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CONSTRUCTIONKNOWLEDGE >>CONCRETE >>

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Enteryouremail:

1.HowDoesConcreteWork?

2.WhataretheStructuralBasicsforConcrete?
3.WhatisReinforcedConcrete?
4.WhatShouldIKnowAboutRebar?

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5.WhyistheAmountofWatersoImportantforConcrete?
6.WhatShouldIKnowAboutConcreteTesting?

ConstructionTopics
GENERALTECHNICAL
KNOWLEDGE

7.HowDoIGetConcreteontheJob?
8.WhatPublicDomainDocumentsareAvailableforFurtherStudy?
9.TricksoftheTrade&RulesofThumbforConcreteBasics:

SITEWORK
CONCRETE
MASONRY

HowDoesConcreteWork?
Modernconcreteconsistsprimarilyoffourcomponents:Portlandcement,sand,gravelandwater.Acommonmisconception
withconcreteisthatitdriesandgetshard.Actually,thehydrauliccementreactswiththewaterinachemicalprocesscalled

METAL

hydration.Asanexample,concretecanbeplacedunderwaterandwillstillchangefromaliquidstatetoasolidstateand
achievefullstrength.

CARPENTRY&WOOD
Manyadditionalingredientscanbeaddedtothebasicconcretemixinordertochangethepropertiesoftheresultingconcrete.
THERMAL&MOISTURE
DOORS&WINDOWS

Thefollowinglistshowssomecommonadmixtures(additives)andadditionalingredientsandtheirbasicpurposes:
Admixtures

FINISHES

1. Acceleratorsspeedupthehydration,orhardening,ofthewetconcrete.Oftenusedincoldertemperatures
sotheconcretecrewhaslesswaitingtimebetweenplacingandfinishingtheconcrete.

SPECIALTIES

2. Retardersslowthehydration,orhardening,ofthewetconcrete.Oftenusedinhottertemperaturessothe
concretedoesntsettooquickly,allowingtheconcretefinishingcrewtogettheproperfinishingwork
completed.

EQUIPMENT
FURNISHINGS
SPECIALCONSTRUCTION
CONVEYINGSYSTEMS
MECHANICAL
ELECTRICAL
PEOPLESKILLS
JOBSITEMANAGEMENT

ADS

PineTest
Equipment,
LLC
ConcreteCoefficient
ofThermal
Expansion
Measurement
System

3. Airentrainingagentsaddandhelpdistributetinyairbubblesthroughouttheconcrete.Thesetinyair
bubbleshelptheconcreteresistthefreezethawcycleswithmuchlesscrackinganddamage.
4. PlasticizersandSuperplasticizersimprovetheworkabilityoftheconcreteduringthewet(orplastic)stage
allowingtheconcretetoflowmoreeasily.Theyareparticularlyhelpfulwhenplacingconcretearound
congestedrebararrangements.Alternatively,PlasticizersandSuperplasticizerscanbeusedtolowerthe
watercontentintheconcretewhilekeepingadecentlevelofworkability.
5. Pigmentschangethecoloroftheconcreteforaestheticreasons.
Additions
1. FlyAshcanreplaceabouthalfoftherequiredamountofPortlandcement.FlyAshisabyproductofcoal
firedelectricgeneratingplants,soisoftenreadilyavailableandeconomical.ConcretemadewithFlyAsh
andPortlandcementcanhavehigherstrengthandimprovedchemicalresistanceanddurability.Theuseof
FlyAshconcreteisconsideredenvironmentallysound,sincemostflyashotherwiseendsupinlandfillsand
theenergytoproducethereplacedPortlandcementcanalsobesaved.
2. Groundgranulatedblastfurnaceslag(GGBSorGGBFS)canalsoreplacepartoftherequiredPortland
cement.GGBSisabyproductofthesteelproductionprocess.GGBShashadthemostuseinEuropeand
Asia.
3. SilicaFumecanalsoreplacepartoftherequiredPortlandcement.SilicaFumeisabyproductofthe
manufactureofsilicaalloys.TheparticlesizeofSilicaFumeis100timessmallerthanthatofPortland
cement.SilicaFumeimprovesconcretestrength,abrasionresistanceandcorrosionresistanceto
chemicals,particularlytosalts.

