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30.3

Introduction

In this section we consider another direct method for obtaining the solution of systems of

equations in the form AX = B.

Prerequisites

Before starting this Section you should . . .

revise matrices and their use in systems of

equations

revise determinants

Learning Outcomes

After completing this Section you should be

able to . . .

nd an LU decomposition of simple ma-

trices and apply it to solve systems of

equations

be aware of when an LU decomposition

is unavailable and when it is possible to

circumvent the problem

1. LU decomposition

Suppose we have the system of equations

AX = B.

The motivation for an LU decomposition is based on the observation that systems of equations

involving triangular coecient matrices are easier to deal with. Indeed, the whole point of

Gaussian Elimination is to replace the coecient matrix with one that is triangular. The LU

decomposition is another approach designed to exploit triangular systems.

We suppose that we can write

A = LU

where L is a lower triangular matrix and U is an upper triangular matrix. Our aim is to nd L

and U and once we have done so we have found an LU decomposition of A.

Key Point

An LU decomposition of a matrix A is the product of a lower triangular matrix and an upper

triangular matrix that is equal to A.

It turns out that we need only consider lower triangular matrices L that have 1s down the

diagonal. Here is an example, let

A =

1 2 4

3 8 14

2 6 13

= LU

where L =

1 0 0

L

21

1 0

L

31

L

32

1

and U =

U

11

U

12

U

13

0 U

22

U

23

0 0 U

33

.

Multiplying out LU and setting the answer equal to A gives

U

11

U

12

U

13

L

21

U

11

L

21

U

12

+U

22

L

21

U

13

+U

23

L

31

U

11

L

31

U

12

+L

32

U

22

L

31

U

13

+L

32

U

23

+U

33

1 2 4

3 8 14

2 6 13

.

Now we have to use this to nd the entries in L and U. Fortunately this is not nearly as hard

as it might at rst seem. We begin by running along the top row to see that

U

11

= 1 , U

12

= 2 , U

13

= 4 .

Now consider the second row

L

21

U

11

= 3 L

21

1 = 3 L

21

= 3 ,

L

21

U

12

+U

22

= 8 3 2 +U

22

= 8 U

22

= 2 ,

L

21

U

13

+U

23

= 14 3 4 +U

23

= 14 U

23

= 2 .

HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

2

Notice how, at each step, the equation in hand has only one unknown in it, and other quantities

that we have already found. This pattern continues on the last row

L

31

U

11

= 2 L

31

1 = 2 L

31

= 2 ,

L

31

U

12

+L

32

U

22

= 6 2 2 +L

32

2 = 6 L

32

= 1 ,

L

31

U

13

+L

32

U

23

+U

33

= 13 (2 4) + (1 2) +U

33

= 13 U

33

= 3 .

We have shown that

A =

1 2 4

3 8 14

2 6 13

1 0 0

3 1 0

2 1 1

1 2 4

0 2 2

0 0 3

Find an LU decomposition of

3 1

6 4

.

Your solution

L e t

3 1

6 4

= L U =

1 0

L

2 1

1

U

1 1

U

1 2

0 U

2 2

U

1 1

U

1 2

L

2 1

U

1 1

L

2 1

U

1 2

+ U

2 2

t h e n , c o m p a r i n g t h e l e f t a n d r i g h t h a n d s i d e s r o w b y r o w i m p l i e s t h a t U

1 1

= 3 , U

1 2

= 1 ,

L

2 1

U

1 1

= 6 w h i c h i m p l i e s L

2 1

= 2 a n d L

2 1

U

1 2

+ U

2 2

= 4 w h i c h i m p l i e s t h a t U

2 2

= 2 .

H e n c e

3 1

6 4

1 0

2 1

3 1

0 2

i s a n L U d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f

3 1

6 4

.

3 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

Find an LU decomposition of

3 1 6

6 0 16

0 8 17

.

