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A MATLAB-Based Modeling

and Simulation Program


for Dispersion of
Multipollutants From an
Industrial Stack for
Educational Use in a Course
on Air Pollution Control
E. FATEHIFAR,
1
A. ELKAMEL,
2
M. TAHERI
3
1
Environmental Engineering Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology,
Tabriz, Iran
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
3
Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Received 1 July 2005; accepted 12 March 2006
ABSTRACT: In this article, a MATLAB program for a three-dimensional simulation of
multipollutants (CO, NO
x
, SO
2
, and TH) dispersion from an industrial stack using a Multiple
Cell Model is presented. The program verification was conducted by checking the simulation
results against experimental data and Gaussian Model and better agreements were obtained in
comparison with the Gaussian model. The effects of meteorological and stack parameters on
dispersion of pollutants like, wind velocity, ambient air temperature, atmospheric stability,
exit temperature, velocity, concentration, and stack height can be easily studied using the
program. Several illustrations for reducing maximum ground level concentrations using the
program are given. The program can simulate all industrial stacks and only needs meteoro-
logical data and stack parameters. The outputs from the program are presented in graphical
form. The program was designed to be user friendly and computationally efficient through
Correspondence to A. Elkamel (aelkamel@cape.uwaterloo.ca).
2006 Wiley Periodicals Inc.
300
the use of variable pollution grids, vectorized operations, and memory pre-allocation.
2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 14: 300312, 2006; Published online in Wiley
InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20089
Keywords: simulation; pollutant dispersion; Multiple Cell Model; industrial stack
INTRODUCTION
Air pollution is caused by emissions from point
sources, area sources, mobile sources, and biogenics.
Substantial evidence has accumulated that air pollu-
tion affects the health of human beings and
animals, damages vegetations, soil and deteriorates
materials, affects climate, reduce visibility and solar
radiation, contributes to safety hazards, and generally
interferes with the enjoyment of life and property
[1].
About 60% of the emissions are from point
sources. Major air pollutants usually considered
include dust, particulates, PM
10
(particulate matter
10 microns or less in diameter), and PM
2.5
due to
incompletely burned fuel or process byproducts,
nitrogen oxides (mainly due to combination of
atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen at high tempera-
tures), sulfur dioxide (mainly due to the burning of
fuel containing quantities of sulfur), carbon monoxide
(due to incompletely burned fuel), ozone and lead.
Engineering studies of air pollution include: Sources
of Air Pollutants, Air Pollution Control, Dispersion
Modeling, and Effects of Air Pollutants and Air
Quality Monitoring Network Design (AQMN-
Design).
Mathematical diffusion models are most useful
nowadays since they provide useful information for
predicting pollutant concentration and quickly pro-
vide output. Air quality mathematical models repre-
sent unique tools for [2]:
- Establishing emission control legislation; that is,
determining the maximum allowable emission
rates that will meet xed air quality standards
- Evaluating proposed emission control techniques
and strategies; that is, evaluating the impacts of
future controls
- Selecting locations of future sources of pollu-
tants, in order to minimize their environmental
impacts
- Planning the control of air pollution episodes;
that is, dening immediate intervention strate-
gies (i.e., warning systems and real-time short-
term emission reduction strategies) to avoid
severe air pollution episodes in certain regions
- Assessing responsibility for existing air pollution
levels
- Designing and optimizing AQMN Mathematical
models typically incorporate a plume rise
module which calculates the height to which
pollutants rise due to momentum and buoyancy,
and a dispersion module which estimates how
they spread as a function of wind speed and
atmospheric stability. Figure 1 shows plume
rise and pollution dispersion from an industrial
stack.
Standard mathematical dispersion models used
for industrial dispersion modeling include the Indus-
trial Source Complex (ISC) developed by the USEPA,