WhataretheStructuralBasicsforConcrete?
Concreteisstrongincompression.Sowhatdoesthatreallymean?
Tounderstandcompressivestrength,thinkaboutseveralpacksofcrackerssittingonthefloor.Ifyoucarefullystandonthose
packsofcrackers,yourweightwillprobablybesupported,butyouareputtingthosecrackersincompression.Yourweighttends

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towardscrushingthosecrackers.Ifyoujumpupandlandonthosepacksofcrackers,youwillincreasetheforceappliedand
probablycrushthecrackers.Youwillhavemadethecrackersfailincompression.
Nowtrytojumponaconcretesidewalk.Youdhavetojumpprettyhightomakethatsidewalkcrushunderyourweight.Infact,
youprobablycouldntmakethatsidewalkfailincompression.Thatswhyconcretegetsusedsomuchinconstruction.Butthe

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storydoesntendwithcompression.
Grabapieceofstringandpullineitherdirection.Youvejustputthestringintotension.Ifyoucanpullhardenough,thestring
willfailintensionbysnapping.Concrete,whilequitestrongincompression,failsquicklyintensionbycracking.Theresistive
strengthofconcreteforcompressionisaround4,000poundspersquareinch,whiletheresistivestrengthforconcreteintension
isprobablylessthan400poundspersquareinch.Generally,thetensionstrengthofconcreteislessthan10%ofits
compressionstrength.
Buildersinthepastunderstoodthesepropertiesofconcreteandstoneandtypicallyusedthosematerialsonlyincompression.
Sowallscouldbeconcreteandstone,ascouldfoundations,sincebothprimarilyresisteddownwardcompressionloads.
Archesareaninterestingstructuralformbecausearchesalsoacttotallyincompression.Therefore,archesabovewindowsin
oldbuildingscouldbeconcreteorstonebecausetheloadtransferredaroundthearchkeepingthestructureincompression,so
tensioncracksdidntoccurintheconcreteorstone.Barrelvaultceilingsarereallyjustthreedimensionalarches,sotheyalso
workedascompressionmembersonly.
Ifanarchaboveawindowgottooflat,however,itwouldstopworkingasanarchandthebottomofthememberwouldgointo
tension.So,regularconcretecracksatthebottomofthebeam,nearthecenter,inthisscenario.Thecrackingthencausesthe
beamtofail.Thisexampleillustrateshowconcretefailsintension,whichhadtraditionallybeenamajordesignshortcomingfor
concrete.
Whenconsideringtheengineeringuseofmaterials,amoredetailedunderstandingofBasicStructuralAnalysishelps.

