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THE POTENTIAL OF THE ANGLE OF THE FIRST RIB, HEAD TO

TUBERCLE, IN SEXING ADULT INDIVIDUALS IN FORENSIC


CONTEXTS

A Thesis
Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Louisiana State University and
Agricultural and Mechanical College
requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
in
The Department of Geography & Anthropology

by
Paige Elrod
B.A., University of Washington, 2009
May 2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank my family and friends for their encouragement and support. I could
not have done this without the support, both emotional and financial, from my parents and their
encouragement to get it done. Mom, thank you for telling me that I could do it, especially when
I thought I could not. Dad, thank you for helping to keep me grounded and also for making sure I
always got where I needed to go. Thank you both for allowing me to pursue my dreams without
question or hesitation.
I am also grateful to my thesis committee members for their guidance and knowledge.
My appreciation goes out to Ms. Mary Manhein for her direction, advice and clear passion for
the field of forensic anthropology. I would like to thank Dr. Ginesse Listi for offering her own
experiences, open door and suggestions during the process of writing my thesis. Also, thanks to
Dr. Robert Tague. My gratitude also goes out to Dr. Jay Geaghan for his help with the statistical
portion of my thesis. I could not have done it without him.
Thank you to the Research and Scholarship Committee of the Department of Geography
and Anthropology, the Robert C. West Graduate Student Field Research Fund, and the R.J.
Russell Fund, for the West/Russell Travel Grant that allowed me to carry out my research.
I would like to thank the University of Tennessee, Knoxville and Dr. Lee Jantz for
allowing me to conduct my research using the William M. Bass Donated Collection. Thank you
to the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Dr. Yohannes Haile-Selassie and Lyman
Jellema for the use of the Hamann-Todd collection. Special thanks to Lyman for his support and
inquisitive nature during my research.

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I have to thank my fellow graduate students for the sanity they lent me when I needed
advice. Thank you to Megan Dingle and Lucy Hochstein for reading various drafts of my thesis
and offering their kind, honest and much needed suggestions.
Most importantly, I must thank those who chose to donate their bodies so that others may
learn. Without the meaningful donation of their physical remains, the world would not have had
the opportunity to learn what we have from them. Words cannot express how much their
generosity means.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................ ii
LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................................... v
LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... vi
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................. vii
CHAPTER
I.
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 1
II.

ANATOMY OF THE FIRST RIB ................................................................................ 2

III.

LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................. 5

IV.

MATERIALS AND METHODS ................................................................................ 10

V.

RESULTS ................................................................................................................... 16

VI.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ........................................................................ 21

REFERENCES CITED ................................................................................................................. 24


APPENDIX A: STATISTICAL SUMMARIES OF DATA ........................................................ 28
APPENDIX B: T-TESTS FOR ALL MEASUREMENTS BY SEX AND ANCESTRY ........... 29
APPENDIX C: RAW DATA ....................................................................................................... 30
APPENDIX D: CALCULATED PROBABILITES FOR ANGLE.............................................. 46
APPENDIX E: CALCULATED PROBABILITES FOR ANGLE AND TOTAL LENGTH ..... 51
VITA ............................................................................................................................................. 56

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Summary of Individuals from Each Collection .............................................................. 11
Table 2: Statistical Summary for Angle........................................................................................ 16
Table 3: Results of T-Test for Angle ............................................................................................ 17
Table 4: Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates for All Measurements ............................. 18
Table 5: Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates for Angle ................................................. 19
Table 6: Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates for Angle and Total Length ................... 20

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Diagram of First Rib........................................................................................................ 2
Figure 2: Articulation Diagram for First Ribs in Comparison to Subsequent Ribs ........................ 3
Figure 3: Measurements to Determine Angle ............................................................................... 13
Figure 4: PSMH and ASLH Measurements of First Rib .............................................................. 14

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ABSTRACT
Accurately assessing the sex of an adult human skeleton is fundamental in forming the
biological profile used in forensic anthropology (Patil and Mody, 2005). The first rib was chosen
due to its distinct shape, compact size and increased sustainability to the taphonomic processes
encountered in forensic and bioarchaeological situations. The first rib has been examined in
previous studies; however, these studies have focused mainly on the sternal end of the rib. This
study looks at the angle created between the tubercle and head and its potential use as an
indication of the sex of an individual.
This angle, created by the tubercle and head, is present when the rib is viewed in its nonanatomical orientation, or with the head pointing upward. When a rib is sided in anatomical
position, the head will point downward and the subclavian grooves will be located on the
superior surface.
This study was conducted using 137 males and 149 females, including black and white
individuals, from the William M. Bass and Hamann-Todd Skeletal Collections. The left and right
first ribs of 286 individuals were measured using sliding calipers; all measurements were
recorded in millimeters. The four measurements included: total exterior length (ASHL), interior
length from sternal end to head (PSMH), height of the head off of a surface and length from the
tubercle to the head. The angle was determined by calculating the inverse sine.
The calculated angles were then compared using logistic regression analysis, to determine
the odds that a given angle was male. Of the 572 measured samples, 555 were calculated; 266
angles were male and 289 female. Logistic regression showed that angle alone is 60.2 percent
concordant, while angle and total length combine to yield a 70.5 percent concordance. The data
suggest that the angle can be used to predict the sex of an individual.

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This research concludes that the angle of the first rib is able to determine the sex of an
individual. These data could be combined with previously studied age methods to assess both
age and sex of an unknown individual. Few skeletal elements are able to both sex and age
individuals.

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
In forensic anthropology, determination of sex is among the most important aspects
required in building the biological profile (Patil and Mody, 2005). A limited number of sexing
methods are available in forensic contexts, and, given its compact size, the first rib offers a
wealth of potential for sex estimation. The first rib is not only easily distinguishable from other
ribs, it is also more likely to survive taphonomic processes than its longer, thinner counterparts
(Kurki, 2005; Semine and Damon, 1975).
Previous research that has been conducted on the first rib as a sex determinant has
focused on the sternal end (can et al., 1984; can, 1985; Koak et al., 2003). Other research
has shown that the determination of age, based on changes in the costal cartilage of the rib, is
influenced by the sex of the individual (DiGangi et al., 2009; Kunos et al., 1999; Navani et al.,
1970; Semine and Damon, 1975). Therefore, a possibility exists that the angle of attachment of
the first rib to the vertebra may be impacted by the sex of the person and that angle may serve as
an indicator of sex in a forensic context. This current research seeks to test whether or not a
difference between the sexes is measurable in the angle of the head of the first rib relative to the
tubercle.

CHAPTER 2
ANATOMY OF THE FIRST RIB
The first rib is the most curved, flattest, and usually the shortest of the ribs. It is located at
the top most region of the rib cage and attaches to the first thoracic vertebra at its posterior aspect
and to the sternum at its anterior aspect. Five distinct landmarks are found on the first rib: head,
tubercle, sternal end, and two subclavian grooves the anterior groove for the subclavian vein
and the groove for the subclavian artery and inferior trunk of the brachial plexus (Figure 1).
When siding a first rib, the ribs head will point downward when the rib is oriented in the proper
anatomical position and the subclavian grooves will be on the superior surface (Bass, 1995).
When the first rib is sided incorrectly, an angle is visible between the head and the tubercle at the
inferior portion of the neck. The current research focuses on that angle and its potential as a sex
indicator.

Figure 1: Diagram of First Rib

The articulation of the first rib to only the body of the first thoracic vertebra is unique to
humans as the only extant hominoid with this articulation (Ohman, 1986). All other ribs have a
bivertebral articulation, each articulating not only to the vertebral body with which it is
associated but also to the inferior portion of the vertebra that precedes it. Fossil evidence
suggests that this univertebral articulation is present as far back as 3.2 million years ago, as seen
in AL-288-1, Lucy, who also presented with a univertebral first rib (Ohman, 1986). This
univertebral first rib articulation and its uniqueness to the human lineage suggests that it is
specialized to our upright posture, thoracic shape, and unique shoulder girdle (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Articulation Diagram for First Ribs in Comparison to Subsequent Ribs


The shoulder complex includes the clavicle, scapula, and humerus, as well as the
sternoclavicular and the acromioclavicular joints. The sternoclavicular (SC) joint is the only
point of attachment between the shoulder complex and the axial skeleton. The SC joint is a
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synovial joint; the medial clavicle articulates with the sternum and with the cartilage of the first
rib (Peat, 1986). The costoclavicular ligament connects the inferior-medial border of the clavicle
to the first rib, anchoring the clavicle and limiting clavicular elevation (Bearn, 1967; Peat, 1986).

CHAPTER 3
LITERATURE REVIEW
The estimation of sex is vital to the completion of the biological profile that is required in
medico-legal investigations. Most commonly, sex is determined from the cranium and pelvis.
The goal of this study is to determine whether the angle of the first rib, the head relative to the
tubercle, is a useful determinant of sex in an individual. The first rib was selected for its small
stout size and resistance to the normal taphonomic processes that may render larger bones such
as the pelvis and cranium too fragmented to use for determination of sex. While research has
been conducted on sexing individuals using other ribs, prior to this study, no one had examined
the possibility of using the head end of the first rib (DiGangi et al, 2009; can et al., 1984; can,
1985; can and Loth, 1986; Kunos et al., 1999; Kurki, 2005; Ramadan et al., 2010). Because
other skeletal elements have shown to be sexually dimorphic in characteristics other than size,
there is a possibility the angle of the first rib may reflect some degree of sexual dimorphism.
Sexual dimorphism has been found in numerous skeletal elements including, but not
limited to: the cranium, mandible, sternum, first rib, fourth rib, humerus, pelvis, and femur (Giles
and Elliot, 1963; Giles, 1964; can and Loth, 1986; can et al., 1998; King et al., 1998). Also,
the successful sexing of individual skeletal remains based on morphology has been proven to be
reliable (Phenice, 1969).
Giles and Elliot (1963) examined the skulls of 408 individuals, both black and white
ranging in age from 21 to 75 years of age. They took nine cranial measurements from each
individual. After measurements were taken, they computed the data in a discriminant function.
When this discriminant function is used, it yields an accuracy of 82-89%, in sex determination,
for black and white specimens. Giles performed a similar study in 1964 to determine sex by a

discriminant function of the mandible. The results of his study allow for the sex of an individual
using a mandible to be accurately determined in 85% of cases (Giles, 1964).
Ramadan et al. (2010) established that while the sternum of males tends to be larger as
defined by Hyrtls Law, the most accurate way to establish the dimorphism in sternal
measurements is by using the overall sternal area, rather than individual sternal measurements. In
a study performed by Navani et al. (1970), x-rays of patients were taken to determine the
potential for sexing individuals using costal cartilage calcification at the sternal end. Their
research showed that females were more likely to display central calcification, while, in males,
calcification occurred on the margins.
Koak et al. (2003) examined the fourth ribs of 78 females and 173 males to determine if
osteometric measurements of the sternal end could indicate sex. They determined the
measurements were more accurate for females than males. Multiple studies performed by can
(1985, 1991), can et al. (1984, 1986, 1998) and Koak et al. (2003) noted that the fourth rib is
useful in sexing individuals using discriminant function analysis and known age of individuals.
can et al. (1998) did a comparative analysis of Chinese, Japanese, and Thai individuals
to determine sexual dimorphism in the humerus. The study focused on the application of a
standardized analysis versus a population specific analysis. Ultimately they concluded that
accuracy was increased if each population was assessed using population specific calculations.
That study showed that sexual dimorphism is present, but calculations using general metric
assessments can mask this dimorphism if the calculations are not specific to that population. For
example, using a standardized measurement placed the Chinese with the largest measurements in
the least dimorphic category. With cross validation, can et al. were able to sex the Chinese

individuals accurately 87% of the time in contrast to the Thais which were accurately sexed in
97% of cases.
Phenice (1969) determined that the pubic bone was a valuable skeletal element in the
sexing process. To date, Phenices technique is still considered one of the most accurate sexing
methods in use because of the reliable sex differences associated with that region of the hip bone
in the sub-pubic concavity, width of the ischio-pubic ramus, and presence or absence of a ventral
arc.
Bruzek (2002) conducted a comprehensive study that combined several of the commonly
used pelvic traits to create a method for visual determination of sex using points from the entire
os coxae rather than a localized portion. The five main characteristics he examined were:
preauricular surface, greater sciatic notch, form of the composite arch, morphology of the
inferior pelvis (pubic area), and ischiopubic proportions (ratio of pubic length to ischial length).
These five characteristics comprise the sacroiliac complex and the ischiopubic complex, two
morphologically distinct areas that had previously been examined separately. Using the
combination of the five characteristics, Bruzek was able to accurately determine sex in 93-98%
of all cases.
The combination of multiple aspects that are used in sexing individuals is ideal in
presenting a more accurate determination of sex. This is seen not only in Bruzeks study but also
in the study performed by uri et al. (2005). uri et al. found that by using a combination of
seven non-metric pelvic traits, as well as several cranial traits, including mandibular thickness,
the sex of individuals can be determined with at least 95% accuracy.
The femur has also been studied for its sexually dimorphic properties. King et al. (1998)
studied the sexual dimorphism of Thai femora. They recorded six of the common osteometric

