 242 1
94 2 96 0
Pu He Cm n + +


5. Curium-242 (Cm-242) is bombarded with alpha particle to form Californium-
245 (Cf-245) and a neutron.
242 4 245 1
96 2 98 0
Cm He Cf n + +


6. Californium-249 (Cf-249) is bombarded with Carbon-12 to produce
Ruthefordium-257 (Rf-257) and neutrons.
249 12 257 1
98 6 104 0
4 Cf C Rf n + +


7. Californium-249 (Cf-249) is bombarded with Nitrogen-14 to produce
Dubnium-260 (Db-260) and neutrons.
249 14 260 1
98 7 105 0
4 Cf N Db n + +


8. Californium-249 (Cf-249) is bombarded with Oxygen-18 to produce
Seaborgium-263 (Sg-263) and neutrons.
249 18 263 1
98 8 106 0
4 Cf O Sg n + +


9. Beryllium-9 (Be-9) reacted with a high speed helium nucleus to form
Carbon-12 (C-12) and a neutron.
9 4 12 1
4 2 6 0
Be He C n + +


10. Lead-207 (Pb-207) is bombarded with Carbon-12 (C-12) to produce
Francium-218 (Fr-218) and a proton.

207 12 218 1
82 6 87 1
Pb C Fr p + +









TRANSFER REACTIONS

1. The neutron transfer from deuterium (H-2) to Neon-20 (Ne-20). The product yields
protium (H-1) and Neon-21 (Ne-21).
2 20 1 21
1 10 1 10
H Ne H Ne + +


2. The neutron transfer from Beryllium-12 (Be-12) to Carbon-13 (C-13). The product
yields Beryllium (Be-1) and Neon-21 (Ne-21).
13 13 12 14
4 6 4 6
Be C Be C + +



NUCLEAR REACTIONS


a. Nuclear Fission

Fission is the splitting of a nucleus that releases free neutrons and lighter nuclei.
The fission of heavy elements is highly exothermic. Daughter nucleus, energy, and
particles such as neutrons are released as a result of the reaction. The particles
released can then react with other radioactive materials which in turn will release
daughter nucleus and more particles as a result, and so on. The unique feature of
nuclear fission reactions is that they can be harnessed and used in chain reactions.
This chain reaction is the basis of nuclear weapons. The resulting fission products
are highly radioactive, commonly undergoing beta-minus decay.

Some Characteristics of Nuclear Fission:

- A heavy nucleus (U-235 or Pu-239), when bombarded by slow moving neutrons,
split into two or more nuclei.
- Two or more neutrons are produced by fission of each nucleus.
- All the fission fragments are radioactive, giving off and radiations.
- The atomic weights of fission products range from about 70 to 160.
- The nuclear chain reactions can be controlled and maintained steadily by
absorbing a desired number of neutrons. This process is used in nuclear
reactor.
- All the fission reactions are self-propagating chain-reactions because fission
products contain neutrons (secondary neutrons) which further cause fission in
other nuclei.
- The control of chain reaction is necessary in order to maintain a steady
reaction. This is carried out by absorbing a desired number of neutrons by
employing materials like percentage of Cd, B or steel.



























Nuclear Fission and Chain Reactions


Example of Reactions involving Nuclear Fission

235 1 236 140 93 1
92 0 92 56 36 0
235 1 236 144 90 1
92 0 92 55 37 0
235 1 236 144 90 1
92 0 92 54 38 0
235 1 236 146 87 1
92 0 92 57 35 0
235 1 236
92 0 92
(1) * 3
(2) * 2
(3) * 2
(4) * 3
(5)
U n U Ba Kr n
U n U Cs Rb n
U n U Xe Sr n
U n U La Br n
U n U
( + + +

( + + +

( + + +

( + + +

+
160 72 1
62 30 0
* 4 Sm Zn n ( + +




Reaction 1 involves the neutron bombardment and splitting of Uranium-235 (U-235)
into Barium-140 (Ba-140), Krypton-93 (Kr-93) and 3 neutrons.

Reaction 2 involves the neutron bombardment and splitting of Uranium-235 (U-235)
into Cesium-144 (Cs-144), Rubidium-90 (Rb-93) and 2 neutrons.

Reaction 3 involves the bombardment and splitting of Uranium-235 (U-235) into
Xenon-144 (Xe-144), Strontium-90 (Sr-90) and 2 neutrons.

Reaction 4 involves the bombardment and splitting of Uranium-235 (U-235) into
Lanthanum-146 (La-146), Bromine-87 (Br-87) and 3 neutrons.

Reaction 5 involves the bombardment and splitting of Uranium-235 (U-235) into
Samarium-160 (Sm-146), Zinc-72 (Zn-72) and 4 neutrons.



Applications of Nuclear Fission

One of the major applications for nuclear fission is nuclear power. Nuclear power
plants use nuclear fission to generate heat. They use this heat to create steam from
which water, in turn, powers electrical generators.

One example is a nuclear fission reactor. A nuclear fission reactor generates energy
through a controlled nuclear fission reaction. These reactors are nuclear furnaces,
which boil water to produce steam for a turbine. Heated water around the nuclear fuel
is kept under high pressure and thus brought to a high temperature without boiling. It
transfers heat to a second, lower-pressure water system, which operates the electric
generator in a conventional fashion.

A breeder reactor is a kind of nuclear fission reactor that produces more nuclear fuel
than it consumes. A breeder reactor converts a nonfissionable uranium isotope into a
fissionable plutonium isotope. After the initial high costs of building such a device,
this is an economical method of producing vast amounts of energy. After a few years of
operation, breeder-reactor power utilities breed twice as much fuel as they start with.