WhatisReinforcedConcrete?
Inthemid1800s,buildersbeganaddingsteelintheconcretetocarrythetensionforces.Thisreinforcedconcretebecamea
phenomenallypopularbuildingmethod.Thereareseveralreasonswhythecombinationofreinforcingsteelandconcreteworks
sowell:
1. Thecoefficientofthermalexpansionissimilarforconcreteandsteel,sowhenreinforcedconcretesfreezesorgetshot,
thetwomaterialscontractandexpandsimilarly.Iftheydidnt,thecombinationwouldtearitselfapartovertime.
2. Thebondbetweenreinforcingsteelbars(rebar)andconcreteisstrongandefficient.Therebarhassurfacedeformations
(ridges)tofurtherimprovethatbond.Duetothestrongbond,theconcreteeffectivelytransfersstressestothesteeland
viceversa.
3. Whenthecementpastecontactsthesteelrebar,itformsanonreactivesurfacefilmthatinhibitscorrosion.This
passivationprocesshelpsrebarfromcorrodinginsidethereinforcedconcrete.
4. Thelocationoftherebarinthestructuredependsontheuse.Simplebeamsandslabsoftenonlyhaverebaronlyonthe
tension(bottom)side.Whenacontinuousbeamspansovertopofcolumns,thetensionisatthetopofthebeam,so
rebarisneededatthetopofthebeamovercolumnsupports.
Columnfootingsareinterestingtoconsider.Manypeopledontknowwherethetensionsideexistsonthefooting.Asasimple
waytoremember,holdoutyourlefthandwiththepalmfacingup.Nowtaketheindexfingerofyourrighthandandpokedown
intothemiddleoftheoutstretchedpalm.Cupyourlefthandabit,asifreactingtothedownwardforceofyourindexfinger.
Insertphotohere.Itseasytoseethattheskinatthebottomofyourlefthandbecomestaut(goesintotension)andtheskinon
topofyourhandgetswrinkly(goesintocompression).Therefore,thebottomofasimpleconcretefootingisintensionright
underthecolumn.Sotherebarneedstobenearthebottomofthefooting.
Itisimportantthatthereinforcingsteelhaveenoughconcretecoversothattheconcretebondstotherebarsandallowsthe
concreteandsteeltoacttogetherasamonolithicstructuralunit.Theconcretecoveralsoprotectsthereinforcingsteelfrom
excessivemoistureorchemicalcorrosion.TheAmericanConcreteInstituteBuildingCoderecommendsthefollowing.

RebarRulesforDistancetoEdgeofConcrete
Concretecastagainstandpermanentlyexposedtoearth
Formedconcreteexposedtoearthorweather:#5barandsmaller
Formedconcreteexposedtoearthorweather:#6through#18bars
Formedconcretenotexposedtoearthorweather:slabs,walls,joists:#14&#18bars
Formedconcretenotexposedtoearthorweather:slabs,walls,joists:#11andsmallerbars
Formedconcretenotexposedtoearthorweather:beamsandcolumns:

Minimum
ConcreteCover
3"
11/2"
2"
11/2"
3/4"
11/2"

Asimpleoverviewofreinforcedconcretedesignmaybehelpfulhere.Concreteisamaterialhighincompressionstrengthand
lowintensilestrength.Steel,asamaterial,outperformsconcrete10:1incompressionstrengthand100:1intensionstrength.

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However,steelcostsabout50centsperpoundwhileconcretecostsabout2centsperpound.Thuseconomicalreinforced
concretedesignusessteeltocarrythetensionstressesinastructuralmemberandconcretetocarrythecompressionstresses.
ReinforcedconcretemustbedesignedwithquiteabitofattentionpaidtoExpansionandContraction.Ofcourse,allbuilding
materialshavesomedegreeofexpansionandcontraction,butwithreinforcedconcrete,thoseforcescanliterallybreakthe
concreteapart.
TwoadditionalpropertiesofreinforcedconcretedesignthatarehelpfulfortheConstructionSupervisortobeawareofare
CreepandFatigue.Again,allstructuralelementsmustdealwithcreepandfatigue,butconcretecanbequiteseverelychanged
bythosephenomena.

WhatShouldIKnowAboutRebar?
Theamountofrebarusedintypicalstructuresisasmallpercentageoftheamountofconcrete.Mostbeams,forexample,use
about1%rebarforcarryingthetensionforcesinbending.Columnsmayuseupto6%rebar,partlybecausetherebarcarries
bothtensionandaxialforces.Sincerebarcostsmuchmorethanconcrete,efficientengineeringdesignminimizesrebaruse.
Rebariscentraltoreinforcedconcrete,soabasicunderstandinghelps.Thevarioussizesareimportanttoknow:a#3baris
3/8indiameter,a#7baris7/8indiameter,etc.Theeasyruleofthumbforrebarsizesistotaketherebarsizeanddivideby
8forthediameterininches.
Rebar

Diameter

Weight/ft

#2

2/8"or0.25"

0.167lbs

#3

3/8"or0.375"

0.376

#4

4/8"or0.5"

