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STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 2 (ignore grammatical errors) & * is a fact not a question

_________________________________LECTURE 3________________________________

1. What are polymers of nucleic acids?

2. Nucleic acids are specialized for storage and transmission of___________.

3. What are two types of Nucleic acids?

4. What does DNA contain?

5. Although not entirely accurate, we can think of _______ gene encoding the amino acid
sequence for ________ protein.

6. The transfers of information to RNA molecules are known as what?

7. What is translation?

8. Transcription- ________ to _________

9. Translation- _________ to __________

10. What does nucleotides consists of?

11. What are the four bases?

12. In RNA , the A,G, and C are found, except Thymine which is replace by what?
*Purines have a double-ring structure.

*Pyrimidines have one ring.


13. What is the arrow located above pointing at?

14. What are the other important roles of Nucleotides?

15. What are the three types of RNA and What are their functions?

16. Most RNA molecules consist of only a single _____________ chain.


17. What is this an example of?

18. Certain RNA molecules that can act as catalysts are known as what?

19. DNA typically is an ___________, __________-stranded polymer of deoxynucleotides.

20. The DNA 2 strands form a ___________ _____ with the bases facing the center of the
helix

* One runs 5’ to 3’, the other strand runs 3’ to 5’.

21. The helix has a ________-_______twist.

22. What hold the two separate polymer chains?

23. What are the base pairing?

____________________________LECTURE 4_________________________________

1. Life can be defined as an organized genetic unit capable of _________, __________, and
__________.

2. What are the fundamental units of life of the smallest living units?

3. What does cell theory state?

4. As a cell grows, it requires more ____________ to synthesize more _____________.


This growth generates more of what?
5. What limits all cell size?

6. What is the definition of surface area and volume?

7. What imbalanced process eventually kills the cell?

8. List 3 ways prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes.

9. Membrane enclosed compartments are known as what?

10. What is a plasma membrane? What molecules can pass through it?

11. The plasma membrane separates the external environment from the __________(the
plasma membrane-enclosed intracellular region).

12. What does the cytoplasm consist of?


13. The nucleus contains most of the cell’s _______.

14. What specialized region is located within the nucleus? What are assembled within this
region?

15. A __________ surrounds the nucleus. _________ _______ bilayer containing an inner
and outer membrane. The outer membrane is connected with the _____________
__________ system.

16. Define nuclear pores.

17. _______ and __________ must pass through these pores to enter or leave the nucleus.

18. What is chromatin?

19. What are chromosomes?

20. Surrounding the chromatin, what contains fluid and dissolved substances of the nucleus?
21. What is the nuclear lamina?

*DNA contains hereditary information (genes) that encodes the primary structures for proteins.

22. DNA are polymers of ____________.

23. What word in the genetic language is translated into 1 amino acid?

*Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis.

24. Ribosomes consist of a type of RNA called what?

*Ribosomes from bacteria and eukaryotes have significantly different structure and RNA.

25. In eukaryotes, functional ribosomes are found free in the (list):

26. Ribosomes have ___ subunits. Each subunit is made of ______ and __________.

27. What four things does protein synthesis require?

28. Animations that explain protein synthesis in detail some of the information is
unnecessary.

Transcritption: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsofH466lqk&feature=related

Translation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5bLEDd-PSTQ

This explains the a-site and p-site


http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/translation/elong1.html

Describe the molecular and cellular events required for the synthesis of an extracellular protein?

Summary of the animations and answer to question above:

Transcription: Transcription factors and RNA polymerase bind to a single strand of DNA. ATP
is used to begin the transcription. The RNA polymerase synthesizes an RNA template from the
strand of DNA. When the RNA polymerase detaches itself, the newly made mRNA is released
into the cytosol.

Translation: In the cytosol a small subunit attaches itself to mRNA. tRNA then binds to its
complementary codon on the mRNA strand. At the end of the tRNA is a MET(aka an amino
acid). The large subunit then binds with the small subunit to create a P-site and an A-site. The P-
site is already occupied with a tRNA, the A-site gains a tRNA. The MET in the P-site is
transferred to the amino acid on the A-site. The tRNA from the A-site then moves to the P-site
and the A-site then again gains tRNA creating the same method with the amino acid making a
polypeptide chain. When it reaches a stop codone a release factor enters the translation is done
and the peptide is released.

29. What is the endoplasmic reticulum?

*The internal compartment, called the lumen, is separate from the cytoplasm and has its own distinct
protein and ion composition.