Gaussian Models (Plume, Puff, and Fluctuating
Models), EPA SCREEN model, Regression Models,
Simple Diffusion Models (Box Model and Atmo-
spheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, ATDL),
Gradient Theory Models, Source-oriented and Recep-
tor-oriented Models and Multiple Cell Model. More
complex models may incorporate more realistic
meteorological treatments, but generally require data
which is more difcult and expensive to obtain.
Examples include Ausmet/Auspuff, Calmet/Calpuff,
LADM, and TAPM. Other models may attempt to
model photochemical reactions between pollutants
like empirical kinetic modeling analysis (EKMA),
while simpler models generally assume that pollutants
are conserved [3,4].
Analytical solutions of the three-dimensional
diffusion equation for an elevated continuous point
source with variable wind and eddy diffusivity have
been obtained only under restricted assumptions.
Smith [5] used power law variations for wind and
diffusivity and assumed the cross-wind variation
always had a Gaussian form. Ragland [6] used power
law variation for y and z diffusivities but held the wind
constant. Gandin and Soloveichik have presented an
important analytical solution which used u u
1
z
m
,
K
y
K
0
z
m
, and K
z
K
1
z, where u is the wind speed,
K
y
and K
z
are the eddy diffusivities in the lateral
and vertical directions, respectively [7]. Peters and
Klinzing [8] have investigated the effect of varying
the value of the power when the wind is held constant.
The maximum ground level concentration agrees
MATLAB-BASED AIR POLLUTION MODELING 301
well with the Gaussian result for neutral atmospheric
stability [7]. Mehdizadeh and Rifai [9] studied
modeling of point source plumes at high altitudes
using a modified Gaussian model. They used two EPA
dispersion models, Screen and ISC and obtained
dispersion of SO
2
. Shamsijey [4] studied the disper-
sion of Cement particulate emissions and its effects on
the city of Shiraz.
In this article, a MATLAB program for the
simulation of three-dimensional pollution dispersion
from an industrial stack is presented. The program is
designed to be easy to use for educational purposes in
an air pollution control course. It requires few inputs
and presents the results in a visual format using both
two and three-dimensional colorful plots. In the next
section, the governing equations for modeling disper-
sion are briey reviewed and their mathematical
solution as implemented in MATLAB is discussed.
The atmospheric parameters used in the program are
also listed. Simulation runs to illustrate the use of the
program are presented in a later section where com-
parisons with both experimental data and the Gaussian
model are given. The effect of different parameters
like atmospheric stability, wind velocity, ambient air
temperature, stack gas exit temperature, velocity, and
concentration is illustrated using the program. An
illustration of how to make recommendations using
the program vis-a`-vis abiding to environmental stan-
dards is also given. Finally, future efforts on improv-
ing the program to include other complications such
as multiple stacks, the effect of chemical reactions and
complex terrains are discussed.
TREATMENT OF AIR POLLUTION MODELS
ON COMPUTERS
The modeling of dispersion of air pollutants from
an industrial source can be broken down into the
following steps:
1. describing the geometry of the domain
2. introducing appropriate boundary conditions
3. introducing sources, sinks and the dispersion
characteristics for the entire domain
4. selection of values for parameters in the model
5. division of the domain into cells and solution of
the nite difference equations
6. visualization of results.
In this study, a Multiple Cell Model was used for
pollution dispersion from an industrial stacks emis-
sion. Figure 2 shows the mass balance for an unknown
cell.
Five major physical and chemical processes are
to be considered when an air pollution model is
Figure 1 Plume rise and pollution dispersion from an Industrial stack. [Color gure can
be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]
302 FATEHIFAR, ELKAMEL, AND TAHERI
developed. These processes are: (i) horizontal trans-
port (advection), (ii) horizontal diffusion, (iii) deposi-
tion (both dry deposition and wet deposition), (iv)
chemical reactions plus emissions, and (v) vertical
transport and diffusion. The mathematical description
of these processes leads to a system of partial differ-
ential equations:
@C
s
@t

