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Petroleum Development Oman L.L.C.

Health Safety Environment & SD


Specification for Ionising Raiation
User Note:
The requirements of this document are mandatory. Non-compliance shall only be authorised by
the Document Owner or his Delegate through STEP-OUT approval.
controlled copy of the current version of this document is on !DO"s #D$%. &efore ma'ing
reference to this document( it is the user"s responsibility to ensure that any hard copy( or
electronic copy( is current. )or assistance( contact the Document Custodian or the Document
Controller.
Users are encouraged to participate in the ongoing improvement of this document by providing
constructive feedback.
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"hey also apply to this Document#
$%RES"RIC"ED Document ID& SP'()*+
Oct'(, -iling .ey& /usiness Control
Petroleum Development Oman LLC
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i Document 0uthorisation
0uthorise -or Issue
Document 0uthorisation
Document 0uthority
1C-DH2
Document Custoian Document Controller
Dr %uad l-5am'i
7ead of Occupational 7ealth
*ef. 0nd: $%#2.
Date: , $ay +-,,
&rett 8oung
%enior 0ndustrial 7ygienist 9
4orporate *adiation )ocal !oint
*ef. 0nd: $%#2.+
Date: , $ay +-,,
&rett 8oung
%enior 0ndustrial 7ygienist 9
4orporate *adiation )ocal !oint
*ef. 0nd: $%#2.+
Date: , $ay +-,,
!age . %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
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ii Revision History
The following is a brief summary of the 3 most recent revisions to this document. Details of all
revisions prior to these are held on file by the issuing department.
3ersion %o. Date 0uthor Scope 4 Remar5s
:ersion +.-
,2 ,,2+-,- &rett 8oung
*ef. 0nd: $%#2.+
4hanges to ma;imum source si<e
0ncorporates *!% into 4ontractors
0ncorporates !t=( *adiography 4ertificate and
>ob %pecific 7%# plan for all radiography wor'
larming dose meters for 4lassified *adiation
=or'ers
Notification of lost or abandoned sources to
$#4
:ersion ,.-
,?2-+2+--+ =ayne ustin
*ef. 0nd: 4%$2.+
Date: -,2-,2-+
0nitial issue. %upersedes:
7%#-%$: 4h 3( s 1.- @*ev.,( Oct-A1B and 4h
,+( s..C.1 @*ev.-( Oct-A1BD
O7$E: %ection +( EN,. @,AA1B
iii Relate /usiness Processes
Coe /usiness Process 1EP/6 ,.72
iv Relate Corporate 6anagement -rame 8or5 1C6-2 Documents
The related 4$) Documents can be retrieved from the 4orporate &usiness 4ontrol Documentation
*egister TAXI.
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"0/LE O- CO%"E%"S
i Document uthorisation........................................................................................................ .
ii *evision 7istory.................................................................................................................... 3
iii *elated &usiness !rocesses................................................................................................. 3
iv *elated 4orporate $anagement )rame =or' @4$)B Documents.........................................3
, 0ntroduction............................................................................................................................ /
,., !urpose........................................................................................................................... /
,.+ %cope.............................................................................................................................. /
,.. Definitions........................................................................................................................ /
,..., Units................................................................................................................................ ?
,.3 &asic *ules for using radioactive materials.....................................................................?
,.C 5egal and Other *equirements........................................................................................ A
,.1 Deliverables..................................................................................................................... A
,.1., *ecords..................................................................................................................... A
,.1.+ *eports..................................................................................................................... A
,./ *eview and 0mprovement................................................................................................ A
+ !erformance *equirements................................................................................................. ,-
+., !erformance $onitoring................................................................................................ ,-
. Organisation 9 *esponsibilities........................................................................................... ,+
.., *adiation dvisory 4ommittee....................................................................................... ,+
..+ 4orporate *adiation )ocal !oint.................................................................................... ,+
..1 Directors and !roFect $anagers.................................................................................... ,3
../ 4orporate )unctional Discipline 7eads......................................................................... ,3
..? 4ontract 7olders............................................................................................................ ,3
..A 4ontractors and %ub-4ontractors.................................................................................. ,C
3 *adiation %afety $anagement %ystem............................................................................... ,1
C 0mport.................................................................................................................................. ,/
C., *adioactive %ource %hielding........................................................................................ ,/
C.+ *adioactive %ource $ovement 4ontrol.........................................................................,?
1 Transport............................................................................................................................. ,A
1., Eeneral *equirements.................................................................................................. ,A
1.+ $inisterial Decree *equirements for Transport of *adioactive $aterials......................,A
1.. dditional *equirements for Transport of *adioactive %ubstances...............................+-
/ %torage................................................................................................................................ ++
/., $inisterial Decree @$D +3A2A/B *equirements for %torage of *adioactive $aterials....++
/.+ dditional *equirements for the %torage of *adioactive %ources.................................++
/.. *adioactive %ource 0ntegrity $onitoring........................................................................+.
/.3 G-ray #quipment............................................................................................................ +.
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? Use...................................................................................................................................... +1
?., Eeneral *equirements.................................................................................................. +1
?.+ Occupational Dose 5imits.............................................................................................. +/
?.. Dosimetric 4ontrol......................................................................................................... +?
?.3 =or' rea 4lassification and #ntry *estriction..............................................................+?
?.C 0nstruments.................................................................................................................... +A
?.1 Training.......................................................................................................................... +A
?./ $edical 4ontrol.............................................................................................................. .-
?.? Design and Use of %hielded #nclosures @)i;ed )acilitiesB.............................................-
A Disposal............................................................................................................................... .,
A., bandonment of *adioactive $aterials @stuc' in-hole while loggingB.............................,
,-. #mergency *esponse......................................................................................................... .+
,,. *eferences.......................................................................................................................... ..
ppendi; *adioactive %ource 4onsignment Note.........................................................3
ppendi; & H %torage )acility Design........................................................................................ .1
ppendi; 4 H *adiography %upplementary 4ertificate................................................................A
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( Introuction
(.( Purpose
This %pecification describes !DO"s requirements for managing radioactive materials and
generators of ionising radiation to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of
ionising radiation.
(.) Scope
This %pecification applies to all !DO( 4ontractor and %ub-4ontractor activities involving
ionising radiation and outlines the requirements to be fulfilled.
The %pecification does not apply to non-ionising radiation such as microwave(
radiofrequency( ultraviolet( visible light and infrared radiation.
This %pecification does not address Naturally Occurring *adioactive $aterials @NO*$B
which is covered in %!-,,/-( 7%# %pecification - $anagement of Naturally Occurring
*adioactive $aterials.
(.* Definitions
%ources of ionising radiation used within !DO can be divided into:
,. Seale sources& 4hemical sources emitting gamma rays and2or neutrons @Used in well
logging( fluid density( phase and thic'ness measurements and industrial radiographyB.
+. $nseale sources& *adioactive tracers @used in production flow investigationsB.
.. 9enerators& G-ray equipment such as those used in production chemical @G-ray
fluorescence G*)B( industrial radiography and medical imaging and miniature particle
accelerators @$initronB emitting high energy neutrons @used in well loggingB.
Ionising Raiation: *adiation that produces ionisation in matter. #;amples are alpha
particles( beta particles( gamma-rays( G-rays and neutrons( often denoted by I( J-( K( G- and
n-radiation respectively.
Raioactive materials& are defined in Oman as any material with an activity concentration
greater than ,-- '&q2'g @,-- &q2gB.
Classifie Raiological 8or5er& 0ndividuals who through the course of their wor' are li'ely
to receive an annual dose equal or greater than + m%v2year. !ersonal monitoring and
medical surveillance are mandatory for radiological wor'ers.
Controlle 0rea& n area where immediate dose rates can e;ceed /.C L%v2h. Only
4lassified radiation wor'ers shall enter into 4ontrolled reas.
Supervise 0rea& n area where the immediate dose rate e;ceeds +.C L%v2h but does not
e;ceed /.C L%v2h.
Seale Source& radioactive substance sealed in a container which has sufficient
mechanical strength to prevent contact with and dispersion of the radioactive material under
the conditions of use and wear for which it was designed.
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(.*.( $nits
&ecquerel @&qB is the %.0. unit for the quantity of radioactivity defined as equal to one nuclear
disintegration per second.
4urie @4iB is the traditional unit for measurement of radioactivity based on the activity of one
gram of radium( i.e. ./ billion disintegrations per second.
, &ecquerel( &q M +/ p4i @+/ ; ,-
-,+
4iB
, 4urie( 4i M ./ E&q @./ ; ,-
A
&qB
The Eray is the %0 unit of absorbed radiation dose due to ioni<ing radiation. The gray
measures the deposited energy of radiation. The biological effects vary by the type and
energy of the radiation and the organism and tissues involved. The equivalent dose to a
tissue is found by multiplying the absorbed dose( in gray( by a dimensionless Nquality factorO
Q @%0 unit %ievertB. The dose in %ievert M Dose in gray ; =r. The radiation =eighting factors
for alpha particles is +-( for neutrons appro;imately ,- and for gamma rays( G-rays and beta
particles ,.
"a:le (& $nits
;uantity $nits Relationship
Ol %e!
