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The

Basics
of chemistry
Get a Water Analysis
Part 2 of 3

Technical Article
Page 1 of 5

The Basics of Water Chemistry (Part 2)


By: C.F. Chubb Michaud

Summary: In this, the second part of a three-part series, we examine the proper use of a water analysis and
traps to avoid in deciphering it. In the first part, we discussed basic ionization and the value of the Periodic
Table of Elements to the water treatment professional. In Part 3, next month, well discuss the use of chemistry
and ion exchange selectivity to solve certain water treatment problems. Throughout this series, we try to
demystify some of chemistrys complexities to offer readers a good grasp of the fundamentals of filtration and
by C.F. Chubb Michaud
ion exchange.

To properly design a water treatment system, particularly with ion exchange and reverse osmosis, its necessary
to first get both a quantitative and
qualitative
listing
of what
the intended
stream
listing
equal
to 1 ppm,
or part
per million.
is feed
20 (M.W.
= 40contains.
2 = 20)This
and the
eq.
=
mmary:
In this, the
part analysis,
of a
is known
as second
the water
and number,
a properhowever,
interpretation
is a must
assure
good
results.
Although
the
This
is in units
of towgt.
of CO
is
30
(M.W.
=
60

2
=
30).
3
of examine
an ion exchange
is toIon
remove
only theon
offending
components
of a feed
stream,
other
e-partpurpose
series, we
the proper system
weight.
exchangers,
the otherionic We
therefore must
equate
even the
Ca++
such and
as traps
temperature,
dissolved
solids
and
trace and
minerals
playofawater
role and
must
of a factors
water analysis
to avoid total
hand,
dont deal
with(TDS),
weight;pH
they
deal
CO3= also
content
to the
eq.
therefore
be
considered.
eciphering it. In the first part, we diswith ions, which are the real chemical
wgt. of CaCO3. We do this by multised basic ionization and the value of
components we are trying to remove.
plying by a conversion factor (which
Laboratories
usually
analysis using certain approved test methods, which give the results
Periodic
Table of Elements
to thereport
water a water
A milligram of magnesium or calcium
is derived by dividing the number 50
in milligrams per liter (mg/L). This is convenient because 1 mg/L is equal to 1 ppm, or part per million. This
ment professional. In Part 3, next month,
does not contain the same number
by the eq. wgt. of the substance). In the
number, however, is in units of weight. Ion exchangers, on the other hand, dont deal ++
with weight; they deal with
discuss the use of chemistry and ion
of
ions
or
ionic
equivalents
as
does
case
of
Ca
is 50 20or=calcium
2.5. For
ions, which are the real chemical components we are trying to remove. A milligram of, this
magnesium
=
hangedoes
selectivity
to
solve
certain
water
sedium
or
hydrogen.
The
convenCO
its
50

30
=
1.67.
We
can
readily
3
not contain the same number of ions or ionic equivalents as does sedium
or hydrogen. The convention
mentcommonly
problems. Throughout
thisconvert
series, to ppm
tion as
commonly
used is tocarbonate.
convert toConfusion
see thatarises
most common
of
used is to
CaCO3calcium
because components
both the mg/L
try tovalue
demystify
of chemistrys
ppmare
asoften
CaCO
calcium
carbonate.
water will
have
different
well
and some
the CaCO
value can and
reported
as ppm.
A good practice
would
beato
refer toM.W.,
elemental
3
3
plexities
to offer readers
good graspas mg/L
Confusion
arises 3because
both(the
theconversion)
have a variety
components
(theaanalysis)
and the CaCO
equivalents
as ppm.of conversion factors.
he fundamentals of filtration and ion
mg/L value and the CaCO3 value
Table 1 lists the common elements and
hange.
CaCO3 as ppm
can and are often reported as ppm.
their conversion factors.
A good practice would be to refer to
CaCO3 isdesign
an arbitrary
It has acomponents
formula or molecular
weight Table 1
o properly
a watername
treat- choice.
elemental
(the analysis)
Conversion Factors for Common
(M.W.)
of
100
(compared
to
carbon
with
a
M.W.
of
12).
Both
the
calcium
ment system, particularly with
as mg/L and the CaCO3 equivalents
Water Components
(Ca++)
and and
carbonate
are divalent.asThat
ion
exchange
reverse(CO
os-3=) ions
(the conversion)
ppm.is, they have a
charge value of +2 and -2, respectively (compared to sodium at +1), and,
is, its necessary to first get both
Cations
Anions
thus, an equivalent weight of 50.
++