measurements of the femur including: maximum length, maximum diameter of the head,
bicondylar breadth, midshaft anterior-posterior diameter, midshaft transverse diameter and
midshaft circumference. The study of 70 males and 34 females determined that maximum head
diameter and bicondylar breadth are the most significant indicators of sex. Using a stepwise
function, they correctly identified the sex of an individual with 94.2% accuracy.
While the first rib has been examined for its overall usefulness in physical anthropology,
most, if not all of that research has focused on the sternal end, especially as an aging technique.
The majority of the research examined the costal cartilage and its versatility in aging and sexing
individuals. The previous research with the most relevant data to assist in this research study,
including measurement information about internal length from head to sternal end, was the aging
method established by Kunos et al. (1999). Specimens were measured and examined to
determine age-related changes. The Kunos study focused on the head, tubercle, and sternal end
of the first rib as aging variables over time and was performed on individuals from the HamannTodd Collection. However, Kurki (2005) determined that the method developed by Kunos et al.
over-ages individuals younger than 60 and under-ages those over age 60, thus representing the
young as older and the old as younger in their sample. While the 1999 study by Kunos et al. was
useful in determining aspects of the first rib that change through time, the reliability of aging
methods is still questionable in the first rib.
Still, other studies have looked at age assessment using the first rib. McCormick (1980)
used x-ray data obtained from 210 cadavers to examine the mineralization of the costal cartilage.
He determined that costal cartilage mineralization was not found before age 15 and was rarely
marked in individuals under age 50. A similar study by Kampen et al. (1995) also examined the
age related mineralization of the first rib at the sternal end. The study noted that the

mineralization was due to age not degeneration; however, the exact stratification of age was
unclear. Additionally, the use of x-ray technology in fresh bone and soft tissue makes these
methods difficult to translate to forensic usability.
If the current research shows that the angle of the first rib is able to reliably determine sex
of an individual, it could be combined with the aforementioned aging methods of the first rib to
assess both age and sex. Since few skeletal elements can both age and sex an individual, this
research could have great potential for forensic applications. Expanding the list of aging methods
to include smaller elements that are more likely to survive long postmortem intervals would be
beneficial in a forensic context during which scavenging might disperse the larger bones used in
sexing. The first rib is less fragile than other skeletal elements, such as the pubic symphysis,
and is, therefore, more likely to survive in archaeological and forensic contexts (Kurki, 2005:
343-344).

CHAPTER 4
MATERIALS AND METHODS
For this research, two large collections were examined, the William M. Bass Donated
Skeletal Collection at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and the Hamann-Todd
Osteological Collection at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.
The William M. Bass collection was started in 1981 by Dr. William Bass. The collection
currently houses over 870 individuals, some from forensic contexts, with known sex
identification. The age range of individuals in this collection varies from fetal to 101 years. The
individuals used were chosen at random, with the sex of the individual being recorded at the
same time the measurements were recorded. All choices were made randomly so that age would
not be a biased factor in the sample. As this is a donated and forensic collection, individuals with
trauma to the thoracic region, including autopsy trauma to both ribs, were removed from the list
of potential samples so as to not impact the angle measurements.
The Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection at the Cleveland Museum of Natural
History is a historic collection of individuals collected between 1912 and 1938. The collection
contains over 3,000 skeletons, making it the largest documented modern collection in the world.
As this collection has such a large number of both males and females, a sample of more than 100
individuals will still maintain the 50/50 male: female ratio as well as 50/50 black: white ratio
which is not as easily maintained in the William M. Bass Collection. This sample was used to
collect more data on blacks than whites in comparison to the William M. Bass collection, as the
Hamann-Todd collection has a much larger number of black individuals.
The proposed sample size was 100 individuals from each collection, a total of 200
specimens. All individuals are age 18 and above, as this was a study of the angle in the adult first

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rib. Both the left and right first ribs of individuals of known sex, age, and ancestry were
measured. At least 100 individuals per collection were recorded. Left and right ribs for each
individual were examined, if present, to determine the significance of the angle differences in
individuals. The samples from each collection met a minimum of 50 males and 50 females.
Ancestry was also considered in measurement, and the males and females were divided into
whites and blacks with 25 black males, 25 white males, 25 black females and 25 white females
this was the goal in measurement, but was not met in the Bass collection. Due to the limited
number of females, both black and white, as well as black males in the Bass collection, some
individuals were only recorded unilaterally if there was damage to one of the two ribs.
Table 1: Summary of Individuals from Each Collection
Collection

White Males White Females Black Males Black Females

William M. Bass 44

56

30

Hamann-Todd

30

31

33

54

Total

74

87

63

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In this sample, the average age at death was 49 years old for males, and 50 years old for
females. The sex of each individual was recorded at the time measurements were taken.
Knowing the sex should not have biased the sample as sex did not affect angle calculation. Once
measurements were recorded, the angle of each specimen was calculated using its given
identification number, ie: UTK-WM1L (University of Tennessee Knoxville-White Male #1 Left
Rib) and CMNH-WM1L (Cleveland Museum of Natural History White Male # 1 Left Rib).
Figure 3 demonstrates the measurements that were taken. Each rib was measured, in
millimeters, to determine the angle of the elevated head from a surface when laid flat on its

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superior aspect. In this non-anatomical position, the subclavian grooves are inferior and the head
is elevated off of the surface. The length measurement used to determine the angle was
measured, using sliding calipers, from head to tubercle. In non-anatomical position, the height of
the head off a surface is measured from the heads most inferior point to the surface. The height
of the highest point, along the inferior margin, of the head relative to that surface was the
landmark used.
The point of measurement at the tubercle was the same for the height and length
measurements. The point of measurement for the tubercle was more variable than the
measurement point at the base of the head, for the tubercle the measurements were taken from
the point where it made contact with the surface. In cases where the tubercle did not follow the
measurement standards, where it did not make contact with the surface at the base of the angle,
the rib was excluded from the sample.
The angle was determined using an inverse sine function, with the measured height over the
length. This sine function was calculated in Excel using the function:
=Degrees(Asin(Height/Length)). This formula calculates the angle of the head relative to the
neck when assuming that the angle at which the head met the table was 90o (Figure 3).

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Figure 3: Measurements to Determine Angle


Two other measurements were taken as well: the total exterior length of the rib and the
sternal end to head inner length (Figure 4). The total length was measured using a soft tape
measure to record the distance from the posterior portion of the sternal end to the head, while the
inner length was taken using sliding calipers. The exterior length was measured from the anterior
sternal end to the lateral portion of the head (ASLH) . The inner head length was measured from
the posterior portion of the sternal end to the medial portion of the head (PSMH).
These length measurements were taken to see if there was any correlation between them and
the angle in sexing individuals. ASHL, total exterior length, and PSMH, interior length, were
measured in all specimens that had their sternal end this measurement was not taken for some
individuals in which autopsy cuts removed the sternal end.

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Figure 4: PSMH and ASLH Measurements of First Rib


In a preliminary study of 25 individuals from the LSU Forensic Anthropology and
Computer Enhancement Services (FACES) collection, the ASLH did not appear to correlate with
the angle using scatter plots and linear regressions. Given this initial conclusion, I hypothesized
that there may be a possibility that it is the PSMH, which was not recorded in the preliminary
study, that correlates with the angle. PSMH and ASLH, in addition to angle, might aid in the sex
determination using the angle. Any ossified cartilage present at the sternal end was recorded and
noted. If it interfered with the angle measurement, the rib was not included in data analysis. If the
rib was calcified in such a way that it was fused to the manubrium, it was not included in the
sample. Any additional cartilage was not included in the total length measurement.
Once all data were collected, angles were calculated in Excel and data were examined.
The overall data consisted of 572 ribs, 17 of which were excluded for missing data, resulting in a
total of 555 ribs 266 male and 289 female. The calculated angles were graphed on a scatter plot
to determine the type of analysis that would be required. A regression analysis was performed to
calculate if any correlation existed between the angles for males and females. Given the sporadic

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distribution of points on the scatter plot of the data, a linear regression would not be useable. The
data were log transformed to an approximate normal distribution. The logistic regression, unlike
the linear regression, calculates the probability of a variable that has only two outcomes in this
case, that the angle either was or was not a particular sex.
A linear regression of the data was run in Excel to determine any correlation. When the
regression displayed sporadic distribution, the data were then examined in a logistic regression in
SAS. An F-test determined that the data were equal rather than unequal, after which a Students
t-test was run assuming equal variance. All statistical calculations were run in SAS versions 9.2
and 9.3.

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CHAPTER 5
RESULTS
Before any regression calculations were performed, a Students t-test was run on all data
to determine the statistical significance of the angle to sex. Summary statistics were run for all
variables including: height of the head off a surface, length from head to tubercle, angle, total
length (ASHL) and length from head to sternal end (PSMH). The three tables of summary data
compare all males to all females, black males to white males and black females to white females,
these tables can be found in Appendix A. T-tests were also run for all variables including: height
of the head off a surface, length from head to tubercle, angle, total length (ASHL) and length
from head to sternal end (PSMH), these can be found in Appendix B.
Table 2 shows a brief statistical summary of angle of the 572 data points, from 286
individuals, including the average angle measurement of 26.418 degrees for males and 22.508
degrees for females.
Table 2: Statistical Summary for Angle
Sex
Female
Male

Observations Mean Maximum Minimum Std. Dev Std. Error


298

22.5

51.5

2.3

9.6

0.56

274

26.4

52.3

6.8

9.7

0.59

Both a pooled and unpooled T-test of the relationship between rib angle and sex yielded a
T-value of -4.77 (Table 3). The associated p-value for the data was calculated at <0.0001 with a
0.05 alpha. The null hypothesis can be rejected, meaning that the angle of the first rib is
significantly associated with the sex of an individual.

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Table 3: Results of T-Test for Angle


Method Variances
Pooled

Equal

DF t Value Pr > |t|


553

-4.77

<.0001

Once statistical significance was established, data were calculated using a logistic
regression to determine the probability that an angle was either male or female. In logistic
regression, the data are binary, meaning they must lie between one and zero. Females were
assigned the number one while males were zero. The logistic regression calculates the odds that a
variable either is or is not close to the binary 1, in this case the odds that the variable either is or
is not male.
The logistic regression gives the odds, for each angle, that the angle is or is not male. It
yielded angle measurement ranges for sex estimation: 22.02 degrees and below is more likely
female and larger than 31.45 degrees is more likely male. Measurements between 22.03 degrees
and 31.44 degrees are not able to be classified as male or female with as much certainty because
this is the point at which the odds drop below 55% to successfully determine angle. The cutoff of
55% was chosen because the lower limit is close to 50%, selecting a range above 55% allows
probabilities to be significant. When the angle alone is observed, the odds are calculated to
accurately sex a rib with a concordance of 60.2% (Appendix D). Concordance percentage
calculates that for any pair, males and females, the odds of accurately sexing a male are higher
than for the odds of the angle for the female 60.2% of the time. When the angle is observed in
conjunction with total length, ASLH, the concordance increases to 70.5%, a 10% increase
meaning that angle and total length combined are a more statistically significant measure of sex
than angle alone (Appendix E).

