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'23. D. 't . for the puropse of there representing the Territo and presenting to Congress full information 0dnernix* tkie`'giiW&oi6 i in aA 4Irt6(se(SeifeiFeli( 'F&Wi&I At the same .^" ~~~~R I. and. The resolution discussed in this report was drafted by the Hawaii Emergency Labor Commisaion. tle 0Uiid States the toveinment of awaii was dressed w. Chillingworth. t -4 At the time-American misionaries from New England first went to Hawaii. and prevent si1uatioli on t4e si'cv'ghe co~ifereine ihe governordestruciyq sent a special messagelosses. with 1o9o. which was then in ssion.titneithe Trtitoria. iAr of 1921 the sandalwood.-testifying ai to the d o for itos early relief. A the completely deptendentfr th Pt cultural acti'ties of the country. %'1hel920 census` laes' the at 256. and consists of Mr.pen Throughout th. C. and this commission. appeared before your committee in various 'hearings had _on this matter. in 1820. Ueitorial legislature..1YA 1 turned to th~ Orientforthe Iabo4wtl'itnseed~'tl to. with the then Delegate of Hawaii.0 DODula iono became impossible. tom the dqo 'vl a Chinese and open to the JIansJ. IMnrouIGPr nomic Fllrg. to<. legislature.000 Olinl T-daz the basilc ustries of] of Uirn principaiT crops iprUht h acco applesCp ee. appointed byv te governor of the Territory. Charles F. Dillingham. the situation in Hawaii and the ieogsity 2 CONDITIONS NIOE8STATING RILXF. f . Of the pptii tf annexatiqn to te untd St*tes6 o v~erty greatly e dce'ded the other "i "With ". by acts and resolutions. WaIlter F. and Mr.L9 Teu#~~.h the on lqof keeping its alien peoples in balance numerica aiertei4 to. eI 7. Albert Horner.. the oqly export oimnLoditw.000. r of the isands have be~n cointm6 ericans have never beei'nueinel . which shows a total popifltiV nese. to iann06 much smaller quantities. opftprikted funds from the Territorial treasury to meet the expenses incurred by this commission in carrying out its instructions. based upon this message of the Governor of Hawaii and its own knowledge of the circumstances. 1900. 4he next laXet racial oIt i 37. year i#nil vnesat~iqn. Mr. authorized and directed the governor to appoint a special commission to proeed to Washington.apri wanAns.90 . Mw~clEp b!. Wial.000. The ( whaling industry which developed in Hawvaii after the advent of the tunditsattept o etroe t" ag"Y tphqeCir epxi eT cg ~ p' Akumva +ON!"An.

000 tons and no labolor t6:rmiie the.of field lablre'r to . thet' normal' 'garv..0in bonuses.' For labor to 6anryr on its essential industries. preponderance in numbers and their aggressive' ambi-tion. it musts therefore look to some other source.per *cent (of the poii~ktion rof the islands.r. business' enterprises this solidarity and pride is appealed to in order to compel Japanese to do L'usiness with people of their : own race.: oneof fieldr laborerswho -were paid nearly $26..H~awaii o(r from elsewhereuidor in part. -T 'i . .PEOAR 0 i1'IW*t .. by the restlegs. IAI PREPONDERATING RACE. their.biltivation' of thi land is 'now available 'in u isting laws.lve. 'ONDI1*ONS IN *"Thne T~fitory' of'Hawai' isins -igular andisolate .it is.tion of the' errtoryby approximately '60..!0(ari of. .AMORATtOA'1 O MOlAZlY' SHOATAOE OPIA OR IT HAWAII.100 -miles from the mainand of'the Upiied State It has' n migratory 'supply of . The Japanese is conspicuous everywhere' for! his national solidarity and pride.the wci iari racial solidarity-of the Japanese 'Who constitute 43 . 8 tot: l pop*4. of -assciating or 'assimilating with the other population of the islands. per cent. Japanese have it in their power to control the industriestoft the Territory byi being 'able either to furnish or to fail to furnish the labor without which those industries can not .