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Area Wage

REGION I— NEW ENGLAND
John F . Kennedy F e d e ra l B uilding
Governm ent C enter
Room 1603-B
Boston, M a s s . 02203
T e l . : 223-6762

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REGION II— MID-ATLANTIC
341 Ninth A ve.
New Y o rk , N . Y . 10001
T e l . : 971-5405

REGION III— SOUTHERN
1371 P e ach tree S t., N E .
Atlanta, G a . 30309
T e l . : 526-5418

REGION TV— NORTH CENTRAL
219 South D earborn St.
C h icago, 111. 60604
T e l . : 353-7230

REGION V— WESTERN
450 Golden G ate A v e .
Box 36017
San F ra n c is c o , C a lif. 94102
T e l.: 556-4678

REGION VI— MOUNTAIN-PLAINS
F e d e r a l O ffice Building
T h ird F lo o r
911 Walnut St.
K a n sa s City, M o. 64106
T e l . : 374-2481

Area Wage Survey
The Raleigh, North Carolina, Metropolitan Area
August 1967

Bulletin No. 1575-6
October 1967

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

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P reface

Contents
Page

The B ureau o f L a b o r S tatistics p rogram of annual
occu pational w age su rveys in m etrop olita n areas is d e ­
signed to p ro v id e data on occupational earnings, and e s ta b ­
lish m en t p ra c tic e s and supplem entary w age p ro visio n s. It
y ie ld s d eta iled data by s e le c te d industry d ivisio n fo r each
o f the a re a s studied, fo r geograp h ic regions, and fo r the
United States.
A m a jo r con sid eration in the p rogram is
the need fo r g r e a te r in sigh t into ( l ) the m ovem ent of w ages
by occu pational c a te g o ry and s k ill level, and (2) the s tr u c ­
ture and le v e l o f w ages am ong areas and industry d ivisio n s.
A t the end o f each survey, an individual a rea b u l­
le tin p resen ts s u rv e y resu lts fo r each a rea studied. A fte r
co m p letion o f a ll o f the individual a rea bulletins fo r a
round o f su rveys, a tw o -p a rt sum m ary bu lletin is issued.
The fir s t p a rt b rin gs data fo r each of the m etrop olitan
a rea s studied into one bu lletin . The second p art p resen ts
in fo rm a tio n w hich has been p ro je c te d fro m individual m e t­
ro p o lita n a re a data to r e la te to geograph ic regions and the
United States.

Introduction_____________________________________________________________________
W age trends fo r s elected occupational grou p s_____________________________
T ab les:
1.
2.

A.

B.

E ig h ty -s ix a re a s cu rren tly a re included in the
p ro g ra m . In each area, in form ation on occupational e a r n ­
ings is c o lle c te d annually and on establishm ent p ra c tic e s
and su pplem en tary w age p ro v is io n s b ien n ially.
This b u lletin p resen ts resu lts o f the su rvey in
R aleigh , N. C ., in August 1967. The Standard M etrop olitan
S ta tis tic a l A re a , as defined by the Bureau o f the Budget
through A p r il 1967, co n sists o f Wake County. This study
was conducted by the s ta ff o f the B ureau's A tlanta R egion al
O ffice, under the g e n e ra l d ire c tio n of Donald M. Cruse,
A s s is ta n t R egio n a l D ir e c t o r fo r Operations.

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Establishm ents and w o rk e rs w ithin scope o f su rvey and
number stu d ied _______________________________________________________
Indexes o f standard w eek ly s a la rie s and s tra ig h t-tim e hourly
• earnings fo r s elected occupational groups, and percen ts of
in c re a s e fo r s e lected p e r io d s ______________________________________

4

Occupational ea rn in g s :*
A -1.
O ffic e occupations—m en and w om en_________________________
A -2 .
P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ical occupations—m en ______________
A -3 . O ffice, p ro fessio n a l, and tech n ical occupations—
m en and w om en co m b in ed __________________________________
A -4 .
M aintenance and pow erplan t occupations___________________
A - 5.
Custodial and m a te r ia l m ovem en t occu p a tio n s____________

9
10
11

E stablishm ent p ra c tic e s and su pplem entary w age p ro v is io n s :*
B - l.
M inim um entrance s a la rie s fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s __
B -2 .
Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls _____________________________________________
B -3 .
Scheduled w eek ly h o u rs ______________________________________
B -4 .
Paid h olid ays__________________________________________________
B,-5.
P a id v a c a tio n s ________
B -6 .
Health, insurance, and pension plans______________________
B -7 .
P rem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e w o r k ___________________________

12
13
14
15
16
19
20

Appendix.