antitative and qualitative listing


CaCO3 as ppm
Ca
2.50
HCO
0.82
3
The equivalent weight (eq. wgt.) of any substance is equal to its M.W.
++
=
Mg
4.10
CO3
0.83*
hat the
intended
stream
CaCO3 ,isthis
an arbitrary
choice.
divided
by itsfeed
valence.
Inconthe case of CaCO
is 100 name
2 = 50.
It should
+
=
3
Na
2.18
SO
1.04
. This
knownCa++
as the water
has an
a formula
or molecular
weight
4
belisting
notedisneither
nor CO3= It
have
equivalent
weight of 50,
but the
K+
1.28
Cl
1.41
ysis,combination
and a properdoes.
interpretation
(compared
The eq. wgt. (M.W.)
of Ca++ofis 100
20 (M.W.
= 40 to2 carbon
= 20) and
Fe++
1.79
NO3
0.81
mustthe
toeq.
assure
good
results.
Alwith
a
M.W.
of
12).
Both
the
calcium
++
wgt. of CO3= is 30 (M.W. = 60 2 = 30). We therefore must equate
Mn
1.82
SiO2
0.83
=
gh the
purpose
of anand
ion exchange
) andto
carbonate
(COof
) ions are
even
the Ca++
CO3= content(Ca
of++water
the eq. wgt.
3 CaCO3. We
ion exchange purposes, it is assumed that carbonate
em isdo
to remove
only the offending
divalent.
That
is, they
have a by
charge
this by multiplying
by a conversion
factor
(which
is derived
dividing *For
reacts as the monovalent ion.
the numberof50a by
thestream,
eq. wgt. of the
substance).
In the
case of Ca++,
c components
feed
value
of +2 and -2,
respectively
(com-this
is
50

20
=
2.5.
For
CO
=
its
50

30
=
1.67.
We
can
readily
see
components
of water
will
r factors such as temperature, 3total
pared to sodium at +1), and, thus,that
an most common
A simple
water analysis
converted
have
a different
M.W.,
a variety ofweight
conversion
common
their
olved
solids
(TDS), pH
andwell
tracehaveequivalent
of 50. factors. Table 1 lists
fromthe
mg/L
to ppmelements
as CaCO3and
is shown
eralsconversion
also play factors.
a role and must
The equivalent weight (eq. wgt.)
in Table 2.
efore be considered.
of any substance is equal to its M.W.
While the total dissolved minLaboratories usually report a
divided by its valence. In the case of
eral content of this water (residual

Technical Article
Page 2 of 5
A simple water analysis converted from mg/L to ppm as CaCO3 is shown in Table 2.
While the total dissolved mineral content of this water
(residual by evaporation) would measure 435 mg/L,
the TDS as CaCO3 is 273.5 ppm (for deionization or
DI purposes). One does not add the cation and anion
values together. For anion determinations, the silica is
quoted as an afterthought. I have 273.5 ppm water
with 15 ppm of silica. For mixed bed calculations, this
is 288.5 ppm water. For softening calculations, its 10
grain water, and for dealkalization, its 10.5 grain water.
There are 16.0 grains of cations and 16.9 grains of
anions for deionization.
Every ion has a partner

Table 2
Water Analysis Conversions
Cations

mg/L as CaCO3

Anions

mg/L

as CaCO3

Calcium
Magnesium
Sodium
Potassium
Iron (ferrous)
Subtotal

60
4.9
45.9
2.3
0.3
113.4

Bicarbonate
Carbonate
Sulfate
Chloride
Nitrate
Subtotal
Silica
Total

220
5
38.5
35.5
4.3

180ppm
4
ppm
30
ppm
50
ppm
3.5
ppm
303.3 273.5
18
15
321.3 288.5

Temp
pH
Turbidity
Color
Cond

150 ppm
20 ppm
100 ppm
3 ppm
0.5 ppm
273.5

68F
7.6
.5 NTU
35 APHA
650 umhos

values together. For anion determi-

adding to the sodium (Na+) or ch

Every ion is assumed to have a counter-ion (as a dancing


speak).
It should
be noted
that withif the
nations,partner,
the silicasoistoquoted
as an
(Cl-) values.
For instance,
extreme pH conditions (i.e. <4 or >10), there will beafterthought.
an excessIofhave
cations
or anions,
respectively.
Normally,
273.5 ppm
water
total were 15 less
than the anio
every cation has an anion (with the exception of silica)
theof total
should
equal
the 15
total
with 15so
ppm
silica.cations
For mixed
bed
would add
ppmanions
to Na+ as C
(without silica). Silica, a weakly ionized acid, is presumed
to existthis
(for
DI purposes)
SiO (silicic acid) and
calculations,
is 288.5
ppm water.as Hto
2 the3 cation load. Include the
For softening calculations, its 10 grain
as CaCO3 values for all monov
has H+ as its partner. It therefore stands alone.