@U
x
C
s

@x

@U
y
C
s

@y

@U
z
C
s

@z

@
@x
K
x
@C
s
@x
_ _

@
@y
K
y
@C
s
@y
_ _

@
@z
K
z
@C
s
@z
_ _
E
s
k
s
1
k
s
2
_ _
C
s
QC
s
;
s 1; 2; . . . ; q
1
where C
s
is the concentration of the chemical species
involved in the model (CO, NO
x
, SO
2
, and TH), U is
wind velocity, K
x
, K
y
, and K
z
are diffusion coeffi-
cients, E
s
is the emission sources, K
1
s
and K
2
s
are
deposition coefficients (for the dry deposition and the
wet deposition, respectively) and Q(C
s
) represents
chemical reactions. The following assumptions are
employed:
1. Steady state conditions (@C/@t0)
2. U
y
U
z
0 (wind velocity in x-direction only
and is a function of z) [10]
3. Transport by bulk motion in the x-direction
exceeds diffusion in the x-direction (K
x
0)
[10]
4. There is no deposition in the system
(K
1
s
K
2
s
0).
5. There is no reaction in the system (Q0)
By applying the above assumptions, Equation (1)
reduces to:
@U
x
C
s

@x

@
@y
K
y
@C
s
@y
_ _

@
@z
K
z
@C
s
@z
_ _
E
s
2
The following boundary and initial conditions are also
used:
at x 0; C0; j; k 0
at y 0;
@C
@y
0
at y W;
@C
@y
0
at z 0;
@C
@z
0
at z mixing length;
@C
@z
0
3
W and mixing height are shown in Figure 3.
Solution of Mathematical Model
For solving the above model, the nite difference
method is used in this article. We divide the air space
into an array of boxes and write an equation of
conservation of mass for each box (as for a differ-
ential element of uid). Consider a volume of uid
Figure 2 Mass balance for an unknown cell.
MATLAB-BASED AIR POLLUTION MODELING 303
with sides Dx, Dy, and Dz located at a point i 1, j,
k. Properties at the point i, j, k are known but those in
the i1 plane are unknown. Conservation of mass for
the element of fluid at i1, j, k, may be written as:
U
x
k
C
s
i1;j;k
DyDz K
y

k
DxDz C
s
i1;j;k
C
s
i1;j1;k
_ _
=Dy
K
y

k
DxDz C
s
i1;j;k
C
s
i1;j1;k
_ _
=Dy
K
z

k1=2
DxDy C
s
i1;j;k
C
s
i1;j;k1
_ _
=Dz
K
z

k1=2
DxDy C
s
i1;j;k
C
s
i1;j;k1
_ _
=
Dz U
x
k
C
s
i;j;k
DyDz E
s
DyDz
4
where values of wind speed and eddy diffusivity are
presumed known. This is an explicit algebraic formula
and may be unstable in some conditions. The stability
condition for this system is [11]:
Dx
U
x
2K
z
5
Dy
2

1
Dz
2
_ _ 5
More details on the approach we employed to solve
this system of equations will be given later in a
separate section (Program Description). We discuss
first the different atmospheric parameters employed in
the program.
Atmospheric Parameters Used
in the Program
Atmospheric conditions are a driving force in the
formation, dispersion and transport of pollutant
plumes. For solving Equation (4), we need atmo-
spheric parameters like, wind speed, plume rise,
stability category, dispersion coefcients, surface
roughness and other parameters. Required equations
and values for determining these parameters are given
below:
Atmospheric Stability. Stability of the atmosphere
varies hourly, but for modeling purposes and for
short time periods (13 h) a constant and representa-
tive atmospheric stability was assumed [9]. In the
proposed program, three classes of atmosphere
stability (neutral, stable and unstable) are considered.
Atmospheric stability is calculated by using the
following Equation (6):
L
u
3
C
p
rT
kgH
n
6
In Equation (6), u* is the friction velocity, C
p
is the
specific heat of air, T is the air temperature, k is
Karmans constant (k 0.4), g is the gravitational
constant and H
n
is the net heat that enters the
atmosphere. H
n
for a neutral atmosphere is 0, for a
stable atmosphere is 42 and for an unstable atmo-
sphere is 175 [4]. We note that L (Monion-Obukhov
length) is simply the height above the ground at which
the production of turbulence by both mechanical and
boundary forces is equal [2] and has the units of
length.
Surface Roughness and Friction Velocity. It is
convenient to introduce a drag coefcient, c
g
, based
on the geostrophic wind, u
g
, such that
u

c
g
u
g
7
The geostrophic drag coefficient is a function of the
surface Rossby Number (R
0
u
g
=fZ
0
) and L, where f
is the Coriolis parameter of the earth and Z
0
is surface
roughness. Lettau suggests the following empirical
relationship for a neutral atmosphere [12]:
c
g