Occupational d e s c rip tio n s _______________________________________

a rea s.

* N O TE : S im ila r tabulations a re a va ila b le fo r other
(S ee in sid e back c o v e r .)

Union scales, in d ica tive o f p re v a ilin g pay le v e ls in
the R a leig h area, a re also a va ila b le fo r building con ­
struction; printing; lo c a l-tr a n s it op era tin g em p lo yees; and
m otortru ck d r iv e r s , h elp ers, and a llie d occupations.

iii

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6
8

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Area Wage Survey---The Raleigh, N.C., Metropolitan Area
Introduction
Th is a re a is 1 o f 86 in which the U .S . D epartm ent o f L a b o r's
Bureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics conducts surveys o f occupational earnings
and re la te d b e n efits on an a rea w id e b a sis.
In this a re a , data w e re
obtained by p e rs o n a l v is its o f Bureau fie ld econom ists to r e p r e ­
sen tative estab lish m en ts w ith in six broad industry d ivisio n s: M anu­
fa ctu rin g; tra n sp o rta tio n , com m unication, and other public u tilitie s ;
w h o le s a le trad e; r e t a il trad e; fin an ce, insurance, and r e a l estate; and
s e r v ic e s .
M a jo r indu stry groups excluded fro m these studies a re
govern m en t op era tio n s and the construction and e x tra c tiv e in du stries.
E stablish m en ts havin g fe w e r than a p re s c rib e d number o f w o rk e rs a re
o m itted because they tend to furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the
occupations studied to w a rra n t inclusion.
Separate tabulations a re
p ro vid ed fo r each o f the b road industry d ivision s which m eet pub­
lic a tio n c r it e r ia .

allow an ces and in cen tive earnings are included. W here w e e k ly hours
a re re p o rte d , as fo r o ffic e c le r ic a l occupations, r e fe r e n c e is to the
standard w ork w eek (rounded to the n ea rest h a lf hour) fo r which e m ­
p lo yees r e c e iv e th eir re g u la r s tra ig h t-tim e s a la rie s (e x clu sive of pay
fo r o v e rtim e at re g u la r and/or p rem iu m ra te s ). A v e r a g e w e e k ly ea rn ­
ings fo r these occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d olla r.
The a v e ra g e s p resen ted r e fle c t co m p osite, areaw id e e s ti­
m ates.
In du stries and establish m en ts d iffe r in pay le v e l and job
staffin g and, thus, contribute d iffe r e n tly to the estim a tes fo r each job.
The pay rela tion sh ip obtainable fr o m the a v e ra g e s m ay fa il to r e fle c t
a c c u ra te ly the w age spread or d iffe re n tia l m aintained among jobs in
individual estab lish m en ts.
S im ila r ly , d iffe re n c e s in a vera ge pay
le v e ls fo r m en and wom en in any of the s e le c te d occupations should
not be assum ed to r e fle c t d iffe re n c e s in pay treatm en t of the sexes
w ithin individual estab lish m en ts.
O ther p o ssib le fa c to rs which m ay
contribute to d iffe re n c e s in pay fo r m en and w om en include: D iffe r ­
ences in p ro g re s s io n w ithin estab lish ed rate ra n ges, since only the
actual ra tes paid incumbents are c o llected ; and d iffe re n c e s in sp ecific
duties p e rfo rm e d , although the w o rk e rs a re c la s s ifie d a p p ro p ria tely
within the sam e s u rvey job d escrip tion .
Job d escrip tion s used in
c la s s ify in g em p lo yees in these su rveys are u su ally m o re gen era lized
than those used in individual establish m en ts and allow fo r m inor
d iffe re n c e s among establish m en ts in the s p e c ific duties p erfo rm ed .