water, and for dealkalization, its 10.5


cations (K+, NH4+) as part of th
water.the
There
are 16.0 grains
of
total and
monovalent anions
Sometimes the water analysis will be incomplete in grain
that only
offending
ions (calcium,
magnesium,
iron, (N
cations and 16.9 grains of anions for
Cl
totals.
We
then
add
silica va
alkalinity, sulfate and silica) are reportedsodium and chloride are missing. If the analysis appears incomplete,
deionization.
the anion total to get the total
look for the obvious. You can estimate the ppm as CaCO3 by dividing conductivity (as micromhos, or umhos)
load. This is done after balancin
by 2.5. In Table 2, we show conductivity as 650 umhos.
Dividing
bya2.5
gives us a TDScation
of 260
ppm.
Every
ion has
partner
and anion totals.
Every ion is assumed to have a
For the purposes of capacit
If the totals for cation and anion are not equal, we make
them
equal
by
adding
to
the
sodium
(Na+)
or chloride
counter-ion (as a dancing partner,
culations,
its generally
safe to i
(Cl-) values. For instance, if the cation total were 15soless
than Itthe
anion,
we would
15 ppm
Na+below
as 0.1
to speak).
should
be noted
that add
any items
withto
values
extreme
(i.e. <4
or
Dividing
these
corrected
totals
CaCO3 to the cation load. Include the ppm as CaCO3with
values
forpH
allconditions
monovalent
cations
(K+, NH
+)
as
part
of b
4
>10),
there
will
be
an
excess
of
cations
converts
the
ppm
as
CaCO
the Na+ total and monovalent anions (NO3-) as Cl- totals. We then add silica value to the anion total to get the3 val
or anions,
respectively.
total anion load. This is done after balancing the cation
and anion
totals. Normally, grains per gallon (gpg) values.
every cation has an anion (with the
the ion exchange capacity is u
exception of silica) so the total cations
determined in kilograins (Kg
For the purposes of capacity calculations, its generally safe to ignore any items with values
below 0.1 ppm.
should equal the total anions (without
cubic foot, (1 Kgr = 1,000 grain
Dividing these corrected totals by 17.1 converts the ppm
as
CaCO
values
to
grains
per
gallon
(gpg) values.
3
silica). Silica, a weakly
ionized acid, is
can now determine the throug
Since the ion exchange capacity is usually determinedpresumed
in kilograins
cubic as
foot, (1
Kgr =in1,000
to exist(Kgr)
(for DIper
purposes)
capacity
gallonsgrains),
per cubic foot
3
+
3
we can now determine the throughput capacity in gallons
per
cubic
foot
(gal/ft
)
of
resin.
Simply
divide
the
H2SiO3 (silicic acid) and has H as its
ft ) of resin. Simply
divide
the gra
grains of loading into the capacity of the resin.
partner. It therefore stands alone.
loading into the capacity of the
Sometimes the water analysis
Example: Determine the p
incomplete
only
size of using
a DI system
that will h
Example: Determine the proper size of a DI systemwill
thatbewill
handle in20that
gpm
forthe12 hours
the above
3 offending ions (calcium, magnesium,
3
20
gpm
for
12
hours
using the
water analysis. Use 6 pounds per cubic foot (lbs/ft ) of HCl for regeneration of cation and 7 lbs/ft of room
iron,
alkalinity,
sulfate
and
silica)
water
analysis.
Use
6
pounds
temperature caustic (NaOH) for the anion. The literature shows that the cation capacity (at approximately
40 per
3
(lbs/ft ) of HCl for regene
3 reportedsodium and chloride
percent Na and 60 percent alkalinity) to be 27.5 Kgr/ftare
. Using a 10 percent engineeringfoot
downgrade,
we have
are
missing.
If
the
analysis
appears
of
cation
and 7 lbs/ft3 of room
3
a net design capacity of 24.75 Kgr/ft (27.5 x .9 = 24.75)
for the cation. The anion (use a Type II) will have a
incomplete, look for the obvious. You
perature caustic (NaOH) for the a
book capacity of 20.3 Kgr/ft3 (with 5 percent silica incan
theestimate
influent)
downgrade
by 15
percent
theand
ppmwe
as will
CaCO
by
The this
literature
shows
that the
3
dividing conductivity (as micromhos,
capacity (at approximately 40 pe

