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BY
ED.
SlAGBQ1zIBRll'W:
f;:o,
RSL
RATWX
SELQRTA,GE'~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i;J,.

i921-1

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.t bD8ePi
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Mrj; DNujxok ,! from the -.Cmmtte -on, Immnigration, submitted


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REPORTO.

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-BY

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to Akumva +ON!"An.
IMnrouIGPr
nomic
Fllrg,
and prevent
si1uatioli
on t4e si'cv'ghe
co~ifereine ihe governordestruciyq
sent a special messagelosses.
Ueitorial legislature, which was then in ssion; and. iAr of
1921 the legislature, based upon this message of the Governor of
Hawaii and its own knowledge of the circumstances, by acts and
resolutions, authorized and directed the governor to appoint a special
commission to proeed to Washington, D. C., for the puropse of there
representing the Territo and presenting to Congress full information 0dnernix* tkie`'giiW&oi6 i in aA 4Irt6(se(SeifeiFeli( 'F&Wi&I
At the same .titneithe Trtitoria; legislature, opftprikted funds from
the Territorial treasury to meet the expenses incurred by this commission in carrying out its instructions.
The resolution discussed in this report was drafted by the Hawaii
Emergency Labor Commisaion,, appointed byv te governor of the
Territory, and consists of Mr. WaIlter F. Dillingham, Mr. Charles F.
Chillingworth, and Mr. Albert Horner; and this commission, with
the then Delegate of Hawaii, appeared before your committee in
various 'hearings had _on this matter,-testifying ai to the d o
for itos
early relief.
the situation in Hawaii and the ieogsity
2

CONDITIONS NIOE8STATING RILXF.


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At the time-American misionaries from New England first went to


Hawaii, in 1820, the oqly export
oimnLoditw.as sandalwood. The
(
whaling industry which developed in Hawvaii after the advent of the
tunditsattept
o etroe
t" ag"Y tphqeCir
epxi
eT
cg
~
p'ar,
Mw~clEp
b!,L9
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7,1YA
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turned to th~ Orientforthe Iabo4wtl'itnseed~'tl


to,pen
Throughout th. year i#nil vnesat~iqn. to<. tle 0Uiid States the
toveinment of awaii was dressed
w- h the on lqof keeping its
alien peoples in balance numerica
aiertei4 to. Of the pptii tf
annexatiqn to te untd St*tes6
o
v~erty greatly e dce'ded the other
"i
"With
",
Wial.0 DODula iono
became impossible, tom the dqo 'vl a
Chinese and open to the JIansJ,
1900, which shows a total popifltiV
nese, 4he next laXet racial oIt
i

37,000. %'1hel920 census` laes' the


at 256,000, with 1o9o,90 ,apri
wanAns, '23,000 Olinl
T-daz the basilc ustries of]

of Uirn
principaiT crops iprUht
h
acco
applesCp ee, to
iann06
much smaller quantities. A the
completely deptendentfr th Pt
cultural acti'ties of the country.
r
of the isands have be~n cointm6
ericans have never beei'nueinel