T h ese s u rvey s a re conducted on a sam ple basis because o f
the u n n ecessa ry c o s t in v o lv e d in su rveyin g a ll establish m en ts.
To
obtain optim um a c c u ra c y at m inim um cost, a g re a te r p rop ortion o f
la rg e than o f s m a ll estab lish m en ts is studied.
In com bining the data,
h o w e v e r, a ll estab lish m en ts a re given th eir approp riate w eight.
E s­
tim a tes based on the estab lish m en ts studied a re p resen ted , th e re fo re ,
as re la tin g to a ll estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and a re a ,
excep t fo r those below the m inim um s ize studied.
O ccupations and E arn in gs

O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes re p re s e n t the total in
a ll establish m en ts w ithin the scope of the study and not the number
actu ally su rveyed .
Because of d iffe re n c e s in occupational structure
among estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent ob­
tained fro m the sam ple of establishm ents studied s e rv e only to indicate
the r e la tiv e im portan ce of the jobs studied.
T h ese d iffe re n c e s in
occupational stru ctu re do not a ffe c t m a te r ia lly the accu racy of the
earnings data.

The occupations s e le c te d fo r study a re com m on to a v a rie ty
o f m an u factu rin g and nonm anufacturing in d u stries, and a re o f the
fo llo w in g types: (1) O ffic e c le r ic a l; (2) p ro fe s s io n a l and technical;
(3) m aintenance and pow erplan t; and (4) cu stodial and m a te r ia l m o v e ­
m ent.
O ccu pational c la s s ific a tio n is based on a u n iform set of job
d es c rip tio n s d esign ed to take account o f in ter establishm ent v a ria tio n
in duties w ith in the sam e job .
The occupations s e le c te d fo r study
a re lis te d and d e s c rib e d in the appendix.
The earnings data fo llo w in g
the job title s a re fo r a ll in d u stries com bined.
Earnings data fo r som e
o f the occupations lis te d and d e s c rib e d , or fo r some industry d ivision s
w ith in occu p a tio n s, a re not p resen ted in the A - s e r ie s ta b les, because
e ith e r (1) em p loym en t in the occupation is too sm all to p ro vid e enough
data to m e r it p resen ta tio n , o r (2) there is p o s s ib ility o f d isclo su re
o f in dividu al esta b lish m en t data.

E stablish m en t P r a c tic e s and Supplem entary W age P r o v is io n s
In form a tion is p resen ted (in the B - s e r ie s tab les) on selected
establish m en t p ra c tic e s and su pplem entary w age p ro v is io n s as they
re la te to plant and o ffic e w o rk e rs .
A d m in is tra tiv e , execu tive, and
p ro fe s s io n a l em p lo y e e s , and con stru ction w o rk e rs who are u tilized
as a separate w o rk fo r c e are excluded.
"P la n t w o r k e r s " include
w ork in g fo re m e n and a ll n o n su p ervisory w o rk e rs (including lead m en and tra in e e s ) engaged in non office functions.
"O ffic e w o rk e rs "
include w ork in g s u p e rv is o rs and n o n su p erviso ry w o rk e rs p erfo rm in g
c le r ic a l or re la te d functions.
C a fe te ria w o rk e rs and routem en are
excluded in m anufacturing in d u stries, but included in nonmanufacturing
in d u s trie s .

O ccu pation al em p loym en t and earnings data a re shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w o r k e r s , i. e. , those h ired to w ork a re gu la r w e e k ly schedule
in the given occu pation al c la s s ific a tio n .
Earnings data exclude p r e ­
m ium pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, h olid ays, and
late sh ifts.
N onprodu ction bonuses a re excluded, but c o s t - o f- liv in g