- TRRTY. !" . Y¢ -'TH live. 1i -seriously threatened. for business 'or other reasons. inlar er'part. conp of 'tol however... oew Japanese business ventures of one sort or another arcOnstartly makldng their appearance anid in' many lines of industry they outnumber American ..O. of6theirelos manner of these collective action. fundnuientdl agricultiial' industries ofi Hawaii was performed by Jap6Aeg...Oh Adcout.. Thihobtage-of common lkibor-is cVused.committeetin 1921 SSine' thi' mnitter-wasp&estintedo continued? aiid intensive kruiti ofFilipinbs in the Philippine the Tertory to secure la suffiOlandsbaseaabled athei inditieids& of4 cient4nltimbe. of'. be 'active m every 'line of business endeavor.zby .produchig' land but 'thd forced abandonment of. The extensive fishing industry of Hawaii is :entirely in their control to-day. . Until the very recent intensiVe recruiting of. natiokial'oroby Teteitoriall-born."in. by th peponderance who6 lpeform the field labor of the aong -Japaiieie Lthose iion'ally Terr1tory ani by an'actual shortg..citizens 2 or 3 to 1.' '75. Filipinos. this largearea Shia debreasl' 'tue annual sugar p'iodu. ioveraridfabbvel regular'wages in 1-920.y and quary work throiughout the Territory and have a tactical monopoly of the carpenter and small contracting business. Further Ameriein ndustril d pliticali. . They-have a monopoly of stone masonr. of laborJ sl as is to Pbe: found n practically every setion the0mailandjiand neitherdoes it hive any adequate supply of labor wkthih itO own boundaries.natural that the Japanf se should. and in the developmest.and feels no necessity.. With. . f suchlabor gtthi. of the field labor employed 'in the.iermit the cultivation ofatllbut f l2. and-alo. itizens of Japanese cohesiveness and characteristic Cic~try~. T~he Japanese population of the Territory is s large that it is able to maintain "itself as a separate coxmnity.

-fuel. in a manne' better thah that to be fovd in a"y othm !"pal country in the world. 'oth& rem'ad 4 r uikafimG in p. and ndiXt-Aland hospital attentio. (Bulletin 'of tht -Departikerit 'of -4fl 64h Co4*.of. the iznp*rtacb . . whatv Itheir. -truiprden patehkt.. to retLrn to and martin normal... Whateter casi of. The oriental will drive out and supplant the white man in every intanet and'Hawaii is.i'"'* . laborers awe irnished with homes.hoiray flljjjg toeim tatvork iatheto lilM ftheooeuntrneed. there can be no competition -in asgrilturil field work between oriental laborers and white laborers of whatever nationality.¢ t he. The Government of Ilawan realize. itinediite' deeds .Land Labor' uminons report of. wate. 694-095' S. after an investigation.labor he shall provide Wiu' be 'deterfined after careful consideratiai of the qualificationsunavoidably to be expected of that 'labo r Immigration to. of the labor 'situation and the poeaibilit. 94. and mae it pomiblW duction..a the 'industries should' be. a. and in a waythat niar favorably Iit4 oonditakms on. This resolution empowers the Secretary of Labor to relieve. let Labor (1911) No.borm of such a nationality as he.tsing. amountting to a practical certinty under existing oditio*' thlit the American control of the island industry ny pass ito the hands of this alien race rwh aybe brought in -It -is therefore necessary that the to supply the present needs . "LabjorConditions in Hawaii" (1915). F ldiabor ia their Territd i poed houd.t .t6" trbatpent'at corde mental ageniits to the Common labbter there. . for. existing ate shora mnst take into consideration the overwhelming prepoaderbe of Japan inhe *islands. temper their aggressive. 6% 65. This is a reogizedfa thatis especially true of tropical countries.the expene -61 theit eknployrs Thec.4 IMMIORATZON.ITO) RtBIVBS HOflRt . may determine to be best qualified to meet the situitien. seas. 'i'QUM*'. ntiitnei be 8asitnloAtd ino the citizen Porlation -ofthe ila d eie4rimont have generally bet. In the nature of things. th'e agricltural industries and relieve ". 68.0 LA0tmI hAWAdo.ipald. supply the. ohitire*u*zthey have clearly dbendstratedithM therwtubaenis'I.ofiSmla6 tion that will add -to the Prnect white' citizen labor Under existing eonitios. ha^t'.conditions of di4iiilabor in suhjet 61 many-in skiHawa~ii hatve been the ttions.their control.ihdus tiesteuse&v#to Ssist to -H&waMia i igrts of lasstht might be *xpeted Wrptformrnecessary field laborofoienta&: d. pp 10. the maiand bt the lnit&dW¶tat Without' coeV 4kb themselves.?) :.. proness. pp. for the reason that the present lain astuaioU deads im irtion of ... Copetitive nationality to break tp the racial siidtrity of the JapaneMe. 3&. 87.lDoo Nd.%#8nganther villages and rosidenos have' the befiti of consta sanitary *vluon 'at . the situation by admitting aliens fa. .the Departmst 't. 39.A TOi AB' . ailhr tblt._'_Xi s''" " . destroy the labor monopoly they now. hotrever1j Suchan iUhi tion uld no be feaable as a means lo relieving' the present emeramcy. sd expndive hav Fot the tinpud t_60 OMrs been made by the Gbveninet and by th .'now o brieital.