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Since angle was significantly correlated to sex, all points of measured data were used in
the regression. Again, removing data points with missing values, in most cases the sternal end,
the data that were regressed decreased from 572 to 527 individual measurements. The results of
significance per parameter or measurement are shown below (Table 4).
Table 4: Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates for All Measurements
Parameter

DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq

Intercept*

-9.0053

1.3105

47.2200

<.0001

Angle

0.0720

0.0120

35.8931

<.0001

TotalLength(ASHL)

0.0456

0.00928

24.1530

<.0001

SternalHead(PSMH)

0.0419

0.0187

5.0207

0.0250

Age

-0.0192

0.00620

9.5308

0.0020

Ancestry

-0.4508

0.2127

4.4941

0.0340

*Intercept is a calculated variable, not a measurement


Table 4 reflects that angle and total length, ASHL, were the most significant
measurements, with an alpha of 0.05. The PSMH, age and ancestry were not as statistically
significant as were angle and ASHL. When PSMH, age and ancestry were combined with angle
and ASHL the concordance increased by 1%; this was not considered significant enough to
continue use in further logistic analysis. The p-values for PSMH, age, and ancestry were 0.0250,
0.0020 and 0.0340 respectively, which while significant did not change the concordance enough
to be included. Angle and total length are more significant as well as present on the bone,
without needing to know the age or ancestry prior to calculation. A contributing factor in
excluding ancestry, age and sternal PSMH, was the ability to use angle and total length without
having to know information that cannot be found using just the first rib thus limiting the
information available if just the first rib is present.
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Using angle alone, with the 60.2% concordance, a formula was generated to find the
probability of any angle using the intercepts from the logistic regression (Table 5). The
coefficients for the formula are taken from the estimates for intercept and angle to get the
formula: Log(odds)= -1.1073 + 0.0419 x angle. This formula is the log of the odds formula that
is calculated in the logistic regression. The -1.1073 and 0.0419 are the estimates calculated from
the logistic regression run on the data for 555 ribs. To find the probability that the angle is male,
the original formula is used to find the odds, then the probability: odds=e^log(odds) and then
P=1/1+odds.
Table 5: Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates for Angle
Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq
Intercept

-1.1073

0.2390

21.4677

<.0001

Angle

0.0419

0.00911

21.1728

<.0001

A formula was also generated for the use of both angle and ASLH, which together had a
70.5% concordance. The estimates obtained from the odds calculated for the logistic regression
are slightly different than those used for angle alone, and the addition of total length changes the
formula slightly (Table 6). The new coefficients for the intercept and angle become -8.0905 and
0.0506, respectively, with a new coefficient for total length, 0.0513 being added. The formula for
both angle and total length is: Log(odds) = -8.0905 +0.0506 x Angle + 0.0513 x TotalLength. All
calculations to determine the probability that an angle is male are the same as they are for angle
alone.

19

Table 6: Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates for Angle and Total Length
Parameter

DF Estimate

Standard
Wald
Pr > ChiSq
Error
Chi-Square
1.1745
47.4481
<.0001

Intercept

-8.0905

Angle

0.0506

0.00997

25.7200

<.0001

TotalLength

0.0513

0.00846

36.8128

<.0001

20

CHAPTER 6
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
The goal of this study was to determine whether or not the angle of the first rib could be
used to determine the sex of an adult individual. Few studies have been conducted on the ribs,
and none has focused on using the angle formed by the head and tubercles at the points where the
rib attaches to the first thoracic vertebra. Many other skeletal elements have proven valuable in
sexing individuals; yet, little focus has been placed on the ribs. The fourth rib is commonly used
as an example of age determination (can, 1991), but the fourth rib easily can be confused with
the surrounding ribs if not all ribs are present. For this reason, the first rib has the potential to be
valuable as both an aging and sexing method.
The data support that the angle of the first rib, head to tubercle, is indicative of sex of the
individual. This study has shown with 60% probability that we can determine the sex of an
individual using the angle of the first rib, head to tubercle. This 60% probability determination
lies below 22.02 degrees for females and above 31.44 degrees for males. Adding the total length,
ASHL, to the process of determining sex can increase the probability of correctly sexing
individual unknown ribs to at least 70%. Using the data obtained from the logistic regression,
several calculations for determination of sex were derived and can be used to identify the
probability of an angle being male.
These derived probability calculations are very useful in terms of not needing a data set
to which to compare an unknown ribs angle. All that is needed to determine the sex of an
individual using the first rib is the angle of the rib in question and the formulae. The calculations
that allow for the sex probability of any angle could have great implications by adding valuable
information to the field of forensics, in which a biological profile is necessary for identification.

21

If the entire rib is present, a greater accuracy can be obtained using the combined angle and total
length of the first rib, a more statistically significant prediction of sex than angle alone. If the
sternal end is damaged, then the calculation for angle alone can be used to predict the sex of the
individual.
With this knowledge, perhaps more research will be performed on the first rib to allow
for more accurate and thorough sex and age estimates. Further research would help to add more
information to the first rib data bank in addition to the benefits of increasing ancestry diversity. It
appears that the first rib has the potential to be an important bone when the methods of aging and
sexing individuals are combined. Combining the current research with the aging methods
determined by McCormick (1980) and Kunos et al. (1999) could prove to be beneficial in
forming the biological profile.
The impact of stature and overall body size on the angle of the first rib should be studied
to note whether idiosyncratic variation in larger or smaller individuals impacts angle. If so, this
could help to explain the wide range of angles which do not offer statistically significant
indications of male or female. Comparing stature to the angle would allow the researchers to
know if the angle was indeed indicative of sex or if it is directly correlated to stature, with the
range of error falling around shorter males and taller females.
Research could also be done to determine whether the same angle, formed in the
articulation points of the vertebrae, produces similar results. The ability to use the vertebral
articulation points to identify sex would be useful.
There is also the potential for research to be done looking at angle and secular change.
This was not a factor studied in this research due to limited number of black individuals in the

22

William M. Bass collection. A secular study of the first rib would have to focus on the angles of
white individuals, as the black collections are limited in regards to a modern sample.
This study shows that the percentage of identifying sex is 70% accurate using multiple
measurements. This information is useful to the establishment of the overall biological profile.
Research focused on elements that are more likely to survive taphonomic processes could prove
valuable to the field of forensic anthropology. Use of smaller elements to estimate sex for
individuals would lower the dependence on larger elements, such as the crania and pelvis.
Further research that adds to the information the first rib can provide will only continue to
improve the fields ability to identify the sex of an individual.

23

REFERENCES CITED
Bass, W.M.
1995. Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual 4th Edition.
Columbia, Mo: Missouri Archaeological Society.
Bearn, J.G.
1967. Direct Observations on the Function of the Capsule of the Sternoclavicular Joint
in Clavicular Support. Journal of Anatomy 101(1): 159-170.
Bruzek, J.
2002. A Method for Visual Determination of Sex, Using the Human Hip Bone.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 117:157-168
DiGangi, E.A., J.D. Bethard, E.H. Kimmerle, and L.W. Konigsberg.
2009. A New Method for Estimating Age-At-Death from the First Rib. American
Journal of Physical Anthropology 138:164-176.
uri, M., Z. Rakoevi, and D. onic.
2005. The Reliability of Sex Determination of Skeletons from Forensic Context in the
Balkans. Forensic Science International 147:159-164.
Giles, E.
1964. Sex Determination by Discriminant Function Analysis of the Mandible.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 22: 129-136.
Giles, E. and Elliot, O.
1963. Sex Determination by Discriminant Function Analysis of Crania. American
Journal of Physical Anthropology 21(1):53-68.
can, M.Y.
1985. Osteometric Analysis of Sexual Dimorphism in the Sternal End of the Rib.
Journal of Forensic Science 30(4): 1090-9
can, M.Y.
1991. The Aging Process in the Rib: An Analysis of Sex and Race Related
Morphological Variation. American Journal of Human Biology 3:617-623.
can, M.Y.
2005. Forensic Anthropology of Sex and Body Size. Forensic Science International
147:107-112.
can, M.Y., S.R. Loth, and R. K. Wright.
1984. Metamorphosis at the Sternal Rib End: A New Method to Estimate age at Death
in White Males. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 65:147-156

24

can, M.Y. and S.R. Loth


1986. Estimation of Age and Determination of Sex from the Sternal Rib. In Forensic
Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains ed. Kathy Reichs, Charles
C. Thomas: Springfield, Il. Pp. 68-89.
can, M.Y., S.R. Loth, C.A. King, D. Shihai and M. Yoshino.
1998. Sexual Dimorphism in the Humerus: a Comparative Analysis of Chinese,
Japanese and Thai. Forensic Science International 98: 17-29
Kampen, W.U., H. Claassen, and T. Kirsch.
1995. Mineralization and Osteogenesis in the Human First Rib Cartilage. Annals of
Anatomy 177:171-177.
King, C.A., M,Y, can, and S.R. Loth.
1998. Metric and Comparative Analysis of Sexual Dimorphism in the Thai Femur.
Journal of Forensic Science 43(5):954-958.
Koak, A., E.O. Atkas, S. Ertk, S. Atkas, and A. Yemisigil.
2003. Sex Determination from the Sternal End of the Rib by Osteometric Analysis.
Legal Medicine 5:100-104.
Kunos, C.A., S.W. Simpson, K.F. Russell, and I. Hershkovitz.
1999. First Rib Metamorphosis: Its Possible Utility for Human Age-at-Death
Estimation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 110:303-323.
Kurki, H.
2005. Use of the First Rib for Adult Age Estimation: A Test of One Method.
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 15: 342-350
McCormick, W.F.
1980. Mineralization of the Costal Cartilages as an Indicator of Age: Preliminary
Observations. Journal of Forensic Sciences 25(4):736-741.
Navani, S., J.R. Shah, and P.S. Levy.
1970. Determination of Sex by Costal Cartilage Calcification. American Journal of
Roentgenology 108(4):771-774.
Ohman, James C.
1986. The First Rib of Hominoids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 70(2):
209-229.
Patil, K.R., and R.N. Mody.
2005. Determination of Sex by Discriminant Function Analysis and Stature Regression
Analysis: a Lateral Cephalometric Study. Forensic Science International 147:175-180.

25

Peat, Malcolm.
1986. Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder Complex. Journal of the American Physical
Therapy Association 66(12): 1855-1865.
Phenice, T.W.
1969. A Newly Developed Visual Method of Sexing the Ox Pubis. American Journal
of Physical Anthropology 30: 297-302.
Ramadan S.U., N. Trkmen, N.A. Dolgun, D. Gkhraman, R.G. Menezes, M. Kacar, and U.
Koar.
2010. Sex Determination from Measurements of the Sternum and Fourth Rib Using
Multislice Computed Tomography of the Chest. Forensic Science International
197:120.e1-120.e5
Semine, A., and Damon, A.
1975. Costochondral Ossification and Aging in Five Populations. Human Biology
47(1):101-116

26

WEB SOURCES:
Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection. March 2011.
http://www.cmnh.org/site/ResearchandCollections/PhysicalAnthropology/Collections/Ha
mann-ToddCollection.aspx
Collections and Research. March 2011. http://fac.utk.edu/facilities.html

27

APPENDIX A
STATISTICAL SUMMARIES OF DATA
FOR FEMALES AND MALES:
GENDER N Obs Variable
Female
298
Height
Length
Angle
TotalLength
SternalHead
Male
274
Height
Length
Angle
TotalLength
SternalHead

Mean Minimum Maximum Range Std Error Variance


8.8
1.0
19.0
18.0
0.23
14.82
23.3
13.0
33.0
20.0
0.21
12.89
22.5
2.3
51.5
49.2
0.56
92.08
128.2
95.0
161.0
66.0
0.69
133.30
54.9
38.0
75.0
37.0
0.33
31.37
11.2
2.0
22.0
20.0
0.26
17.66
25.4
14.0
40.0
26.0
0.24
14.97
26.4
6.8
52.3
45.6
0.59
93.98
134.5
105.0
169.0
64.0
0.71
128.16
57.1
41.0
72.0
31.0
0.36
32.79

FOR BLACK MALES AND WHITE MALES:


ANCESTRY N Obs Variable Mean Minimum Maximum Range Std Error Variance
Black Males 126
Height
9.3
2.0
21.0
19.0
0.35
14.81
Length
24.3
14.0
40.0
26.0
0.37
16.60
Angle
22.6
6.8
49.5
42.7
0.79
74.45
TotalLength 136.4
105.0
169.0
64.0
1.17
155.81
SternalHead 56.7
41.0
72.0
31.0
0.57
37.07
White Males 148
Height
12.7
3.0
22.0
19.0
0.32
14.95
Length
26.2
19.0
35.0
16.0
0.29
12.08
Angle
29.5
7.2
52.3
45.1
0.78
88.87
TotalLength 133.1
110. 0
155.0
45.0
0.86
101.67
SternalHead 57.5
44.0
71.0
27.0
0.46
29.22
FOR BLACK FEMALES AND WHITE FEMALES:
ANCESTRY N Obs Variable Mean Minimum Maximum Range Std Error Variance
Black
124
Height
7.0
1.0
18.0
17.0
0.33
12.83
Females
Length
22.4
15.0
29.0
14.0
0.28
9.03
Angle
18.4
2.3
51.5
49.2
0.85
83.02
TotalLength 127.7
101.0
161.0
60.0
1.07
132.86
SternalHead 53.8
41.0
75.0
34.0
0.54
33.94
White
174
Height
10.0
2.0
19.0
17.0
0.27
12.55
Females
Length
23.9
13.0
33.0
20.0
0.29
14.65
Angle
25.2
6.2
50.6
44.4
0.68
79.88
TotalLength 128.5
95.0
157.0
62.0
0.90
134.17
SternalHead 55.7
38.0
70.0
32.0
0.41
28.33
28