A good practice is to treat each


parts per billion (ppb) and
10 years from now. This means the
ppm of iron as 1-to-3 grains of hardvalue will probably not affe
regeneration procedure must also be
ness. As such, in our sample water
its presence may influenc
a rejuvenation procedure to keep the
analysis, we have 10 grains loading
design your system. Do n
unit operating satisfactorily for many
Technical
Article
from hardness and we add 1 grains
g with
mg.
years. The water analysis can help us
Page 3 ofpracti
5
for the iron (total = 11.5). Soluble iron
Its a common
determine how to do this.
as high as 30 ppm has been successstabilize a water sample be
Softener throughput is influenced
fully
treated
with17.25
a standard
ing itdowngrade
off to a lab.factor
The acidifi
for only
design
.85), which
leaves
us with
Kgr/ft3.softener
The engineering
not
by purposes
hardness,(multiply
but also by
by TDS,
3 loss and some fouling, as well as
is
a
safety
factor
applied
to
DI
calculations
to
allow
for
wear
and
tear,
resin
with 10-to-12 pounds of salt/ft regenprevent precipitation of me
iron, temperature, flow rate and regenvariations
in
the
feed
stream
over
the
life
of
the
resin.
It
is
usually
10
percent
for
cation
resins and
15 percent
eration level. Utilizing a resin cleaner
possible
pH changes
(from
eration level and technique. Since TDS
for anion resins.
is always a good bet. Citric acid (availduring warming of sampl
and iron will generally be part of the
able from most chemical suppliers)
tion). Acidification not onl
water
look load
at those.
Sinceanalysis,
we have well
an anion
of 16.9 gpg, we will have to remove 16.9 x 20 x 60 x 12 = 243,360 grains.
works
a level
one feet
pound
per resin.
precipitation,
it causes
Hardthis
water
leakage
caused
by
Dividing
by 17.25
Kgrisanion
capacity,
we
seewell
wellatneed
14 of
cubic
of anion
Since the cation
will p
50 pounds
salt and
added
metals
(such asofaluminum
residual
hardnessthe
that
is left
on theto regenerate
have to produce
water
required
theofanion
resin,can
webe
must
now add
that quantity
water
directly
to
the
brine
tank.
lead)
to
solubilize.
Be =susp
to our
cation
load before
determining
resin
after
regeneration
and
bleeds off the size of the cation exchanger. The total gallons are 20 x 60 x 12
3
14,400.the
Assuming
75 gal/ft
of anion
x 14. The
cation of p
is a moderate
detailing
during
service run.
Increasing
theresin required for regeneration, add to that 1,05075
must
therefore
15,450it.gallons
(x 16.0Water
gpg) oranalysis
247,200 grains.
rating
of 24.75
trapsDividing this by our
tiescation
of trace
metals
in the an
salt
dosage
can treat
minimize
As hard
Kgr, well need 10 cubic feet of cation resin. There are a few things to watch
sample may have been aci
water passes through a resin bed, the
out for in your calculations.
raw water may carry these e
hardness
is exchanged
for sodiumon(orthe water
Resin capacities
are dependent
analysis (among other things) and therefore not constant for
precipitates,
should b
potassium).
The
thevarious
sodium
every system.
Thehigher
ratios of
ions toHardness
one another
cause the resin capacity to
vary as willwhich
the quality
andwill
alkalinity
particulateoffiltration.
level
(or TDS
level), the
higher
of effluent
onefeed
is targeting.
Flow
rate per cubic foot will also affect capacity as will by
temperature
service Ta
Frequently a water analysis will
look at the
water.
andtendency
regenerant.
addition,
thewater
quantity of regenerant is usually determined by the leakage
values
(quality)
the
forInthe
softened
report
total
hardness
(TH)
and/or
which is what
the whole
or what appears to be incomplete removal
toneeded,
leech hardness
backsets
off the
resin. thing in motion. Leakage,
alkalinity
(HCO
)
in
ppm
as CaCO
.
Turbidity
of unwanted
ions,
is length
a result(and
of incomplete
regeneration. Keeping
in mind
complete
regeneration is all but
3
3
This
reduces the
run
thus
Forproducing
the purpose
of designing
softeners
Dirty waters
impossible, we choose a regeneration level
a leakage
we can
tolerate as acceptable
quality.can
Theplug
the capacity) between the baseline
engineering of DI systems is a complex science
(and, some say,
art)
and will can
not be addressed
here.units, causin
and dealkalizers,
these
numbers
ion exchange
leakage and the breakthrough leakbe plugged in directly as loading
ing and capacity loss. Use
age.
Simply
knowing the TDS ahead
Softener
loading
values. If, however, the mg/L value is
if the turbidity values ar
of time can allow you to avoid costly
also listed, do the conversion to check
(nephelometric turbidity u
There
is more
to building
a softenerorthan simply measuring hardness of the water and setting the dial. Your
field
calls
to remedy
low capacity
their math.
customer
not only wants
his or herthe
water softened
today, they want it softened tomorrow, next month and 10
leakage
complaints
by adjusting
Color
years
from
now.
This
means
the
regeneration
procedure
must also be a rejuvenation procedure to keep the
capacity setting and using a higher salt
andanalysis
nitritescan help us determine howNatural
organics (such
unit operating satisfactorily for many years.Nitrates
The water
to do this.
dose ahead of time. To achieve 5 ppm
Nitrate and nitrite are frequently
or iron (colloidal, organic
(or
less)
leakage
during
the
run,
use
in terms
mg/L
as Niron,
(ni- temperature,
tated) may
cause
Softener throughput is influenced not onlyreported
by hardness,
but of
also
by TDS,
flow
rate color,
and r
the
following
salt
settings
for
various
regeneration level and technique. Since TDS
and iron
will
part
the water
analysis,
well
look at
trogen).
This
is generally
written asbe
NO
-Nofand
APHA
units.
Values
for c
3
TDS
values:
those.
NO -N. Its necessary to first convert
25 APHA are usually not
2