u aiu yJw sifup4 neta inus~re .. a would such a .e4.11 . Considering this o g tt isand teriitory ba f~c~ inreawNatiwi. . aqdlooet at once. an4. p etis Briefly.ure the iunpgrataon:of possible citizens can and will be AN C~rry . to Ja nhe of tvhQ cIwr of theC Pacific Ocean."thfo riOMO *eW ltha.~n ~eptwpu of t? zairland o~f the J. oiluht owore t ee itok attinedthe Nitjon onoly rwl iwiore.jIawoaioa from Pory.Yited.m1oi~Kt n*i~V fIt*ZA6 6'LA*o1ItWf* I iA*MI ' l lbord*A tI1 v lat&f~itq. -It is not the . o£i existewej.k~t6sff~o+hbl~ Ok itio> ho apn*iibe ¢edF upjti> tl-1*~eht.. that the expense of an conditions the1 indug. . .'tt''' .''': . 'ixi C~ifo. ~ to ~. procurable./.~5asXzpplyt 1ah0r nood } i .& tbtS*SI.g -^}9?.1ose~ an p~lce them on * abolute :p'ie oti to la tl* r* nI P1i rlt. ~ -~ I~ No los or failure of a mere economic nature can possibly rult in turniz. ' t i .a result w would beIof Zrious---sequence to the Americ. .WontIAol Certaioiy such . ecaopTiCco8ntrol woul(1 prawtz mlydestpyn the Amnorca control of Hawaii and in e aect transfer . tSu~chi*.1offey that the industrieswtoh into the hnd o ~t Jaane instead of merely pass! gto.:iqeety r of utot the . lance such further eeperiinents. Qt q .a fe.~ .nt..^. wha wo. . regardless of pr~jpqiesX p<4rist kW ds* type of people oi labor. the r~htibs ofl thle Territory have beezi. H4. our.- . 6qd financialconditions of the industries thereof.with tip tlia$. that eh 0 p *ith.relie to be proBtt wot89w*tw y~ide4 ni~w4ueetionakly bp the best. .i fiane . qu ttion .4f 'p4W i k$ tei6i M-**-n~v1Ohu hM'1b44i 4.E7a*kbi4. b6ete of the distressed ailgy4t re.bey ri~ininw Aejican handss~and: so that Axnriean 0wno ap4 ~perttorsi ayb enabted to.. State oaver to the political dominanoe and control of anaieny people. Furtherore.lestlie otiIpg sItUatiOn in such a way that destructive economic losses may be prevented n of 'ontM the an491~*hr9atene& not.d4 l1. i 7 th. I~fittitbd' & oild 1be lbo)k&.O soing ind~tries bankb e. ? 'SOS .itrMW1Dh':+fd ^ kthe T~btfty i~t A H6 hi~dn 4. iA whiite Xtiylfewt te~ln{dA~uii4 the . 9. fpt from such an immigration.of Hia}. alpis ipayW -ane a adeqndatr supply ofefreld labora kin4u4trivs ppr~vi~ed .(el { {s*g 5J~S i9t} It. the qoinmamding factisd. The 44tA~atMoI in HXIwaziizu~st ~e: mat.e ovily alocaln 4isaster4 From the national et~idp~. navyl and znilitasy controloflitheA b eiwdjtPbifpo t1 !i UO'it if EMlERGENC1Y EXIS3TS. %^*toirg. . result ruNptoy.tsof Haaoifi tafo the pesenftan .or4 ou~ opwr&ting. t 5 t i t t S i sil! t ) i t I . weee'A tkt 4.