*adioactivity 4urie 4i &equeral &q , 4i M ./ ; ,-
A
&q
Dose *ad Ey ,-- *ad M , Ey
#quivalent Dose *em %v ,-- *em M , %v
, *em M ,- m%v
, milli*em M ,- u%v
4ontrolled rea m*em2h u%v2h -./Cm*em2h M /.C u%v2h
%upervised rea m*em2h u%v2h -.+Cm*em2h M +.C u%v2h
(., /asic Rules for using raioactive materials
n increase in a personPs e;posure to ioni<ing radiation( even at low doses( is assumed to
increase the ris' of harm to that personPs health. !DO( 4ontractors and %ub-4ontractors
shall Fustify the use of radioactive materials. No practice of using radioactive materials shall
be authorised unless the practice produces a positive net benefit !"ustification of a #roacti$e
or cost-benefit #rinci#le%
#very radiation employer( in relation to any wor' with ionising radiation( must ta'e all
necessary steps to restrict e;posures to s 5ow s *easonably !racticable( economic and
social factors being ta'en into account !O#timisation of #rotection or A&A'P #rinci#le%
The decision to use radioactive sources or generators over non radioactive sources or
techniques requires a written ris' assessment to demonstrate the Fustification and that the
ris's to 7%# are 5*!. This applies to fi;ing radioactive sources in !DO locations( running
radioactive sources( tracers and pip tags down-hole and using radiography over techniques
such as uto Ultrasonic and Ultrasonic Time of )light Diffraction.
The effective dose to individuals shall not e;ceed the limits recommended. !Dose and risk
limitation #rinci#le% 4ontrols for protecting persons against e;posure to radiation shall be
aimed at utilising the smallest source suitable to underta'e the Fob( minimising the time of
e;posure( ma;imising the distance and shielding from the radiation source( utilising
competent( trained personnel and ensuring no one can ingest or inhale radioactive materials.
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(.< Legal an Other Re=uirements
5egal requirements for the import( transport( storage or use of radioactive materials in the
%ultanate of Oman are established in $inisterial Decree - $D +3A2A/ O*egulations for the
4ontrol and $anagement of *adioactive $aterialsO. This $inisterial Decree is administered
by the $inistry for #nvironment and 4limate ffairs @$#4B.
Oman is a $ember of the 0nternational tomic #nergy gency @0#B. The 0# has
developed a comprehensive list of safety standards of which Oman has incorporated the
*egulations for the %afe Transport of *adioactive $aterials into $D+3A2A/.
The $inistry of $anpower Occupational 7ealth and %afety *egulations in the !rivate %ector
also includes a section on ionising radiation and dose limits which have been incorporated
into this %pecification.
ny Organisation dealing with radioactive materials shall establish an internal radiation
management system including staff structure with well defined responsibilities( written
procedures of wor'( quality assurance procedures( staff training and emergency procedures
so as to meet the $inistryPs and !DOPs requirements.
0n addition( !DO will adhere to recommendations of the 0nternational 4ommission on
*adiological !rotection provided these recommendations meet or e;ceed the requirements
of $D +3A2A/.
(.> Delivera:les
1.6.1 Recors
*ecords shall be maintained to document the implementation of this %pecification and shall
be outlined in the 4ontractors 2 %ub-4ontractors *adiation %afety $anagement %ystem and
safe wor'ing procedures. *ecords shall include a register of radiological wor'ers( personal
radiation dose rates( site audits and inspection reports( registration of radioactive materials
and radiation generators( wipe testing( transportation( storage and inspection measurements
and disposal or return to manufacturer.
1.6.2 Reports
ny non-compliance with this %pecification shall be notified to the !DO !roFect $anager(
4ontract 7older or !rincipal 4ontractor in relation to %ub-4ontractors. !ending the severity
of the non-compliance an investigation shall be underta'en and the findings reported as
above. )urther information on reporting non-conformances is outlined in 4!-,++ N7%#
$anagement %ystem $anualQ.
(.+ Revie! an Improvement
ny user of this document who encounters a mista'e or confusing entry is requested to
immediately notify the Document 4ustodian using the form provided in 4!-,++ N7%#
$anagement %ystem $anualQ.
This document shall be reviewed as necessary by the Document 4ustodian( but no less
frequently than every four years. Triggers for full or partial review of this %pecification are
listed in 4!-,++ N7%# $anagement %ystem $anualQ.
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) Performance Re=uirements
).( Performance 6onitoring
The responsibility for the importation( transport( storage( emergency response and use of
radioactive materials rests with the owner @custodianB referenced on the $#4 permit and shall
be subFected to performance monitoring in accordance with the owners radiation safety
management system and 4ontractual requirements.
4ontractors and sub-contractors who own and utilise radioactive materials and generators shall
be pre-approved by the 4orporate *adiation )ocal !oint 9 4)D7 prior to acceptance onto the
!DO vendor list. This will include a pre-approval audit and review of the 4ontractors2 %ub-
4ontractors *adiation %afety $anagement %ystem and safe wor'ing procedures.
).(.( Pro?ect 6anagers an Contract Holers
!roFect $anagers and 4ontract 7olders shall underta'e regular audits of contractors handling(
storing or transporting radioactive materials and generators for !DO activities. The audit
program shall include a review of the owners *adiation %afety $anagement %ystem and
!rocedures to demonstrate compliance with this %pecification. fter the initial start-up audit( the
period of inspections and audits conducted by the !roFect $anager or 4ontract 7older shall be
as a minimum si; monthly and shall involve personnel with radiation e;pertise @i.e. *adiation
!rotection %upervisor for that type of radioactive material and usageB. The audit findings shall be
provided by the 4ontract 7older to the 4orporate *adiation )ocal !oint @4*)!B who will present
the findings to the !DO *adiation dvisory 4ommittee @*4B.
).(.) Contractors
4ontractors importing( handling( storing and transporting radioactive materials and generators
within the !DO 4oncession rea shall underta'e their own internal audits and inspections as
part of their own quality assurance program and shall involve personnel with radiation e;pertise.
0n addition( as regular inspection program shall be developed and conducted by site personnel
on a more frequent basis. This shall be lead by the site radiation protection supervisor. The
results of the audits and inspections shall be made available directly to the 4ontract 7older(
4)D7 or !rincipal 4ontractor during third party audits. s a minimum the source owner shall
conduct audits every si; months of each location where sources are handled and stored.
).(.* Su:'Contractors
%ub-contractors importing( handling( storing and transporting radioactive materials and
generators shall be subFect to an audit and inspection program established by the $ain
4ontractor to !DO. fter the initial start-up audit( as a minimum the audits shall be conducted si;
monthly at each interior location@sB and shall involve personnel with radiation e;pertise @i.e.
*adiation !rotection %upervisor for that type of radioactive material and usageB. The sub-
contractor shall establish a regular inspection program conducted by site personnel on a more
frequent basis. This shall be lead by the site radiation protection supervisor. The $ain 4ontractor
to !DO shall provide the inspection and audit findings to the relevant !DO personnel such as the
#$42OD4 4ontract 7older or 4ompany %ite *epresentative( !DO 4)D7 or to the !DO !roFect
$anager for review not less than si; monthly. The 4ontract 7olders and2or !roFect $anagers
shall refer the audit reports to the 4*)! for peer review who will present the findings to the *4.
The 4*)! will conduct periodic audit programs of contractors and sub-contractors and review
findings with contract holders and proFect managers. The 4*)! can be requested to parta'e in
audits and inspections. 'efer Table () Performance *onitorin+ ,hich outlines roles-
res#onsibilities and accountabilities ,ith res#ect to im#lementation and o#eration.
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"a:le )& Performance 6onitoring ' R0SCI Chart
*esponsible ccountable %upport 4onsult 0nform
* % 4 0
6onitoring 0ctivity Pro?ect
6anagers
Contract
Holers
Company Site
Representatives
Contractors Su:'Contractors C-DH CR-P 0sset 4 Pro?ect
HSE "eam
!re-approval of 4ontractors and
%ub-4ontractors using
radioactive sources 9 generators
% % * 9 * 9 %
*adiation %afety udits of
4ontractors using radioactive
sources 9 generators
* 9 * 9 % % 9 0 % 9 0 %
*adiation %afety udits of %ub-
4ontractors using radioactive
sources 9 generators
0 * 9 0 0 4
Develop audit schedule and
perform internal audits as per
radiation safety manual
0 * 9 * 9
!rovide audit findings and
learningPs to 4)D7 9 4*)! for
lateral learnings
* * 0 0 %
*eview monthly T5D Dose
reports
0 0 * * 0
4ompile findings to *4
% * 9
* Organisation & Responsi:ilities
*.( Raiation 0visory Committee
The *adiation dvisory 4ommittee @*4B defines and approves !DOPs policy and2or
specifications and procedures with respect to operational and administrative management of
radiation protection. The *4 is advised by the *adiation !rotection dvisor @*! H an
e;ternal consultantB who will be the source of e;pertise for all matters concerning protection
against the ha<ards of ionising radiation.
The *4 will ensure( through development of appropriate policies( specifications( and2or
procedures(
The application of radiation protection principles laid down in the 0# &asic %afety
%tandards for protection against ionising radiation and for the safety of radiation sources
,AA1
The protection of its personnel( contractors( members of the public and the environment
against the ha<ards of e;posure to ionising radiation due to !DO wor' activities.
The avoidance of loss of sources and uncontrolled release of substances contaminated
radioactive materials.