0:16
log
10
R
0
1:8
8
For stable and unstable atmosphere it must be
multiplied by 0.6 and 1.2, respectively. Values of
Roughness length (Z
0
) and friction velocity (u*)
for several different land surfaces are presented in
[10].
Plume Rise. When the air contaminants are emitted
from a stack, they rise above the stack before drifting
a signicant distance downwind. The effective stack
height H is not only the physical stacks height h
s
but
include also the plume rise (Fig. 3)
H h
s
dh 9
The stack height used in the calculations must be the
effective stack height. Usually, Briggs Equation (10)
and Hollands Equation (1) are used for the prediction
of plume rise. Briggs and Hollands equations are
given by Equations (10) and (11), respectively.
dh
114CF
1=3
u
; F
v
s
gD
2
T
s
T
a

4T
a
;
C 1:58 41:4
Dy
Dz
10
dh
v
s
D
u
1:5 2:68 10
3
PD
T
s
T
a

T
s
_ _
11
where v
s
is stack exit velocity (m/s), D is stack
diameter (m), u is wind velocity (m/s) measured or
calculated at the height, h
s
, P is pressure (mbar), T
s
is
304 FATEHIFAR, ELKAMEL, AND TAHERI
stack gas temperature (K), T
a
is atmospheric tem-
perature (8K) and Dy/Dyz is the potential temperature
difference (8K/m). The Briggs and Hollands equa-
tion predictions are compared to the experimental data
of Snyder [13]. It can be seen (Fig. 4) that both
equations do not provide good predictions. Therefore,
we have attempted to modify Hollands equation in
order to get a better coefficient set. The modification
has been done using regression, and the modified
equations are:
For h
s
< 35 dhdhHolland Eq:32:420:8576 h
s
For h
s
< 80 dhdhHolland Eq:10:15270:3135h
s
For h
s
> 80 dhdhHolland Eq:12:390:17 h
s
(12)
Figure 3 shows the comparison of modied Holland
equation with experimental data and Holland and
Briggs equations. As shown, there is good agreement
between the modied Holland equation and experi-
mental data. The preceding calculations are suitable
for neutral conditions. For unstable conditions, Dh
should be increased by a factor of 1.11.2, and for
stable conditions, Dh should be decreased by a factor
of 0.80.9 [1].
Wind Velocity and Dispersion Coefficients. Wind
speed and eddy diffusivities for various stability
classes used in this paper are given in Table 1.
Mixing Height. The volume available for diluting
pollutants in the atmosphere is dened by the mixing
Figure 3 Selected domain for simulation. [Color gure can be viewed in the online issue,
which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]
Figure 4 Plume rise via stack height. [Color gure can be viewed in the online issue,
which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]
MATLAB-BASED AIR POLLUTION MODELING 305
Figure 5 Matrix A for 9 grids in y-z face.
Table 1 Wind Velocity and Eddy Diffusivity for Various Stability Categories [3,6,7]
Stability Wind velocity Eddy diffusivity
In surface layer, 0<z<z
sl
Neutral
u
0:4
ln
zz0
z0
_ _
K
z

u
f
7:396 10
4
6:082 10
2 zf
u
_ _

2:532
zf
u
_ _
2
12:72
zf
u
_ _
3
15:17
zf
u
_ _
4
_ _
0
zf
u
0:45
K
z
0
zf
u

i0:45
K
y
5K
z
Stable
u
0:4
ln
zz0
z0
_ _

5:2z
L
_ _
K
z
0:4u z= 1
5:2z
L
_ _
K
y
6K
z
Unstable
u
0:4
2tan
1
x tan
1
x
0
ln
x1
x01
_ _
ln
x1
x01
_ _
_
_
_
_
x 1 15z z
0
=L
1=4
; x
0
1 15 z
0
=L
1=4
K
z
0:4u z 1
15z
6L
_ _
1=4
K
y
2K
z
Upper surface layer, z
sl
<z <z
m
Neutral u
g
u
sl