rrn'~t't#t itiM >grh bef tteX This tettin ^vfi hum iiXUteqtig &ticZt imh ~t t) t$l irstb j t*idtAti bt#h '~ ~v' n~ & I s population and can.fth . or in any othet AkIei 'IM¶uft }gjj'ha Sie~ problem as now exists in the islands.. The deet skilled rnedhanicstherei WI hen rort for thet theTi the resolution. tfletr ot PRO'V~D. not leave the islatds 4aiyt otherplt&%kt the jurisdiction of tthe United States. t*t I ' 2i*I''flU 'si*U. 491 tamters.'0 b eu n.71 th. thenwill befit te ditn by renewing their chance :of securing and holding rsmuneratve employment.w speedily to ensat this esltion Te'ntiai 1. 122 printers. '396 *i stea vedo. nuil the' al^u.~Skle 'tntbnc an *1k am!i uIltbl to fitxdI eeinky metOt toay soI causee of thB fa. '2... that ti preset Aor tttoties field labor has taken ifttI thei oUM oif Wotkfn thihtheOy wn :skilled thee 'l tlheab mehaniOs livelihood. 104 fibnmm . flxu 0$'fkwskfik~o iw. . The sht 'Sfi labor offerede bo ptitt f& tl etjlog metlt of thes skiledinctis. tund. jfbjad" ler 0t t~~d * BP *KMt.(>xc -tis'.' l 1 n fl* .717 .ftyT.?617 'prfessfional me. they cnnot crat in Hawii..twt 3 n ful tad en inuulst'i tOne more beowe ftAndilyoet w%:ymn fo theu sufficient "ppWy ot commo labr j to *t do. b~iZ d*lbtv tdp attflr :rl/f ' ' 3l"!it' pd'.gl'-s'g WhtS 6 s loV en for 'the 4f* dtT Ecivt 'hisnplmt iiM mechaichiehHhtuifi fti kgricu~tur idmttis '6 th >isiids When the } ({*z? 'n th is ft there i~s no work 'fr skilled tn t t h b i field Worktht rt4W'es p then lutbor todoothel-tr intielilgeht&. 1 ~~ I ' the present emerge ptt the? Wa&f 0t* controll. t tSxe ith Thb skild' lbor. E-OUTO LCSOORTUD rr it' Af UAWAIIANS W 8of theii Arp~tit~ion tigned by nearly T000 TOt t 'cm tis itte eon' b6 'fllid w. "'1 .74 l ?7 t s 2s0 'bank. 3 13 stevedores?.