.AMORATtOA'1 O MOlAZlY' SHOATAOE OPIA OR IT HAWAII. 8


tot: l pop*4,"in. Further Ameriein ndustril d pliticali, conp
of
'tol however, 1i -seriously threatened, by th peponderance
who6
lpeform
the
field labor of the
aong
-Japaiieie
Lthose
iion'ally
Terr1tory ani by an'actual shortg. f suchlabor
gtthi- committeetin 1921
SSine' thi' mnitter-wasp&estintedo
continued? aiid intensive kruiti ofFilipinbs in the Philippine
the Tertory to secure la suffiOlandsbaseaabled athei inditieids& of4
cient4nltimbe.r- of field lablre'r to .iermit the cultivation ofatllbut f
l2,O.!0(ari of. thet' normal' 'garv.produchig' land but 'thd forced
abandonment of. this largearea Shia debreasl' 'tue annual sugar
p'iodu.tion of the' errtoryby approximately '60,000 tons and no
labolor t6:rmiie the.;biltivation' of thi land is 'now available 'in
u
isting laws.
.H~awaii o(r from elsewhereuidor
in part, by the restlegs....
Thihobtage-of common lkibor-is cVused,:
oneof fieldr laborerswho -were paid nearly $26,000,0in bonuses,
ioveraridfabbvel regular'wages in 1-920,; and-alo, inlar er'part;zby
- the wci iari racial solidarity-of the Japanese 'Who constitute 43 .per
*cent (of the poii~ktion rof the islands. Until the very recent intensiVe recruiting of. Filipinos,' '75. per cent, of the field labor employed
'in the, fundnuientdl agricultiial' industries ofi Hawaii was performed
by Jap6Aeg, natiokial'oroby Teteitoriall-born, itizens of Japanese
cohesiveness and characteristic
Cic~try~; .Oh Adcout. of6theirelos
manner
of
these
collective
action,
Japanese have it in their power to
control the industriestoft the Territory byi being 'able either to furnish
or to fail to furnish the labor without which those industries can not
,lve.;;
Y
-'TH
live.
IAI PREPONDERATING RACE.
With, their, preponderance in numbers and their aggressive' ambi-tion, ;it is;natural that the Japanf se should, be 'active m every 'line of
business endeavor. The extensive fishing industry of Hawaii is
:entirely in their control to-day. They-have a monopoly of stone
masonr.y and quary work throiughout the Territory and have a
tactical monopoly of the carpenter and small contracting business.
oew Japanese business ventures of one sort or another arcOnstartly makldng their appearance
anid in' many lines of industry
they outnumber American .citizens 2 or 3 to 1..
T~he Japanese population of the Territory is s large that it is able
to maintain "itself as a separate coxmnity- and feels no necessity,
for business 'or other reasons, of -assciating or 'assimilating with the
other population of the islands. The Japanese is conspicuous
everywhere' for! his national solidarity and pride; and in the developmest, of'.new business' enterprises this solidarity and pride is appealed to in order to compel Japanese to do L'usiness with people of
their : own race.-

TRRTY.
'ONDI1*ONS IN
*"Thne T~fitory'
of'Hawai' isins
-igular andisolate - 2,100 -miles from
the mainand of'the Upiied State It has' n migratory 'supply of
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.;PEOAR
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of
laborJ sl as is to Pbe: found n practically every setion the0mailandjiand neitherdoes it hive any adequate supply of labor wkthih
itO own boundaries.' For labor to 6anryr on its essential industries, it
musts therefore look to some other source.

IMMIORATZON- ITO) RtBIVBS HOflRt .0 LA0tmI hAWAdo.

sd expndive
hav
Fot the tinpud
t_60 OMrs
been made by the Gbveninet and by th ,ihdus tiesteuse&v#to
Ssist to -H&waMia i igrts of lasstht might be *xpeted Wrptformrnecessary field
laborofoienta&: d. t he. ntiitnei be 8asitnloAtd ino the citizen Porlation -ofthe ila d eie4rimont have generally bet; ailhr tblt, whatv Itheir; ohitire*u*zthey have clearly dbendstratedithM therwtubaenis'I.hoiray
flljjjg toeim tatvork iatheto lilM ftheooeuntrneed,
F ldiabor ia their Territd i poed houd,ipald;
for. in a manne' better thah that to be fovd in a"y othm !"pal
country in the world, and in a waythat niar favorably Iit4
oonditakms on, the maiand bt the lnit&dWtat Without' coeV 4kb
themselves, laborers awe irnished with homes; -truiprden patehkt,
wate,-fuel, and ndiXt-Aland hospital attentio,%#8nganther villages
and rosidenos have' the befiti of consta sanitary *vluon 'at
,the expene -61 theit eknployrs Thec- conditions of di4iiilabor in
suhjet 61 many-in
skiHawa~ii hatve been the ttions,Land
Labor'
uminons report of;the Departmst 't,
'oth&
rem'ad
4 r uikafimG in p.tsing;.t6" trbatpent'at corde
mental ageniits
to the Common labbter there. (Bulletin 'of tht -Departikerit 'of
-4fl 64h Co4*, let
Labor (1911) No; 94, pp. 694-095' S.lDoo Nd.
seas., "LabjorConditions in Hawaii" (1915), pp 10, 3&, 39, 6% 65,
87, 68.?)
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This resolution empowers the Secretary of Labor to relieve, the