0.668

#5

5/8"or0.625"

1.043

#6

6/8"or0.75"

1.502

#7

7/8"or0.875"

2.044

#8

8/8"or1.0"

2.67

#9

9/8"or1.125"

3.4

#10

10/8"or1.25"

4.303

#11

11/8"or1.375"

5.313

#14

14/8"or1.75"

7.65

#18

18/8"or2.25"

13.6

Asnotedabove,thestructuralelementneedsrebartocarrythetensioninthereinforcedconcrete.Soafootingneedsrebaron
thebottom,asimplebeamorslabneedsrebaronthebottom,etc.Rebarisalsocommonlyusedtohelpcontrolconcrete
shrinkage.Asconcretecuresovertime,itcontinuestoshrink.Mostoftheshrinkagehappensinthefirstfewhours,thenless
shrinkageinthefirstfewdays.Theshrinkagecontinuesforever,buttheamountofchangebecomessmallerandsmaller.
Inadditiontotheshrinkageduetocuring,concretewillbothexpandorcontractasareactiontotemperaturechanges(asdoall
materials,tosomeextent).Therefore,additionalrebarisoftenusedinastructuralelementandiscalledTemperatureSteel.
Thisrebarhelpscontrolconcretecrackingduetoshrinkagecracksfromcuringorfromtemperaturechanges.
Itscommontosee#4sat12oncenter,#3sat12oncenteroreven#3sat18oncenterastemperaturesteel.A
ConstructionSupervisorshouldbeabletolookatthedrawingsforthereinforcedconcretemembersandhaveanunderstanding
ofwhichrebarisstructuralandwhichistemperaturesteel.
Manytimesfielddecisionsaremaderegardingpipesandductspassingthroughstructuralelements,whichinterferewiththe
stipulatedamountofrebar.ThoughthesedecisionsshouldideallybemadebytheStructuralEngineer,theConstruction
Supervisorneedstounderstandenoughofthestructuretoknowwhentoask.Thesimpleprecept,Whenindoubt,alwaysask
theStructuralEngineeriseasytosaybutnotparticularlypracticalwhenaConstructionSupervisormakeshundredsof
decisionsaday.ThewiseConstructionSupervisorunderstandsthewhysandhowsofrebaruse.
Inorderforreinforcingbarstobeintherequiredlocationinreinforcedconcrete,thebarsmustoftenbefabricatedtospecial
shapes.TypicallyasteeldetailerdrawsaShopDrawingthattakestheschematicinformationfromthestructuraldrawingand
showstheactualbarlengths,bends,clearances,etc.toactuallyfabricateandinstallthebars.TheseShopDrawingsshouldbe
carefullyreviewedbytheConstructionSupervisortocheckforfit,conflictsanderrors.
Assoonasonebeginsreviewingreinforcingsteelshopdrawings,questionswithimbedmentandbarsplicewillarise.Reinforced
concretestructuresareusuallycastinindividualsegmentsbuttheentirestructuremustactasasingleunit.Constructionjoints
createalocationtostoptheconcretepour,butoftenitisessentialforthestressesinthereinforcingsteeltocarrythroughthe
constructionjoint.Inthiscasethereinforcingbarscontinuethroughtheconstructionjointandspicewithbarsontheotherside.
Usingtoolongaspliceinuneconomical,becausesteelcostsmuchmorethanconcrete.Minimumbarsplicesshouldbedescribed

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inthestructuraldrawingsandactualsplicesshowninthereinforcingsteelshopdrawings.
Intherecentpastitwascommonforstructuraldrawingstostatea40diameterbarlapforallsplices.Experienceshowedthat
simplesolutiontobeoverlyconservativeinsomecaseandtocausefailureinothercases.Therefore,asignificantlymore
complicatedsetofruleswereadaptedforbarsplicing.ItisimportantfortheConstructionSupervisortoatleastunderstandthe
terminologyoftheAmericanConcreteInstitute(ACI)rulesforrebarsplicing.

