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Delivery Models

SaaS
PaaS
IaaS

Deployment Models
Private clouds
Community clouds
Public clouds
Hybrid clouds

We suggest one additional Model: Management Models (trust and tenancy issues)
Self managed
Third party managed (e.g. public clouds and VPC)

A high level conversation of the basic challenge and issue/character of cloud


computing.

Recognize a small number of protection and confidentiality issue within this


structure.

Suggest a number of approaches to address these issues.


Beginning thoughts to think about.

Features
Use of internet based services to sustain business process.
Rent IT services on a efficacy like source.

Attributes
Rapid exploitation
Low establish costs/ capital stash.
Costs base on handling or contribution
Multi tenant allotment of services/ resources.

Essential characteristics
On demand self services.

Ever present system access.


Locality self-governing resource pool.
Rapid elasticity.
Calculated services.

Cloud computing is a collection of obtainable technique and technology,


packaged with in a new communications prototype that offer enhanced scalability,
flexibility, business agility, earlier establish time, abridged managing cost, and
just in time availability of resources.

Cloud computing absolutely make sense if your possess protection is weak,


misplaced features, or lower standard.

Eventually, if
The cloud providers protection people are better than yours (and
leveraged at least as efficiently),
The web services interface dont establish in addition several new
vulnerabilities, and
The cloud providers aim at least as high as you do, at security goals then
cloud computing has better security.

Description about Cloud Computing


The cloud computing is a condition of computer or information technology
communications throughout the internet. I.e. is the provision of mutual resources,
software, application and services in excess of the internet to convene the flexible insist
of the client with bare lowest amount exertion or communication with the service
providers.

Types of cloud computing service models


1. SaaS
Software as a service (SaaS) provides application to the users by means of a cloud
communications or policy, relatively than provided that cloud features themselves. I.e.,
application, software or correspondences are intended for clients deliver over the web.
SaaS make it not essential for the customers to have a substantial replica of the S/W
installed on a personal computers, laptops or whichever other client devices. SaaS can at
times be referred to as service or application clouds. Frequently, it is a type of standard
applications S/W methodology presented within a cloud.
Examples: Google Docs, Google Calendar, SAP Business by Design, Sales force CRM.
2. PaaS
Platform as a service (PaaS) is the set of progressive tools and services intended
to create code and deploy of application in excess of the web rapid and proficient for the
customers. The customers doesnt have access to the fundamental cloud communications
together through system, servers, OS, or storage space, but has manage above the deploy
tool/service and possibly arrangement setting for the application hosting environments.
This provide a group of developers surroundings that a client can utilize to construct their
application without have any hint concerning whats going away on under the services.
PaaS is a platform anywhere application can be residential, experienced and use.
Examples: Google app engine, Force.com, Microsoft windows azure, Java.
3. IaaS
Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is the substantial layers that are made up of the
H/W resources that are required to hold the cloud services organism provide, and
characteristically include server, storage, OS and systems mechanism. It is the hardware
and software that power the cloud. The client doesnt have access to the fundamental

cloud communications but has control in excess of OS, storage space, and deploy
applications and possibly restricted manage in excess of selected network mechanism.
Examples: Amazon S3, Microsoft windows azure SQL.
Cloud Deployment Models (Cloud usage model)
Cloud computing is also can be divided into 4 main groups depends on procedure or
exploitation: Public cloud, Private cloud, Community cloud and Hybrid cloud.
1. Personal (Private) Clouds
Personal (Private) Clouds are characteristically own and/or lease by the particular
association or individuals. It might be manage and operate by the association or a Third
party or a grouping of them, and it might exist off or on property.
Example: eBay

2. Community (domain-specific) Clouds


The clouds are maintained for precise necessities by a groups of organization. It is
compute resource provide more the internet for constrained utilize by an exact
community of users as of organization that have common attention. Frequently the users
are a grouping of community with a general environment or by means of mutual concern
surrounded by the community or the public. Community clouds are a go between among
public and private clouds. It might be manage and operate by 1 or more of the
organization in the exact community, a third party, or various combinations of them, and
it might be present off or on property.