Your solution

U s i n g m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e w o r k e d e x a m p l e i n t h e n o t e s w e s e t

3 1 6

6 0 1 6

0 8 1 7

U

1 1

U

1 2

U

1 3

L

2 1

U

1 1

L

2 1

U

1 2

+ U

2 2

L

2 1

U

1 3

+ U

2 3

L

3 1

U

1 1

L

3 1

U

1 2

+ L

3 2

U

2 2

L

3 1

U

1 3

+ L

3 2

U

2 3

+ U

3 3

a n d c o m p a r i n g e l e m e n t s r o w b y r o w w e s e e t h a t

U

1 1

= 3 , U

1 2

= 1 , U

1 3

= 6 ,

L

2 1

= 2 , U

2 2

= 2 , U

2 3

= 4

L

3 1

= 0 L

3 2

= 4 U

3 3

= 1

a n d i t f o l l o w s t h a t

3 1 6

6 0 1 6

0 8 1 7

1 0 0

2 1 0

0 4 1

3 1 6

0 2 4

0 0 1

i s a n L U d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e g i v e n m a t r i x .

HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

4

2. Using an LUdecomposition to solve systems of equations

Once a matrix A has been decomposed into lower and upper triangular parts it is possible to

obtain the solution to AX = B in a direct way.

The procedure can be summarised as follows

Given A, nd L and U so that A = LU. Hence LUX = B.

Let Y = UX so that LY = B. Solve this triangular system for Y .

Finally solve the triangular system UX = Y for X.

The benet of this approach is that we only ever need to solve triangular systems. The cost is

that we have to solve two of them.

Example Find the solution of X =

x

1

x

2

x

3

of

1 2 4

3 8 14

2 6 13

x

1

x

2

x

3

3

13

4

.

Solution

The rst step is to calculate the LU decomposition of the coecient matrix on the left-

hand side. In this case that job has already been done since this is the matrix we

considered earlier. We found that

L =

1 0 0

3 1 0

2 1 1

, U =

1 2 4

0 2 2

0 0 3

.

The next step is to solve LY = B for the vector Y =

y

1

y

2

y

3

. That is we consider

LY =

1 0 0

3 1 0

2 1 1

y

1

y

2

y

3

3

13

4

= B

which can be solved by forward substitution. From the top equation we see that

y

1

= 3. The middle equation states that 3y

1

+ y

2

= 13 and hence y

2

= 4. Finally the

bottom line says that 2y

1

+y

2

+y

3

= 4 from which we see that y

3

= 6.

5 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

Solution (contd.)

Now that we have found Y we nish the procedure by solving UX = Y for X. That is

we solve

UX =

1 2 4

0 2 2

0 0 3

x

1

x

2

x

3

3

4

6

= Y

by using back substitution. Starting with the bottom equation we see that 3x

3

= 6

so clearly x

3

= 2. The middle equation implies that 2x

2

+ 2x

3

= 4 and it follows that

x

2

= 4. The top equation states that x

1

+ 2x

2

+ 4x

3

= 3 and consequently x

1

= 3.

Therefore we have found that the solution to the system of simultaneous equations

1 2 4

3 8 14

2 6 13

x

1

x

2

x

3

3

13

4

is X =

3

4

2

.

Use the LU decomposition you found earlier in this Section to solve

3 1 6

6 0 16

0 8 17

x

1

x

2

x

3

0

4

17

.

Your solution

HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

6

W e f o u n d e a r l i e r t h a t t h e c o e c i e n t m a t r i x i s e q u a l t o L U =

1 0 0

2 1 0

0 4 1

3 1 6

0 2 4

0 0 1

.

F i r s t w e s o l v e L Y = B f o r Y , w e h a v e

1 0 0

2 1 0

0 4 1

y

1

y

2

y

3

0

4

1 7

.

T h e t o p l i n e i m p l i e s t h a t y

1

= 0 . T h e m i d d l e l i n e s t a t e s t h a t 2 y

1

+ y

2

= 4 a n d t h e r e f o r e

y

2

= 4 . T h e l a s t l i n e t e l l s u s t h a t 4 y

2

+ y

3

= 1 7 a n d t h e r e f o r e y

3

= 1 . F i n a l l y w e s o l v e U X = Y

f o r X , w e h a v e

3 1 6

0 2 4

0 0 1

x

1

x

2

x

3

0

4

1

.

T h e b o t t o m l i n e s h o w s t h a t x

3

= 1 . T h e m i d d l e l i n e t h e n s h o w s t h a t x

2

= 0 , a n d t h e n t h e

t o p l i n e g i v e s u s t h a t x

1

= 2 . T h e r e q u i r e d s o l u t i o n i s X =

2

0

1

.

7 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

3. Do matrices always have an LU decomposition?

No. Sometimes it is impossible to write a matrix in the form

lower triangular upper triangular.