situation by admitting aliens fa- ;borm of such a nationality as
he, after an investigation, may determine to be best qualified to meet
the situitien,. Whateter casi of- labor he shall provide Wiu' be
'deterfined after careful consideratiai of the qualificationsunavoidably to be expected of that 'labo r
Immigration to, supply the. itinediite' deeds ;of, th'e agricltural
industries and relieve ", existing ate shora mnst take into
consideration the overwhelming prepoaderbe of Japan inhe
*islands- their control. of the labor 'situation and the poeaibilit,
amountting to a practical certinty under existing oditio*' thlit
the American control of the island industry ny
pass ito the
hands of this alien race rwh aybe brought in
-It -is therefore necessary that the
to supply the present needs ;a the 'industries should' be, a, Copetitive nationality to break tp the racial siidtrity of the JapaneMe,
destroy the labor monopoly they now, ha^t', temper their aggressive.
to retLrn to and martin normal. proness, and mae it pomiblW
duction.
In the nature of things, there can be no competition -in asgrilturil
field work between oriental laborers and white laborers of whatever
nationality. This is a reogizedfa thatis especially true of
tropical countries. The oriental will drive out and supplant the
white man in every intanet and'Hawaii is,'now o
brieital.
The Government of Ilawan realize, the iznp*rtacb ,ofiSmla6
tion that will add -to the Prnect white' citizen labor
Under existing eonitios, hotrever1j Suchan iUhi tion uld no
be feaable as a means lo relieving' the present emeramcy, for the
reason that the present lain astuaioU deads im irtion of

m1oi~Kt n*i~V
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lbord*A tI1 v lat&f~itq, that eh 0 p *ith,"thfo riOMO
*eW ltha,itrMW1Dh':+fd ^ kthe T~btfty i~t
A H6 hi~dn 4.
%^*toirg.,4f 'p4W i k$ tei6i
M-**-n~v1Ohu
hM'1b44i 4.11 - & tbtS*SI, 'ixi C~ifo, H4.E7a*kbi4. iA whiite
Xtiylfewt te~ln{dA~uii4 the - k~t6sff~o+hbl~ Ok itio> ho
apn*iibe edF upjti> tl-1*~eht; I~fittitbd' & oild 1be lbo)k&, fpt
from such an immigration. Furtherore, the r~htibs ofl thle
Territory have beezi,
b6ete of the distressed
ailgy4t re, 6qd
financialconditions of the industries thereof, that the expense of an

conditions the1 indug.,tsof Haaoifi tafo the pesenftan


,g
-^}9?,~
. .or4
ou~ opwr&ting,1ose~ an p~lce them on *
abolute :p'ie
oti to la tl*
r* nI
P1i
rlt.~5asXzpplyt 1ah0r
nood }
i ,/; t 5 t i t t S i sil! t ) i t I ; ' t i . ; Qt q , i 7 th.i
fiane

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No los or failure of a mere economic nature can possibly rult in


turniz.~n ~eptwpu of t? zairland o~f the J,Yited, State oaver to the

political dominanoe and control of anaieny people, a would such a


.u aiu yJw sifup4 neta inus~re ,of Hia}. . Considering this
o
g tt isand teriitory
ba
f~c~ inreawNatiwi,
an4,e4.:iqeety
r
of
utot
the ;relie to be proBtt
wot89w*tw
y~ide4 ni~w4ueetionakly bp the best, procurable, regardless of
pr~jpqiesX p<4rist kW ds* type of people oi labor.
The 44tA~atMoI in HXIwaziizu~st ~e: mat, aqdlooet at once. -It is not
the ,jIawoaioa
from
Pory. qu ttion
,O soing
ind~tries bankb
e;
result
ruNptoy. oiluht owore t ee
itok
attinedthe Nitjon
onoly
rwl iwiore. wha wo;d4 l1;e ovily alocaln 4isaster4 From the national
et~idp~.nt, the qoinmamding factisd,1offey
that the industrieswtoh
into the hnd o ~t Jaane instead of merely
pass!
gto,^, oi existewej. tSu~chi*,a fe;. ecaopTiCco8ntrol woul(1
prawtz mlydestpyn the
Amnorca control of Hawaii and in e aect
transfer . to Ja nhe
of tvhQ cIwr of theC Pacific Ocean.
.WontIAol
Certaioiy such .a result w would beIof Zrious---sequence to the Americ, navyl and znilitasy controloflitheA b eiwdjtPbifpo
t1
!i
UO'it
if