The minimisation of radiological effects of !DO wor' activities carried out in the past.
The avoidance of the need for classified !DO radiation wor'ers( wherever reasonably
practicable.
The *4 reports to !DOPs $anaging Directors 4ommittee @$D4B and is comprised of:
4hairman O%D
4orporate *adiation )ocal !oint @acts as the *4 secretaryB $%#2. *ep.
#nvironmental dvisor $%#2+ *ep.
sset $anagers @as neededB O%O2ONO
=ell #ngineering *epresentative @as neededB U=R *ep.
*.) Corporate Raiation -ocal Point
The 4*)! will be the first source of e;pertise within !DO for matters concerning the
protection against the ha<ards of ionising radiation and shall hold a *adiation !rotection
%upervisor certificate. =hen lac'ing 'nowledge or information the 4)*! may call in the
help2advice of the *!. )urther( the 4*)!:
0s secretary to the *4.
4ommunicates with competent authority on !DO matters concerning the protection
against the ha<ards of ionising radiation.
$onitors the !DO radiation protection policy implementation.
0s current on all potential ionising radiation issues within !DO.
0s responsible and accountable for pre-approving contractors utilising radiation sources
and generators
0s the contract holder and interface to the e;ternal *!.
*.* Interior Raiation Protection Supervisors 1RPS2
ny contractor or sub-contractor utilising radioactive materials in the !DO 4oncession area
shall appoint a competent *adiation !rotection %upervisor @*!%B for each location. The *!%
will be the first source of wor'ing 'nowledge within the interior for matters concerning the
protection against the ha<ards of ionising radiation. The *!% shall be e;perienced in
monitoring routine and non-routine situations involving the type of ionising radiation they are
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handling. The *!% shall be appointed by the *adiation !rotection dvisor and endorsed by
the company management( and agreed by the operator( that he understands his role.
0n case of lac'ing 'nowledge2e;pertise or doubt *!% may directly call in the help2advice to
the contractors %enior *adiation !rotection %upervisor or appointed *adiation !rotection
dvisor.
The *!% shall be competent and fully conversant with:
%upervising wor' involving ionising radiation.
%etting up 4ontrolled or %upervised reas.
$onitoring and sampling.
Suality assurance of radiation protection.
#nsuring compliance with procedures and regulations @e.g. pac'aging( transport(
disposalB.
#mergency provisions in the event of an incident
*eporting and investigating incidents
*ecord 'eeping requirements
*., Senior Raiation Protection Supervisors 1Coastal2
ny contractor or sub-contractor utilising radioactive materials in the !DO 4oncession area
shall appoint a competent %enior *adiation !rotection %upervisor @%*!%B who shall be the
first source of radiation e;pertise within the 4ontractor and2or %ub-4ontractor. The %enior
*!% is responsible for:
$onitoring compliance with this %pecification for the storage( transport and use of
radioactive sources at all wor'sites.
)ormulation and review of wor' procedures and contingency plans( where necessary( to
ensure safe wor'ing practices and adequate emergency response.
0mplementing a comprehensive system of movement control of all sources of ionising
radiation imported into Oman( such that their location is 'nown at all times.
Organising comprehensive medical screening @as defined in this %pecificationB of all
wor'ers e;posed to ionising radiation( and maintenance of adequate medical records.
Training and monitoring of all wor'ers e;posed to ionising radiation( to ensure that they
perform their assigned wor' without endangering themselves( fellow wor'ers( members
of the public and the environment.
0mplementing adequate dosimetry control( as defined in this %pecification( for the wor'
being performed( and the maintenance of adequate records.
*igorously reviewing dosimetry recordsD
0nvestigating and reporting all incidents involving over-e;posure to ionising radiation as
defined in %ection ?.. and the 4ontractors own radiation safety manual.
0nvestigating and reporting all incidents involving the loss @even temporaryB of a source
of ionising radiation.
=hen lac'ing 'nowledge or information( the %*!% shall call upon the 4ompany appointed
*adiation !rotection dvisor @*!B for advice and assistance.
*.< Raiation Protection 0visers 1RP02 an4or Health Physicists
ll 4ontractors or %ub-4ontractors utilising radioactive materials in the performance of their
wor' for !DO shall appoint @on staff( or under contractB one suitably qualified *adiation
!rotection dviser @*!B or qualified 7ealth !hysicist to advise on matters relevant to
radiation safety for their operations in Oman. The responsibility for compliance with this
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%pecification is not delegated to the *! and remains the responsibility of the operating
organisation.
The *! provides specialist advice and technical assistance to the organisation and shall be
trained in radiation hygiene and radiation safety management. ppointed *!Ps shall be
familiar with OmanPs radiation legislation and publications from 0nternational *egulatory
&odies such as the 0# and the 04*!. The *! is responsible for:
dvising management on the implementation of the companyPs radiation safety
management system.
$onitoring compliance with this %pecification for the storage( transport and use of
radioactive sources at all wor'sites through planned inspections and audit programs.
)ormulation of safe wor'ing procedures @local rulesB and contingency plans( where
necessary( to ensure safe wor'ing practices and adequate emergency response.
Training and monitoring of all wor'ers e;posed to ionising radiation( to ensure that they
perform their assigned wor' without endangering themselves( fellow wor'ers and the
environment
!eer reviewing investigations of incidents involving over-e;posure to ionising radiation
and incidents involving the loss @even temporaryB of a source of ionising radiation.
The 4ontractor shall ensure that the *! or equivalent holds sufficient competency and
formal training in all aspects of the wor' to meet the requirements of an *!.
ll *!Ps and2or 7ealth !hysicists shall be formally trained in all aspects of the wor' and be
certified under the *!+--- assessment scheme @United TingdomB( or equivalent. 0f the
nominated *! does not fulfil the above certification requirements( the 4ontractor shall
submit a current resume for approval by the 4orporate *adiation )ocal !oint.
The *! shall be available at all times through a call-out system( but the permanent
presence of the *! at the wor'site is not required.
*.> Directors an Pro?ect 6anagers
Directors and !roFect $anagers are responsible for ensuring that the activities they control
are managed in accordance with the requirements of this %pecification. 0n the event that
circumstances prevent compliance with this %pecification( they shall see' step-out approval
through the Document 4ustodian @refer to 4! ,++ 7%# $anagement %ystem $anual( !art +
4hapter .B.
*.+ Corporate -unctional Discipline Heas
4orporate )unctional Discipline 7eads are responsible for ensuring that the requirements of
this %pecification are reflected in the documents for which they are responsible. ny 4)D7
responsible for pre-approval of contractors or sub-contractors using ionising sources shall
underta'e a pre-approval audit of the 7%# and radiation safety management system of the
contractor. The audit team shall contain personnel with radiation e;pertise to verify
compliance against the 5aw of the 5and( this %pecification and the contractors own safety
management system.
*.@ Contract Holers
4ontract 7olders are responsible for communicating this %pecification to 4ontractors( and for
ensuring that the requirements of this %pecification are adhered to within the scope of their
contracts. 4ontract 7olders shall appoint a 4ompany %ite *epresentative @4%*B who shall
be instructed and trained as required to monitor @inspect and auditB the activities of personnel
involved in wor'ing with radioactive materials. 4ontract 7olders shall ensure that all
radioactive materials have been removed and safely disposed upon the completion of the
!age ,3 %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
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contract. 0n the event that circumstances prevent compliance with this %pecification( 4ontract
7olders shall see' step-out approval @refer to 4! ,++ 7%# $anagement %ystem $anualB.
*.* Contractors an Su:'Contractors
4ontractors and %ub-4ontractors are responsible for ensuring that activities underta'en
within the scope of their contracts are managed in accordance with the requirements of this
%pecification and the $inisterial Decrees. This may include any or all of the following:
developing a radiation safety management system and safe wor'ing procedures to
'eep e;posures to ionising radiation to 5*!D
obtaining all necessary permits and authori<ationsD
construction of shielded enclosures at permanent facilities2wor'shops for minimising
radiation e;posures( allowing controlled radiography through day operations
appointing competent *adiation !rotection dvisor and site based *!%PsD
providing consultation and appropriate training for employees who may be e;posed
to radiation in their wor'D
ensuring that a plan for the control of e;posure to radiation is developed( in
consultation with the e;posed wor'force( and that it is followedD
developing and implementing a plan for monitoring e;posure to radiation and for
estimating doses received by those e;posedD
ensuring that doses estimated to have been received by employees comply with the
relevant dose limits and are consistent with any applicable dose constraintsD
ensuring that doses estimated to have been received by members of the public from
the operation comply with the public dose limits or any applicable public dose
constraintsD
developing a plan for dealing with incidents( accidents and emergencies involving
e;posure to radiationD
'eeping records relating to radiation e;posure resulting from the operationD and
providing copies of dose records to employees on request and at the termination of
their employment.
Disposing of radioactive materials in accordance with the $inisterial !ermit and
0# requirements and maintaining records to document safe disposal.