400 votes. It was the contention of the Haowa~aan commission which ap eared before this committee -that the.000 went to the polls and over 90 per cent of these 'voting citizens cast their ballots fot one or the other of the two candidates who had declared themselvos in favor of the resolution. so as to provide every possible safeguard for the iLiens admitted under its provisions and so as to Iraise an effective barrier against the tion of any of -thoe aliens from Hawaii to the mainland of the Uimted States. and it is now p lain that the people of the Territory want and consider' vital the relief provided by this resolutions OPPOSITIN INSPIRED BY JAPANESE. RESOLUTION INDORSED BY LABOR LA1DERS. In November. in the course of their testimony before the House committee. Of the 2. where. the then Delegate from Hawaii has died and: a special election has been held to select his successor. as the ostensible representatives of organized labor in the Territory. under examination. which proB R-67-4-vol 1 7 . and might beg made the excuse on which aliens admitted to Hawsui could later proceed to the continental United States. These two men. There were four candidates. housewives. To answer these objections the committee proposes certain amendments of and additions to the text of the resolution.000 persons of misdelaneous occupa- tion.h000 reitered voters in the Territory. the other two-both Hawaiians-ben unalterably opposed to it and basitg their whole campaign upon its defeat. the result of the election leave no doubt that the whites and Hawaiians are one in their realization of the menace in the present situation..Iiide this matter was first referred to this conunittee for considetation. land labor organizations has been predicated upon the erroneous assumption that the bill will involve a system of contract or bonded labor-. pose the enactment of this resolution. tie sole issue before the voters at the recent election was the endorsement or repudiation of this resolution. The only opposition to the resolution on the part of the resident of the Tertory of Hawaii was voiced to the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization of the House of Representatives by two officers and representatives of the Honolulu Central Labor Council of the American Federation of Labor. admitted. Oppition to the resolution expressed by representatives of mainom. Considering that the Hawaiians still control the electorate and that it has long been the opinion of most well-informed men that none but a Hawaiian could be elected to represent the Territory in Congress. . two of whom were pledged to work for its oelactment.IMMIGRATION TO BELIEBV SHORTAGE OF LABOR IN HAWAII. they might op. 24. the Secretary of Labor appointed a special commission. at the request of the governor of the Territory. The two opposing hawaiian candidates received barely 2. and more than 3. that the Japanese opponents of the bill had furnished them with sufficient funds to proceed to Washington. resolution would receive the almost unanimous ihiddrsemnent of the citizens of the Territory were it to be submitted to them at the polls and thi contention has been amply borne out by the facts. or peonage. 1922.

social. Mr. the other four being leaders of organized labor on the mainland of oiuch prominence as Mr. shortages. 'E. This commission was composed of five men. secretary of the Amalgamated Association of Iron. That attention should be specially called to the menace of alien domination. 0 . commercial. and that the present policy of "parental adoption" and importation of "picture brides" by the Japanese should be stopped. If they be held economically' and. ceeded to Hawaii and'there investigated the conditions which this resolution is designed to relieve. or political life in'the Territory by any alien race. and whether the industries of Hawaii pass 'into. If Hawaii were to be wiped from the face of the Pacific as a result of the complete failure of its industries. and educational life of the islands must also be American. NATIONAL IMPORTANCE OF RELIEF. True. and every consideration of national safety and importance demands that the emergency which now exists be relieved in such a. they can constitute only a grave menace to the Amerioan Nation. thess islands are to remain American. one of whom is a representative of the Federal Department of Labor. because these practices have defeated the purpose of the called "gentlemen's agreement" (which intended the curtailment of common labor importations). the people of the locality will suffer if it should not be relieved. however. Otto Hartwg.Nation as a whole. that failure would result in little harm to the. Mr. people of the Hawaiian Islands feel generally a greater sense of security and control of all that contributes to make continued living in the Territory of Hawaii worth while. the assured control of the political. alien hands or not the islands will remain ton the. which must be handled in the future with greater regard to the wellbeing of the Territory as part of the United the sooner we will make the. No such phpical destruction will result from'economic failure. and the sooner we wake up to a fu' ler appreciation of this imperative and immediate need. way that alien control of the industries and the Territory shall be avoided. head of the building trade department of 'the American Federation of Labor. industrial.western coast of this country. This commission completed its survey of conditions in the'Termrtory and filed its 'report with the Secretary of Labor on January 24. social. In the interests of national defense and the welfare of American citizenship in the Territory. and in a way that will prevent the posible domination of the industrial.Sheppardpresidenh Jon Do in. and Tin Workers. t of the Brotherhood of Railway Conductors. The question of national 'defense submerges all others into insignificance. 1923. Steel. the commission respectfully and earnestly recommends that the question of alien domination be immediately referred to the Congress of the United States for the necessary remedial legislation. and Mr.politically by one alien race.standpoint can be fully verified by referring to the records of related Federal departments. commercial.SHOR'AGt OF LABOR IN HAWAII. * * * * * * * The menace from a military. L. president of the Oregon'State Federation of Labor. F'rediEeightly. are liable to recur. but they will suffer no more than will the Nation. stating inter aliaa: IMMRATION TO RELIEVE 8 That the question of labor supply is ever present and temporary. This entire problem is a national and not a local.