Nuclear fission has other applications in addition to power plants. One application is
nuclear propulsion in ships and submarines. Nuclear powered submarines can stay
under water and travel at high speeds for a long time. Nuclear fission has also been
used in naval ships, ships used for breaking ice in the polar seas, and space ships.


b. Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear fusion is the joining of two nuclei to form heavier nuclei. The reaction is
followed either by a release or absorption of energy. Fusion of nuclei with lower
mass than iron releases energy while fusion of nuclei heavier than iron generally
absorbs energy. Atomic nuclei are positively charged. For fusion to occur, they
normally must collide at very high speed in order to overcome electrical repulsion. The
required speeds correspond to the extremely high temperatures found in the center of
the sun and other stars.

Some Characteristics of Nuclear Fusion:

- Energy release during a fusion process in greater than that of fission.
- To produce a fusion process a very high temperature is required to overcome
repulsion between positive nuclei
- The smallest atom is hydrogen; this is converted to helium and gradually all the
other elements up to uranium must have been formed in stars like the Sun.
- At the extremely high temperatures in the 'heart' of stars the atomic nuclei have
such enormous speeds and kinetic energies that on collision they can fuse
together.







Schematic Diagram of Nuclear Fusion
General Form of the Nuclear Equation for Nuclear Fusion
2 3 4 1
1 1 2 0
(deuterium) *( ) H H tritium He n energy + + +

where Hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and Hydrogen-3 (tritium) are isotopes of hydrogen.
The tritium above was formed from two subsequent reactions which can be
represented as follows;
6 1 3 4
3 0 1 2
7 1 3 4 1
3 0 1 2 0
Li n H He
Li n H He n
+ +
+ + +


Applications of Nuclear Fusion

The power of the energy in a fusion reaction is what drives the energy that is
released from the sun and a lot of stars in the universe. Nuclear fusion is also
applied in nuclear weapons, specifically, a hydrogen bomb. Nuclear fusion is the
energy supplying process that occurs at extremely high temperatures like in stars
such as the sun, where smaller nuclei are joined to make a larger nucleus, a process
that gives off great amounts of heat and radiation. When uncontrolled, this process
can provide almost unlimited sources of energy and an uncontrolled chain provides
the basis for a hydrogen bond, since most commonly hydrogen is fused.

Scientists have been working on controlling nuclear fusion for a long time, trying to
make a fusion reactor to produce electricity. To date, prototype fusion reactors
have consumed more energy than they have produced, but scientists believe that the
future of fusion research is promising. Producing thermonuclear fusion reactions
under controlled conditions requires temperatures of hundreds of millions of degrees.
Producing and sustaining such high temperatures along with reasonable densities is
the goal of much current research. No matter how the temperature is produced, a
problem is that all materials melt and vaporize at the temperatures required for
fusion. One solution to this problem is to confine the reaction in a nonmaterial
container.

Fusion has already been achieved in several devices, but instabilities in the plasma
have thus far prevented a sustained reaction. A big problem is devising a field system
that will hold the plasma in a stable and sustained position while an ample number of
nuclei fuse. A variety of magnetic confinement devices are the subject of much
present-day research.



Table 1. Comparison and Contrast between Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion

Characteristics Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fusion
Mechanism A heavy nucleus is split
into two or nuclei with
smaller mass numbers.
Two or more light nuclei
are combined to form a
heavier, more stable
nucleus.
Occurrence in Nature It does not occur naturally
or in normal conditions. It
is more commonly done or
controlled in the
laboratory or nuclear
power plant.
It usually occurs naturally,
most especially outside the
earth, such as formation of
stars. Thus, fusion
reactions are mostly
uncontrollable.
Changes in Atomic
Number and Mass Number
The atomic number and
mass number of the
daughter element is less
than the parent element in
nuclear fission process.
The atomic number and
mass number of the
product nuclei is greater
than the starting elements
in nuclear fusion process.
Common Emission Fission emits neutrons Fusion emits positrons
Remnants/By Products of
the Nuclear Reaction
It produces enormous
amounts of radioactive
particles and materials
that are dangerous to
living organisms.
Only few radioactive
materials are released in a
fusion reaction except for
conditions where "fission
trigger" exists.
Conditions for the
reaction to occur
The neutrons should be of
high speed and the critical
mass of the substance
should be known.
Fusion occurs in high
temperature and density
environment conditions.
Energy Needed to Initiate
Reaction
Little energy is needed to
initiate a fission reaction.
To overcome the
electrostatic repulsion
among protons, extremely
high energy is necessary.
Energy Produced in the
Reaction
Its released energy is less
than the energy produced
by the fusion reaction.
However, its energy is
greater compared to
typical chemical reactions.
The energy produced by the
fusion reaction is two to
three times greater than
the energy released by a
fission reaction.
Real Life Examples Atomic bombs Hydrogen bombs


Sources/References:

[1] Brown, Theodore E.; Lemay, H. Eugene; Bursten, Bruce E.; Murphy, Catherine;
Woodward, Patrick (2008), Chemistry: The Central Science (10th ed.), New York:
Prentice-Hall,

[2] Ralph H. Petrucci, William S. Harwood, Geoff E. Herring and Jeffry Madura.
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, 9/E.

[3] Paul G. Hewitt. Conceptual Physics, 9th Edition. Pearson, Addison-Wesley

[4] Hugh D. Young, & Roger A. Freedman: University 11th Edition, Pearson/Addison
Wesley, 2004

[5] D. Holliday, Fundamentals of Physics, US, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2001, 0-471-
39222-7, 6th edition