*.(7 Raiological 8or5ers
#mployees are responsible for observing radiation safety practices( as set out in the
*adiation %afety $anual and comply with the relevant safe wor' procedures. #mployees
shall be consulted and participate in the development of safe wor'ing procedures and >ob
7%# !lans for controlling radiation in the wor'place.
prospective employee should assist the prospective employer by providing the employeePs
previous occupational radiation dose history. =here an employee suspects he has received
a dose above the limits @%ection ?..B he shall notify the %ite in 4harge @%04B or *adiation
!rotection %upervisor @*!%B immediately. #mployees shall report all defective or faulty
equipment and shall report non-conformances to the %04 or *!%. Under no circumstances
shall a radiological wor'er perform their wor' without wearing a T5D or )ilm badge.
!ersonnel found wor'ing without their T5D badge shall be e;cluded from all wor' involving
ionising sources until the T5D or an authori<ed replacement is provided.
!age ,C %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
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, Raiation Safety 6anagement System
Owners of radioactive sources for use for !DO activities shall develop a comprehensive radiation
safety management system that incorporates quality assurance and outlines:
The Organisational chart and allocated responsibilities
0mportation of radioactive materials or generators
Transportation
%torage @within $uscat and interior locationsB
Training
Operations and maintenance activities @including >ob 7%# !lans to be attached to the !t=B
Dosimetry and 0nstrumentation
Disposal
#mergency *esponse.
0n addition( the owner shall have documentation referred to as Nccompanying DocumentsQ which
shall be provided with the apparatus intended for the users. The documentation is divided into five
categories:
,. Description and technical characteristics of the apparatus and sources includingD
suitable photos or drawings to allow identification of the main elements and parts of the
apparatus
e;planation of the operation( with reference to diagrams( indicating the sequence by which
the source assembly is partially or completely outside of the e;posure container or
e;posure head.
%pecification of characteristics of sealed sources that can be used in the e;posure
container
*etention device of the source holder
+. 4ertificates of the manufacturer to show compliance with the 0nternational standard e.g.
0%O+A,A
.. 0nstructions for use includingD
instructions for assembling the various parts of the apparatus in its various configurations
instructions on the storage of the container
instructions on the use of protective caps( plugs or similar devices on the apparatus while
not in use( so as to avoid accidental penetration by foreign bodies
3. 0nspection( maintenance and repair procedures includingD
instructions on replacing the loaded source assembly and the pac'aging of the decayed
sources for transport and disposal
instructions on the procedure and frequency of maintenance operations
instructions for chec'ing the apparatus for internal cleanliness( deformation( brea'age or
wear
0nstructions to be followed in the event of foreseeable accidents( with an indication of their
probable causes.
C. 0nstructions for disposal includingD
when the sealed source and e;posure containers have reached the end of their wor'ing
life( they shall be disposed of in a safe and proper way in accordance with the permit and
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regulations for the control of radioactive materials( in particular for pac'aging and
transportation.
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< Import
The appropriate shipping certificate and permit as per the requirements of $D +3A2A/ shall
accompany all imports of radioactive materials.
*ecords of the import of radioactive materials shall be 'ept. %uch records shall include:
Owner @4ustodianB Name
%ealed or unsealed
*adioactive nuclide @substanceB and activity @&qB
Type of radiation 9 half-life
Transport 0nde; in designated transport shield
!urpose of source
Date of receipt
%torage location
%imilarly( the records of the importation of G-ray or Neutron generators shall be 'ept(
including the following information:
4ustodian company.
#quipment reference code or type identification.
Type of energy emitted @G-ray or NeutronB.
$a;imum beam voltage @G-ray equipmentB.
!urpose of generator.
Date of receipt.
%torage location.
=here 0r ,A+ is used as a gamma source for NDT( it shall not e;ceed a strength of ,.,,T&q
@.- 4uriesB on site without written approval from the !DO 4orporate *adiation )ocal !oint.
The 4ontract 7older or !roFect $anager shall submit a ris' assessment including additional
controls in the event of a step out request to utilise larger sources @U .- 4iB for heavy wall
piping or Fustify why alternate NDT techniques such as uto Ultrasonics cannot be utilised.
<.( Raioactive Source Shieling
$D +3A2A/ requires that:
!ac'aging of all radioactive materials shall be in accordance with 0nternational tomic
#nergy gency @0#B regulations regarding transport( and any requirements of the
$#4. =here the supplier provides pac'aging( the organisation shall obtain copies of
approval certificates and submit them to the $#4. 0n cases where the supplier does
not pac' the material( $#4 approval shall be obtained before use.
The international classification and radiation dose limitation on Type and Type &
pac'ages shall conform to a ma;imum dose rate of + m%v2h at the surface and transport
inde; ,- for each pac'age.
!ac'ages of radioactive materials shall be labelled as per 0# regulations.
ccordingly:
%election of sealed radioactive sources shall be as per 0%O +A,A.
ll radioactive sources shall be contained in shields which:
- reduce the ma;imum radiation level to + m%v2h at the shield surface and -., m%v2h
at , meter from the surface.
- maintain their shielding properties at ?--V4
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- have adequate security loc's preventing access to the source by unauthorised
persons.
- carry permanent labelling with the following information:
- type of radioactive material @nuclideB.
- activity @in &qB.
- the word O*D0O4T0:#O in clear and indelible print( in #nglish and rabic.
- the Trefoil radiation sign in blac' on a yellow bac'ground.
- the custodian"s name and contact telephone in Oman.
- 4lass / Diamond( UN Number and Transport 0nde;
- !roFectors shall have the source plate properly fi;ed to the container. @=ire
attachment handle is not acceptableB
ll sources and their shields shall be certified by an 0# 4ertificate of 4ompetent
uthority( issued by the regulatory agency in its country of origin.
<.) Raioactive Source 6ovement Control
%ource owners shall trac' and maintain reports of source movements within the !DO
4oncession area and shall at any time be able to advise the 4ontract 7older( 4*)! or
$inistry officials of the source location.
*adioactive %ource 4onsignment Note shall be completed for each movement of
radioactive materials from $uscat to interior locations and return of sources moved from one
interior storage location to another for use will also require completion of the %ource
4onsignment Note e.g. )ahud to 8ibal. @*efer ppendi; B.
%ources used within the sset they are registered for use do not need daily completion of the
%ource 4onsignment Note( however a logging system containing the above information must
be implemented to verify source movement and usage by the *adiation %tore $anager or
%ite in 4harge and approved users.
The following information shall be maintained:
4ontract Number wor'ing under
4ontractor2%ub-4ontractor details
$#4 !ermit Number
pproved storage location
Date of arrival on !DO site
%ource serial number
*adionuclide@sB
%i<e of source on-site @4i 9 &qB
Date of last wipe test and ne;t due
%ite *!% Name and 4ontact number
The %ite *adiation !rotection %upervisor of each storage facility shall maintain a log for each
source stored containing the following information:
Type and serial number of the source.
Date and time out of store.
Destination of source.
%ignature of person removing source.
Date and time of return.
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%ignature of person returning source.
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> "ransport
>.( 9eneral Re=uirements
!DOPs 7%# %pecification H *oad Transport %!+--- describes !DO"s minimum requirements for
managing road transport safety. 0t describes the minimum requirements for driver qualifications(
vehicle standards( and >ourney management including the route of delivery. 0t is the consignorPs
responsibility to comply with the transportation rules.
The following shall apply specifically to the transport of radioactive materials.
>.) 6inisterial Decree Re=uirements for "ransport of Raioactive
6aterials
$D +3A2A/ requires:
Transportation of radioactive materials into or out of the %ultanate of Oman shall be
carried out in accordance with the 0# *egulations for the %afe Transport of *adioactive
$aterials T%-*-, @+--AB.
Transportation of radioactive materials within the %ultanate of Oman is only allowed by
land. Transport by post or internal flights are not allowed.
:ehicles used for the transport of radioactive materials within the %ultanate of Oman must
obtain approval of the Directorate Eeneral of 4ivil Defence @*O!B before being used.
The limitations for the transport of radioactive materials shall be as follows:
- the ma;imum dose at any point on the outer surface of any vehicle loaded with
radioactive materials shall be + m%v2h
- the ma;imum dose rate at one metre distance from the outer surface of any vehicle
carrying radioactive materials shall be -., m%v2h
- the ma;imum dose rate at the driverPs seat shall be +.C %v2h unless he is
classified( ta'ing into account the time for the trip.
- any radioactive pac'ages must be placed in tightly sealed containers( securely fi;ed
to the vehiclePs floor and padloc'ed. The container must be placed in a manner that
minimises the dose rate at the driverPs seat and should not be close to the rear of
the vehicle.
- no radioactive material shall be 'ept in the driverPs compartment of the vehicle.
- nobody is allowed to travel with any radioactive consignment other than the driver
and those authorised to do so.
- agricultural products( livestoc'( flammable materials or e;plosives shall not be
transported as part of a radioactive materials consignment.
:ehicles carrying radioactive materials shall be labelled on both sides and the rear
indicating that radioactive materials are being carried. The labels shall be in rabic and
#nglish. The labels shall be removed when the vehicle is not carrying radioactive
materials.
#ach consignment of radioactive materials transported into Oman by air shall be
accompanied by a %hipperPs 0T Dangerous Eoods certificate.
ny movement of radioactive materials from $uscat to the !DO concession area by
road shall be recorded using a Raioactive Source Consignment %ote 1See
0ppeniA 02 or a similarly !DO approved transport certificate and include a "remcar.
