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Mitesh Surana

Research Scholar, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee

For Queries please mail to: mitesh.bana@gmail.com

Design the building as per linear analysis using expected strength and modified

partial safety factors.

After completing the design of the building Unlock the model as shown in Figure 1.

Go to Define > Load Case> Add New Load Case consisting of Gravity loads (i.e.

dead load and % of live load). This load case consists of force controlled loads as

shown in Figure 2 since load application type is full load.

In loads applied edit box include all dead loads and % of live loads.

Select Load Case Type > Static, Analysis Type> Nonlinear and Geometric Nonlinearity Parameters as P-Delta.

NOTE-The non-linear parameters (other parameters as shown in Figure 2) should not

be changed in gravity load case. It will start from zero initial stiffness.

Select all the beams in the model. Go to Assign > Frame > Hinges. The hinge form

will appear as shown in Figure 3.

Add hinges to the selected beams the hinge type form will appear as shown in Figure

4.

The hinges should be assigned at both the ends which means at the relative distance of

0 and 1 and form as shown in Figure 5 will appear.

carried out for beams the only difference is that column should be assigned P-M2-M3

hinges instead of M3 hinges as shown in Figure 6.

corresponding to Caltrans hinge model and FEMA 356 hinge model. So depending

upon the requirement the adequate auto hinge type should be used. Apart from this

SAP 2000 also provides user definition of hinges. In the Figure 5 in select FEMA 356

table depending upon the member to hinge is to be assigned appropriate table should

be selected. The beams should be assigned M3 hinges while columns should be

assigned P-M2-M3 hinges since column consists of interaction between axial load and

bending moment. The V value in the hinge properties for beams form previously

defined gravity load case should be used as shown in Figure 5. The transverse

reinforcement is confirming box should be active if frame is designed as SMRF

(Special Moment Resisting Frame) else it should not be active. The hinge properties

are dependent on member capacity; hence reinforcing ratio should be used from

current design.

The hinges should be assigned at both the ends which means at the relative distance of

0 and 1 and form as shown in Figure 7 will appear.

Go to Define > Load Case> Add New Load Case >PUSH consisting of load in

proportion to the fundamental mode. This load case is deformation controlled load

case as shown in Figure 8.

Select Load Case Type> Static, Analysis Type> Nonlinear and Geometric Nonlinearity Parameters as P-Delta.

This load case should be started from a previous load case Gravity since gravity load

will always be acting on the structure.

Select Loads Applied proportional to Mode in the considered direction of the

analysis. The scale factor for this load case should be kept equal to 1.

In pushover load case for other parameters, to modify the displacement upto which

the force-deformation curve needs to be monitored click Modify and the load

application control for non-linear static analysis form will appear as shown in Figure

9. In the non-linear load application control parameters Load Application should be

Displacement control with Monitored Displacement. Generally, the monitored

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displacement is kept equal to 2% of the height of the building. This displacement

should be monitored in the considered direction of analysis (i.e. either U1 or U2

degree of freedom). The joint at which the force deformation curve is monitored is

generally taken as at the Centre of mass of the building.

In pushover load case for other parameters, to modify the steps at which results needs

to be saved click Modify the results saved for non-linear static load case form will

appear as shown in Figure 10. In this form Multiple Steps should be selected in order

to save the results at the intermediate steps. In this form for each stage Minimum and

Maximum number of saved steps should be kept 1000 and 5000 in order to avoid

solution converge.

In pushover load case for other parameters, the non-linear parameters should be by

Default. If convergence problem occurs than Number of Null Steps and Number of

Constant Stiffness Iteration should be increased.

For unloading the hinge, Unload Entire Structure method should be used as shown

non-linear parameter form in Figure 11. The hinge unloading method controls the

time requirements for completing the analysis. The Local Redistribution method is

the Fastest while the Unloading Entire Structure method is the Slowest.

NOTE- It is important to note that the non-linear parameters affect the solution

control; hence the results obtained using different solution control parameters and

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hinge unloading method may deviate slightly, hence no unique solution is obtained

for some problems.

While running the analysis it is important to Run the Modal and Gravity analysis

with pushover load case since Pushover load case takes stiffness from gravity load

case and mode shape from Modal load case.

While the SAP 2000 is analyzing the structure the analysis monitor form as shown in

Figure 12 will appear.

After completing the analysis the analysis complete form as shown in Figure 13 will

appear.

The pushover analysis is a non-linear static analysis so depending upon system

configuration it takes time to complete the analysis.

To see the pushover curve Go to > Display > Show Static Pushover Curve, the

display static pushover curve form as shown in Figure 14.

The Static Pushover Curve will appear as shown in Figure 15. Go to > File > Display

Tables it will show the results of Pushover analysis in Tabular Form.

To see the deformed shape under pushover load case and hinges at any step, Go to

Display> Show Deformed Shape> Select load case> PUSH. The deformed shape

form will appear as shown in Figure 16.

In deformed shape form the step at which the result is to be seen should be given. For

the result at last step it should be 1000 and deformed shape of structure at that step is as

shown in Figure 17.

To see the hinge results Right Click on Hinge the hinge results will appear as shown in

Figure 18.

In order to perform the time history analysis the step 1 to step 3 should be repeated as

discussed above.

Go to Define > Functions> Time History the following form will appear as shown in

Figure 19. In this form choose function type to add from file.

Go to Add New Function and add the time history file from system in text format

and convert it to user defined than time history file form will appear as shown in

Figure 20.

Go to Define > Load Case> Add New Load Case >TH consisting of time history

load case and the time history load case form will appear as shown in Figure 21.

Select Load Case Type> Time History, Analysis Type> Nonlinear, Time History

Type> Direct Integration and Geometric Non-linearity Parameters as P-Delta.

This load case should be started from a previous load case Gravity since gravity load

will always be acting on the structure.

Select Loads Applied > Acceleration in the considered direction (i.e. either U1 or

U2 degree of freedom) of the analysis. The scale factor for this load case should be

kept equal to 1or 9.81 depending upon the input time history file whether provided in

units of g or m/s2, respectively.

In Time History Load Case for time step data the Number of Output Time Steps

and Output Time Step Size should be same as provided in Input time history file.

The number of output time steps may be less or more than the steps in time history

input file but lesser number of saved output steps may reduce the accuracy while

the more number of output steps may increase the space requirements.

In Time History Load Case for other parameters, to modify the damping which

needs to be considered click Modify and mass and stiffness proportional damping

form will appear as shown in Figure 22. It is important to note that when damping is

specified it is specified by period and period corresponding to 1st and 3rd mode of

vibration in the considered direction of analysis should be used. The damping used

should be equal to 2%, 5% and 10% for Steel, RC and Masonry buildings,

respectively.

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In Time History load case for other parameters, to modify the time integration

technique to be considered click Modify and time integration parameter form will

appear as shown in Figure 23. The Hilber-Hughes-Taylor method of time integration

should be used with alpha as zero and if convergence does not occur than alpha

equal to minus 0.33 should be used.

In Time History Load Case for other parameters, the non-linear parameters should

be set to default.

After defining Time History Load Case, Run the analysis.

NOTE- The non-linear time history analysis is a time consuming analysis and depending

upon the size of the problem it takes large amount of time as well as space for completion

of the analysis.

The deformed shape and hinge pattern at any instant can be viewed in similar manner

as viewed in case of pushover analysis.

The peak displacement during time history analysis can be viewed through plot

function. Go to > Display > Show Plot Functions and define the plot function i.e.

joint whose displacement is required.

The Figure 24 shows the plot functions for the joint displacement for the time history

load case.

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