APPENDIX B
T-TESTS FOR ALL MEASUREMENTS BY SEX AND ANCESTRY
ANGLE:
Method Variances DF t Value Pr > |t|
All Males/Females

Pooled

Equal

553

-4.77

<.0001

Black Males/White Males

Pooled

Equal

264

-6.19

<.0001

Black Females/White Females

Pooled

Equal

287

-6.31

<.0001

HEIGHT OF HEAD OFF SURFACE:


Method Variances DF t Value Pr > |t|
All Males/Females

Pooled

Equal

553

-6.90

<.0001

Black Males/White Males

Pooled

Equal

264

-7.09

<.0001

Black Females/White Females

Pooled

Equal

287

-7.08

<.0001

LENGTH FROM HEAD TO TUBERCLE:


Method

Variances

DF

t Value Pr > |t|

All Males/Females

Pooled

Equal

553

-6.50

<.0001

Black Males/White Males

Pooled

Equal

264

-4.12

<.0001

Unequal

279.87

-3.70

0.0003

Variances

DF

Black Females/White Females Satterthwaite


TOTAL EXTERIOR LENGTH (ASHL):
Method

t Value Pr > |t|

All Males/Females

Pooled

Equal

534

-6.41

<.0001

Black Males/White Males

Satterthwaite

Unequal

213.57

2.29

0.0232

Black Females/White Females

Pooled

Equal

282

-0.54

0.5863

INTERIOR LENGTH (PSMH):


Method Variances DF t Value Pr > |t|
All Males/Females

Pooled

Equal

536

-4.49

<.0001

Black Males/White Males

Pooled

Equal

252

-1.08

0.2822

Black Females/White Females

Pooled

Equal

282

-2.78

0.0058

29

APPENDIX C
RAW DATA
Project Name
UTK-WM1L
UTK-WM1R
UTK-WM2L
UTK-WM2R
UTK-WM3L
UTK-WM3R
UTK-WM4L
UTK-WM4R
UTK-WM5L
UTK-WM5R
UTK-WM6L
UTK-WM6R
UTK-WM7L
UTK-WM7R
UTK-WM8L
UTK-WM8R
UTK-WM9L
UTK-WM9R
UTK-WM10L
UTK-WM10R
UTK-WM11L
UTK-WM11R
UTK-WM12L
UTK-WM12R
UTK-WM13L
UTK-WM13R
UTK-WM14L
UTK-WM14R
UTK-WM15L
UTK-WM15R
UTK-WM16L
UTK-WM16R
UTK-WM17L

Collection
ID
1-82
1-82
8-87
8-87
24-02
24-02
13-03
13-03
14-03
14-03
19-03
19-03
26-03
26-03
27-03
27-03
37-03
37-03
36-03
36-03
23-01
23-01
01-02
01-02
02-02
02-02
34-02
34-02
33-02
33-02
03-03
03-03
04-03

Age Height Length


55
55
25
25
52
52
48
48
50
50
55
55
49
49
46
46
43
43
71
71
80
80
96
96
46
46
58
58
39
39
52
52
70

22
19
7
4
16
19
9
11
15
13
13
11
12
10
13
15
14
11
18
15
15
21
15
9
12
11
13
18
16
13
13
11
20

28
26
24
24
28
24
24
23
22
27
27
26
21
26
24
29
25
25
27
29
26
30
23
25
25
22
23
29
26
24
24
26
27
30

*all measurements in millimeters


Angle
Total Sternal-Head
Length
Length
51.7868
149
63
46.9509
147
60
16.9578
125
50
9.5941
34.8499
142
63
52.3415
141
66
22.0243
142
61
28.5719
137
62
42.9859
144
66
28.7822
135
71
28.7822
155
62
25.0290
153
62
34.8499
143
56
22.6199
132
57
32.7972
143
61
31.1474
140
60
34.0558
127
56
26.1039
129
50
41.8103
131
61
31.1474
130
57
35.2344
119
56
44.4270
119
55
40.7057
113
50
21.1002
125
54
28.6854
128
51
30.0000
123
52
34.4174
128
57
38.3665
123
55
37.9799
135
50
32.7972
142
51
32.7972
126
55
25.0290
134
57
47.7946
130
60

UTK-WM17R
UTK-WM18L
UTK-WM18R
UTK-WM19L
UTK-WM19R
UTK-WM20L
UTK-WM20R
UTK-WM21L
UTK-WM21R
UTK-WM22L
UTK-WM22R
UTK-WM23L
UTK-WM23R
UTK-WM24L
UTK-WM24R
UTK-WM25L
UTK-WM25R
UTK-WM26L
UTK-WM26R
UTK-WM27L
UTK-WM27R
UTK-WM28L
UTK-WM28R
UTK-WM29L
UTK-WM29R
UTK-WM30L
UTK-WM30R
UTK-WM31L
UTK-WM31R
UTK-WM32L
UTK-WM32R
UTK-WM33L
UTK-WM33R
UTK-WM34L
UTK-WM34R
UTK-WM35L
UTK-WM35R
UTK-WM36L

04-03
05-03
05-03
07-86
07-86
01-87
01-87
20-90
20-90
21-90
21-90
22-90
22-90
17-91
17-91
14-93
14-93
02-96
02-96
24-01
24-01
19-92
19-92
21-06
21-06
12-08
12-08
38-03
38-03
50-03
50-03
49-03
49-03
55-03
55-03
54-03
54-03
02-04

70
62
62
67
67
39
39
29
29
69
69
78
78
26
26
32
32
87
87
60
60
27
27
46
46
89
89
65
65
62
62
86
86
67
67
54
54
68

19
14
14
12
13
10
13
9
8
10
14
21
21
8
9
13
17
18
15
12
12
9
6
17
17
19
15
10
15
15
11
12
16
15
16
14

27
25
25
29
21
30
31
24
32
24
23
34
32
22
29
27
27
29
29
23
23
26
25
27
27
29
25
25
28
29
25
25
28
28
26
22
31

44.7249
34.0558
34.0558
24.4433
38.2466
19.4712
24.7939
22.0243
14.4775
24.6243
37.4952
38.1445
41.0145
21.3237
18.0800
28.7822
39.0228
38.3665
31.1474
31.4490
31.4490
20.2522
13.8865
39.0228
39.0228
40.9327
36.8699
23.5782
32.3924
31.1474
26.1039
28.6854
34.8499
32.3924
37.9799
39.5212

131
123
124
130
125
145
150
135
138
120
117
150
144
138
140
124
126
145
145
121
122
136
130
129
139
140
154
141
135
140
134
125

61
63
60
48
49
63
65
51
51
60
58
65
57
62
61
55
58
53
57
65
65
50
52
60
53
51
57
58
58
61
63
53

UTK-WM36R
UTK-WM37L
UTK-WM37R
UTK-WM38L
UTK-WM38R
UTK-WM39L
UTK-WM39R
UTK-WM40L
UTK-WM40R
UTK-WM41L
UTK-WM41R
UTK-WM42L
UTK-WM42R
UTK-WM43L
UTK-WM43R
UTK-WM44L
UTK-WM44R
UTK-BM1L
UTK-BM1R
UTK-BM2L
UTK-BM2R
UTK-BM3L
UTK-BM3R
UTK-BM4L
UTK-BM4R
UTK-BM5L
UTK-BM5R
UTK-BM6L
UTK-BM6R
UTK-BM7L
UTK-BM7R
UTK-BM8L
UTK-BM8R
UTK-BM9L
UTK-BM9R
UTK-BM10L
UTK-BM10R
UTK-BM11L

02-04
09-04
09-04
08-04
08-04
29-04
29-04
44-04
44-04
59-04
59-04
01-05
01-05
34-03
34-03
04-05
04-05
6-87
6-87
9-89
9-89
18-90
18-90
15-91
15-91
1-92
1-92
21-92
21-92
15-93
15-93
5-94
5-94
8-99
8-99
06-02
06-02
12-05

68
46
46
57
57
34
34
39
39
48
48
44
44
77
77
72
72
69
69
43
43
27
27
51
51
55
55
25
25
84
84
46
46
43
43
77
77
56

17
14
14
15
14
8
11
17
18
10
8
14
10
15
10
14
15
15
14
9
9
6
9
7
7
10
9
10
10
13
19
13
12
13
12
12
15
10

24
25
19
22
24
29
30
25
29
20
22
27
22
23
28
22
22
23
26
28
27
18
22
24
22
22
22
23
21
27
25
25
21
27
27
23
29
23
32

45.0995
34.0558
47.4631
42.9859
35.6853
16.0134
21.5102
42.8436
38.3665
30.0000
21.3237
31.2329
27.0357
40.7057
20.9248
39.5212
42.9859
40.7057
32.5790
18.7493
19.4712
19.4712
24.1477
16.9578
18.5530
27.0357
24.1477
25.7715
28.4369
28.7822
49.4642
31.3323
34.8499
28.7822
26.3878
31.4490
31.1474
25.7715

127
137
138
125
131
153
149
140
142
121
119
122
125
121
121
123
122
142
144
169
161
135
138
139
139
132
119
146
147
139
141
145
151
145
139

56
55
57
60
58
64
64
53
55
53
48
59
63
58
60
54
51
71
71
68
61
53
52
64
65
48
47
62
62
61
49
54
61
56
57

UTK-BM11R
UTK-BM12L
UTK-BM12R
UTK-BM13L
UTK-BM13R
UTK-BM14L
UTK-BM14R
UTK-BM15L
UTK-BM15R
UTK-BM16L
UTK-BM16R
UTK-BM17L
UTK-BM17R
UTK-BM18L
UTK-BM18R
UTK-BM19L
UTK-BM19R
UTK-BM20L
UTK-BM20R
UTK-BM21L
UTK-BM21R
UTK-BM22L
UTK-BM22R
UTK-BM23L
UTK-BM23R
UTK-BM24L
UTK-BM24R
UTK-BM25L
UTK-BM25R
UTK-BM26L
UTK-BM26R
UTK-BM27L
UTK-BM27R
UTK-BM28L
UTK-BM28R
UTK-BM29L
UTK-BM29R
UTK-BM30L

12-05
48-04
48-04
40-04
40-04
53-05
53-05
41-06
41-06
98-06
98-06
54-06
54-06
75-06
75-06
19-07
19-07
74-07
74-07
81-07
81-07
100-07
100-07
31-93
31-93
17-00
17-00
30-01
30-01
35-93
35-93
15-90
15-90
23-03
23-03
25-04
25-04
23-06

56
46
46
49
49
43
43
71
71
47
47
43
43
47
47
53
53
55
55
49
49
59
59
68
68
35
35
64
64
61
61
54
54
68
68
40
40
70

6
12
10
9
10
10
8
11
6
17
10
6
13
21
17
21
19
14
16
15
13
6
9
11
8
7
6
13
11
12
9
8
16
10
10
5

24
27
20
24
23
21
19
24
20
29
26
25
27
29
25
32
28
26
26
25
24
21
22
26
19
25
25
31
29
27
21
23
26
31
32
23
33

14.4775
26.3878
30.0000
22.0243
25.7715
28.4369
24.9011
27.2796
17.4576
35.8883
22.6199
13.8865
28.7822
46.3972
42.8436
41.0145
42.7321
32.5790
37.9799
36.8699
32.7972
16.6015
24.1477
25.0290
24.9011
16.2602
13.8865
24.7939
22.2910
26.3878
25.3769
20.3544
37.9799
18.8191
18.2100
12.5559

140
141
140
134
132
133
127
128
134
130
140
151
150
152
162
126
122
132
133
130
136
148
150
123
124
120
118
145
142
139
160
155

63
57
61
65
67
56
54
58
59
57
61
57
65
59
62
61
62
56
54
49
48
57
57
59
61
51
50
65
67
53
48
72

UTK-BM30R
CMNH-WM1L
CMNH-WM1R
CMNH-WM2L
CMNH-WM2R
CMNH-WM3L
CMNH-WM3R
CMNH-WM4L
CMNH-WM4R
CMNH-WM5L
CMNH-WM5R
CMNH-WM6L
CMNH-WM6R
CMNH-WM7L
CMNH-WM7R
CMNH-WM8L
CMNH-WM8R
CMNH-WM9L
CMNH-WM9R
CMNH-WM10L
CMNH-WM10R
CMNH-WM11L
CMNH-WM11R
CMNH-WM12L
CMNH-WM12R
CMNH-WM13L
CMNH-WM13R
CMNH-WM14L
CMNH-WM14R
CMNH-WM15L
CMNH-WM15R
CMNH-WM16L
CMNH-WM16R
CMNH-WM17L
CMNH-WM17R
CMNH-WM18L
CMNH-WM18R
CMNH-WM19L