*adioactive materials shall be transported with minimum stops en route to the
destination. The vehicle shall stop only at places specified in the permission. #ach
driver of a vehicle carrying radioactive materials shall not drive for more than 3 hours
without a brea' and shall not wor' for more than ,- hours in a day.
!age +, %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
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>.* 0itional Re=uirements for "ransport of Raioactive Su:stances
0n addition( the following requirements shall apply to the transport of radioactive substances:
%uitably trained radiological wor'ers shall supervise any transport of radioactive material.
Transport shields for radioactive sources shall comply with %ection C.,.
Upon arrival( radioactive material shall remain in its transport container and the *!% or
management notified. Only after receipt of a signed and completed consignment note
shall the radioactive material be transferred to the approved radiation store specified on
the consignment note.
)or transportation by road the vehicle shall comply with %! +--- *oad Transport and the
following:
- have a dedicated fire resistant compartment for the transport of radioactive
materials.
- be fitted with:
- warning notices front and rear indicating the type of radioactive material
carried( its activity in &q( the name and contact telephone of the owner. These
notices shall be removable and only displayed when the vehicle is actually
transporting radioactive material.
- yellow and blac' Trefoil warning signs on all sides of the source container( and
a written warning in #nglish and rabic.
- two portable fire e;tinguishers of dry chemical powder type( two portable
orange coloured flashlights and fireproof warning signs front and rear.
- a tool 'it for emergency repairs to the vehicle and one spare tyre or two spare
tyres if driving on graded roads.
=hen transported by road the transport shield shall be contained within the dedicated
compartment fi;ed to the structure of the vehicle. The compartment door shall be
loc'ed. dditionally( the transport shield shall be physically secured to the compartment
by a latching mechanism( padloc' or chain. No other Dangerous Eoods( other than
4lass / radioactive materials( shall be transported in the source storage compartment.
!ersonnel shall not be transported in the compartment.
ll vehicles transporting radioactive materials shall be occupied by at least two people(
at least one of whom shall be a trained radiological wor'er. The dose rate in the driver
or passenger compartment shall not e;ceed +.C %v2h. Only radiological wor'ers shall
be permitted to enter into areas on the vehicle e;ceeding /.C %v2h. No persons( other
then those designated at dispatch of the vehicle( may be transported.
:ehicles containing radioactive sources should never be left unattended outside of
designated wor'places where the source is to be utilised. =hen stationary( vehicles
containing radioactive sources shall be separated from other vehicles by a minimum
distance of + metres.
ll drivers shall undergo( as a minimum( radiation awareness training for the li'ely
emergency scenarios that may occur en route. These include road traffic accidents( fire
in the vehicle and they shall be familiar with the Tremcard( 4ompany #mergency contact
numbers and the doses li'ely received whilst transporting the sources.
calibrated dose meter capable of measuring accurately to less than +.C %v2h shall be
carried with the vehicle when transporting sources.
ll NDT proFectors shall be transported in a specially designed bo; that protect from
vibration and impact and general wear and tear during transport and loading2unloading
into the stores.
La:elling
ll pac'ages containing radioactive materials must be labelled with one of the three types of labels
described and illustrated below. minimum of two labels are required for a pac'age. They should be
attached on opposite sides of the pac'age for better indication. The term Transport 0nde; @T0B of a
!age ++ %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
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pac'age is used to e;press the e;ternal radiation ha<ard arising from a pac'age and is determined
by measuring the dose rate at , metre from the pac'age @in u%v2hB and dividing by ,-.
4ategory 0 =hite: diamond in blac' and white with one red strip. 0t shall be used when the dose
rate dose not e;ceed C u%v2h at the surface or the T0 is -.
4ategory 00 8ellow: diamond in blac'( white and yellow with two red strips. 0t shall be used when the
dose rate dose not e;ceed C-- u%v2h at the surface or the T0 is --,
4ategory 000: diamond in blac'( white and yellow with three red strips. 0t shall be used when the
dose rate dose not e;ceed + m%v2h at the surface or the T0 is U, - ,-. 0f the T0 is greater than ,-(
then the pac'age is shipped under We;clusive useP and the *! must be consulted immediately.

4ategory 0 4ategory 00 4ategory 000

Type pac'ages are designed to prevent loss or dispersal of radioactive contents and to retain
shielding under normal conditions of transport which includes minor mishaps e.g. falling from the
bac' of a vehicle.
Type & pac'ages must in general meet Type requirements and in addition( be designed to
withstand every accident conditions including fire. The Type of pac'age shall be clearly mar'ed on
the outside pac'age and any Type & pac'age must be of a design approved by a competent
authority in the country of origin. copy of the certificate of approval must accompany the pac'age.
Placaring of 3ehicles for "ransportation 1in English an 0ra:ic2
fireproof notice to warn fire services( *O!( and others in the event of a accident shall be displayed
in #nglish and rabic including the Type of source being carried and telephone numbers of the
4ontractor *!% for emergency contact.
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+ Storage
+.( 6inisterial Decree 16D ),B4B+2 Re=uirements for Storage of
Raioactive 6aterials
!ermanent storage of radioactive materials shall only be permitted at places approved by the
Directorate Eeneral of 4ivil Defence @*oyal Oman !oliceB( $#4 and the 4orporate
*adiation )ocal !oint. $#4 approval must be obtained for any proposed temporary
locations for storing radioactive material for longer than +3 hours such as !DO #!4
!roFects.
%torage locations shall comply with the following:
&e away from populated areas.
&e fenced within the yard of the main contractor
ll radioactive materials shall be adequately shielded( labelled and 'ept loc'ed and
secure.
The design of the facility shall be waterproof and comply with the $#4 drawings in
ppendi; &.
4ontractors and sub-contractors shall not be permitted to store their radioactive sources
within the store or pit of another contractor 2 sub-contractor unless the pits are
separated by a bloc' wall and have separate access.
*adioactive materials used for well logging must remain in their shield in an e;clusive
store or Ndog 'ennelQ and shall be located in a designated area in clear view of the driller
or logging engineer until being loaded. The container shall be loc'ed( labelled and
cordoned with barrier tape. dditional precautions such as securing to a pipe wrac'ing
should be considered. !referably the sources will be stored in a dedicated sea container
whilst on-site. !ermanent stores shall comply with %ection /.+.
+.) 0itional Re=uirements for the Storage of Raioactive Sources
!ermanent storage of radioactive sources shall comply with the following:
=hen not being used( radioactive materials shall be 'ept in approved designed stores(
surrounded by a security fence @ref. ppendi; &B( with the following characteristics:
- *e-enforced bloc' or concrete walls and roof(
- !rotection of the contents from the effects of the weather.
- *esistance to fire sufficient to minimise the loss of shielding( ta'ing into account the
combustibility of the surroundings and the li'ely temperatures reached in the event
of a fire.
- :entilation to prevent accumulation of gases or vapours.
- %torage facility and security fence individually secured by a loc'. The storage
facility loc' shall be operable from the inside. %torage facility and security fence
shall be loc'ed if no one is present.
- warning signs( including the Trefoil radioactive warning and the words ODNE#* -
*D0O4T0:# $T#*05O written in clear and indelible #nglish and rabic print(
e;hibited on all sides of the security fence and the secured facility.
- #mergency contact details of the source owner and nominated person @*!% 2 %04B
- the level of radiation at the e;terior of the store shall not e;ceed +.C %v when fully
loaded with all assigned radioactive sources.
- at the perimeter of the security fence the radiation level shall not e;ceed , %v.
.ote) If the store is a buildin+ ,ithin a secured area then a se#arate securit/ fence is not
re0uired
!age +3 %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
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#very radioactive source storage facility shall have a nominated supervisor. This person
shall be a radiological wor'er and shall be responsible for managing the storage facility(
including access control( and for trac'ing the movements of sources into and out of the
store. The storage facility supervisor shall also be responsible for 'eeping a log of all
sources normally stored at the facility( including the source type and serial number.
*adioactive source storage facilities shall be dedicated to the designated purpose( and
shall contain only the sources( their shields( and any handling tools and ancillary
equipment( utilised in the movement or maintenance of the sources. )urniture shall be
limited to a bare minimum. t no time shall any flammables( combustibles( e;plosives or
other ha<ardous materials be 'ept in( or in pro;imity to( the radioactive store. %uitable
calibrated dose meters shall always be available.
The location of all such storage facilities for radioactive material within( or adFacent to(
!DO facilities and2or utilised under contract to !DO shall be approved by !DO prior to
construction. %uch facilities shall be located away from accommodation buildings(
roadways( pipelines( and storage facilities for e;plosives( flammables or other ha<ardous
or to;ic materials.
*adiation levels at the perimeter fence shall be measured and recorded with the
ma;imum holding of sources present.
Only radiological wor'ers shall be provided with access to 'eys to the various radiation
source storage loc's. %ources shall be introduced to( or removed from( storage by
radiological wor'ers only.
+.* Raioactive Source Integrity 6onitoring
competent person shall test all radioactive sources that emit alpha radiation for lea'age
@wipe testB every 1 months( in accordance with &% C+?? and for gamma and neutron sources
in accordance with the contractors approved *adiation %afety $anual. =ell logging sources
shall be wipe tested every si; months owing to the conditions of use. 0ndustrial radiography
equipment shall be as a minimum wipe tested every two years.