EMlERGENC1Y EXIS3TS.
p etis
Briefly, weee'A
tkt
4;lestlie
otiIpg sItUatiOn
in such a way that destructive economic losses may be prevented
n of
'ontM
the
an491~*hr9atene&
not. our.
alpis
ipayW
-ane
a
adeqndatr
supply ofefreld labora kin4u4trivs ppr~vi~ed ,with tip
tlia$.bey ri~ininw Aejican handss~and: so that Axnriean 0wno
ap4 ~perttorsi ayb enabted to. lance such
further
eeperiinents,
~ to ~,ure the iunpgrataon:of possible
citizens can and will be
AN

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the present emerge ptt the? Wa&f


0t*
controll,
b~iZ
d*lbtv
tdp attflr
:rl/f
' ' 3l"!it'
pd'.;ftyT.(>xc
-tis';.
rrn'~t't#t itiM >grh
bef tteX

This
tettin

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population and can; not leave the islatds 4aiyt otherplt&%kt


the jurisdiction of tthe United States, they cnnot crat in Hawii,
or in any othet AkIei 'IMuft }gjj'ha Sie~ problem as
now exists in the islands.
tfletr ot PRO'V~D, flxu 0$'fkwskfik~o
iw; jfbjad"
ler
0t
t~~d

BP

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t
tSxe ith
Thb skild' lbor;;fth - gl'-s'g
WhtS
6
s
loV
en
for
'the
4f*
dtT
Ecivt
'hisnplmt iiM
mechaichiehHhtuifi fti
kgricu~tur idmttis '6 th >isiids When the } ({*z?
'n
th is ft
there i~s no work 'fr skilled tn t
t h
b i field Worktht rt4W'es p
then lutbor todoothel-tr
intielilgeht&,~Skle 'tntbnc an *1k am!i uIltbl to fitxdI eeinky
metOt toay soI causee of thB fa. that ti preset Aor
tttoties
field labor has taken ifttI thei oUM
oif
Wotkfn
thihtheOy wn
:skilled
thee
'l
tlheab
mehaniOs
livelihood. The sht 'Sfi labor offerede bo ptitt f& tl
etjlog metlt of thes skiledinctis; tund, nuil the' al^u.twt
3
n ful tad en
inuulst'i tOne more beowe ftAndilyoet
w%:ymn fo theu
sufficient "ppWy ot commo labr j to
*t do. The deet
skilled rnedhanicstherei WI hen rort for thet
theTi
the resolution, thenwill befit te ditn
by renewing their chance :of securing and holding rsmuneratve
employment.
E-OUTO

LCSOORTUD rr

it' Af UAWAIIANS

W 8of theii
Arp~tit~ion tigned by nearly T000
TOt
t
'cm
tis
itte
eon'
b6 'fllid w- w
speedily to ensat this esltion Te'ntiai
1,?617 'prfessfional me,'0 b eu n, '2,71 th;74
l
?7 t
s
2s0
'bank, '396 *i
stea vedo,
3 13 stevedores?, 122 printers, 491 tamters, 104 fibnmm ,717

IMMIGRATION TO BELIEBV SHORTAGE OF LABOR IN HAWAII.

housewives, and more than 3,000 persons of misdelaneous occupa-

tion.,
,Iiide this matter was first referred to this conunittee for considetation, the then Delegate from Hawaii has died and: a special
election has been held to select his successor, It was the contention
of the Haowa~aan commission which ap eared before this committee
-that the, resolution would receive the almost unanimous ihiddrsemnent
of the citizens of the Territory were it to be submitted to them at
the polls and thi contention has been amply borne out by the
facts. tie sole issue before the voters at the recent election was
the endorsement or repudiation of this resolution, There were four
candidates, two of whom were pledged to work for its oelactment,
the other two-both Hawaiians-ben unalterably opposed to it
and basitg their whole campaign upon its defeat.
Of the 2,h000 reitered voters in the Territory, 24,000 went to the
polls and over 90 per cent of these 'voting citizens cast their ballots
fot one or the other of the two candidates who had declared themselvos in favor of the resolution. The two opposing hawaiian candidates received barely 2,400 votes. Considering that the Hawaiians
still control the electorate and that it has long been the opinion of
most well-informed men that none but a Hawaiian could be elected
to represent the Territory in Congress, the result of the election
leave no doubt that the whites and Hawaiians are one in their realization of the menace in the present situation, and it is now p lain that
the people of the Territory want and consider' vital the relief provided
by this resolutions
OPPOSITIN INSPIRED BY JAPANESE,