these values to mg/L as the ion, then


by eye. Again, try to deter
Table 3 Leakage vs. total dissolved
Hard water leakage is caused by residual hardness that is left on the
to ppm as CaCO3. Since N has a M.W.
is causing the color and ins
solids (TDS) dosage chart
resin after regeneration
and bleeds off during the service run. Increasing
= 14,
and NO
a M.W.
= 62,
it is
Softeners
the salt
dosage
can3 has
minimize
it. As
hard
water pre-filtration.
passes through
a resin do n
TDS of feedwater* Pounds of salt
to multiply
the Nfor
value
by (or color.
Granular
activate
bed, necessary
the hardness
is exchanged
sodium
potassium).
The higher
200
2
62/14 or
4.43(or
forTDS
the NO
and 3.29 for
(GAC) and/or salt regenera
the sodium
level
feed
3 level), the higher the tendency for the
500
5
softened
water
to leech
hardness
back off the resin
resin.can
Thisoften
reduces
thejob.
the NO
. The
maximum
contaminant
do the
2
800
10
run length
(and
thus
the
capacity)
between
the
baseline
leakage
and
level (MCL) for NO3-N is 10 ppm. This
1,200
15
the breakthrough
leakage.
Simply
knowing
TDS ahead of time can
equals 44.3 mg/L
for NO
ion and
35.9 the Temperature
1,500
20
allow you to avoid costly field3 calls to remedy low capacity
or leakage
Ion exchange
systems
ppm as CaCO3.
2,000
25
complaints by adjusting the capacity setting and intended
using a higher
salt
dose
to function
with
*Expressed as ppm.
ahead of time. To achieve 5 ppm (or less) leakage during the run, use
Trace metals
temperatures of 50-to-100
the following salt settings for various TDS values:
Soluble iron is exchanged onto a
While trace metals, particularly
temperatures can be detr
+2
cation exchanger as Fe . However,
heavy metals, may be present at
anion resins in DI system