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2
M inim u m entrance s a la rie s fo r w om en o ffic e w o rk e rs (table
B - l ) re la te only to the establish m en ts v is ite d . B ecause of the optim um
sam pling techniques used, and the p ro b a b ility that la r g e e s ta b lis h ­
m ents a re m o re lik e ly to have fo r m a l entrance ra tes fo r w o rk e rs
above the s u b c le ric a l le v e l than s m a ll esta b lish m en ts, the table is
m o re r e p re s e n ta tiv e of p o lic ie s in m edium and la r g e estab lish m en ts.
Shift d iffe r e n tia l data (table B -2 ) a re lim ite d to plant w o rk e rs
in m anufacturing in d u stries.
Th is in fo rm a tio n is p resen ted both in
te rm s of (1) estab lish m en t p o lic y , 1 p resen ted in te rm s of total plant
w o rk e r em p loym en t, and (2) e ffe c tiv e p ra c tic e , p resen ted in te rm s of
w o rk e rs a ctu a lly em p loyed on the s p e c ifie d shift at the tim e of the
su rvey.
In establish m en ts having v a r ie d d iffe r e n tia ls , the amount
applying to a m a jo r ity w as used o r, if no amount applied to a m a jo r ity ,
the c la s s ific a tio n "o th e r " w as used. In establish m en ts in w hich som e
la te -s h ift hours a re paid at n orm a l ra te s , a d iffe r e n tia l was r e c o rd e d
only if it applied to a m a jo r ity of the shift hours.
The scheduled w e e k ly hours (table B -3 ) of a m a jo r ity of the
fir s t - s h ift w o rk e rs in an estab lish m en t a re tabulated as applying to
a ll of the plant or o ffic e w o rk e rs of that estab lish m en t.
Scheduled
w e e k ly hours a re those w hich fu ll-tim e em p lo yees w e r e exp ected to
w o rk , w hether they w e re paid fo r at s tra ig h t-tim e or o v e rtim e ra te s .
P a id h olidays; paid vacation s; health, in su ran ce, and pension
plans; and prem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e w ork (tables B -4 through B -7 )
are tre a te d s ta tis tic a lly on the b asis that these a re ap p licab le to a ll
plant or o ffic e ,w o rk e rs if a m a jo r ity of such w o rk e rs a re e lig ib le or
m ay even tu a lly q u a lify fo r the p ra c tic e s lis te d .
Sums of individual
item s in tables B -2 through B -7 m ay not equal totals because of
rounding.
Data on paid holidays (table B -4) a re lim ite d to data on h o li­
days granted annually on a fo rm a l b asis; i.e ., (1) a re p ro vid ed fo r
in w ritte n fo r m , or (2) have been esta b lish ed by custom .
H olid ays
o rd in a r ily granted a re included even though they m ay fa ll on a non­
w ork d ay and the w o rk e r is not granted another day off.
The fir s t
p a rt of the paid holidays table presen ts the number of w hole and half
h olidays a ctu a lly granted. The second p art com bines w hole and h alf
h olidays to show total h olid ay t im e .

Data on health, in su ran ce, and pen sion plans (tab le B -6 ) in ­
clude those plans fo r which the e m p lo y e r pays at le a s t a p a rt of the
cost. Such plans include those u n d erw ritten b y a c o m m e r ic a l insurance
com pany and those p rovid ed through a union fund or paid d ir e c tly by
•the em p lo y er out of cu rrent op era tin g funds or fr o m a fund set aside
fo r this purpose.
An estab lish m en t w as c o n s id e re d to have a plan
if the m a jo rity of em p loyees w e r e e lig ib le to be c o v e r e d under the
plan, even if le s s than a m a jo r ity e le c te d to p a rtic ip a te b ecau se e m ­
p loyees w e re re q u ire d to contribute tow a rd the co st of the plan. L e ­
g a lly req u ired plans, such as w o rk m e n 's com pen sation , s o c ia l s e ­
cu rity, and r a ilro a d re tire m e n t w e r e exclu ded.
Sickness and accident insu rance is lim ite d to that type of
insurance under which p re d e te rm in e d cash paym ents a re m ade d ir e c tly
to the insured on a w eek ly or m on th ly b a sis during illn e s s or acciden t
d isa b ility . In form ation is p resen ted fo r a ll such plans to w hich the
em p lo y e r contributes. H o w e v e r, in N ew Y o r k and New J e r s e y , w hich
have enacted te m p o ra ry d is a b ility in su ran ce law s w hich r e q u ire e m ­
p lo y e r co n trib u tio n s,2 plans a re included on ly if the e m p lo y e r (1) con­
trib u tes m ore than is le g a lly re q u ire d , or (2) p ro v id e s the em p lo yee
w ith ben efits which exceed the re q u ire m e n ts o f the law . Tabulations
of paid sick le a v e plans are lim ite d to fo r m a l plan s3 w hich p ro vid e
fu ll pay or a p ro p o rtio n of the w o r k e r 's pay during absence fr o m w ork
because of illn e s s .
Separate tabulations a re p resen ted a cco rd in g to
(1) plans which p ro vid e fu ll pay and no w a itin g p e rio d , and (2) plans
which p rovid e eith er p a rtia l pay or a w a itin g p e rio d .
In addition to
the p resen tation of the p ro p o rtio n s of w o r k e r s who a re p ro v id e d
sickness and accident insurance or paid sick le a v e , an unduplicated
total is shown of w o rk e rs who r e c e iv e e ith er or both types of b en efits.