Why not?

An invertible matrix A has an LU decomposition provided that all its leading submatrices

have non-zero determinants. The k-th leading submatrix of A is denoted A

k

and is the k k

matrix found by looking only at the top k rows and leftmost k columns. For example if

A =

1 2 4

3 8 14

2 6 13

A

1

= 1, A

2

=

1 2

3 8

, A

3

=

1 2 4

3 8 14

2 6 13

.

The fact that this matrix A has an LU decomposition can be guaranteed in advance because

none of these determinants is zero:

|A

1

| = 1,

|A

2

| = (1 8) (2 3) = 2,

|A

3

| =

8 14

6 13

3 14

2 13

+ 4

3 8

2 6

= 20 (2 11) + (4 2) = 6

(where the 3 3 determinant was found by expanding along the top row).

Example Show that

1 2 3

2 4 5

1 3 4

Solution

The second leading submatrix has determinant equal to

1 2

2 4

= (1 4) (2 2) = 0

which means that an LU decomposition is not possible in this case.

HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

8

Which, if any, of these matrices have an LU decomposition?

(i) A =

3 2

0 1

, (ii) A =

0 1

3 2

, (iii) A =

1 3 7

2 6 1

0 3 2

.

Your solution

(i)

| A

1

| = 3 a n d | A

2

| = | A | = 3 . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e i s z e r o , s o A d o e s h a v e a n L U d e c o m p o s i t i o n .

Your solution

(ii)

| A

1

| = 0 s o A d o e s n o t h a v e a n L U d e c o m p o s i t i o n .

Your solution

(iii)

| A

1

| = 1 , | A

2

| = 6 6 = 0 , s o A d o e s n o t h a v e a n L U d e c o m p o s i t i o n .

The example below gives some strong evidence for the key result being stated in this section.

Can we get around this problem?

Yes. It is always possible to re-order the rows of an invertible matrix so that all of the submatrices

have non-zero determinants.

Example Reorder the rows of A =

1 2 3

2 4 5

1 3 4

decomposition.

9 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

Solution

Swapping the rst and second rows doesnt help us since the second leading submatrix will still

have a zero determinant. Let us swap the second and third rows and consider

B =

1 2 3

1 3 4

2 4 5

B

1

= 1, B

2

=

1 2

1 3

, B

3

= B.

Now |B

1

| = 1, |B

2

| = 3 1 2 1 = 1 and (expanding along the rst row)

|B

3

| = 1(15 16) 2(5 8) + 3(4 6) = 1 + 6 6 = 1.

All three of these determinants are non-zero and we conclude that B does indeed have an LU

decomposition.

Reorder the rows of A =

1 3 7

2 6 1

0 3 2

an LU decomposition.

Your solution

HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

10

L e t u s s w a p t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d r o w s a n d c o n s i d e r

B =

1 3 7

0 3 2

2 6 1

t h e l e a d i n g s u b m a t r i c e s a r e

B

1

= 1 , B

2

=

1 3

0 3

, B

3

= B

w h i c h h a v e d e t e r m i n a n t s 1 , 3 a n d 4 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l o f t h e s e a r e n o n - z e r o a n d w e c o n c l u d e

t h a t B d o e s i n d e e d h a v e a n L U d e c o m p o s i t i o n .

11 HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

Exercises

1. Calculate LU decompositions for each of these matrices

(a) A =

2 1

4 6

(b) A =

2 1 4

2 1 2

6 3 11

(c) A =

1 3 2

2 8 5

1 11 4

2. Check each answer in Question 1, by multiplying out LU to show that the product is equal

to A.

3. Using the answers obtained in Question 1, solve the following systems of equations.

(a)

2 1

4 6

x

1

x

2

1

2

(b)

2 1 4

2 1 2

6 3 11

x

1

x

2

x

3

15

7

41

(c)

1 3 2

2 8 5

1 11 4

x

1

x

2

x

3

2

3

0

4. Consider A =

1 6 2

2 12 5

1 3 1

(b) Re-order the rows of A and nd an LU decomposition of the new matrix.

(c) Hence solve

x

1

+ 6x

2

+ 2x

3

= 9

2x

1

+ 12x

2

+ 5x

3

= 4

x

1

3x

2

x

3

= 17

HELM (VERSION 1: March 18, 2004): Workbook Level 1

30.3: Introduction to Numerical Methods

12

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