Anotherhelpfulfactforrebarconcernsthemarkingsrequiredtobeoneachbar.TheConstructionSupervisorshould
understandthemarkings,thusabletopickupapieceofrebarandknowitsproducingmill,barsizeandtypeandgradeof
steel.Thefigurebelowshowswherethosemarkingsarefoundonrebar.

WhyistheAmountofWatersoImportantforConcrete?
Animportantitemtounderstandinconcreteworkisthewatercementratio.Aminimumamountofwater,approximately25%
oftheweightofthecement,mustbeincludedtochemicallyhydratetheconcretebatch.Intheactualmixingprocess,though,it
takesabout35%to40%watertoworkthroughthemixingprocess,gettotheactualcement,andcauseeffectivehydration.
Inpractice,though,muchmorewatergetsaddedtoincreasetheworkabilityoftheconcrete.Sowhydoesitmatterifthereis
lotsofwaterintheconcretemix?Anywaterabovethetheoreticalidealof25%doesntgetusedinthechemicalhydration
process.Therefore,theexcesswaterremainsintheconcretewhiletheconcretecures.Overtime,thisexcesswaterevaporates
outoftheconcreteandvoidsremain.Thesevoidsweakentheconcrete,causinglessstrengthandmorecracking.
Thewatercementratiomatterstotheengineer,butwhydoestheConstructionSupervisorcare?Anyonewhohasplaced
concreteknowshowmucheasieraflowing,moreliquidconcreteistoplacethanadrierconcrete.Thereisatendencytoadd
watertothemix,asitisreadytobeplaced,tomaketheconcreteflowbetter.Infact,iftheconcretedoesntflowwell,itmay
notproperlysurroundtherebar(causingapoorbondwiththerebar)oritmaynotflowproperlyagainsttheforms(causing
voidsandareasneedingpatching).Insertphoto.
So,aconflictoftenexistsonthejobsite:
1. Addwatertotheconcretemixtomakeitflowbetter,butweakenthequalityoftheconcrete(bothstrengthandcrack
resistance)
or
2. Dontaddwatertotheconcretemixtokeeptheproperwatercementratiobutworkhardertoplacetheconcreteand
possiblyhavesignificantvoids.
Theeasyanswerisneveraddwateronthesitetoconcrete,butthatanswerignorestherealityoftheplacementdilemma.This
isoftenacomplicateddecision,withStructuralEngineers,BuildingOfficials,Specifications,ConcreteForemanandothersall
havinginput.ItsimportanttheConstructionSupervisoratleastbeawareofthisissueforeveryconcreteplacementand
understandhowthedecisiontoaddwaterwillbehandled.

WhatShouldIKnowAboutConcreteTesting?
TheconcreteSlumpTestwascreatedtohelpconsistentlymeasuretheconcreteworkability.The"workability"oftheconcreteis