C atastrophe insurance, so m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to as m a jo r m e d ­
ic a l insurance, includes those plans w hich a re d esign ed to p ro te c t
em p lo yees in case of sickness and in ju ry in v o lv in g expen ses beyond
the n orm al co v e ra g e o f h o sp ita liza tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u rg ic a l plans.
M e d ic a l insurance r e fe r s to plans p ro v id in g fo r com p lete or p a rtia l
paym ent of d o c to rs ' fe e s .
Such plans m ay be u n d erw ritten by co m ­
m e r c ia l insurance com panies or n on p rofit org a n iza tio n s or they m ay
be paid fo r by the em p loyer out of a fund set aside fo r this purpose.
Tabulations of re tire m e n t pension plans a re lim ite d to those plans
that p ro vid e re g u la r payments fo r the re m a in d e r of the w o r k e r 's life .

The su m m ary of vacation plans (table B -5 ) is lim ite d to a
s ta tis tic a l m ea su re of vacation p ro v is io n s .
It is not intended as a
m easu re of the p ro p o rtio n of w o rk e rs a ctu a lly r e c e iv in g s p e c ific b en e­
fits . P r o v is io n s of an establish m en t fo r a ll lengths of s e r v ic e w e re
tabulated as applying to a ll plant or o ffic e w o rk e rs of the e s ta b lis h ­
m ent, r e g a r d le s s of length of s e r v ic e .
P r o v is io n s fo r paym ent on
other than a tim e b asis w e r e con verted to a tim e b a sis; fo r exa m p le,
a paym ent of 2 p ercen t o f annual earn in gs was co n sid ered as the e q u iv ­
alent of 1 w e e k 's pay. E stim a tes exclude va c a tio n -s a v in g s plans and
those w hich o ffe r "ex ten d ed " or "s a b b a tic a l" b en efits beyond b asic
plans to w o rk e rs w ith qu alifyin g lengths of s e r v ic e . T y p ic a l of such
exclu sion s a re plans in the s te e l, alum inum , and can in d u stries.

Data on o v e rtim e p rem iu m pay (ta b le B -7 ), the hours a fte r
which p rem iu m pay is r e c e iv e d and the c o rresp o n d in g ra te of pay, a re
p resen ted by d a ily and w e e k ly p ro v is io n s .
D a ily o v e r tim e r e fe r s to
w ork in ex cess of a s p e c ifie d num ber of hours a day r e g a r d le s s of
the number of hours w ork ed on other days of the pay p e rio d . W eek ly
o v e rtim e r e fe r s to w ork in e x c e s s of a s p e c ifie d num ber of hours
p er w eek re g a rd le s s of the day on w hich it is p e rfo rm e d , the number
of hours per day, or number of days w o rk ed .

An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following
conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering
late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1) had operated late
shifts during the 12 months prior to the survey, or (2) had provisions in written form for operating
late shifts.

The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer
contributions.
An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the
minimum number of days of sick leave available to each employee. Such a plan need not be
written, but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, were excluded.