3. Public (General) Clouds


The clouds are use for provided that services to the populate. Public cloud is the mainly
recognizable and fashionable form of cloud computing. In a public cloud, computing
resources are animatedly provided over the internet. They survive on the premise of the
cloud providers. It might be own, manage, and operate by businesses, academics, or
government organizations, or some combination of them.
Example: Amazon, Google apps, Windows azure.

4. Hybrid (Mixed) Clouds


A hybrid cloud is essentially a arrangement of 2 or more clouds. It is a combination of
public and private cloud infrastructure meant at achieve ultimate cost diminution all the
way through outsourcing whereas maintain the preferred stage of organization. According
to ELC Technologies2010, hybrid cloud model are probable to materialize as the mainly
general structure of cloud computing in the expectations as they make available
subscribes better option and opportunity to access explicit services contained by the same
cloud exclusive of the require to control to an completely dissimilar contributor, if
business wants modify. Hybrid clouds characteristically also engage an elasticity which
service is hosted in the clouds and which not, which enable organization to maintain
through organize over assured H/W and/or services.
Characteristics of cloud computing
1. On demand self service
Computer resources throughout the internet such as N/W storage space, emails,
application, networks or servers services are provide as required mechanically without
concerning human communications with the service contributor. It allows for the
condition of computer services base on current demand necessities. Some cloud service

provider provided that on demand self services contain amazons web services (AWS),
Microsoft, Salesforce.com and Google.
2. Broad network access
Consumers are provide with large system access accessible throughout typical machinery
using a extensive assortment of compute devices such as personal computers, laptops and
even the modern smart phones.
3. Resource pooling.
Resource Pooling involve provider by means of mutual computing possessions to make
available cloud services to abundant clients. Depends on clients demand, computing
possessions can be vigorously assigned and reassigns. Clients dont require offering their
possess storage space, memory, n/w bandwidth and dispensation take position in the
cloud slightly than at the users premise or on the user devices.
4. Rapid elasticity.
Rapid elasticity referred to ability of cloud possessions to be elastic sufficient to change
to altering clients require, this sometimes might be mechanical. That is, it allows
application to rapidly weighing machine exploitation both up and down, as the insist
change. This capability to the client can be purchase in any quantity at any time and
frequently emerge to be boundless.
5. Measured service
Cloud source usage can be calculated, manage, prohibited, and report thus provided that
clearness and responsibility for together the source and client of the utilize service. Cloud
computing system makes use of a metering ability which mechanically control and
optimized resource usage. This is through at various level of generalization
corresponding to the kind of service. Such services contain vigorous user relation, storage
space, n/w bandwidth, processing, etc.

TRENDS OF CLOUD COMPUTING


Looking from a certain perspective, cloud computing seems to have suddenly
jumped into the scene, but the truth is it has actually undergone several decades of
gradual evolution.
1. The Mainframe Era
In the late 1950s, when computers (mainframe) were enormous and expensive,
hardware time-sharing came to light. They were used mainly for computing rigorous
military operations. In 1961, John McCarthy stated in a speech at MIT that computing
can be sold like a utility such as electricity or water. It was a brilliant idea, but the
technology was clearly not prepared for it signifying that the idea was ahead of its time.
The next few decades brought about the expansion of the concept to include more than
sharing a processor. It became known as utility computing and then grid computing
in the 1980s and 1990s. Of course time has passed and the technology caught up with the
ideas and there are a few milestones we have to mention:
2. The Personal Computer Era
The development of the home computer by Apple in 1977 and the personal
computer by IBM in 1981 ushered in a new age of computing. Several companies
understood that servers resident in normal computers could be mounted at lower costs
compared to mainframes. This realization steadily brought about the exit of mainframes
and the entry of personal computers. Another factor was the reduced cost of personal
computers.
3. The Internet Era
The 1990s saw the commencement of the wide spread use of the Internet and this
brought back the trend of having lots of computers access one main server. The rise in
Internet usage and the numerous requests to the server made it essential to have web
servers with enough power to handle such requests. This is on the increase even till today
as users demand more web services and storage space. At an increasing rate, applications
are now being moved from the personal computer to servers on the Internet due to the
increase in server speed and the abundant devices (i.e. mobile devices) to access this
service. Today, the Internet can handle substantial computations as providers have made