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animportantfactorforthoseplacingtheconcrete.Aworkableconcretemixproperlyflowsandfillstheformproperly,leaving
minimalvoidsattheformfaceandcompletelysurroundinganyrebartocreateabond.
TheSlumpTestshouldbefamiliartomostworkersonaconstructionsite.Thewetconcreteisplacedinasteelconeformand
placedonanonabsorbentsurface,withthewiderportionoftheconebeingdown.Thesteelconeformisthenliftedoff,
allowingthewetconcretetoslumpdownabit,dependingonthemixdesign.Adrymixmayonlyslump1to2.Normally
specifiedslumpisaround4.Slumpsof6to7canbeachievedthroughtheuseofhighrangewaterreducingagents(super
plasticizers).Specialmixesforpumpingconcretetendtohavehighslumps.
Anotherimportanttestforconcreteisthecylindercompressiontest.Concretestrengthisgenerallycalledits28day
compressivestrength.Why28days?Whatismagicabout28days?Nothing.The28dayperiodfortestingthecompressive
strengthofconcreteisanarbitrarytimeselectedtogiveconsistencytothetestingprocedures.Thus,the28daycompressive
strengthofconcretehasbecomethestandardintheindustry.Sowhen4,000psiconcreteisspecifiedforaconcretebeam,this
meansthattheactualplacedconcreteshouldhaveacompressionstrengthabove4,000psiafter28days.Sincethestrengthof
concretecontinuestoincreaseovertime,astandardtimeperiodforconcretestrengthmeasurementisnecessary.
Theconcretecylindersthataremadetodeterminethe28daystrengthcanalsobebrokenearlierandprovideuseful
information.Cylindersarecommonlybrokenat7days,whichnormallyhavedevelopedabout75%ofthe28daystrength.Its
nicetoknow3weeksearlierifthereisaproblemwithaconcretebatch.
Breakingcylindersat3dayscanalsoyieldusefuldata.Ifasupportedslabhasbeenplaced,the3dayconcretebreakscanbe
usedtodetermineifstrippingortheformsandformsupportswillbesafe.Soconcretecylinderbreaksprovideanumberof
usefulbitsofinformation.
ThebasicsofmakingthecylindersshouldbeunderstoodbytheConstructionSupervisor.Whenthewetconcreteisbeing
placed,cylinders6indiameterand12higharefilledwithconcreteandcarefullyconsolidated,(seeMakingConcreteCylinders
forTesting).Thesecylindersthencure,hopefullyinconditionssimilartothecuringconditionsforthemainconcretepour.The
concretecylindershardeninafewhoursandarestoredforfuturetesting.
Thattestingconsistsofplacingthecylinderinamachinethatpressesonthecylindertopandbottom,addingaxialforceuntil
thecylindercrushes.Theamountofforcerequiredtocrushthecylinderbecomesthecompressivestrengthforthatcylinder.
Asanexample:Note:docalcsininkonpaperandscanintothedocumentasaseparatefile.

Foraconcretesamplethatisbrokenafter28days
Thecylinderis6diameter,soithasanareaof3.14xDiametersquared/4
A=3.14x6x6/4
A=28.26squareinches
Iftheforcerequiredtobreakthecylinderwas97,500pounds
Thenthecompressivestrengthis97,500pounds/28.26squareinches=3,450psi

TheConstructionSupervisoralsoneedstopayattentiontothecareandstorageoftheconcretetestcylindersbetweenthetime
theyaremadeandbroken.Afewyearsago,duringtheconstructionofanadditiontoasewagepumpingstationbuilding,the
ConstructionSupervisorstoredtheconcretetestcylindersinsidethepumpingstationforprotectionfromharshweather.When
thecylinderswerebrokenat28days,thesupposedly4,000psiconcretewasachievingonly2,500psiofcompressivestrength.
Talkimmediatelybeganabouttearingoutthenewconcretewallsandthefingerpointingforresponsibilitystarted.Acoreboring
wastakenfromthewallandtheconcretetestedwellabovethe4,000psirequirement.
Sowhathappened?Itseemsnooneconsideredwhataconstantlyvibratingpumproomfloorwoulddotothesettingprocessof
theconcrete.ThemoralofthestoryisthatconcretetestcylinderscauseenoughproblemsonaprojectthattheConstruction
Supervisorshouldhaveaclear,agreeduponplanfortheirmaking,storing,breakingandreporting.

HowDoIGetConcreteontheJob?
ConcretecanbemixedonsiteorpurchasedfromvendorsinReadyMixtrucks.ReadyMixconcretehastheingredientsmixed
attheReadyMixplantaccordingtoasetrecipefortherequestedmix.TheadvantagesofReadyMixconcretearethe
uniformityinhandlingtherawmaterials(ingredients),thesuppliersexperiencewithhowacertainmixdesignwillperform(3
daystrength,28daystrength,workability,etc.)andconvenience.ThedisadvantagesofReadyMixconcretecanbethe
following:longdrivingtimes(ifplantisfarfromjobsite)inwhichtheconcretebecomeslessworkable,difficultyinobtaining
concreteattimesandquantitiesthatareneededandcost.
Concretebatchplantsareutilizedonlargeconstructionprojectstomixtheconcreteonsite.Theadvantagesofjobsitebatch