23-06
HTH-1125
HTH-1125
HTH-687
HTH-687
HTH-688
HTH-688
HTH-689
HTH-689
HTH-691
HTH-691
HTH-694
HTH-694
HTH-707
HTH-707
HTH-708
HTH-708
HTH-712
HTH-712
HTH-714
HTH-714
HTH-1645
HTH-1645
HTH-1662
HTH-1662
HTH-1663
HTH-1663
HTH-1664
HTH-1664
HTH-1681
HTH-1681
HTH-1683
HTH-1683
HTH-1685
HTH-1685
HTH-1686
HTH-1686
HTH-1726

70
40
40
30
30
24
24
45
45
65
65
23
23
32
32
32
32
29
29
35
35
50
50
40
40
75
75
67
67
54
54
81
81
62
62
40
40
57

5
11
11
15
16
16
14
11
10
9
9
9
6
9
8
11
6
6
8
17
17
18
14
8
10
11
16
8
10
14
18
18
13
8
6
10
12
12

22
30
33
35
30
32
32
29
30
32
32
27
20
27
29
29
29
28
23
33
32
31
27
21
24
24
25
30
26
30
28
27
26
21
22
26
26
29
34

13.1366
21.51018827
19.47122063
25.37693353
32.23095264
30
25.94447977
22.29097037
19.47122063
16.33482278
16.33482278
19.47122063
17.45760312
19.47122063
16.01339442
22.29097037
11.94054396
12.37362512
20.3544064
31.00758301
32.08995126
35.49593265
31.23292902
22.39268781
24.62431835
27.27961274
39.7918195
15.46600995
22.61986495
27.81813928
40.00520088
41.8103149
30
22.39268781
15.82662013
22.61986495
27.48642625
24.44333543

153
144
142
126
127
133
130
122
130
142
142
116
115
131
146
140
138
135
142
132
139
126
126
135
135
147
148
133
138
119
124
145
150
135
151
152
128

69
51
54
63
65
54
54
52
55
58
62
49
51
53
55
51
55
50
50
59
55
66
65
59
60
61
69
64
69
64
62
56
56
67
67
66
55

CMNH-WM19R
CMNH-WM20L
CMNH-WM20R
CMNH-WM21L
CMNH-WM21R
CMNH-WM22L
CMNH-WM22R
CMNH-WM23L
CMNH-WM23R
CMNH-WM24L
CMNH-WM24R
CMNH-WM25L
CMNH-WM25R
CMNH-WM26L
CMNH-WM26R
CMNH-WM27L
CMNH-WM27R
CMNH-WM28L
CMNH-WM28R
CMNH-WM29L
CMNH-WM29R
CMNH-WM30L
CMNH-WM30R
CMNH-BBM1L
CMNH-BM1R
CMNH-BM2L
CMNH-BM2R
CMNH-BM3L
CMNH-BM3R
CMNH-BM4L
CMNH-BM4R
CMNH-BM5L
CMNH-BM5R
CMNH-BM6L
CMNH-BM6R
CMNH-BM7L
CMNH-BM7R
CMNH-BM8L

HTH-1726
HTH-1728
HTH-1728
HTH-1732
HTH-1732
HTH-1745
HTH-1745
HTH-1764
HTH-1764
HTH-1769
HTH-1769
HTH-1770
HTH-1770
HTH-1809
HTH-1809
HTH-2217
HTH-2217
HTH-2243
HTH-2243
HTH-2287
HTH-2287
HTH-2305
HTH-2305
HTH-25
HTH-25
HTH-27
HTH-27
HTH-74
HTH-74
HTH-93
HTH-93
HTH-97
HTH-97
HTH-225
HTH-225
HTH-290
HTH-290
HTH-291

57
70
70
84
84
63
63
55
55
24
24
59
59
45
45
21
21
57
57
54
54
39
39
40
40
48
48
35
35
30
30
50
50
38
38
33
33
20

9
12
18
14
10
18
12
3
9
5
8
10
12
10
12
11
6
15
15
12
9
15
18
9
3
13
11
9
4
3
4
7
6
8
7
7
5
10

19
24
29
26
19
35
24
24
24
21
21
25
28
28
25
30
20
29
25
29
31
23
23
29
21
21
25
19
23
15
17
23
25
21
26
25
20
25
35

28.27371363
30
38.36651426
32.57897039
31.75686386
30.94972308
30
7.180755781
22.02431284
13.774147
22.39268781
23.57817848
25.37693353
20.92483243
28.68540201
21.51018827
17.45760312
31.14738992
36.86989765
24.44333543
16.87726944
40.70570683
51.50004959
18.08001262
8.213210702
38.24661988
26.10388114
28.27371363
10.01541017
11.53695903
13.60896063
17.71893187
13.88654036
22.39268781
15.61849828
16.26020471
14.47751219
23.57817848

128
131
146
133
115
122
121
137
137
114
110
141
140
134
131
125
124
125
0
129
125
130
130
124
123
133
135
144
142
149
105
105
146
151
133

54
54
59
55
49
44
45
58
58
50
54
63
64
62
55
61
60
57
0
57
62
55
54
41
44
57
56
57
62
55
61
61
45
47
60
59
47

CMNH-BM8R
CMNH-BM9L
CMNH-BM9R
CMNH-BM10L
CMNH-BM10R
CMNH-BM11L
CMNH-BM11R
CMNH-BM12L
CMNH-BM12R
CMNH-BM13L
CMNH-BM13R
CMNH-BM14L
CMNH-BM14R
CMNH-BM15L
CMNH-BM15R
CMNH-BM16L
CMNH-BM16R
CMNH-BM17L
CMNH-BM17R
CMNH-BM18L
CMNH-BM18R
CMNH-BM19L
CMNH-BM19R
CMNH-BM20L
CMNH-BM20R
CMNH-BM21L
CMNH-BM21R
CMNH-BM22L
CMNH-BM22R
CMNH-BM23L
CMNH-BM23R
CMNH-BM24L
CMNH-BM24R
CMNH-BM25L
CMNH-BM25R
CMNH-BM26L
CMNH-BM26R
CMNH-BM27L

HTH-291
HTH-327
HTH-327
HTH-343
HTH-343
HTH-366
HTH-366
HTH-400
HTH-400
HTH-402
HTH-402
HTH-441
HTH-441
HTH-448
HTH-448
HTH-486
HTH-486
HTH-502
HTH-502
HTH-506
HTH-506
HTH-523
HTH-523
HTH-524
HTH-524
HTH-525
HTH-525
HTH-528
HTH-528
HTH-563
HTH-563
HTH-568
HTH-568
HTH-692
HTH-692
HTH-695
HTH-695
HTH-709

20
35
35
30
30
22
22
56
56
29
29
49
49
31
31
32
32
28
28
35
35
24
24
34
34
22
22
50
50
19
19
29
29
53
53
18
18
33

7
3
5
3
2
6
4
11
15
7
4
7
5
7
7
11
11
7
6
9
8
7
5
9
8
10
6
11
9
8
4
8
6
7

22
19
19
14
17
19
17
28
27
20
20
24
28
21
21
27
26
20
21
20
25
40
30
29
26
29
27
30
29
20
21
23
24
24
36

18.55300454
9.084720287
15.25752329
12.37362512
6.756327031
18.40848017
13.60896063
23.1323964
33.7489886
20.48731511
11.53695903
16.9577633
10.28656061
19.47122063
19.47122063
24.04207591
25.02899949
20.48731511
16.6015496
26.74368395
18.66292488
10.07865811
9.594068227
18.08001262
17.92021314
20.17127135
12.83958841
21.51018827
18.08001262
23.57817848
10.98057543
20.3544064
14.47751219
16.9577633

131
149
139
138
135
121
129
109
109
147
152
125
124
112
116
134
140
121
127
142
139
151
152
131
129
142
139
132
125
129
127
135
137
155
149
129
134
160

48
58
56
59
63
60
62
54
50
51
55
54
53
52
49
56
59
59
57
55
60
66
59
57
57
49
51
59
60
51
48
57
58
56
55
52
52
47

CMNH-BM27R
CMNH-BM28L
CMNH-BM28R
CMNH-BM29L
CMNH-BM29R
CMNH-BM30L
CMNH-BM30R
CMNH-BM31L
CMNH-BM31R
CMNH-BM32L
CMNH-BM32R
CMNH-BM33L
CMNH-BM33R
UTK-WF1L
UTK-WF1R
UTK-WF2L
UTK-WF2R
UTK-WF3L
UTK-WF3R
UTK-WF4L
UTK-WF4R
UTK-WF5L
UTK-WF5R
UTK-WF6L
UTK-WF6R
UTK-WF7L
UTK-WF7R
UTK-WF8L
UTK-WF8R
UTK-WF9L
UTK-WF9R
UTK-WF10L
UTK-WF10R
UTK-WF11L
UTK-WF11R
UTK-WF12L
UTK-WF12R
UTK-WF13L

HTH-709
HTH-735
HTH-735
HTH-736
HTH-736
HTH-738
HTH-738
HTH-2026
HTH-2026
HTH-2079
HTH-2079
HTH-2080
HTH-2080
1-86a
1-86a
1-83
1-83
5-87
5-87
1-88
1-88
23-88
23-88
11-90
11-90
27-91
27-91
9-00
9-00
13-02
13-02
12-02
12-02
23-02
23-02
37-02
37-02
11-03

33
40
40
40
40
25
25
61
61
51
51
61
61
39
39
79
79
53
53
71
71
59
59
68
68
38
38
43
43
69
69
49
49
62
62
52
52
47

9
8
9
15
14
10
6
12
9
8
9
11
7
11
13
16
16
8
6
14
15
8
8
11
13
9
9
6
10
14
12
6
11
14
12
9
9
10

23
22
24
30
29
28
27
33
29
25
26
20
29
20
21
27
26
18
19
25
20
24
24
28
20
20
18
25
20
26
21
24
29
23
19
27
24
21
37

23.03568411
21.32368626
22.02431284
30
28.86572742
20.92483243
12.83958841
21.32368626
18.08001262
18.66292488
20.25224674
33.36701297
13.96796267
33.36701297
38.24661988
36.34120309
37.97987244
26.38779996
18.40848017
34.05579774
48.59037789
19.47122063
19.47122063
23.1323964
40.54160187
26.74368395
30
13.88654036
30
32.57897039
34.84990458
14.47751219
22.29097037
37.49524976
39.16671072
19.47122063
22.02431284
28.43689015

164
134
135
138
134
123
126
132
126
130
128
134
115
115
152
155
128
128
125
111
150
151
144
135
115
119
135
138
155
157
141
140
127
133
135
138
115

48
52
52
53
53
56
57
52
57
62
60
61
53
54
59
63
55
57
55
55
67
60
56
60
54
58
59
57
68
65
54
54
56
55
52
57
51

UTK-WF13R
UTK-WF14L
UTK-WF14R
UTK-WF15L
UTK-WF15R
UTK-WF16L
UTK-WF16R
UTK-WF17L
UTK-WF17R
UTK-WF18L
UTK-WF18R
UTK-WF19L
UTK-WF19R
UTK-WF20L
UTK-WF20R
UTK-WF21L
UTK-WF21R
UTK-WF22L
UTK-WF22R
UTK-WF23L
UTK-WF23R
UTK-WF24L
UTK-WF24R
UTK-WF25L
UTK-WF25R
UTK-WF26L
UTK-WF26R
UTK-WF27L
UTK-WF27R
UTK-WF28L
UTK-WF28R
UTK-WF29L
UTK-WF29R
UTK-WF30L
UTK-WF30R
UTK-WF31L
UTK-WF31R
UTK-WF32L

11-03
17-03
17-03
18-03
18-03
21-93
21-93
26-93
26-93
18-94
18-94
07-95
07-95
07-92
07-92
10-98
10-98
56-04
56-04
57-04
57-04
31-05
31-05
30-05
30-05
27-05
27-05
25-05
25-05
61-05
61-05
88-05
88-05
92-05
92-05
15-06
15-06
17-06

47
58
58
47
47
82
82
62
62
83
83
71
71
64
64
69
69
76
76
81
81
51
51
69
69
59
59
51
51
55
55
84
84
47
47
59
59
50

10
11
10
9
10
12
9
12
10
16
9
10
12
19
16
8
8
14
13
13
15
10
17
17
10
12
14
15
8
10
10
11
9
12
10
10
11

16
25
23
23
23
26
21
24
25
26
22
23
24
27
26
21
27
29
29
25
27
25
32
27
21
25
24
24
25
25
26
27
22
29
22
25
24
38