this facility available and customers can together share the same infrastructure, thus
reducing costs and increasing effectiveness.
4. The Cloud Computing Era
The year 1999 saw the advent of the first ever cloud service. It occurred when
Sales force created a website committed to granting enterprises applications over the
internet. The once fuzzy dream of Paul McCarthy has now come into being as now
computing can be sold like a utility. Although this was a success, it would take some time
until it would become extensive.
Amazon, in 2002, launched the Amazon Web Services (AWS) which was considered
the next major development in this field. It offered services such as storage, computation,
to a large degree, human intelligence and other services to its customers. Then in 2006,
Amazon launched the Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). This afforded small companies and
individuals the means to run their own computer applications in the cloud.
In 2009, cloud computing saw a completely remarkable defining point when cloud
enterprise applications became browser based. Cloud services became publicly available
an example being Google Apps. The big names in the industry have also joined the cloud
computing band wagon. Microsoft launched Windows Azure and Windows Azure SQL
Database. Other companies include HP and Oracle. Moving on from here, the only way
forward is cloud computing. This will bring to reality the dream where everyone can
access the applications and services they require how, when and as quickly as they need
them. There is no turning back.
CHALLENGES OF CLOUD COMPUTING
1. Security
The main hurdle in the fast adoption of cloud is the security concerns of the
customers.
(Ullah and Xuefeng, 2013). Security issue has played the most important role in
hindering Cloud computing acceptance. Various security issues, possible in cloud
computing are: availability, integrity, confidentiality, data access, data segregation,
privacy, recovery, accountability, multi-tenancy issues and so on. Solution to various
cloud security issues vary through cryptography, particularly public key infrastructure

(PKI), use of multiple cloud providers, standardization of APIs, improving virtual


machines support and legal support (Sahu and Tiwari, 2012).
2. Availability of Service
Since many systems have crashed on the cloud, like Amazon, so using only one
Cloud Computing Service Provider (CCSP), services can result in a drawback as when a
shutdown event happens on a cloud the service disappears and user cannot find that
service. CCSP promises to provide infinite scalability for the customer but due to the fact
that millions of users are now migrating to cloud computing so such promise is not
fulfilled (Ullah and Xuefeng, 2013).
3. Third Party Dependence
Customers have no control over their own data as data is lost in the hands of the
cloud computer service provider.
In major, equally great opportunities and challenges for mobile operators and
technology providers presented by Internet based mobile TeleVision consumption. at this
point in this expose present a dimension based study on the china offering large scale
mobile TeleVision services . Inside the 1 month dimension stage, our data set capture
over one million single mobile devices and further than 49 millions video session.
From this analysis, it shows these mobile viewing patterns are dissimilar as of that
of landline base IPTV and VoD system. Specifically, the standard presentation time is
considerably shorter, and the channels status sharing is extra tilted towards top rank
channels than that of landline base system. Proposed for the channels sever time, the
allocation follow a piecewise models, which combine lognormal and pareto division. at
this end the lognormal component, which fits of laughter the mainstream of video
session, additional intimately resemble the mobile phone phone calls hold time, rather
than the power law distributions in the landlines IPTV cases.
Whereas compare the 3G and WiFi right to use method, we institute that user
demonstrate dissimilar behaviors when access from dissimilar network. In 3G network,
somewhere user are subject to information charge, users tend to have shorter channel
break time and prefer lower bit-rate channels. These parameter of the distribution is also