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T a b le 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s within scope of s u rv e y and n u m ber studied in R a le ig h ,

N. C . , 1 by m a jo r in d u stry d iv isio n , 2 A u gu st 1967
W o r k e r s in e stab lish m en ts

N u m b e r o f estab lish m en ts
M in im um
em ploym ent
in e s t a b lis h ­
m ents in scope
o f study

In d u stry d iv is io n

W ith in scope of study
W ithin scope
o f s tu d y 3

Studied
T o t a l4

Studied

P la n t
Num ber

A l l d iv is io n s

_

_ ....

P e rc e n t

T o t a l4

146

83

27, 600

100

16, 800

4, 900

20, 800

50
-

50
96

31
52

12, 900
14, 700

47
53

9, 000
7, 800

1, 300
3, 600

10, 070
10, 730

50
50
50
50
50

15
19
34
17
11

12
9
14
10
7

14
5
18
12
4

1, 800
(* )
( )
(!)
( 6)

......

M a n u fa c tu rin g ................ ........................ ........... ...........
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ______________________________________
T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m u n ication , and
o th er p u b lic u t i li t i e s 5 .................. .....................
W h o le s a le t r a d e _______ ____ ________________________
R e ta il t ra d e ......... ............. .................. .................. .
F in an ce, in su ra n c e , and r e a l estate .. _
............................
S e r v ic e s 8 _

O ffic e

3,
1,
4,
3,
1,

800
500
900
200
300

600
( 6)
( )
( )
( 6)

3, 550
810
3, 060
2, 340
970

1 The R a le ig h Stan d ard M e tro p o lita n S tatistical A r e a , as defined by the B u re a u o f the B u d get through A p r i l 1967, c o n sists o f W ak e County. The " w o r k e r s w ithin scope o f study" estim ates
show n in this ta b le p ro v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u ra te d e s c rip tio n of the s iz e and com position of the la b o r fo r c e included in the s u rv e y .
The e stim ates a r e not intended, how ever, to s e r v e as a b a s is
o f c o m p a ris o n w ith oth er em ploym en t in dexes fo r the a r e a to m e a su re em ploym ent tren ds o r le v e ls sin ce ( l ) planning o f w a g e s u rv e y s re q u ir e s the use of e stab lish m en t data co m p iled c o n sid e ra b ly
in ad van ce of the p a y r o ll p e rio d studied, and (2) s m a ll establish m en ts a r e excluded fro m the scope of the s u rv e y .
2 The 1967 ed ition o f the Stan d ard In d u strial C la s s ific a tio n M anual w a s u sed in c la s s ify in g e sta b lish m e n ts by in d u stry d iv is io n .
3 In cludes a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith total em ploym ent at o r above the m in im u m lim itatio n . A l l outlets (w ith in the a r e a ) of com p an ies in such in d u strie s as trad e, finance, auto r e p a ir se rv ic e ,
and m otion p ic tu re th e a te rs a r e c o n s id e re d as 1 establish m en t.
4 In clu des execu tive, p r o fe s s io n a l, and other w o r k e r s excluded fro m the se p a ra te plant and offic e c a t e g o r ie s .
5 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in c id e n ta l to w a te r tran sp o rtatio n w e re ex clu ded.
6 T h is in d u stry d iv is io n is re p re s e n te d in estim ates fo r " a ll in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m an u factu rin g" in the S e r ie s A tables, and fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " in the S e r ie s B ta b le s . S ep a ra te presen tation
o f d a ta f o r this d iv is io n is not m a d e f o r one o r m o re o f the fo llo w in g re a s o n s : ( l ) E m ploym en t in the d iv isio n is too s m a ll top ro v id e enough data to
m e r it s e p a ra te study, (2) the sam p le w as not
d e s ig n e d in itia lly to p e r m it s e p a ra te presen tatio n , (3) re sp o n se w as in su fficien t o r inadequate to p e rm it s e p a ra te p resen tation , and (4) th ere is p o s s ib ility o f d is c lo s u r e o f in dividu al establish m en t data.
7 W o r k e r s fr o m this en tire in d u stry d iv isio n a r e re p re se n te d in estim a te s fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g " in the S e rie s A tables, but fro m the r e a l estate portion only in estim ates
fo r
" a l l in d u s t r ie s " in the S e r ie s B ta b le s .
S ep arate presen tatio n of data fo r this d iv isio n is not m ade fo r one o r m o re of
the r e a s o n s given in footnote 6 above.
8 H o tels and m o te ls ; la u n d rie s and other p e rs o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u sin e ss s e r v ic e s ; au tom obile re p a ir, rental, and p ark in g; m otion p ic tu re s; n on profit m e m b e rs h ip o rgan iza tio n s (exclu d in g re lig io u s
and c h a rita b le o rg a n iz a tio n s ); and e n g in e e rin g and a rc h ite c tu ra l s e r v ic e s .