38.68218745
26.10388114
25.77146174
23.03568411
25.77146174
27.48642625
25.37693353
30
23.57817848
37.97987244
24.14773992
25.77146174
30
44.72491315
37.97987244
22.39268781
17.23528526
28.86572742
26.63311875
31.3322515
33.7489886
23.57817848
32.08995126
39.02280257
28.43689015
28.68540201
35.68533471
38.68218745
18.66292488
23.57817848
22.61986495
24.04207591
24.14773992
24.44333543
27.03569179
23.57817848
27.27961274

116
95
110
121
115
119
112
120
113
124
124
140
134
116
115
134
133
134
132
130
124
132
115
113
122
116
116
120
134
136
130
130
138
141
136
138
125

52
38
45
48
49
53
54
55
54
51
49
59
59
59
54
65
65
66
67
56
59
57
50
53
51
50
57
56
48
48
58
59
67
61
52
53
57

UTK-WF32R
UTK-WF33L
UTK-WF33R
UTK-WF34L
UTK-WF34R
UTK-WF35L
UTK-WF35R
UTK-WF36L
UTK-WF36R
UTK-WF37L
UTK-WF37R
UTK-WF38L
UTK-WF38R
UTK-WF39L
UTK-WF39R
UTK-WF40L
UTK-WF40R
UTK-WF41L
UTK-WF41R
UTK-WF42L
UTK-WF42R
UTK-WF43L
UTK-WF43R
UTK-WF44L
UTK-WF44R
UTK-WF45L
UTK-WF45R
UTK-WF46L
UTK-WF46R
UTK-WF47L
UTK-WF47R
UTK-WF48L
UTK-WF48R
UTK-WF49L
UTK-WF49R
UTK-WF50L
UTK-WF50R
UTK-WF51L

17-06
25-06
25-06
32-06
32-06
39-06
39-06
40-06
40-06
41-07
41-07
82-07
82-07
13-08
13-08
32-07
32-07
30-07
30-07
31-07
31-07
51-07
51-07
52-07
52-07
89-06
89-06
39-03
39-03
43-03
43-03
53-03
53-03
63-03
63-03
12-04
12-04
11-04

50
44
44
39
39
85
85
51
51
37
37
31
31
75
75
78
78
64
64
67
67
44
44
68
68
50
50
52
52
73
73
60
60
58
58
60
60
54

12
8
6
10
13
15
9
17
16
6
4
7
8
11
8
13
14
9
8
9
9
16
10
5
11
14
15
11
7
9
9
14
13
17
12
13
15
16

32
28
32
27
27
22
21
29
31
16
17
21
22
24
22
23
21
20
27
18
25
29
30
20
21
23
23
22
19
28
27
28
29
22
22
28
27
25
39

22.02431284
16.6015496
10.80692287
21.73846079
28.78220468
42.98588608
25.37693353
35.88829755
31.07295097
22.02431284
13.60896063
19.47122063
21.32368626
27.27961274
21.32368626
34.41738871
41.8103149
26.74368395
17.23528526
30
21.10019602
33.48537662
19.47122063
14.47751219
31.58813551
37.49524976
40.70570683
30
35.37654015
14.47751219
19.47122063
18.74934085
28.86572742
36.22154662
50.59943125
25.37693353
28.78220468
36.86989765

140
156
155
128
123
122
130
134
137
112
118
115
120
134
140
130
125
140
133
149
143
123
120
115
126
127
127
134
135
134
134
141
138
119

60
67
66
51
54
58
57
59
63
53
58
57
53
57
59
53
51
55
53
60
63
55
54
54
57
64
66
59
55
52
55
61
62
56

UTK-WF51R
UTK-WF52L
UTK-WF52R
UTK-WF53L
UTK-WF53R
UTK-WF54L
UTK-WF54R
UTK-WF55L
UTK-WF55R
UTK-WF56L
UTK-WF56R
UTK-BF1L
UTK-BF1R
UTK-BF2L
UTK-BF2R
UTK-BF3L
UTK-BF3R
UTK-BF4L
UTK-BF4R
UTK-BF5L
UTK-BF5R
UTK-BF6L
UTK-BF6R
UTK-BF7L
UTK-BF7R
UTK-BF8L
UTK-BF8R
CMNH-WF1L
CMNH-WF1R
CMNH-WF2L
CMNH-WF2R
CMNH-WF3L
CMNH-WF3R
CMNH-WF4L
CMNH-WF4R
CMNH-WF5L
CMNH-WF5R
CMNH-WF6L

11-04
11-05
11-05
02-05
02-05
13-05
13-05
57-04
57-04
19-04
19-04
2-86
2-86
6-89
6-89
1-96
1-96
05-01
05-01
18-05
18-05
36-06
36-06
78-07
78-07
62-06
62-06
HTH-1747
HTH-1747
HTH-1750
HTH-1750
HTH-1771
HTH-1771
HTH-1811
HTH-1811
HTH-1825
HTH-1825
HTH-1900

54
76
76
76
76
74
74
81
81
60
60
39
39
40
40
66
66
59
59
99
99
73
73
24
24
54
54
34
34
75
75
54
54
73
73
56
56
27

16
14
14
12
12
6
6
14
14
7
8
11
18
10
12
4
3
16
7
17
12
6
6
7
10
5
4
11
9
5
9
6
10
15
11
6

26
25
28
24
24
22
22
26
28
13
17
21
23
20
24
20
21
26
21
29
20
21
20
22
22
22
23
22
20
19
22
19
25
24
18
24
40

37.97987244
39.7918195
30
30
30
15.82662013
15.82662013
32.57897039
30
32.57897039
28.07248694
31.58813551
51.50004959
30
30
11.53695903
8.213210702
37.97987244
19.47122063
35.88829755
36.86989765
16.6015496
17.45760312
18.55300454
27.03569179
13.13655879
10.01541017
30
26.74368395
15.25752329
24.14773992
18.40848017
23.57817848
38.68218745
37.66988696
14.47751219

116
141
148
123
122
130
127
137
138
131
121
143
132
115
120
136
134
125
125
132
138
118
120
120
122
128
123
115
117
138
130
121
113
111
114

56
60
61
47
47
57
50
56
58
54
53
53
52
50
53
58
60
60
58
59
60
49
46
60
56
55
58
53
53
63
58
57
65
62
45

CMNH-WF6R
CMNH-WF7L
CMNH-WF7R
CMNH-WF8L
CMNH-WF8R
CMNH-WF9L
CMNH-WF9R
CMNH-WF10L
CMNH-WF10R
CMNH-WF11L
CMNH-WF11R
CMNH-WF12L
CMNH-WF12R
CMNH-WF13L
CMNH-WF13R
CMNH-WF14L
CMNH-WF14R
CMNH-WF15L
CMNH-WF15R
CMNH-WF16L
CMNH-WF16R
CMNH-WF17L
CMNH-WF17R
CMNH-WF18L
CMNH-WF18R
CMNH-WF19L
CMNH-WF19R
CMNH-WF20L
CMNH-WF20R
CMNH-WF21L
CMNH-WF21R
CMNH-WF22L
CMNH-WF22R
CMNH-WF23L
CMNH-WF23R
CMNH-WF24L
CMNH-WF24R
CMNH-WF25L

HTH-1900
HTH-1976
HTH-1976
HTH-2025
HTH-2025
HTH-2082
HTH-2082
HTH-2125
HTH-2125
HTH-2244
HTH-2244
HTH-2282
HTH-2282
HTH-755
HTH-755
HTH-774
HTH-774
HTH-781
HTH-781
HTH-886
HTH-886
HTH-893
HTH-893
HTH-929
HTH-929
HTH-1059
HTH-1059
HTH-1119
HTH-1119
HTH-1157
HTH-1157
HTH-1162
HTH-1162
HTH-1219
HTH-1219
HTH-1279
HTH-1279
HTH-1302

27
47
47
49
49
42
42
36
36
41
41
62
62
45
45
38
38
23
23
32
32
51
51
31
31
28
28
35
35
25
25
28
28
82
82
39
39
47

7
7
4
2
5
14
12
9
7
5
7
9
11
12
14
10
5
6
3
10
13
7
12
9
5
10
11
10
7
8
9
8
8
4
5
11
6
5

24
21
23
16
20
31
28
25
27
29
27
19
24
33
33
30
32
24
27
24
25
16
25
21
21
28
28
24
24
25
25
29
29
19
21
21
19
21
41

16.9577633
19.47122063
10.01541017
7.180755781
14.47751219
26.84721333
25.37693353
21.10019602
15.02611376
9.928191842
15.02611376
28.27371363
27.27961274
21.32368626
25.10272076
19.47122063
8.989299345
14.47751219
6.379370208
24.62431835
31.3322515
25.94447977
28.68540201
25.37693353
13.774147
20.92483243
23.1323964
24.62431835
16.9577633
18.66292488
21.10019602
16.01339442
16.01339442
12.15319747
13.774147
31.58813551
18.40848017
13.774147

113
126
131
128
120
150
146
129
138
132
133
137
155
156
123
120
125
130
122
120
118
115
125
123
132
131
131
131
119
117
120
125
129
130
138
136
134

48
48
49
58
57
57
56
53
57
61
59
57
53
59
44
49
51
50
57
56
53
54
51
53
53
51
52
57
49
52
50
49
59
55
63
70
57

CMNH-WF25R
CMNH-WF26L
CMNH-WF26R
CMNH-WF27L
CMNH-WF27R
CMNH-WF28L
CMNH-WF28R
CMNH-WF29L
CMNH-WF29R
CMNH-WF30L
CMNH-WF30R
CMNH-WF31L
CMNH-WF31R
CMNH-BF1L
CMNH-BF1R
CMNH-BF2L
CMNH-BF2R
CMNH-BF3L
CMNH-BF3R
CMNH-BF4L
CMNH-BF4R
CMNH-BF5L
CMNH-BF5R
CMNH-BF6L
CMNH-BF6R
CMNH-BF7L
CMNH-BF7R
CMNH-BF8L
CMNH-BF8R
CMNH-BF9L
CMNH-BF9R
CMNH-BF10L
CMNH-BF10R
CMNH-BF11L
CMNH-BF11R
CMNH-BF12L
CMNH-BF12R
CMNH-BF13L

HTH-1302
HTH-2857
HTH-2857
HTH-2920
HTH-2920
HTH-2939
HTH-2939
HTH-3032
HTH-3032
HTH-3118
HTH-3118
HTH-3164
HTH-3164
HTH-128
HTH-128
HTH-152
HTH-152
HTH-226
HTH-226
HTH-439
HTH-439
HTH-442
HTH-442
HTH-461
HTH-461
HTH-530
HTH-530
HTH-545
HTH-545
HTH-589
HTH-589
HTH-612
HTH-612
HTH-668
HTH-668
HTH-673
HTH-673
HTH-773

47
31
31
42
42
25
25
89
89
54
54
61
61
35
35
70
70
29
29
35
35
40
40
30
30
45
45
25
25
30
30
36
36
37
37
38
38
60

9
3
7
5
5
3
3
6
11
12
10
10
11
6
6
7
12
10
3
9
6
2
8
6
12
10
4
2
10
9
7
2
7
8
3

25
22
24
23
17
25
28
17
20
23
23
20
27
20
19
20
26
24
23
27
23
17
24
23
25
24
19
27
21
22
22
20
21
22
19
42

21.10019602
7.837479763
16.9577633
12.5558578
17.10463518
6.892102579
6.150639828
20.66731649
33.36701297
31.44898139
25.77146174
30
24.04207591
17.4576
18.4085
20.4873
27.4864
24.6243
7.4947
19.4712
15.1217
6.7563
19.4712
15.1217
28.6854
24.6243
12.1532
4.2480
28.4369
24.1477
18.5530
5.7392
19.4712
21.3237
9.0847

130
125
129
141
145
119
120
105
110
115
119
127
126
128
124
122
112
119
123
132
121
127
127
116
109
145
145
144
139
125
122
143
151
133
124
111

60
57
58
59
58
53
57
43
46
51
55
50
55
59
64
59
47
51
59
58
52
53
50
53
52
55
54
54
51
44
48
56
57
46
47
49

CMNH-BF13R
CMNH-BF14L
CMNH-BF14R
CMNH-BF15L
CMNH-BF15R
CMNH-BF16L
CMNH-BF16R
CMNH-BF17L
CMNH-BF17R
CMNH-BF18L
CMNH-BF18R
CMNH-BF19L
CMNH-BF19R
CMNH-BF20L
CMNH-BF20R
CMNH-BF21L
CMNH-BF21R
CMNH-BF22L
CMNH-BF22R
CMNH-BF23L
CMNH-BF23R
CMNH-BF24L
CMNH-BF24R
CMNH-BF25L
CMNH-BF25R
CMNH-BF26L
CMNH-BF26R
CMNH-BF27L
CMNH-BF27R
CMNH-BF28L
CMNH-BF28R
CMNH-BF29L
CMNH-BF29R
CMNH-BF30L
CMNH-BF30R
CMNH-BF31L
CMNH-BF31R
CMNH-BF32L