zzsl
zmzsl
_ _
0:2
u
sl
K
z
K
z
at z Z
sl
K
y
5K
z
Stable u
g
u
sl

zzsl
zmzsl
_ _ _ _
0:5
u
sl
K
z
0:4 u L
K
y
6K
z
Unstable u
g
u
sl

zzsl
zmzsl
_ _ _ _
0:2
u
sl
K
z
160u
2
1
6;000u
L
_ _
1=4
K
y
2K
z
306 FATEHIFAR, ELKAMEL, AND TAHERI
height. The relation between stability classes and
mixing height is given in Beychok [14].
Program Description
If the following equalities are substituted in Equation
(4):
uDyDz a
K
y
DxDz=Dy e
K
z
DxDy=Dz f
13
We get a system of linear equations that can be written
in compact form as:
AC D 14
where A is a coefcient matrix, C is the matrix of
concentrations and D is the matrix of known
concentrations at a previous face plus the emission
rate into the grid under consideration. Figure 5 shows
the form of matrix A for 9 grids in the y-z face.
Figure 6 shows a flowchart of the computational
procedure employed in the MATLAB program to
obtain the pollution concentration matrix [C]. First the
meteorological data, stack characteristics data and the
domain selection are input to the program through an
interactive user interface. Equation (13) and Table 1
are used to calculate eddy diffusivity and necessary
parameters for the calculation of the elements of
matrix A. The plume rise is calculated using Equation
(12). Finally, the results are provided in an easy to
visualize graphical form. For improving performance
of the program, vector operations and memory pre-
allocation have been employed.
SIMULATION RUNS AND
PROGRAM VERIFICATION
In order to verify the predictions of the program, a
comparison of program output with experimental data
collected from the literature [13] is presented. Table 2
shows the stack parameters that were used to perform
various simulations. Figure 7 shows a comparison
between experimental data, the Gaussian simulation
Figure 6 Flowchart of program.
MATLAB-BASED AIR POLLUTION MODELING 307
model and the program results. As can be seen, there
is good agreement between the experimental data and
simulation results of the proposed model in compar-
ison with the Gaussian model. Figure 8 shows
pollution dispersion for the stack under conditions
that we described in Table 2.
EFFECT OF PARAMETERS
Effects of meteorological parameters like atmospheric
stability, wind velocity, air temperature, surface
roughness and dispersion coefcient on pollutants
dispersion can be easily studied using the program.
The use of the program to study the effect of stack
parameters like exit temperature, exit velocity, stack
height and exit concentration will also be illustrated in
this section.
Effect of atmospheric stability: As Figure 9
shows, distribution of pollutants is better for unstable
conditions and pollutants do not go far from the
stacks.
Effect of exit velocity: When exit velocity
increases, plume rise increases and dispersion of
pollutant increases and finally ground level concen-
tration decreases. Figure 10 shows the effect of exit
velocity on the dispersion of pollutants.
Figure 7 (ac) Vertical concentration as function of stack height measured at 750 m
downwind of stack, (d) longitudinal ground-level concentration prole for stack
height 25 m, KCUH
b
2
/Q and H
b
50 m. [Color figure can be viewed in the online
issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]
Table 2 Stack Parameters
Stack height (m) 75
Stack diameter (m) 6
Exit velocity (m/s) 20
Exit temperature (8K) 418
Emission rate (g/s) 1
Wind speed at stack top (m/s) 13.4
Ambient temperature (8K) 298
Surface roughness (m) 0.2
Boundary layer height (m) 360
Stability category Neutral
308 FATEHIFAR, ELKAMEL, AND TAHERI
Effect of exit temperature: When exit temperature
increases, density of gases decreases and gases go to
upper layers and ground level concentration decreases.
Effect of wind velocity: Figure 11 shows the effect
of wind velocity on pollutant dispersion. As can be
seen, pollution dispersion decreases when wind
velocity increases and pollutants go far from the
stacks region.
Effect of air temperature: The dispersion of
pollutants increases with increasing temperature and
Figure 8 Effect of atmospheric stability on pollutant dispersion. (1) SO
2
concentration
distribution at ground level. (2) CO concentration distribution at Mixing height. (3) NO
x
concentration distribution at ground level. (4) TH concentration distribution at ground
level. (5) SO
2
concentration distribution at Mixing height. (6) CO concentration
distribution at Mixing height. (7) NO
x
concentration distribution at X2 km. (8) TH
concentration distribution at X2 km. (9) SO
2
concentration distribution at X12 km.
(10) TH concentration distribution at X12 km. [Color figure can be viewed in the online
issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]