Digitized for FRASER
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

A lm o s t h a lf of the w o r k e r s w ithin scope of the s u rv e y in the R a le ig h a r e a w e r e
em ployed in m an u factu rin g f ir m s .
The fo llo w in g table p re s e n ts the m a jo r in du stry gro u p s
and sp e c ific in d u stries as a p erc e n t o f a ll m an u factu rin g:
In dustry groups
E le c t r ic a l m a c h in e r y ____________
M ach in ery (e x c e p t e le c t r ic a l) __
Food p ro d u c ts ........... ...................
T e x tile m ill prod u cts .................
A p p a r e l ... .......
F a b ric a te d m e ta l p r o d u c t s _____
Prin tin g and p u b lish in g ...........

S p e c ific in d u strie s
28
21
15
10
9
6
5

O ffice, com puting and
accounting m a c h in e s ___________ 14
E le c t r ic a l t r a n s m is s io n and
d is trib u tio n equipm ent...... ....... 10
C om m u n ication equipm ent--------- 9
E le c tro n ic com ponents and
a c c e s s o r i e s ______________________
6
D y ein g and fin ish in g te x tile s
(e x c e p t w o o l fa b r ic s and
knit g o o d s )_______________________
6
M eat p r o d u c t s ..------------5

This in form ation is b a se d on estim a te s o f total em ploym en t d e riv e d fro m u n iv e rs e
m a t e r ia ls com p iled p r i o r to actual s u rv e y .
P ro p o rtio n s in v a r io u s in d u stry d iv isio n s m ay
d iffe r fro m p ro p o rtio n s b a se d on the r e s u lts of the su rv e y a s shown in table 1 above.

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
P re s e n te d in tab le 2 a re in dexes and p ercen ta g es o f change
in a v e ra g e s a la r ie s o f o ffic e c le r ic a l w o rk e rs and in d u stria l n u rses,
and in a v e ra g e earnings o f se le c te d plant w o r k e r grou ps. The in dexes
a re a m easu re o f w ages at a g iven tim e, e x p re s s e d as a p ercen t of
w ages during the base p e rio d (date o f the a re a su rvey conducted
betw een July I960 and June 1961).
Subtracting 100 fro m the index
yie ld s the p ercen ta ge change in w ages fr o m the base p e rio d to the
date o f the index.
The p ercen ta ges o f change o r in c re a s e re la te to
w age changes betw een the in dicated dates.
T h ese estim a tes a re
m easu res o f change in a v e ra g e s fo r the a rea ; they a re not intended
to m easu re a v e ra g e pay changes in the establish m en ts in the a rea .
M ethod o f Computing

in the occupational group. T h e s e constant w eigh ts r e fle c t base y e a r
em ploym ents w h e re v e r p o s s ib le .
The a v e r a g e (m ean) earn in gs fo r
each occupation w e re m u ltip lied by the occu pation al w eight, and the
products fo r a ll occupations in the group w e r e tota led . The a g g re g a te s
fo r 2 consecu tive y e a rs w e r e re la te d

by

d ivid in g

the

a g g re g a te fo r

the la te r y e a r by the a g g re g a te fo r the e a r lie r y e a r.
The resu ltant
r e la tiv e , le s s 100 p ercen t, shows the p e rc e n ta g e change. The index
is the product of m u ltiplyin g the b ase y e a r r e la tiv e (100) by the r e la tiv e
fo r the next succeeding y e a r and continuing to m u ltip ly (com pound)
each y e a r 's r e la tiv e by the p revio u s y e a r 's in dex. A v e r a g e earn in gs
fo r the follow in g occupations w e r e used in com puting the w age tren ds:

Each o f the se le c te d key occupations w ithin an occupational
group was assign ed a w eigh t based on its p ro p o rtio n a te em ploym ent
Office clerical (men and women):
Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B
Clerks, accounting, classes
A and B
Clerks, file, classes
A, B, and C
Clerks, order
Clerks, payroll
Comptometer operators
Keypunch operators, classes
A and B
Office boys and girls

Table 2.