HTH-773
HTH-839
HTH-839
HTH-928
HTH-928
HTH-933
HTH-933
HTH-954
HTH-954
HTH-1012
HTH-1012
HTH-1040
HTH-1040
HTH-1122
HTH-1122
HTH-1124
HTH-1124
HTH-1161
HTH-1161
HTH-1208
HTH-1208
HTH-1243
HTH-1243
HTH-1301
HTH-1301
HTH-1328
HTH-1328
HTH-1345
HTH-1345
HTH-1367
HTH-1367
HTH-1427
HTH-1427
HTH-1515
HTH-1515
HTH-1516
HTH-1516
HTH-1536

60
60
60
69
69
28
28
24
24
18
18
20
20
70
70
40
40
24
24
23
23
24
24
87
87
19
19
39
39
72
72
28
28
26
26
37
37
29

3
4
5
9
4
12
9
3
3
3
3
8
6
14
11
4
7
1
1
7
5
6
3
3
3
7
8
6
5
10
4
4
5
5
5
5
9

21
23
23
26
21
23
25
19
21
17
22
22
20
24
22
15
21
21
25
24
17
27
22
27
23
24
20
19
25
28
20
24
19
26
16
16
20
43

8.2132
10.0154
12.5559
20.2522
10.9806
31.4490
21.1002
9.0847
8.2132
10.1642
7.8375
21.3237
17.4576
35.6853
30.0000
15.4660
19.4712
2.7294
2.2924
16.9578
17.1046
12.8396
7.8375
6.3794
7.4947
16.9578
23.5782
18.4085
11.5370
20.9248
11.5370
9.5941
15.2575
11.0875
18.2100
18.2100
26.7437

112
134
136
133
0
134
140
120
119
121
120
113
115
122
133
128
125
121
123
116
113
133
135
133
131
138
129
138
139
161
155
143
145
143
131
127
120
136

54
55
59
58
0
56
56
53
53
59
56
48
52
53
54
43
43
49
51
57
58
64
62
55
54
45
51
47
48
75
67
62
60
51
56
57
56
50

CMNH-BF32R
CMNH-BF33L
CMNH-BF33R
CMNH-BF34L
CMNH-BF34R
CMNH-BF35L
CMNH-BF35R
CMNH-BF36L
CMNH-BF36R
CMNH-BF37L
CMNH-BF37R
CMNH-BF38L
CMNH-BF38R
CMNH-BF39L
CMNH-BF39R
CMNH-BF40L
CMNH-BF40R
CMNH-BF41L
CMNH-BF41R
CMNH-BF42L
CMNH-BF42R
CMNH-BF43L
CMNH-BF43R
CMNH-BF44L
CMNH-BF44R
CMNH-BF45L
CMNH-BF45R
CMNH-BF46L
CMNH-BF46R
CMNH-BF47L
CMNH-BF47R
CMNH-BF48L
CMNH-BF48R
CMNH-BF49L
CMNH-BF49R
CMNH-BF50L
CMNH-BF50R
CMNH-BF51L

HTH-1536
HTH-1539
HTH-1539
HTH-1558
HTH-1558
HTH-1600
HTH-1600
HTH-1622
HTH-1622
HTH-1705
HTH-1705
HTH-1709
HTH-1709
HTH-1744
HTH-1744
HTH-1748
HTH-1748
HTH-1749
HTH-1749
HTH-1785
HTH-1785
HTH-1856
HTH-1856
HTH-1871
HTH-1871
HTH-1899
HTH-1899
HTH-1924
HTH-1924
HTH-1949
HTH-1949
HTH-1978
HTH-1978
HTH-2039
HTH-2039
HTH-2099
HTH-2099
HTH-2127

29
26
26
24
24
28
28
27
27
85
85
25
25
49
49
44
44
42
42
32
32
45
45
36
36
30
30
38
38
19
19
23
23
65
65
45
45
51

11
13
11
8
6
4
10
6
9
6
9
1
2
10
7
9
7
6
5
2
1
12
9
7
7
9
7
6
4
5
5
7
6
16
14
4

19
27
24
22
19
27
22
27
21
24
26
24
25
20
27
21
26
22
20
21
24
26
22
25
21
29
27
20
22
24
25
25
19
26
27
19
44

35.3765
28.7822
27.2796
21.3237
18.4085
8.5196
27.0357
12.8396
25.3769
14.4775
20.2522
2.3880
4.5886
30.0000
15.0261
25.3769
15.6185
15.8266
14.4775
5.4650
2.3880
27.4864
24.1477
16.2602
19.4712
18.0800
15.0261
17.4576
10.4757
12.0247
11.5370
16.2602
18.4085
37.9799
31.2329
12.1532

143
130
125
116
123
154
130
123
120
126
126
123
137
130
128
126
132
136
113
117
140
152
125
146
142
115
116
130
135
101
109
111
112
121
114
102

54
61
59
58
58
55
55
46
45
53
46
44
52
53
50
51
41
45
58
57
54
52
57
57
51
49
49
44
45
50
47
54
52
55
50
55

CMNH-BF51R
CMNH-BF52L
CMNH-BF52R
CMNH-BF53L
CMNH-BF53R
CMNH-BF54L
CMNH-BF54R

HTH-2127
HTH-2147
HTH-2147
HTH-2329
HTH-2329
HTH-2404
HTH-2404

51
65
65
75
75
60
60

5
10
11
5
7
9
8

18
24
24
23
24
20
17

45

16.1276
24.6243
27.2796
12.5559
16.9578
26.7437
28.0725

106
134
126
127
123
127
137

54
63
59
69
65
52
57

APPENDIX D
CALCULATED PROBABILITIES FOR ANGLE

Obs

Angle

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

.
2.2924
2.388
2.7294
4.248
4.5886
5.465
5.7392
6.1506
6.3794
6.7563
6.8921
7.1808
7.4947
7.8375
8.2132
8.5196
8.9893
9.0847
9.5941
9.9282
10.0154
10.0787
10.1643
10.2866
10.4757
10.8069
10.9806
11.0875
11.537
11.9405
12.0247
12.1532
12.3736
12.5559

PROB
(Odds)
.
0.26675
0.26754
0.27035
0.2831
0.28601
0.29357
0.29596
0.29957
0.30159
0.30493
0.30613
0.30871
0.31153
0.31462
0.31803
0.32082
0.32513
0.32601
0.33072
0.33383
0.33464
0.33523
0.33603
0.33718
0.33895
0.34207
0.34371
0.34472
0.34899
0.35285
0.35366
0.35489
0.35701
0.35876

*Listing of one kept value for each value of angle


Lower
Upper
Confidence Limit
Confidence Limit
.
.
0.19129
0.35878
0.19215
0.35934
0.19526
0.36135
0.20953
0.3704
0.21282
0.37245
0.22146
0.37777
0.22421
0.37945
0.22837
0.38198
0.23071
0.38339
0.23459
0.38572
0.236
0.38657
0.23901
0.38836
0.24231
0.39033
0.24595
0.39249
0.24997
0.39486
0.25328
0.39681
0.25839
0.39981
0.25944
0.40042
0.26506
0.40371
0.26878
0.40588
0.26976
0.40644
0.27046
0.40686
0.27143
0.40741
0.2728
0.40822
0.27493
0.40946
0.27869
0.41164
0.28067
0.41279
0.28189
0.4135
0.28705
0.4165
0.29172
0.41921
0.29269
0.41978
0.29419
0.42065
0.29676
0.42215
0.29889
0.42339
46

Obs

Angle

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74

12.8396
13.1366
13.609
13.7742
13.8865
13.968
14.4775
15.0261
15.1217
15.2575
15.466
15.6185
15.8266
16.0134
16.1276
16.2602
16.3348
16.6016
16.8773
16.9578
17.1046
17.2353
17.4576
17.7189
17.9202
18.08
18.21
18.4085
18.553
18.6629
18.7493
18.8191
19.4712
20.1713
20.2523
20.3544
20.4873
20.6673
20.9248

PROB
(Odds)
0.36151
0.36438
0.36899
0.3706
0.3717
0.3725
0.37751
0.38293
0.38387
0.38522
0.3873
0.38881
0.39089
0.39276
0.3939
0.39523
0.39598
0.39865
0.40143
0.40224
0.40372
0.40504
0.40729
0.40994
0.41198
0.41361
0.41493
0.41695
0.41843
0.41955
0.42043
0.42114
0.42783
0.43503
0.43586
0.43692
0.43829
0.44015
0.44281

Lower
Confidence Limit
0.30222
0.30572
0.31131
0.31327
0.31461
0.31558
0.32166
0.32824
0.32939
0.33102
0.33353
0.33537
0.33788
0.34013
0.34151
0.34311
0.34402
0.34724
0.35057
0.35154
0.35331
0.35489
0.35757
0.36072
0.36315
0.36507
0.36663
0.36901
0.37074
0.37206
0.37309
0.37393
0.38168
0.38993
0.39088
0.39208
0.39362
0.39572
0.3987
47

Upper
Confidence Limit
0.42533
0.42738
0.43067
0.43182
0.43261
0.43319
0.4368
0.44075
0.44144
0.44243
0.44395
0.44507
0.44661
0.44799
0.44884
0.44984
0.4504
0.45241
0.45451
0.45512
0.45625
0.45726
0.45898
0.46103
0.46262
0.46389
0.46492
0.46652
0.46768
0.46858
0.46928
0.46985
0.47526
0.48122
0.48192
0.48281
0.48397
0.48556
0.48784

Obs

Angle

75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113

21.1002
21.3237
21.5102
21.7385
22.0243
22.291
22.3927
22.6199
23.0357
23.1324
23.5782
24.0421
24.1477
24.4433
24.6243
24.7939
24.9011
25.029
25.1027
25.3769
25.7715
25.9445
26.1039
26.3878
26.6331
26.7437
26.8472
27.0357
27.2796
27.4864
27.8181
28.0725
28.2737
28.4369
28.5719
28.6854
28.7822
28.8657
30

PROB
(Odds)
0.44462
0.44694
0.44887
0.45124
0.45421
0.45699
0.45805
0.46041
0.46475
0.46576
0.47041
0.47526
0.47636
0.47946
0.48135
0.48313
0.48425
0.48559
0.48636
0.48924
0.49337
0.49518
0.49686
0.49983
0.5024
0.50356
0.50465
0.50662
0.50918
0.51135
0.51482
0.51749
0.51959
0.5213
0.52271
0.5239
0.52491
0.52579
0.53763

Lower
Confidence Limit
0.40072
0.40328
0.4054
0.40799
0.41121
0.41419
0.41532
0.41783
0.42238
0.42343
0.42822
0.43312
0.43423
0.4373
0.43916
0.44089
0.44197
0.44327
0.44401
0.44675
0.45063
0.45232
0.45386
0.45657
0.4589
0.45993
0.4609
0.46265
0.4649
0.46679
0.46978
0.47204
0.47382
0.47525
0.47642
0.47741
0.47824
0.47896
0.48849
48

Upper
Confidence Limit
0.48942
0.49144
0.49314
0.49524
0.49791
0.50043
0.5014
0.50358
0.50763
0.50858
0.51303
0.51775
0.51884
0.52191
0.52382
0.52561
0.52675
0.52812
0.52891
0.53188
0.53621
0.53812
0.5399
0.54309
0.54588
0.54714
0.54832
0.55049
0.55332
0.55573
0.55963
0.56265
0.56504
0.567
0.56862
0.56999
0.57116
0.57217
0.58605

Obs

Angle

114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152

30.9497
31.0076
31.073
31.1474
31.2329
31.3323
31.449
31.5881
31.7569
32.09
32.231
32.3924
32.579
32.7972
33.367
33.4854
33.749
34.0558
34.4174
34.8499
35.2344
35.3765
35.4959
35.6853
35.8883
36.2216
36.3412
36.8699
37.4953
37.6699
37.9799
38.1445
38.2466
38.3665
38.6822
39.0228
39.1667
39.5212
39.7918

PROB
(Odds)
0.54752
0.54812
0.5488
0.54957
0.55046
0.55149
0.5527
0.55414
0.55589
0.55933
0.56079
0.56246
0.56438
0.56663
0.57249
0.5737
0.5764
0.57954
0.58323
0.58764
0.59154
0.59298
0.59418
0.5961
0.59815
0.6015
0.6027
0.608
0.61423
0.61597
0.61904
0.62066
0.62167
0.62285
0.62596
0.6293
0.6307
0.63416
0.63679