MATLAB-BASED AIR POLLUTION MODELING 309
the pollutants come down near the stack region.
Increase in dispersion happens because, when tempe-
rature increases, the dispersion coefficient increases.
Effect of exit concentration: The ground level
concentration increases with increasing exit concen-
tration.
Effect of stack height: Figure 7 shows the effect
of stack height on pollutant dispersion. The ground
level concentration decreases with increasing stack
height.
The above simulation runs clearly illustrate the
utility of the program in helping decision makers
about air pollution control and the effects of different
variables on pollution dispersion. For instance, the
following observations can be made based on the
simulation runs presented earlier:
Figure 8 (Continued)
Figure 9 Effect of atmospheric stability on pollutant dispersion.
310 FATEHIFAR, ELKAMEL, AND TAHERI
1. Under winter conditions, places that are far
from the stacks observe higher pollutant con-
centrations, while under summer conditions
places near the stack get affected the most.
2. By increasing stack heights, pollutants go up
into the atmospheric layer and pollution gets
dispersed over a wider region and ground level
concentration decreases.
3. Increasing exit velocity and temperature for
stacks emissions causes a decrease in ground
level concentrations.
4. Decreasing exit concentration can also be
obtained by reducing the emission rates. This
can be achieved for instance by installing
control devices and/or redesigning factories by
using new technologies.
CONCLUSION
In this study, a three-dimensional simulation
MATLAB program for multi-pollutants dispersion
from an industrial stack has been presented. This
program is based on a Multiple Cell Model approach.
The program solves a system of partial differential
equations using the nite difference method. Various
simulation runs were conducted using the program
and comparisons with experimental data and Gaussian
model were presented. Several examples on the
effects of meteorological parameters (i.e., wind
velocity, ambient air temperature, atmospheric stabi-
lity and surface roughness) on pollutant dispersion
were illustrated using the program. The effect of stack
parameters like, stack exit temperature, concentration
Figure 11 Effect of wind velocity on pollutant dispersion. [Color gure can be viewed in
the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]
Figure 10 Effect of exit velocity on pollutant dispersion. [Color gure can be viewed in
the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.wiley.com.]
MATLAB-BASED AIR POLLUTION MODELING 311
and velocity and stack height was also illustrated
using the program. The program can be used as a
training tool in an air pollution course to study the
effects of air temperature, dispersion coefcients, exit
temperature, stack height, exit velocity, wind velocity
and exit concentration on pollution dispersion.
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BIOGRAPHIES
Esmaeil Fatehifar is an assistant professor of
chemical engineering at Sahand University of
Technology, Tabriz, Iran, where is also
presently head of the Environmental Engi-
neering Research Center (EERC). He
received his PhD and MS from the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering at Shiraz
University and his BS from Sahand University
of Technology. Dr. Fatehifar was also a
visiting scholar in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Waterloo. Dr. Fatehifar research interests are in air
pollution modeling and control, environmental engineering, and
mathematical modeling and simulation. He is the author of several
publications in these fields.
Ali Elkamel is a faculty member in the
Department of Chemical Engineering at the
University of Waterloo. Prior to joining
the University of Waterloo, he served at
Purdue University, Procter and Gamble,
Kuwait University, and the University of
Wisconsin. His research has focused on the
applications of systems engineering and
optimization techniques to pollution pro-
blems and sustainable development.
Mansoor Taheri is a professor of chemical
engineering at the University of Shiraz,
Shiraz, Iran. He received his PhD from
Pennsylvania State University. His research
has focused on air pollution control, energy
saving, and transport phenomena. He is
author of Environmental Engineering,
Volume 1: Heating and Air Conditioning.
He has published more than 30 papers in
these fields. Professor Taheri has supervised
several masters and PhD students. He was selected as a Chemical
Engineer of the Year 2002 by the Iranian Society of Chemists &
Chemical Engineers. He was also a Distinguished Professor of
Shiraz University in 2002.
312 FATEHIFAR, ELKAMEL, AND TAHERI