=ipes shall be sent to an accredited laboratory for evaluation. ny source found to be
lea'ing radioactive material @where the wipe e;hibits a radioactivity of ,?C &q or moreB shall
immediately be removed from service and disposed of in accordance with %!-,--A( O=aste
$anagementO. %uch incidents shall be reported to the 4ontract 7older and 4*)! as per the
requirements of 7%#2A/2-, N0ncident Notification( 0nvestigation( *eporting and )ollow-UpO.
*ecords of all wipe tests shall be maintained for at least . years and include:
The date and results of the lea' testing conducted
description of the method used and laboratory details
Ne;t inspection due date
+., C'ray E=uipment
+.,.( Cra!lers an EAternally -itte C'ray E=uipment
The register of G-*ay equipment must contain the:
$ar' and type of equipment
$a;imum tube voltage of the equipment
5ocation where the equipment is in use
Dates and results of inspection measurements of G-ray equipment.
G-ray equipment shall not be left unattended in a condition where it may be operated and
shall be provided with a loc' on the main circuit. 0f the equipment is left on site for a short
period( the electricity supply should be disconnected and the equipment left loc'ed. )or a
longer period( the equipment should be transported to the dedicated loc'able storage room
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to prevent unauthorised use and shall not be stored with other radiography equipment. Only
authorised radiological wor'ers shall 'eep 'eys.
The radiation safety manual shall contain the drawings and maintenance procedures for G-
ray equipment for both crawlers and e;ternal G-ray equipment as used by the contractor.
=here radiography is not conducted in a shielded enclosure( cable lengths shall be no less
than +- m for ;-ray generators up to .-- ': and longer for equipment with higher tube
potentials. ll metallic items including casings( interconnecting cables( power supply unit
@transformer2generatorB( G-ray control equipment( tube assembly( warning signals( other
safety devices and the irradiated obFect are bonded together and grounded @connected to
earthB. dvice on electrical matters( as well as inspection and testing( should be provided by
a qualified e;pert.
The 4ontrol !anel shall be fitted with the following:
label indicating that ha<ardous G-rays are emitted when operating and a warning
prohibiting unauthorised use including the international trefoil.
'ey to switch to prevent unauthorised use which is only removable when the switch
is in the off or standby position
%eparate labelled warning lights to indicate when the machine is energised and G-
rays generated
timer that controls the e;posure duration( or an ON2O)) switch that requires
continuous pressure by the radiographer to maintain G-ray production
0ndicators that show the G-ray tube potential in ': and the current in m when the
beam is ON.
The dose rate generated by using accelerators increases the potential for overe;posures of
radiographers. 7igher radiation protection is required on site including appropriate survey
meters that response accurately to the pulsed nature of the radiation field. !ortable survey
meters used for conventional gamma and G-ray radiography may not be suitable for use with
accelerators.
!ipeline crawlers may carry either an G-ray tube or gamma source powered by batteries on
the carriage or trailing cables from the generator. 0nitiators @control isotopes of 4s-,./B shall
be collimated and be stored in approved radiation stores when not in use. 0nitiators can give
appreciable doses due to scattering from the pipe. They shall shielded when not in use and
have an 0%O+A,A certificate.
=ith pipeline crawlers the useful beam width shall be restricted so that it is no greater than
necessary for the radiograph @X ,+- mmB. 0t is also essential that suitable warning signals are
given. The warning signals must operate automatically because unintended movement of the
control source may inadvertently initiate an unplanned e;posure. =arning signs must be
capable of alerting people in the vicinity of the crawler under the prevailing environmental
conditions. Tla;ons and sirens can be used provided they can be heard in a noisy
environment. :isual signals to supplement able signals in noisy environments shall also be
included.
0n large pipes it may be necessary for the radiographer to enter the pipe to retrieve the
crawler. n atmospheric test using a multigas detector shall be conducted as per the !t=
requirements for entrance into a confined space.
The radiographic source @if anyB and the control source are to be housed in shielded
containers and( together with the Wtell-taleP source( should not produce dose rates in e;cess
of ,-- u%v2hr on the accessible surface of the pipeline( e;cept during e;posure.
supervised or controlled area shall be set up around the pipe.
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+.,.) C'Ray E=uipment for 6eical Imaging
G-*ay equipment used for medical imaging within !DO and 4ontractor !4Ps shall be
maintained and inspected annually by an appointed contractor. $4N shall be responsible for
co-ordination of annual maintenance and inspection by a competent third party assessor
within the !DO clinics. The !4 clinics which contain G-ray units shall establish a method to
annually inspect and maintain their G-ray units by a competent third party assessor. The
results shall be provided to $4N for review and reporting to the 4*)!. $4N may at any time
request to audit and inspect the !4 clinics for radiological compliance.
+.,.* -iAe 9auges or Profilers
*adiation source owners and applicants for fi;ed gauges or profilers to be installed in !DO
facilities shall ensure the following:
,. ll wor' is conducted safely( in adherence to the conditions of the license( and with
resultant e;posures to personnel to as low as reasonably practicable @5*!B
+. ct as liaison agent with regulatory authorities and be available for assistance in
inspection and audits
.. ll applicable regulations and regulatory guides( and assure that license applications are
properly filled out and are submitted on time.
3. !erform( or cause to be performed @e.g.( by manufacturer( consultant( or qualified
employeeB( appropriate surveys( using operable and( calibrated instruments.
C. !erform lea' tests on time.
1.#stablish and maintain record systems for lea' tests( shutter tests( surveys( receipt(
inventory and use records( and @if personnel dosimetry is requiredB for personnel dosimetry
reports.
/. !rovide a personnel dosimetry program when required. dvise individual radiation
wor'ers of each high e;posure report( and conduct an investigation to determine the cause
of all overe;posures to preclude a reoccurrence. !erform a quarterly review of occupational
e;posure to authori<ed users and wor'ers to determine that the e;posures are within the
limits established by the 5*! program. nnually advise each user of their accrued dose.
?.$aintain a current inventory of the types( quantities( and locations of all radioactive
material possessed( ma'ing sure the activity and types possessed never e;ceed license
limits.
A.$a'e sure radioactive shipments are properly pac'aged and labelled according to 0T
requirements( and that shipments are accompanied by proper shipping documents.
,-. 0nstruct wor'ers( who wor' or may wor' in or about the vicinity of the fi;ed gauge or
gauges( of all applicable radiation safety rules and procedures ,B initially( +B with every
addition of new personnel( and .B with each change in the radiation safety program.
,,. pprise management of the status of the radiation safety program and managementPs
responsibility for maintaining an adequate radiation safety program.
,+. Ta'e charge in all emergency situations @loss( theft( fire( e;plosion( etc.B to ma'e sure
correct emergency procedures are carried out( including notification. lso evaluate the
situation that led to the emergency to reduce the chance of further problems.
,.. ssure that radioactive materials are only used by( or under the supervision of individuals
authori<ed by the licence.
,3. ssure that radioactive materials are properly secured against unauthori<ed removal.
,C. $aintain current operating and emergency procedures( including maintenance and loc'-
out procedures for wor' in and around fi;ed gauges.
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@ $se
@.( 9eneral Re=uirements
The following requirements shall apply when using ionising radiation:
No practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit.
ll e;posures shall be 'ept s 5ow s *easonably !racticable @5*!B( economic and
social factors being ta'en into account.
*adiation wor' shall have a minimum of +3 hours notice to enable sufficient time to plan
the wor' and conduct a site visit @#mergency wor' shall give sufficient time for planningB
0ndividuals below the age of ,? years shall not be involved in radiological wor'.
ll operations involving the use of ionising radiation shall be carried out by a minimum of
two qualified radiological wor'ers. *adiography crews @*T and G-rayB shall consist of
two %NT level 00 radiographers( one of which must be competent *adiation !rotection
%upervisor appointed by the *! and 4ontractor management. n %NT 5evel 0
radiographer may assist the 5evel 00 provided the latter has *!% qualifications.
ny wor' utilising radioactive sources carried out on behalf of !DO( or within !DO"s
4oncession rea shall be carried out under an approved !ermit to =or' %ystem @ref.
!*-,,/+( O!ermit to =or' %ystem !rocedure $anualOB.
The !t= shall include:
Details and planning of the wor' @pre-inspection is recommendedB
4ompleted >ob 7%# !lan i.e. a written ris' assessment
*adiation protection arrangements i.e. controls
#mergency and recovery provisions in the event of an incident
The *adiography 4ertificate for NDT wor' @ref: ppendi; 4B
s'etch of the 4ontrolled rea is required for NDT wor'
0n addition( a number of simple methods are to be employed and shall be covered in general
radiation protection training and site specific briefs to employees as follows:
0n the case of G-ray radiography( using the minimum appropriate ': and m settingsD
$inimising time spent in the vicinity of the source of radiation or in areas where
radiation levels are higherD
$a;imising istance from the sourceD
Use of shieling where reasonably practicable.
Dose sharing is not to be used as a primary means of restricting e;posure to individuals.
*ather( priority is to be given to improving engineering controls and other means of
restricting e;posure( including changing the methods of wor'.