Lower
Confidence Limit
0.49617
0.49663
0.49715
0.49774
0.49842
0.4992
0.50011
0.5012
0.50251
0.50509
0.50617
0.5074
0.50882
0.51047
0.51473
0.5156
0.51755
0.51979
0.52242
0.52554
0.52828
0.52929
0.53014
0.53147
0.5329
0.53523
0.53607
0.53973
0.54402
0.54521
0.54731
0.54842
0.54911
0.54992
0.55204
0.55431
0.55527
0.55762
0.55941
49

Upper
Confidence Limit
0.59787
0.59859
0.59941
0.60034
0.60142
0.60266
0.60413
0.60588
0.608
0.6122
0.61398
0.61602
0.61837
0.62113
0.62834
0.62984
0.63317
0.63705
0.64161
0.64706
0.6519
0.65368
0.65518
0.65755
0.66009
0.66425
0.66574
0.67229
0.68
0.68214
0.68592
0.68792
0.68916
0.69062
0.69443
0.69853
0.70025
0.70447
0.70768

Obs

Angle

153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174

40.0052
40.5416
40.7057
40.9327
41.0145
41.8103
42.7321
42.8436
42.9859
44.427
44.7249
45.0995
46.3972
46.9509
47.4631
47.7946
48.5904
49.4642
50.5994
51.5001
51.7868
52.3415

PROB
(Odds)
0.63885
0.64403
0.6456
0.64778
0.64856
0.65613
0.6648
0.66584
0.66717
0.68045
0.68316
0.68655
0.69814
0.70301
0.70748
0.71034
0.71716
0.72454
0.73394
0.74125
0.74355
0.74796

Lower
Confidence Limit
0.56081
0.56433
0.5654
0.56688
0.56741
0.57255
0.57844
0.57915
0.58006
0.58913
0.59098
0.59331
0.60131
0.60469
0.60781
0.60981
0.6146
0.61982
0.62654
0.63181
0.63348
0.6367

50

Upper
Confidence Limit
0.71019
0.71647
0.71838
0.72101
0.72195
0.73105
0.74137
0.74261
0.74418
0.75975
0.76289
0.76681
0.78005
0.78555
0.79055
0.79374
0.80126
0.80928
0.81935
0.82706
0.82945
0.83402

APPENDIX E
CALCULATED PROBABILITIES FOR ANGLE AND TOTAL LENGTH

Obs

Angle

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

2.2924
2.388
2.7294
4.248
4.5886
5.465
5.7392
6.1506
6.3794
6.7563
6.8921
7.1808
7.4947
7.8375
8.2132
8.5196
8.9893
9.0847
9.5941
9.9282
10.0154
10.0787
10.1643
10.2866
10.4757
10.8069
10.9806
11.0875
11.537
11.9405
12.0247
12.1532
12.3736

*Listing of one kept value for each value of angle


Total
PROB
Lower
Upper
Length
(Odds)
Confidence Confidence
Limit
Limit
.
.
.
.
123
137
121
139
130
140
151
120
130
135
119
137
123
125
123
154
120
149
.
138
135
151
121
124
135
155
127
131
.
138
101
129
135

0.15939
0.28099
0.14889
0.32239
0.23372
0.34752
0.4871
0.16499
0.25033
0.30551
0.1631
0.33245
0.19787
0.21761
0.20371
0.56045
0.18573
0.50375
.
0.37594
0.34156
0.54188
0.20307
0.23022
0.34682
0.60109
0.26541
0.30845
.
0.40011
0.09117
0.29816
0.36888
51

0.10238
0.19682
0.09466
0.23481
0.16504
0.25897
0.36772
0.11035
0.18256
0.22959
0.10931
0.25315
0.1395
0.15707
0.14537
0.43882
0.13026
0.39765
.
0.29937
0.27056
0.43249
0.14667
0.17156
0.27664
0.48278
0.20497
0.24456
.
0.32771
0.05136
0.23763
0.30241

0.23966
0.38396
0.22642
0.4245
0.32002
0.44805
0.60797
0.23939
0.33302
0.3937
0.23633
0.42254
0.27293
0.29336
0.27784
0.67522
0.25782
0.60951
.
0.45926
0.42046
0.64737
0.27419
0.30163
0.42435
0.70866
0.33614
0.38063
.
0.47715
0.15676
0.36669
0.44073

Obs

Angle

Total
Length

PROB
(Odds)

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

12.5559
12.8396
13.1366
13.609
13.7742
13.8865
13.968
14.4775
15.0261
15.1217
15.2575
15.466
15.6185
15.8266
16.0134
16.1276
16.2602
16.3348
16.6016
16.8773
16.9578
17.1046
17.2353
17.4576
17.7189
17.9202
18.08
18.21
18.4085
18.553
18.6629
18.7493
18.8191
19.4712
20.1713
20.2523
20.3544
20.4873
20.6673

155
139
153
144
114
.
.
138
.
121
139
133
105
.
153
106
120
142
148
125
125
145
133
134
142
129
140
.
121
.
139
169
160
145
142
.
.
147
105

0.6221
0.42355
0.60473
0.49682
0.17598
.
.
0.43127
.
0.24667
0.45366
0.38149
0.12872
.
0.63894
0.13761
0.24784
0.50564
0.58515
0.30526
0.30613
0.55365
0.40282
0.41795
0.52312
0.36254
0.50205
.
0.27885
.
0.49659
0.82203
0.74496
0.58301
0.55394
.
.
0.61991
0.16017
52

Lower
Upper
Confidence Confidence
Limit
Limit
0.50843
0.72377
0.35119
0.49935
0.49755
0.70271
0.41466
0.57916
0.12298
0.24543
.
.
.
.
0.36452
0.50062
.
.
0.19142
0.31173
0.38673
0.52231
0.32384
0.44268
0.08038
0.1998
.
.
0.53859
0.72847
0.08778
0.20925
0.1929
0.31238
0.43435
0.5767
0.49882
0.66654
0.25184
0.36449
0.25279
0.36521
0.47626
0.62853
0.34879
0.45931
0.36345
0.47454
0.45452
0.59087
0.31129
0.41712
0.43878
0.56526
.
.
0.22487
0.3401
.
.
0.4365
0.55679
0.70787
0.89801
0.63765
0.829
0.50958
0.65293
0.48917
0.61694
.
.
.
.
0.54264
0.69155
0.10478
0.2371

Obs

Angle

Total
Length

PROB
(Odds)

74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112

20.9248
21.1002
21.3237
21.5102
21.7385
22.0243
22.291
22.3927
22.6199
23.0357
23.1324
23.5782
24.0421
24.1477
24.4433
24.6243
24.7939
24.9011
25.029
25.1027
25.3769
25.7715
25.9445
26.1039
26.3878
26.6331
26.7437
26.8472
27.0357
27.2796
27.4864
27.8181
28.0725
28.2737
28.4369
28.5719
28.6854
28.7822
28.8657

121
125
138
149
128
142
142
135
132
164
109
129
134
.
130
120
150
127
153
156
.
132
130
129
145
132
142
150
125
128
152
119
121
128
119
137
128
135
134

0.30515
0.35235
0.51741
0.65556
0.39592
0.57697
0.58026
0.49245
0.45694
0.81615
0.20966
0.43091
0.50048
.
0.45437
0.33469
0.70287
0.42218
0.7363
0.76576
.
0.49669
0.47325
0.46248
0.66486
0.50759
0.63393
0.72409
0.42348
0.46451
0.75023
0.35967
0.38668
0.47704
0.36691
0.59508
0.48224
0.57273
0.56117
53

Lower
Upper
Confidence Confidence
Limit
Limit
0.25182
0.36428
0.30286
0.40522
0.46302
0.57138
0.57454
0.72844
0.3492
0.44462
0.51408
0.63747
0.51755
0.64048
0.44398
0.54106
0.41129
0.50333
0.71543
0.88685
0.14886
0.28691
0.38563
0.47738
0.45374
0.54721
.
.
0.40938
0.50011
0.27925
0.39511
0.62266
0.77226
0.37537
0.47042
0.65075
0.80711
0.67587
0.83674
.
.
0.45077
0.54267
0.42748
0.51947
0.41627
0.50934
0.59574
0.72757
0.46081
0.55423
0.57127
0.69236
0.64498
0.79128
0.37269
0.47595
0.41637
0.51332
0.66818
0.81753
0.29924
0.42491
0.32876
0.44799
0.42731
0.52723
0.30546
0.43302
0.54001
0.64786
0.43173
0.5331
0.52004
0.62383
0.50938
0.61167

Obs

Angle

Total
Length

PROB
(Odds)

113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151

30
30.9497
31.0076
31.073
31.1474
31.2329
31.3323
31.449
31.5881
31.7569
32.09
32.231
32.3924
32.579
32.7972
33.367
33.4854
33.749
34.0558
34.4174
34.8499
35.2344
35.3765
35.4959
35.6853
35.8883
36.2216
36.3412
36.8699
37.4953
37.6699
37.9799
38.1445
38.2466
38.3665
38.6822
39.0228
39.1667
39.5212

123
122
132
137
140
122
139
.
120
115
139
127
139
144
143
134
149
109
127
128
142
119
.
126
131
130
134
152
130
117
111
135
150
125
123
116
126
133
125

0.43508
0.43427
0.56258
0.62516
0.66133
0.4378
0.65187
.
0.41708
0.35829
0.66052
0.51424
0.66394
0.72049
0.71231
0.61624
0.77719
0.31219
0.53725
0.5545
0.72296
0.44976
.
0.5426
0.60754
0.59771
0.64977
0.82459
0.60959
0.45267
0.38014
0.68098
0.82293
0.5643
0.54043
0.45483
0.58643
0.67166
0.58008
54

Lower
Upper
Confidence Confidence
Limit
Limit
0.37643
0.49561
0.37202
0.49868
0.50715
0.61649
0.56531
0.68142
0.59714
0.7201
0.37484
0.50283
0.5888
0.71003
.
.
0.35036
0.48698
0.2845
0.43946
0.59597
0.7196
0.45424
0.57382
0.59879
0.7234
0.64856
0.78264
0.64137
0.77416
0.5534
0.67543
0.69925
0.83956
0.22829
0.41052
0.47162
0.60161
0.48835
0.61878
0.65006
0.78567
0.37105
0.53107
.
.
0.47139
0.61211
0.53827
0.67273
0.52756
0.66407
0.57872
0.71474
0.74488
0.8833
0.5362
0.67833
0.36373
0.54474
0.28452
0.48607
0.60484
0.74855
0.74335
0.88176
0.48253
0.64272
0.456
0.6226
0.36042
0.55261
0.50289
0.66527
0.59195
0.74257
0.49375
0.66178

Obs

Angle

Total
Length

PROB
(Odds)

152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174

39.7918
40.0052
40.5416
40.7057
40.9327
41.0145
41.8103
42.7321
42.8436
42.9859
44.427
44.7249
45.0995
46.3972
46.9509
47.4631
47.7946
48.5904
49.4642
50.5994
51.5001
51.7868
52.3415

148
124
135
113
136
144
131
122
140
144
119
131
127
152
147
138
130
111
147
134
130
149
141

0.8201
0.57353
0.70845
0.44208
0.72292
0.79797
0.67848
0.58215
0.77918
0.81357
0.56547
0.70977
0.66994
0.8866
0.86151
0.80091
0.73071
0.51587
0.87599
0.79337
0.76597
0.898
0.85726

55

Lower
Upper
Confidence Confidence
Limit
Limit
0.73991
0.8796
0.48434
0.65819
0.62557
0.77946
0.33684
0.55279
0.6394
0.79334
0.7162
0.86076
0.58993
0.75583
0.48049
0.67727
0.69365
0.84613
0.72998
0.87569
0.45326
0.67135
0.61305
0.79057
0.56712
0.75874
0.80902
0.93519
0.77856
0.91671
0.70711
0.87018
0.62498
0.81543
0.37654
0.65277
0.79297
0.92872
0.68921
0.86925
0.65258
0.8508
0.81846
0.94503
0.76434
0.91749

VITA

Paige Whitney Elrod was born in November, 1987 in Fresno, California. She was
graduated from the University of Washington in Seattle in August, 2009, with a Bachelor of Arts
in anthropology. In August, 2010, Paige entered graduate school in the Geography and
Anthropology Department at Louisiana State University. Paige presented a poster at the
American Academy of Forensic Sciences annual meeting in 2012. She currently holds student
memberships with the American Academy of Forensic Science and the American Association of
Physical Anthropologists. Paige plans to begin a career in law enforcement with a focus on
forensics.

56