30. What is attached to the rough er?

*Proteins get modified in the RER

31. What is the ribosome-free region of the ER called and what kind of synthesis occurs in synthesis
region?

32.The ______________ consists of flattened membranous sacs and small membrane-enclosed


vesicles. What are its functions?

33. What are vesicles?

34.Vesicles containing digestive enzymes is known as what?

35. What is phagocytosis?


36. What is endocytosis?

37.What is the primary function of mitochondria?

*Mitochondria have a double lipid membrane outer membrane inner membrane

38. The inner folding within the mitochondria is known as what?

39.The region enclosed by the inner membrane is called what? What does it contain?

40.What helps explain the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts? Explain what this theory states.

*Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have DNA and ribosomes, and are self-duplicating organelles.

41. What is the function of the cytoskeleton?

42.The cytoskeleton acts as both _________and ___________, for movement and stability.

43.What are the three major types of cytoskeleton? Explain each (function, location, description).

44. What are centrosomes?


45. Where are centrioles found? and help in movement of ___________ during cell division.

46. Microtubules form _______and __________ which are important in cell movement. What is the
difference between the two locomotary appendages?

47. What is at the base of each flagellum or cilium?

__________________________________LECTURE 5_______________________________________

1. Cell membranes are bilayered, __________ structures that: _____ _____________


between cells and their environments. __________ Movement of molecules into and out
of cells.

2. Most of the lipid molecules found in biological membranes are known as?

It has a ______________ head group and a __________ region, the fatty acid “tails.”
They organize themselves into a ___________.

3. What capability does the membrane have that allows it to move laterally in the
membrane?

4. What is the fluid mosaic model?

*The amount of protein differs between species and according to function, however
the typical membrane contains 50% protein.

______________________________LECTURE 5 continue_________________________________

5. Membrane proteins interact ____________________with the lipids of the bilayer (through


hydrophobic interactions) and with the aqueous phases through hydrophilic interactions.

6. What are three different types of proteins and where are they located? Explain each (include location).
*Some proteins have a sugar attached to it. It generally appears on the outside of
the cell. These are called glycoprotein and glycolipid.

7. What are carbohydrate-bound lipids called?

8. What is glycoprotein?

9. What are examples of cholesterol-enriched microdomain in the cell membrane?

10. What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis?

11. What are three types of endocytosis what happens in each?

* conformational change-> a change in the tertiary structure

12. A molecule which binds to a receptor is known as what?

13. The receptor binds its __________ and undergoes a ________________ __________
which ordinarily initiates a cellular response.

14. What are receptors?


15. What is the extracellular domain designed to recognize and bind?

16. Once a ligand is bound what occurs in the extracellular domain? What does this
occurrence induce?

17. Receptor proteins line the extracellular side of the plasma membrane in regions
in called what?

18. _____________molecules line the intracellular side of the cell membrane in these
pits.

__________________________________Lecture 5
pt.2________________________________________

1.
Transportation of substances that requires energy is known as what? List each
method

2.
The process that does not require energy is known as _______________________
or ___________________. List its methods

3.
The net movement of high concentration of low concentration is known
as___________________.

4.
5. List several factors that affect the rate of
diffusion.

6. The more _______________-


___________(hydrophobic) the molecule, the more rapidly is ________________
across the bilayer. Give two examples.

7. What polar charged molecules can’t pass readily


across the lipid bilayer?

8. What is osmosis?

9. Water will diffuse from a region of _________


concentration to a region of ___________ concentration of solutes.

10. What is tonicity?

11. What are the tree different solutions and define


each of them.

12. During osmosis, water moves from a


__________________ solution to a ____________________ solution.
13.

14. What are two types of membrane proteins


facilitated diffusion depends on and define each.

15. What is the best-studied protein channel? This


channel undergoes a _____________ change (also known as a
___________________________ or __________)

16.

17. What is the circled molecule? (hint: it’s very good


example for carrier proteins).

18. The concentration of Na+ is greater


_______________ the cell.

The concentration of K+ is greater _______________ the cell.

The concentration of CI- is greater ________________ the cell.


19. The difference in electrical potential is called
what?

20. When the inside of the cell becomes less negative


(more positive) the cell________________.

21. When the inside of the cell becomes more


negative (usually an increase of CI-) the cell _______________________.

22. The sodium-potassium pump is the system of


what kind of transport system?

23. True/False with active transport ions of molecules


are moved across the membrane against its concentration gradient.

24. What kind of transport moves a single type of


solute in one direction?

25. What kind of transport moves two solutes in


opposite directions (one into the cell and the other out of the cell)?

26. Transporters move two solutes in the same


direction is known as what?

27.