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plantsareabilitytogetconcreteinnecessarytimesandquantities,eliminatingtravelingissues,andcost.Thedisadvantagesof
concretebatchplantsaretheamountofequipment,laborandjobsitespacerequiredtomaketheprocessworkandpotential
concretequalityproblemssincemixdesignswillnothavehadmuchpreviousexperience.
Ofcourse,forverysmallconcreteprojects,concretecanbemixedonthejobsitebyhandorinportableconcrete/mortar
mixers.ItsimportanttounderstandthatconcretemixedinthiswayisunlikelytobeasuniformasReadyMixedconcrete,due
tothevariationsinherentintheprocess:
1. Measuring(oftendonebyshovels)willbemuchlessprecise.
2. Moisturelevelsinsandandgravelwillbeunknown(thusaddingwatertothemix).
3. Thewatercementratiowillbedeterminedbyfeelratherthanbymeasurement.
Theseissuesdontmeanthatjobsitemixedconcretewillbeunacceptable,onlythatthequalityoftheconcretewillbemuch
morevariablethanReadyMixedconcrete.Therefore,theConstructionSupervisorshouldusecautioninallowingjobsitemixed
concreteifthefinalattributesoftheconcretearecritical(i.e.if4500psiconcreteisneededforconcretecolumnsorifany
crackingofthefloorwouldbeamajorproblem).
Ifsmallquantitiesofconcretearetomixedonthejobsite,theinformationprovidedinFigure1.14shouldbehelpful.Insert
Figure1.14.

WhatPublicDomainDocumentsareAvailableforFurtherStudy?
ThisUSDepartmentofArmyConcreteandMasonryFieldManualdoesagreatjobexplainingConcreteandMasonrybasics.It's
323pagesoffigures,basicexplanationsandinstructionsofhowtodothework.Ifyouaresomewhatnewtoconstruction,take
sometimeandreviewthisexcellentresource.TheofficialnameisUSArmyFM5428.
AnothergreatallaroundgreatconstructionintroductoryguidethatcoverssomeconcreteinstallationitemsistheUSNavy
BuilderTrainingCourseVolume#1.Theofficialnameofthis332pageresourceisBuilder3and2,Volume#1,NAVEDTRA
14043.
TheUSNavyproducedachapteraboutrebarintheirSteelworkerVolume2trainingmanualthathassomegoodinformation.
TitledSteelworkerVolume2TrainingManual,theofficialnameisNAVEDTRA14251,November1996.
TheUSDeptofDefenseproduceda59pagetrainingdocumentthathassomegoodjointdetailsanddesignguidesfor
understandingConcreteFloors.TitledConcreteFloorSlabsonGradeSubjectedtoHeavyLoads,theofficialnameisUFC3320
06A,1March2005.
TheUSAirForceTrainingGuideforStructuralConcreteworkisa39pagetrainingguidethatteachesafewbasicconcrete
skills.It'sfoundatAirForceQualificationTrainingPackageforStructuralConcrete.

TricksoftheTrade&RulesofThumbforConcreteBasics:

1. Knowthedifferentconcretemixesspecifiedfortheproject.Payattentionnotjusttorequired28daystrength(3,000psi,
4,000psi,etc)butalsotolikelyadmixturesandadditionstothemix.
2. Knowtheconcretetestingrequiredforeachconcretemixandhaveaclearplanforhowthetestingwillbeaccomplished.
3. Getinthehabitoflookingattherebarandunderstandingthestructuralrebarlocationsandthetemperaturesteel
locations.
4. Knowhowtoreadthemarkingsonapieceofrebartodetermineitsproducingmill,barsizeandtypeandgradeofsteel.

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isageneralconstructioninformationalknowledgebaseandcannotbeheldresponsibleforpracticesbasedoninformationcontainedwithin.Web
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