Technical Article
Page 4 of 5

Soluble iron is exchanged onto a cation exchanger as Fe+2. However, with time, it oxidizes to Fe+3 and is not
readily removed by salt regeneration. If we assign a higher value for iron in determining our loading, we will
reduce the throughput volume and, therefore, regenerate more frequently.
A good practice is to treat each ppm of iron as 1-to-3 grains of hardness. As such, in our sample water analysis,
we have 10 grains loading from hardness and we add 11/2 grains for the iron (total = 11.5). Soluble iron as high
as 30 ppm has been successfully treated with a standard softener with 10-to-12 pounds of salt/ft3 regeneration
level. Utilizing a resin cleaner is always a good bet. Citric acid (available from most chemical suppliers) works
well at a level of one pound per 50 pounds of salt and can be added directly to the brine tank.
Water analysis traps
There are a few things to watch out for in your calculations.
Hardness and alkalinity
Frequently a water analysis will report total hardness (TH) and/or alkalinity (HCO3-) in ppm as CaCO3. For
the purpose of designing softeners and dealkalizers, these numbers can be plugged in directly as loading
values. If, however, the mg/L value is also listed, do the conversion to check their math.
Nitrates and nitrites
Nitrate and nitrite are frequently reported in terms of mg/L as N (nitrogen). This is written as NO3-N and NO2N. Its necessary to first convert these values to mg/L as the ion, then to ppm as CaCO3. Since N has a M.W.
= 14, and NO3 has a M.W. = 62, it is necessary to multiply the N value by 62/14 or 4.43 for the NO3 and 3.29
for the NO2. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) for NO3-N is 10 ppm. This equals 44.3 mg/L for NO3 ion
and 35.9 ppm as CaCO3.
Trace metals
While trace metals, particularly heavy metals, may be present at very low levels, their toxicity usually dictates
that they be reported. Their values are usually reported in micrograms (millionths of a gram) and written as
ug/L (sometimes the letter u is substituted for the Greek letter or mu). This value is actually in parts per
billion (ppb) and, while its value will probably not affect capacity, its presence may influence how you design
your system. Do not confuse g with mg.
Its a common practice to acid-stabilize a water sample before sending it off to a lab. The acidification is to
prevent precipitation of metals due to possible pH changes (from loss of CO2 during warming of sample or
agitation). Acidification not only prevents precipitation, it causes precipitated metals (such as aluminum, iron
and lead) to solubilize. Be suspect if there is a moderate detailing of ppb quantities of trace metals in the
analysis. This sample may have been acidified. The raw water may carry these elements as precipitates,
which should be removed by particulate filtration. Take a closer look at the water.
Turbidity
Dirty waters can plug and foul ion exchange units, causing channeling and capacity loss. Use a pre-filter if the
turbidity values are >5 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units).

Technical Article
Page 5 of 5
Color
Natural organics (such as tannins) or iron (colloidal, organic or precipitated) may cause color, reported as
APHA units. Values for color below 25 APHA are usually not noticeable by eye. Again, try to determine what
is causing the color and install proper pre-filtration. Softeners do not remove color. Granular activated carbon
(GAC) and/or salt regeneration anion resin can often do the job.
Temperature
Ion exchange systems are usually intended to function with water feed temperatures of 50-to-100F. Higher
temperatures can be detrimental to anion resins in DI systems. A lab-supplied water analysis may list
temperature, but its meaningless. Rather, check with the intended installation site if anion exchange enters
into the picture.
Much of the ion exchange process depends upon ions ability to diffuse into and out of the resin bead matrix.
This is temperature dependent and is seriously slowed by cold-water operations. Resin beds should be at
least 50 percent larger in diameter and 100 percent larger in volume to effectively handle water streams below
40F.
Conclusions
Obtaining and using a good water analysis is essential to the proper design of any water filtration system,
particularly an ion exchanger. There is much valuable information on a lab analysis that can help you to avoid
design errors.
Make sure you understand the water analysis. Check the math to make sure the units add up. Make sure the
cations are equal to the anions, and then add in silica to determine total loading.
Chubb Michaud is the CEO and Technical Director of Systematix Company, of Buena Park, CA, which he founded in 1982. A
University of Maine graduate, he holds both a Bachelors and Masters degree in Chemical Engineering and has over thirty
years of field experience in water and fluid treatment applications and systems design. He holds several US Patents on ion
exchange processes. An active member of the Water Quality Association, Michaud chaired the Ion Exchange Task Force
(1999-2001) and currently chairs the Commercial/Industrial Section (since 2001). He was elected to the WQA Board of
Directors and Board of Governors in 2005 and is a Certified Water Specialist Level VI. He has served on the Board of Directors
of the Pacific WQA since 2001 and chairs its Technical Committee. He was a founding member of (and continues to serve
on) the Technical Review Committee for Water Conditioning and Purification Magazine. He has authored or presented over
100 technical publications and papers.
Michaud began his technical career with Rohm and Haas Company in 1964 and founded Systematix in 1982. He has been
associated in direct sales for the past 23 years with The Purolite Company, a world-wide manufacturer of Ion exchange
resins. He also serves on the Board of several diverse manufacturing companies.
May 1998 Reprinted with permission of Water Conditioning & Purification Magazine. Any reuse or republication, in
part or whole, must be with written consent of the Publisher.