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FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

POLLUTION CONTROL & CHEMICAL REACTION


ENGINEERING LABORATORY
COAGULATION & FLOCCULATION (E5)

No of Experiment

Group Number

Section

06

Group Members

Date of Experiment

Mohd Haiqal BinAbd Aziz


(A12KK0085)
Muhammad Afiq Bin Zubir
(A12KK0096)
Zainul Abidin Bin Lukman
(A12KK0159)
Nur Atikah Binti Mohd Rosely
(A12KK0096)
25 September 2014

Date of Submission

25 September 2014

Marks obtained
Lecturers Name

Dr. MOHD. JOHARI KAMARUDDIN

EXPERIMENT 5 : COAGULATION & FLOCCULATION (SECTION 06)

ABSTRACT
Ambient air quality is an important concern since it can cause serious health
problem if the quality drop below the safe level. The objective of this experiment to
determining the concentration of suspended solid in UTMs ambient air and comparing it
with the standard Malaysia total suspended particle (TSP) value hence determine it safety
level. From the experiment the concentration of suspended solid value is 50.33 g/m3
which is 116.15% compare to standard Malaysia TSP value. Although there is a slight
increase, the quality of ambient air in UTM is still in the safe level.

EXPERIMENT 5 : COAGULATION & FLOCCULATION (SECTION 06)

1.0

INTRODUCTION

This experiment is conducted for determining the concentration of suspended


solid in UTMs ambient air and comparing it with the standard Malaysia TSP value.
Besides that, it is also conducted to determine whether the quality of the ambient air in
UTM is in safe level.
Ambient air quality refers to the quality of outdoor air in our surrounding
environment. It is typically measured near ground level, away from direct sources of
pollution. Good air quality refers to clean, clear, unpolluted air. Clean air is essential to
maintaining the delicate balance of life on this planet not just for humans, but wildlife,
vegetation, water and soil. Poor air quality is a result of a number of factors, including
emissions from various sources, both natural and human-caused. Poor air quality
occurs when pollutants reach high enough concentrations to endanger human health
and/or the environment. Our everyday choices, such as driving cars and burning wood,
can have a significant impact on air quality.
Suspended particles or solids in the air are called aerosols. They can reflect the
sun's heat and cool the atmosphere. They can also absorb the sun's heat and warm the
atmosphere. Apart from that, suspended solids have a cooling effect on the atmospheric
radiation and the net effect of greenhouse gases the contrary. Suspended particles are
floating in the air of small particles (diameter between 0.001 ~ 10m) a general term, has
the natural and man-made. Natural suspended particles have ash, flue dust (soil dust;
most from North Africa and the Asian desert areas), sea salt aerosol and so on. Manmade industrial dust suspended particles have (industrial dust; mostly produced by
incomplete combustion of impurities), soot, sulfate and nitrate and other suspended
particles.
Ambient air quality can be directly measured in mass/volume of emission (e.g.,
grams/m3) or mass/process parameter (e.g., grams/Kg fuel consumed or grams/second).
It can also be measured in the atmosphere as a concentration (e.g., micrograms/m3).
Ambient air monitoring data is used to determine air quality, establish the extent of air

EXPERIMENT 5 : COAGULATION & FLOCCULATION (SECTION 06)

pollution problems, assess whether established standards are being met, and characterize
the potential human health risk in an area.
In this experiment, a High-Volume Air Sampler (HVS) which consists essentially
of a blower and a filter, and which is usually operated in a standard shelter to collect a
24-h sample has been used to measure the suspended solids.

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2.0

LITERATURE REVIEW
Ambient Monitoring is the systematic, long-term assessment of pollutant levels
by measuring the quantity and types of certain pollutants in the surrounding, outdoor air.
Emissions Measurement is the process of monitoring particulate and gaseous emissions
from a specific source.
Air quality monitoring is carried out to assess the extent of pollution, ensure compliance
with national legislation, evaluate control options, and provide data for air quality
modeling. There are a number of different methods to measure any given pollutant,
varying in complexity, reliability, and detail of data. These range from simple passive
sampling techniques to highly sophisticated remote sensing devices. A monitoring
strategy should carefully examine the options to determine which methodology is most
appropriate, taking into account initial investment costs, operating costs, reliability of
systems, and ease of operation.
The locations for monitoring stations depend on the purpose of the monitoring. Most
monitoring networks are designed with human health objectives in mind, and monitoring
stations are therefore established in population centers. Many governments (local,
regional or national) give specific guidelines on where to monitor within these areas next to busy roads, in city center locations, or at a location of particular concern (e.g., a
school, hospital). Background monitoring stations are also established, to act as a
"control" when determining source apportionment.
Emissions Measurement is the science of characterizing and measuring air pollutant
emissions. The measurement of both type and quantity of these contaminants is an
important part of obtaining the data needed to implement a meaningful control program.
The process of monitoring particulate and gaseous emissions from a stationary source is
often referred to as source sampling or source testing.
Once data are collected from a monitoring system, they must be stored in data
management systems and databases. Subsequently, the data must be retrieved and

EXPERIMENT 5 : COAGULATION & FLOCCULATION (SECTION 06)

analyzed to see what they reveal about the effectiveness of regulatory standards, the
accuracy of modeling, impacts on health endpoints, and as an overall way of assessing.
from thousands of monitoring stations. AQS also contains meteorological data,
descriptive information about each monitoring station (including its geographic location
and its operator), and data quality assurance/quality control information.