!DO and 4ontractors performing well logging using radioactive materials or generators shall
comply with 7%# %pecification %!-,+,?( =ell #ngineering %pecification for *adioactive
%ources.
ll site radiography( including operations with pipeline crawler equipment( shall be carried out
in accordance with the 0# *adiation !rotection and %afety in 0ndustrial *adiography(
%afety *eport %eries No. ,.( 0#( :ienna @,AAAB
ll medical uses of ionising radiation shall be carried out in accordance with the $edical and
Dental Euidance Note +--+ published by the 0nstitute of !hysics and #ngineering in
$edicine. Note: The use of ;-ray for medical images shall be e;empted from the !t= and
requirement and providing two qualified radiological wor'ers.
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@.) Occupational Dose Limits
0onising radiation doses for individuals shall not e;ceed the levels stipulated in Table ,.
Table 1: Dose Limits
4lassification Dose 5imit
@m%v2yrB
*easoning
$a;imum annual effective dose received
from occupational e;posure as a
radiological wor'er @$inistry of
$anpowerB
@$inistry of #nv. 9 4limate ffairsB
+-
,-
5imits %tochastic effects
*adiological wor'ers are defined as any
person who through their occupation may
be e;posed to an annual effective dose
e;ceeding + m%v2year
+ !revents continuous e;posure of an
individual close to the effective dose
limit
@)or pregnant radiological wor'ersB
$a;imum equivalent dose received from
occupational e;posure during entire term
of pregnancy
, !revents continuous e;posure to the
foetus close to the effective dose
limit
$embers of the !ublic or Non 4lassified
=or'ers
, *educes e;posures to 5*!
Notes:
,. The dose rate received by a radiological wor'er shall be measured using monitoring
devices suitable for the type of radiation being monitored.
Table 2: Dose Action Limits
4lassification Dose 5imit
@m%vB
ction
nnual effective dose received from
occupational e;posure as a radiological
wor'er
C m%v2yr #mployer underta'es internal
investigation @auditable by !DO(
4ontractor or *egulatorB
Three @.B monthly average effective dose
received from occupational e;posure as a
radiological wor'er as measured from
T5D or )ilm badge
. m%v 2 .
months
$anagers shall be notified of dose
received higher than normal
$onthly effective dose received from
occupational e;posure as a radiological
wor'er as measured from T5D or )ilm
badge
, m%v2mth $anagers shall be notified of dose
received higher than normal
ny radiological wor'er who receives a dose e;ceeding C m%v shall be investigated by the
%enior *!% and the reports available for audit by !DO( the !rincipal 4ontractor or
*egulator. These limits are set to prompt managers to ensure the practice of dose restriction
is in line with the s 5ow as *easonably !racticable @5*!B principle.
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@.* Dosimetric Control
During wor'( all radiological wor'ers shall continuously wear a personal cumulative
dosimetry @T5D or )ilmB badge sensitive to the type of ionising radiation to which they are
e;posed. %uch badges shall be controlled by a recognised and competent dosimetry
service( who shall provide the employer with reports on the dose received during the period
of use of the badge and the cumulative annual and lifetime dose of the wearer.
!ersonal cumulative dosimetry badges shall be analysed on a fi;ed schedule as follows:
$onthly where the wor' environment is shown to e;pose wor'ers to an average effective
dose in e;cess of + m%v per year.
Suarterly where the wor' environment is shown to e;pose wor'ers to an average
effective dose below + m%v per year.
)or any wor' where the cumulative e;posure is li'ely to e;ceed ,-- %v in one day(
radiological wor'ers conducting the wor' shall carry( in addition to the cumulative dosimeter
badge @T5D or )ilmB( a personal cumulative audible alarming dose rate meter( which shall be
controlled and reset after each wor' period. The readings for each day shall be recorded
and 'ept on file.
@., 8or5 0rea Classification an Entry Restriction
Controlle 0reas
reas where the instantaneous effective dose rate may e;ceed /.C%v2h shall be designated
as 4ontrolled reas. ccess to these areas shall be controlled and they shall be clearly
mar'ed( cordoned off with the Trefoil radioactive warning and a written warning in #nglish
and rabic. Only trained classified radiation wor'ers shall be allowed access to these areas
unless the wor' is assessed and can be performed safely under a written >ob 7%# plan
incorporating a safe system of wor' @*is' assessmentB.
)or e;ample( during the period when well logging sources are removed from their shields(
until the logging tool is downhole( access to the drill floor shall be restricted to the logging
crew( engineer and Driller or ssistant Driller. ccess below the drill floor shall be strictly
restricted with appropriate signage.
*adiographers shall calculate the 4ontrolled rea distance prior to the commencement of
wor' and shall incorporate the 4ordon-off distance into the *adiography 4ertificate.
*adiographers shall always retreat beyond the 4ontrolled rea to a safe distance where the
doses are 5*!. Under no circumstances shall a radiographer be permitted to stand in the
4ontrolled rea.
Supervise 0reas
reas where the instantaneous effective dose rate may e;ceed +.C %v2h( but not e;ceed
/.C %v2h( shall be designated as %upervised reas. #ntry into these reas by Non-
4lassified wor'ers shall only be permitted under a written >ob 7%# !lan incorporating a safe
system of wor' @*is' ssessmentB.
0nformation( maps and plans indicating locations of usage and storage of radioactive
materials shall be provided to the *oyal Oman !olice @Directorate of 4ivil DefenceB and other
concerned authorities in accordance with $D +3A2A/.
@.< Instruments
@.>.( Porta:le Survey 6eters
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!ortable e;posure rate meters shall be provided suitable for the type of radiation used. They
shall be light( robust and capable of being used in all weather under arduous conditions.
The e;posure rate meter can be scaled in millirem @m*B per hour or microsieverts @Y%vB or
millisieverts @m%vB per hour( however preference is given to %0 units.
%pecial monitors are required to detect neutrons. ll slow them down in a sphere of
polyethylene with generally a &oron Triflouride proportional counter in the centre. Ordinary
detectors that are suitable for G-rays( gamma rays and even beta particles must not be used
to detect neutrons. 0n the event of an incident involving a neutron emitting source( to enable
calculation of the permitted e;posure time( a neutron survey meter shall accompany all
neutron emitters e.g.m2&e-+3,. Note: not all meters are intrinsically safe and may require a
7ot =or' permit in facilities or wor'ing around hydrocarbons. 4alibration of instruments shall
be conducted by a qualified person every ,+ months and include a test certificate from the
date of the test.
The employer is responsible for ensuring that sufficient numbers of meters are provided for
the wor' to enable calibration( servicing and repair to meters and increased wor' load.
@.>.) 0ui:le 0larms 1/leepers2
udible alarms are small light weight( designed to be carried in the top poc'et of a coverall.
They must be 'ept switched on during the entire period that the wearer may be e;posed to
high output sources. These shall be able to indicate the presence of radiation by an audible
signal immediate warning of a high dose rate. They shall also be capable or emitting a
recogni<able signal at a dose rate of ,-- u%v2h.
@.> "raining
$D +3A2A/ requires that all classified radiological wor'ers and drivers of radioactive sources
must be suitably trained and this training recorded e.g. in the 7%# !assport. ccordingly( all
radiological wor'ers and drivers shall be adequately trained for the Fob to which they are
assigned and include refresher training as a minimum every three years.
%pecific training to a recognised standard by the *! or equivalent shall be given to all
persons whose wor' involves the handling of unshielded sources and the operation of G-ray
or neutron generators.
*adiological wor'ers shall be fully acquainted with the requirements of this %pecification and
should be fully aware of the potential ha<ards arising from the presence of radiation at the
storage site( during transportation or at the wor' site.
%uch wor'ers include( but are not limited to:
NDT radiographers @Eamma and G-rayB
$edical G-ray radiographers
=ell logging engineers @Neutron and EammaB
$ultiphase and profiler instrument technicians
@.+ 6eical Control
!re-employment medical e;aminations of all radiological wor'ers shall include( in addition to
the standard :isa requirements a detailed medical e;amination in accordance with %!-,+.-
O$edical #;amination( Treatment and )acilitiesO: 0t is now accepted that medical surveillance
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of radiation wor'ers should follow the same general principles of occupational medicine as
applied to other groups of wor'ers.
0n most cases the actual e;posure to 0onising *adiation is small that it will have little
influence on decisions regarding medical suitability for employment. The emphasis has
moved to encompass the fitness to wor' aspect of the medical assessment.
The requirements for adequate medical surveillance comprise of:
pre-employment medical e;amination before first being designated as a classified
radiological wor'erD
complete occupational history( including all previous e;posures to ionising radiation
and a review of the previous e;posure @T5D2)ilmB recordsD
n assessment whether the radiation is electrically generated or from sealed or
unsealed radioactive materials and Type @alpha2beta2gamma2neutrons2G-raysB
%pecial medical surveillance of an employee when a relevant dose limit has been
e;ceeded @based on advice from the *!BD
ny test specifically recommended for radiological wor'ers by !DO"s 4hief $edical
Officer or 4ompany approved physician
review of health after cessation of wor' where this is necessary to safeguard the
health of the individual
ll radiological wor'ers shall undergo an annual medical e;amination at the employers
e;pense in a !DO approved clinic. The employer shall provide the e;amining medical
practitioner with the wor'er"s occupational dose history since the previous medical
e;amination. =omen of child reproductive capacity should receive advice about the ris's to
the foetus and nursing infant arising from e;posure to ionising radiation and the need to
notify the employer in writing and without delay if they become pregnant.