dissimilar. To perceptive these users behavior and these implications on system traffic are
critical for the success of future mobile TeleVision industries.
Whereas mobile Internet environment is become broad, how to restores peer to
peer operation for mobile host is gaining further attentions. At this time, we carryout
experiential measurements of Bit Torrent user in a business WiMAX system. In this
project we examine how handover in WiMAX network crash the BitTorrent presentation,
how BitTorrent peers present from the aspect of connectivity, constancy and ability, and
how the BitTorrent procedure behave depending on client mobility.
Here we monitor these drawback of BitTorrent for mobile user is characterize
through reduced connectivity between peers, short download conference time, small
download throughput, insignificant upload donations, and high signal permanent charge.
These accomplishments of next generation mobile communication system depend
on the aptitude of service provider to engineer new added value multimedia rich services,
which impose stringent constraints on the underlying delivery/transport architecture. Here
the consistency of real-time services is essential for the capability of any such service
offer.
And the sporadic packet loss typical of wireless channels can be addressed using
appropriate techniques such as the widely used packet-level forward error correction.
While in design channel aware medium stream application, 2 consistent and demanding
issues be supposed to be tackle: Correctness of characterize channel fluctuations and
efficiency of application level adaptation.
Now the first challenge require thorough approaching into channel fluctuations
and their emergence at the appliance levels, whereas the second concern the way
individuals fluctuations are interpret and deal with FEC adaptive mechanism. At last in
this expose we evaluate the main issue that arises what time design a consistent media
stream organism for wireless network.
In later generation wireless networks, Internet service providers are expected to
offer services through several wireless technologies .Hence, mobile computers equipped
with multiple interfaces will be able to maintain simultaneous connections with different

networks and increase their data communication rates by aggregating the bandwidth
available at these networks.
To guarantee quality-of-service for these applications, this paper proposes a
dynamic QoS negotiation scheme that allows users to dynamically negotiate the service
levels required for their traffic and to reach them through one or more wireless interfaces.
Here such type of bandwidth aggregation scheme implies transmission of data belonging
to a single application via multiple paths with different characteristics, which may result
in an out-of-order delivery of data packets to the receiver and introduce additional delays
for packets reordering.
Further the proposed QoS negotiation system aims to ensure the continuity of
QoS perceived by mobile users while they are on the move between different access
points, and also, a fair use of the network resources. The performance of the proposed
dynamic QoS negotiation system is investigated and compared against other schemes.
Finally the obtained results demonstrate the outstanding performance of the proposed
scheme as it enhances the scalability of the system and minimizes the reordering delay
and the associated packet loss.
The combination of increased data rates, dedicated multicast/ broadcast services,
and the emergence of scalable video coding standards allows mobile operators to offer
multimedia-based services with a high quality of experience to mobile users. The H.264
SVC offers three dimensions of scalability.
Here we present a simulation framework to assess the video quality of scalable video
streamed over an LTE network through the use of multiple objective quality metrics such
as PSNR, SSIM, Blocking and Blurring and the framework integrates an LTE simulator
based on OPNET, combined with quality analysis of SVC/H.264 compressed video,
using the same metrics as detailed above.
Thus, we evaluate the performance of scalable video delivery, in both a
lossless scenario and in a scenario with packet losses in the LTE network. Then the
results advocate the use of no-reference evaluation metrics along with a frame-drop
metric over full-reference metrics which cant be used in real-life deployments. We also

observe that spatial scalability leads to maximum degradation of image quality compared
with temporal and quality.
Here we investigate the scheduling policy for collaborative execution in
mobile cloud computing. The mobile applications are represented by a sequence of finegrained tasks formulating a linear topology, and each of them is executed either on the
mobile device or offloaded onto the cloud side for finishing. While meeting a time limit,
the design objective is to minimize the energy consumed by the mobile device.
In this article we prepare this minimum-energy task scheduling problem
as a constrained shortest path problem on a directed acyclic graph, and adapt the
canonical LARAC algorithm to solving this problem roughly. Then the Numerical
simulation suggests that a one-climb offloading policy is energy efficient for the
Markovian stochastic channel, in which at most one migration from mobile device to the
cloud is taken place for the collaborative task execution. In addition, compared to
standalone mobile execution and cloud execution, the optimal collaborative execution
strategy can extensively save the energy consumed on the mobile device.