The only opposition to the resolution on the part of the resident of


the Tertory of Hawaii was voiced to the Committee on Immigration
and Naturalization of the House of Representatives by two officers
and representatives of the Honolulu Central Labor Council of the
American Federation of Labor. These two men, in the course of their
testimony before the House committee, admitted, under examination,
that the Japanese opponents of the bill had furnished them with
sufficient funds to proceed to Washington, where, as the ostensible
representatives of organized labor in the Territory, they might op.
pose the enactment of this resolution.
Oppition to the resolution expressed by representatives of mainom.
land labor organizations has been predicated upon the erroneous
assumption that the bill will involve a system of contract or bonded
labor-, or peonage, and might beg made the excuse on which aliens
admitted to Hawsui could later proceed to the continental United
States. To answer these objections the committee proposes certain
amendments of and additions to the text of the resolution, so as to
provide every possible safeguard for the iLiens admitted under its
provisions and so as to Iraise an effective barrier against the
tion of any of -thoe aliens from Hawaii to the mainland of the Uimted
States.
RESOLUTION INDORSED BY LABOR

LA1DERS.

In November, 1922, at the request of the governor of the Territory,


the Secretary of Labor appointed a special commission, which proB R-67-4-vol

SHOR'AGt OF LABOR IN HAWAII.


ceeded to Hawaii and'there investigated the conditions which this
resolution is designed to relieve. This commission was composed
of five men, one of whom is a representative of the Federal Department of Labor, the other four being leaders of organized labor on
the mainland of oiuch prominence as Mr. L. 'E.
t
of the Brotherhood of Railway Conductors; Mr.Sheppardpresidenh
Jon Do in, head
of the building trade department of 'the American Federation of
Labor; Mr. Otto Hartwg, president of the Oregon'State Federation
of Labor; and Mr. F'rediEeightly, secretary of the Amalgamated
Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers. This commission completed its survey of conditions in the'Termrtory and filed its 'report
with the Secretary of Labor on January 24, 1923, stating inter aliaa:
IMMRATION TO RELIEVE

That the question of labor supply is ever present and temporary; shortages. are
liable to recur, which must be handled in the future with greater regard to the wellbeing of the Territory as part of the United States, and in a way that will prevent the
posible domination of the industrial, commercial, social, or political life in'the
Territory by any alien race.
That attention should be specially called to the menace of alien domination, and
that the present policy of "parental adoption" and importation of "picture brides"
by the Japanese should be stopped, because these practices have defeated the purpose of the called "gentlemen's agreement" (which intended the curtailment of
common labor importations).
*

The menace from a military.standpoint can be fully verified by referring to the


records of related Federal departments.
The question of national 'defense submerges all others into insignificance.
thess
islands are to remain American, the assured control of the political, industrial, commercial, social, and educational life of the islands must also be American, and the
sooner we wake up to a fu' ler appreciation of this imperative and immediate need, the
sooner we will make the; people of the Hawaiian Islands feel generally a greater sense
of security and control of all that contributes to make continued living in the Territory of Hawaii worth while.
In the interests of national defense and the welfare of American citizenship in the
Territory, the commission respectfully and earnestly recommends that the question
of alien domination be immediately referred to the Congress of the United States for
the necessary remedial legislation.
NATIONAL IMPORTANCE OF RELIEF.

This entire problem is a national and not a local- one. True, the
people of the locality will suffer if it should not be relieved, but they
will suffer no more than will the Nation. If Hawaii were to be
wiped from the face of the Pacific as a result of the complete failure
of its industries, that failure would result in little harm to the- Nation
as a whole. No such phpical destruction will result from'economic
failure, however; and whether the industries of Hawaii pass 'into,
alien hands or not the islands will remain ton the- western coast of
this country. If they be held economically' and;politically by one
alien race, they can constitute only a grave menace to the Amerioan
Nation, and every consideration of national safety and importance
demands that the emergency which now exists be relieved in such a;
way that alien control of the industries and the Territory shall be
avoided.