4hest G-rays should not be carried out as part of the initial e;amination or periodic reviews
unless there is a clinical reason for doing so. )ull blood count tests need only be conducted if
there is a clinical indication or as required in %!-,+.-. %hould an employee receive a dose
from ;-rays( gamma rays or neutrons e;ceeding +C- m%v blood testing is mandatory.
)urther advice may be sought from Euidance for ppointed Doctors. The 0onising *adiation
*egulations ,AAA 7ealth and %afety #;ecutive United Tingdom @*evised +--.B
@.@ Design an $se of Shiele Enclosures 1-iAe -acilities2
)or permanent radiography locations e.g. OD42#$4 wor'shops and maFor proFects with site
spool fabrication( it is strongly recommended that a purpose built enclosure be constructed
to enable radiography @gamma and ;-rayB be performed safely outside of the contractors
wor'shop without interruption. properly designed and operated shielded enclosure will help
'eep radiation e;posures of radiographers below C m%v @or lessB per year. 0n other cases
local shielding is to be used as far as reasonably practicable.
The general design is similar for all enclosures( although different characteristics are
incorporated depending on whether the enclosure is to be suitable for G-ray( accelerators or
gamma radiation equipment. Designs to shielded enclosures require guidance in terms of
anticipated doses( dose rates and e;posure times. Design considerations for these
installations include: @aB shielding considerations( @bB personnel access door interloc's( @cB
fi;ed radiation monitors( @dB warning signs and symbols and @eB emergency stops.
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B Disposal
=aste shall be classified as radioactive waste material if its activity is higher than ,-- &q2g.
*adioactive waste differs from all other types of waste. 0ts radioactivity decreases only with
time( and its radioactive properties cannot be altered or destroyed by any physical( chemical
or biological treatment.
%ealed sources and tracer applications account for most of the industrial use of radioactive
substances. There is almost no waste disposal required in the use of sealed sources( e;cept
for disposal of the source upon decay of its radioactivity to levels at which it can no longer be
used. Damage to the sealed source may result in radioactive waste in the form of
contaminated equipment( pac'ing( clothing and other accessories.
*adioactive waste material shall be classified as ha<ardous waste( and shall be handled and
disposed of in accordance with the requirements of %!-,--A N=aste $anagementO and
$D+3A2A/.
The owner or custodian of the source shall maintain records to demonstrate safe return and
disposal of the radioactive source once beyond the effective use of the source or contract
e;piry. No sources shall remain in the !DO location beyond the completion of an e;isting
contract with !DO. The !roFect $anager( 4ontract 7older or nominated 4ompany %ite
*epresentative is responsible for ensuring all sources are removed and properly disposed.
B.( 0:anonment of Raioactive 6aterials 1stuc5 in'hole !hile logging2
The ultimate decision to abandon a radioactive material rests with the sset $anager after
consultation with the %enior =ell #ngineer and 4orporate *adiation )ocal !oint.
bandonment of radioactive materials down hole shall be performed in accordance with 7%#
%pecification %!,+,? H =ell #ngineering %pecification for *adioactive %ources.
The abandonment of the radioactive material shall be reported to the authorities via $%#2+(
who shall provide advice about the information required. letter by the sset Owner and
$%#2+( accompanied by the completed Nbandoned %ource TemplateQ( shall be sent to the
$inistry for #nvironment and 4limate ffairs @$#4B.
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(7. Emergency Response
The following occurrences shall be reported in accordance with 7%#2A/2-, N0ncident
Notification( 0nvestigation( *eporting and )ollow-UpO to the !roFect $anager( 4ontract 7older
or $ain 4ontractor in the case of sub-contractors.
ny loss of radioactive material @including temporary loss or stuc' logging toolsB.
5oss or theft of a source of ionising radiation
:ehicular accident involving transport of sources of ionising radiation
ccidental separation of a chemical source from its shielding
!hysical damage to a sealed source( causing lea'age of radioactive material
4ontamination of the environment with radioactive material
ny e;posures greater than the Dose or ction 5imits listed under %ection ?...
The $#4 shall be notified of the following occurrences:
&efore the import and use of radioactive materials( or any other relevant wor' in the
%ultanate.
0f there is any release of radioactive materials in e;cess of that specified in the permit.
0f any person or wor'er receives a radiation dose greater than the level indicated in the
permit( $D+3A2A/ or the $inistry of $anpower Occupational 7ealth and %afety
*egulations in the !rivate %ector.
)ormal 4ontingency !lans shall be prepared to respond to any emergency which might arise
from the storage and handling radioactive materials including incidents outlined above.
=ritten emergency procedures shall be documented in the *adiation %afety $anual of the
contractor and shall align with !DO"s #mergency *esponse Documents.
ll users of ionising radiation shall have available at all times the necessary means to
contact their *!( %enior *!% and !DO local emergency services when operating outside
their normal base of operations.
4ontractors shall have planned emergency moc' drills to demonstrate that radiological
wor'ers and others such as the *O!( first aid responders or fire and emergency crews have
sufficient e;perience and confidence to handle emergencies.
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((. References
,,., $inistry of #nvironment and 4limate ffairs $D+3A2A/ and %upplement +--.
,,.+ $inistry of $anpower Occupational 7ealth and %afety *egulations in the !rivate %ector
,,.. 0nternational tomic #nergy uthority @0#B %afety %eries T%-*-, *egulations for the %afe
Transportation of *adioactive $aterials +--A
,,.3 %hell %afety and 7ealth 4ommittee N0onising *adiation %afety EuideQ November ,AA.
,,.C !DO %!,+,? - =ell #ngineering %pecification for *adioactive %ources November +--/
,,.1 !DO !*,/,+ - !ermit to =or' %ystem $anual *evision 1., December +--?
,,./ !DO !*,3,? H 7%# !rocedure 0ncident Notification( nalysis( *eporting and )ollow-up
*evision +., >uly +--A
,,.? Euidance for ppointed Doctors. The 0onising *adiation *egulations ,AAA 7ealth and %afety
#;ecutive United Tingdom @*evised +--.B
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0ppeniA 0 Raioactive Source Consignment %ote
To be completed when transporting a radioactive source from $uscat to the interior location and
upon return to $uscat for interim storage and disposal.
Section 0 D Source Details
To be completed by 4onsignor

4ompany Name:
ddress:
#mergency 4ontact Numbers:
!roper %hipping Name:
4lass Number@sB UN No.
Name of 0sotope
Type of source: %ealed @ B Unsealed @ B
ctivity @E&q or 4iB
%erial Number:
!ac'age 4ategory Transport 0nde;:
Section / "ransportation Details
4ompleted by 4onsignor
4onsignor name:
Destination including stops:
Transport 4ontractor Name:
4ontact Numbers @mobileB:
0 hereby certify that the pac'age containing radioactive material has been properly pac'ed( mar'ed
and labelled( and as such is in conformity with the relevant *egulations for the %afe Transport of
*adioactive $aterials( including provision of a T*#$4*D.
4onsignor %ignature: Date:
Section C
4ompleted by 4onsignee @*eceiverB
4onsignee Name:
Designation 2 *ef. 0nd.
0 hereby certify that the consignment containing radioactive material@sB has been inspected and
monitored to verify it contains the source and is without damage.
%ignature: Date:
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Notes:
This form is an e;ample of the Transport Documents required for shipping and transporting
Dangerous Eoods in Oman by *oad in accordance with the 0# *egulations for the %afe Transport
of *adioactive $aterials. 4ontractors transporting source shall establish their own forms which shall
be completed in triplicate as follows:
,
st
copy @completed and 'ept by consignorB
+
nd
copy @completed and 'ept by receiverB
.
rd
copy @returned to consignor by receiverB
The 4onsignor and 4onsignee shall be radiological wor'ers
Transporters shall be licensed by the *O! for carrying radioactive materials
ll vehicles carrying radioactive materials shall be occupied by at least two people( one of whom
shall be a radiological wor'er
!age ./ %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
The controlled version of this 4$) Document resides online in 5ivelin'6. !rinted copies are UN4ONT*O55#D.
Petroleum Development Oman LLC
*evision: +
#ffective: , $ay +-,,
0ppeniA / D Storage -acility Design

!age .? %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
The controlled version of this 4$) Document resides online in 5ivelin'6. !rinted copies are UN4ONT*O55#D.
Petroleum Development Oman LLC
*evision: +
#ffective: , $ay +-,,

!age .A %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
The controlled version of this 4$) Document resides online in 5ivelin'6. !rinted copies are UN4ONT*O55#D.
Petroleum Development Oman LLC
*evision: +
#ffective: , $ay +-,,

!age 3- %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
The controlled version of this 4$) Document resides online in 5ivelin'6. !rinted copies are UN4ONT*O55#D.
Petroleum Development Oman LLC
*evision: +
#ffective: , $ay +-,,
0ppeniA C D Raiography Supplementary Certificate
!age 3, %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
The controlled version of this 4$) Document resides online in 5ivelin'6. !rinted copies are UN4ONT*O55#D.
Petroleum Development Oman LLC
*evision: +
#ffective: , $ay +-,,
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!age 3+ %!-,+./ : %pecification for 0onising *adiation !rinted ,12,-2+-,3
The controlled version of this 4$) Document resides online in 5ivelin'6. !rinted copies are UN4ONT*O55#D.