Concentration of suspended solid in air:


High concentrations of suspended solids can lower water quality by absorbing light.
Waters then become warmer and lessen the ability of the water to hold oxygen necessary
for aquatic life. Because aquatic plants also receive less light, photosynthesis decreases
and less oxygen is produced. The combination of warmer water, less light and less
oxygen makes it impossible for some forms of life to exist.
Suspended solids affect life in other ways. They can clog fish gills, reduce growth rates,
decrease resistance to disease, and prevent egg and larval development. Particles that
settle out can smother fish eggs and those of aquatic insects, as well as suffocate newlyhatched larvae. The material that settles also fills the spaces between rocks and makes
these microhabitats unsuitable for various aquatic insects, such as mayfly nymphs,
stonefly nymphs and caddis fly larva.
In other to identify and distinguish the concentration of suspended solid in
UTMs ambient air with the standard Malaysia TSP value (43 g/m3) in 4 hour, an
equation is used in this in experiment.

Where, the equation was given by:


Concentration of suspended solid in air = 106 (W2 W1 )
W2 = Weight of filter paper after sampling, g
W1 = Weight of filter paper before sampling, g

EXPERIMENT 5 : COAGULATION & FLOCCULATION (SECTION 06)

Q = Volumetric flow rate inlet air HVS, m3/hour


t = Time for sampling, hour (4 hours)
106 = Conversion from g to g

The suspended solid in ambient air is measure by utilizing the High-Volume Air
Sampler (HVS) as shown below in Figure 2.1

Figure 2.1: High Volume Air Sample

EXPERIMENT 5 : COAGULATION & FLOCCULATION (SECTION 06)

3.0

METHODOLOGY

3.1

Apparatus
High-volume Air Sampler, filter paper.

3.2

Procedure
1. The filter paper was weighted (W1) and it was put inside the HVS
2. The HVS then was close and the pump was turned on.
3. The time and the air flow rate was recorded.
4. Filter paper was leave for 4 hours and the final weight of filter paper (W2) was
recorded.

EXPERIMENT 5 : COAGULATION & FLOCCULATION (SECTION 06)

4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.1: Result of the experiment


Weight
paper

of

filter Weight of filter


before paper

Volumetric flow

after

rate

inlet

sampling, W1

sampling, W2

W2 W1

Time, t

HVS,

(g)

(g)

(g)

(hour)

m3/hour

2.84

2.82

0.02

75

air

Location of the experiment: Area around pollution control laboratory


Weather condition during experiment: Sunny with no wind
Sample calculation:
Weight of filter paper before sampling, W1 = 2.84g
Weight of filter paper after sampling, W2 = 2.82g
Net weight

W2 W1

0.02 g

Concentration of suspended solid in air

= 106 (W2 W1) / Q x t


= 106

0.02 g

hour
75 m3

4 hour

= 66.67 g / m3

EXPERIMENT 5 : COAGULATION & FLOCCULATION (SECTION 06)

Total suspended particle (24 hours)

260.00 g/m3

Total suspended particle (4 hours)

43.33 g/m3

Concentration of suspended solid in air (4 hours)

66.67 g/m3

Percentage concentration of suspended particle values obtained from the standard value
= Concentration of suspended solid in air x 100
Total suspended particle
= [66.67 /43.33]*100%
= 153.87 %
From the experiment conducted, the concentration of suspended solid in ambient
air around pollution control laboratory is 66.67g/m3. The value obtained from this
experiment is higher compare to the total suspended particle standard for Malaysia. There
are too many different chemical substances that can contribute to air pollution. Among
the many types of air pollutants are nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, and organic
compounds that evaporate and enter the atmosphere. Air pollutants commonly come from
both natural and human. Humans contribute substantially more to the air pollution
problem other than anything else.
The results might have some errors because:
a) The time to conduct the experiment is only 4 hours. Shorter time will not give the
accurate result.
b) The time conduct the experiment only during day.
c) The result may not accurate because the experiment only done once.
d) The weight of filter paper after sampling may be decrease during the filter paper
being transfer from HVS to the weighing scale.

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In order to improve the result, some recommendation were proposed which is:
a) The experiment must be conducted longer for example 24 hours
b) The experiment is repeated for at least 3 times to get the average result.

5.0

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the concentration of suspended solid in ambient air around


pollution control laboratory is 66.67 g/m3 for 4 hours. The value obtained is higher than
the total suspended particle standard for Malaysia(43.33 g/m3) by 66.17%. it can be
concluded that the air at the laboratory were polluted.

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6.0

REFERENCES

Davis. Cornwell, McGraw-Hill, Introduction to Environmental Engineering, 1998.


Gerard Kiely, Environmental Engineering, 1996, McGraw Hill.

Ian C. Shaw and John Chadwick, Taylor & Francis, Principles of Environmental
Toxicology, 1998.
Maketab Mohamad, Mohd Rozainee Taib, Mohd Rashid Mohd Nor (2001), UjikajiUjikaji Makmal Kawalan Pencemaran, UTM

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