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metal planer. . Leiston Works in Leiston in the English county of Suffolk for the manufacture of portable steam engines • Though Henry Ford is generally thought to be the inventor of the assembly line. built between 1801 and 1803 • The first flow assembly line was initiated at the factory of Richard Garrett & Sons. the development of screw-cutting lathe. milling machine and of toolpath control via jigs and fixtures. weapons and china • The idea of the assembly line of the Ford Model T was inspired by the ‘disassembly’ line of the meat factories in Chicago • The efficiency of one person removing one part over and over again from the carcasses inspired William Klann of Ford Motor Company Principles of assembly • Place the tools and the men in the sequence of the operation so that each component part shall travel the least possible distance while in the process of finishing. • Use sliding assembling lines by which the parts to be assembled are delivered at convenient distances. • Use work slides or some other form of carrier so that when a workman completes his operation. ships moved along a canal and were fitted by various shops as they passed. earliest example of it was in China where it was used to mass produce agricultural tools.ASSEMBLY LINE What is assembly line? An assembly line is a manufacturing process (most of the time called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from work station to work station where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced. At its peak efficiency it produced one ship a day and could fit out. armor. provided the prerequisites for the modern assembly line by making interchangeable parts a practical reality • Probably the earliest industrial example of a linear and continuous assembly process is the Portsmouth Block Mills. he drops the part always in the same place— which place must always be the most convenient place to his hand—and if possible have gravity carry the part to the next workman for his operation. arm and provision a new ship on an assembly line basis • During the early 19th century. History of assembly line • The first production line in the western world was the Venetian Arsenal which operated since around 1104.

weld. • The arms can complete the jobs much faster and more accurately than people and without risks and hazards • Automation. there is savings in salary due to minimal human involvement Effects of automation Some positive effects • Increased production levels • Automation as a “key” element of competitiveness Some negative effects associated with automation use • Increased complexity for the human operator • Reduced safety margins • Operators are left to deal with automation malfunctions . though very expensive to implement. increase in the speed of rotation causes the balls to rise which pulls the green collar up and releases excess pressure in the steam engine Industrial automation • Industrial automation is accomplished by robotic arms. drill and check each car underbody.) in use since around 1785. saves production costs in the long run due to the efficiency.AUTOMATION What is automation? • Automation is defined as The act of implementing the control of equipment with advanced technology. smooth. Also. various sensors and computers • The robotic arms used in industry automatically cut. usually involving electronic hardware • A phrase summarises the purpose of automation: “Automation replaces human workers by machines” Automation basics • Automation aims to reach a particular goal with minimal human action • Nowadays most automation is implemented by computer-controlled systems • Automation systems broadly consist of a control system and devices controlled by it • An early example of a control system is the centrifugal governor (see fig.

during automation malfunction. total control of whole system is not possible for most present pilots .• For highly complex systems like aircrafts.

results in outputs • MMI is more specifically applicable when the interaction is intuitive and cognitive MMI with a difference: prosthetics The artificial limbs which can be mind-controlled are seeing success presently. But scientists in Switzerland have taken it further: their prosthetic has a network of highly sensitive electrodes to send back feelings of touch to the brain .MAN-MACHINE INTERACTION (MMI) What is Man-Machine Interaction? • The operation of any instrument does not qualify as man-machine interaction. androids. phone etc. mobile phones • The input given to the computer. virtual and artificial intelligence software The ‘Man’ and the ‘Machine’ in MMI • Common cases of MMI are our daily use of computers. Man-machine interaction is only possible when the ‘machine’ in question is capable of ‘responding’ to actions of the person • The definition of MMI narrows its field to computers. humanoids.