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Density Log

Dr. Ir. Dedy Kristanto, M.Sc

FAMILY OF NUCLEAR TOOLS


GR

Particle

Neutrons

Source

Natural GR

Emitted GR

Emitted
Neutrons

Application

Shaliness
Correlation

Porosity
Density
Lithology

Porosity

Gas
Oil
GR Tools

Density Tools

Neutron Tools

NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY
Spontaneous emission of , and particles
from the nucleus of a atom

DENSITY LOG
Uses radioactive source to generate gamma

rays
Gamma ray collides with electrons in
formation, losing energy
Detector measures reduced intensity of gamma
rays
Response of density tools is a function of the
formations electron density
Electron density is a measure of bulk density

DENSITY LOG
Bulk density, b, is dependent upon:
Rock lithology
Formation porosity
Density and saturation of fluids in pore
space

DENSITY PRINCIPLE
Detect GRs from the source which have been
scattered back by the formation
Low Density
Windows

Formation
Hydraulic
sonde

Stabilizer

Skid
Caliper
arm

Cesium
Source

Detectors
Gamma rays

Near Detector

Gamma ray Tungsten


emitting source Shield

Tungsten
Bore Liner

Far Detector

DENSITY PRINCIPLE
GRs emitted into formation from source
Detectors used to measure returning GR
Energy level of returning GR measured
High energy GR relate to - Density
Low energy GR relate to - Lithology

EXAMPLE DENSITY LOG


0

GR
API

CALIX
IN

16

CALIY
IN

16

200

RHOB
G/C3
-0.25

3
DRHO
G/C3

0.25

4100

Gamma ray

Density
correction
4200

Caliper

Density

DENSITY MEASUREMENTS
Uses

Porosity
Lithology
Curves
Bulk density
(b and )
Pe

b
Pe

BUT WHY TWO DETECTORS?

If the tool is to read the density correctly, all


gamma rays must travel through the formation
This is difficult due to mudcake and borehole
mud
To avoid mud, the detectors are pad mounted
and press against the borehole wall.
However, the mud cake is still present and
therefore there are two detectors to
compensate for its effect.

COMPENSATED TWO DETECTOR


Mud cake
(mc + hmc)

Source : 662 KeV Cs137 gamma ray source.


Formation (b)

Two detectors : Short


spaced and the long
spaced.

Long spacing
detector

Source and detectors


are pad mounted to give
contact with the
borehole wall.

Short spacing
detector
Source

1.7
0.6

Density (gr/cc)
NPHI (v/v)

DENSITY LOG RESPONSE


APPLICATIONS

2.7
0

Shale

Gas
Oil
Water
Sandstone

1.7
0.6

Density (gr/cc)
NPHI (v/v)

2.7
0

Shale
Coal
Limestone
Shale
Coal

To determine bulk density


and fluids density

BULK DENSITY INTERPRETATION


The bulk density (in gm/cc) is the weighted
sum of the matrix and fluid densities

b = (1 ) ma fl
Typical values
Matrix density 2.65 SS; 2.71 LS; 2.87 Dol
Fluid density
0.9 - 1 OBM and fresh WBM
1.1 - 1.2 salty WBM

BULK DENSITY LOG


001) BONANZA 1
GRC
0
150
SPC
-160 MV
40
ACAL
6
16
10700

ILDC
0.2

200
SNC

0.2

200

RHOC
1.95
2.95
CNLLC
0.45
-0.15

DT
150 us/f 50

MLLCF
0.2

200

RHOC
1.95

10800

10900

Bulk Density
Log

2.95

POROSITY FROM DENSITY LOG

Porosity equation

The fluid density equation

ma b
=
ma f

f = mf Sxo + h (1 Sxo )

BULK DENSITY INTERPRETATION


Rearranging the
equation gives
porosity

ma b
D =
ma fl
Charts
POR-5 (S)
POR-10 (H)

BULK DENSITY INTERPRETATION

The curve is measurement quality


Poor pad contact gives > 0.05
Often correlates with caliper

CAL

-0.25

+0.25

FACTORS AFFECTING
DENSITY LOG RESPONSE

Borehole and mud filtrate effects


mf can be measured
Sxo can be calculated from shallow resistivity
logging tool

Shales and clays


Vsh and sh can be obtained from log readings in
shale zones

Hydrocarbons
In oil zones, hc = o which can be measured from
fluid samples
In gas zones, hc = g which can be measured or
calculated using gas properties

PHOTOELECTRIC INTERPRETATION

The Pe value (in barns/electron) is the weighted sum


of the matrix and fluid capture cross sections

Pe =

(1 ) ema Pema + e fl Pe fl
(1 ) ema + e fl

Typical Values
Matrix Pe:
1.8 SS; 5.1 LS; 3.1 DOL
Matrix ePe: 4.8 SS; 13.8 LS; 9 DOL
Fluid ePe:
0.1 - 0.4 OBM and fresh WBM
0.4 - 1 salty WBM

PHOTOELECTRIC INTERPRETATION

The logging curve is Pe


The product ePe = U, capture cross-section/cc

U = (1 )U ma + U fl

This looks like the density equation


We dont solve for because Ufl << Uma

TYPICAL FORMATIONS
RHOB
PEF

2
0

5.1

Limestone

Dolomite

Sandstone

3
10

2.71

3.1

1.8

2.87

2.65

TYPICAL VALUES

WIRELINE TOOL HISTORY


Powered Gamma
Tool (PGT)

Litho Density
Tool (LGT)

Three-Detector
Lithology Density
(TLD)
Flex
Joint

Nal(TI)Scintillation Detector
Geiger-Muller Detecter
Gamma Ray Source

Nal(TI) Scintillation Detector


Nal(TI) Scintillation Detector
Gamma Ray Source

Nal(TI) Scintillation Detector


Nal(TI) Scintillation Detector
GSO(Ce) Scintillation Detector
Gamma Ray Source
Flex
Joint

DENSITY SUMMARY

Very reliable tool


Shallow depth of investigation - 10 to
15 cm
Wireline tool caliper reads dh - hmc
Logging While Drilling (LWD) version
has sonic caliper