Office clerical (men and women)—
Continued
Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Switchboard operators, classes
A and B
Tabula ting-machine operators,
class B
Typists, classes A and B

Skilled maintenance (men):
Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics (automotive)
Pa inters
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers
Unskilled plant (men):
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
Laborers, m aterial handling

Industrial nurses (men and women):
Nurses, industrial (registered)

Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in Raleigh, N. C. ,
August 1967 and September 1966, and percents of increase for selected periods
Indexes
(September 1960=100)

Industry and occupational group
August 1967

All industries:
Office clerical (men and w om en)------------------Industrial nurses (men and w om en)-----------------Skilled maintenance (men)---------------------------Unskilled plant (m e n )--------------------------------Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and w om en)------------------Industrial nurses (men and w om en)-----------------Skilled maintenance (men)---------------------------Unskilled plant (m e n )---------------------------------

September 1966

Percents of increase
September 1966
to
August 1967

September 1965 September 1964 September 1963 September 1962 September 1961 September 1960
to
to
to
to
to
to
September 1966 September 1965 September 1964 September 1963 September 1962 September 1961

133.0
(M
127.6
131.3

127. 5
(M
121.7
121.6

4. 3
(M
4.8
2 8 .0

5 .0
(*>
3.9
4 .4

4.8
(*)
6.3
5.0

(M
(J>

(?)
( >
(*>
124.5

(?)
(?)
(M
3.8

(>)
(?)

(M
(M
(M
6.2

i 1)

129. 3

( l)

5.9

2. 4

2. 7

i 1)

i 1)

2. 7
2. 7

1. 2
3.2

3. 3
0
i 1)

2 .0

(?>
(M
2. 1

4. 6
(M
4. 7
2. 1

5. 4
(M
1.4
2. 6

3. 1
(M
(*)
2. 3

4. 0
(M
(M
3. 9

1 Data do not meet publication criteria.
^ In addition to general wage increases, this increase reflects recent amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act and changes in employment between high- and low-wage establishments.

Digitized for FRASER
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5
F o r o ffic e c le r ic a l w o rk e rs and indu strial n u rses, the w age
trends r e la te to re g u la r w e e k ly s a la rie s fo r the n o rm a l w ork w eek ,
e x c lu s iv e of earn in gs fo r o v e rtim e .
F o r plant w o rk e r grou ps, they
m ea su re changes in a v e ra g e stra ig h t-tim e hourly ea rn in gs, excluding
p rem iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, h olid ays, and
late sh ifts. The p e rc e n ta g e s a re based on data fo r s e le c te d k ey occu ­
pations and include m o st of the n u m erica lly im portant jobs within
each group.

Changes in the la b or fo r c e can cause in c re a s e s or d ec re a s e s in the
occupational a v e ra g e s without actual w age changes. It is conceivable
that even though a ll establish m en ts in an a re a gave w age in crea ses,
a v e ra g e w ages m ay have d eclin ed because lo w e r-p a y in g establishm ents
en tered the a re a or expanded th eir w o rk fo r c e s .
S im ila rly , w ages
m ay have rem a in ed r e la t iv e ly constant, yet the a v e ra g e s fo r an area
m ay have r is e n c o n sid era b ly because h igh er-p a yin g establishm ents
en tered the a rea .

L im ita tio n s of Data
The indexes and p ercen tages of change, as m ea su res of
change in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a re influenced by:
( l ) g e n e ra l s a la ry and
w age changes, (2) m e r it o r other in crea ses in pay r e c e iv e d by in d i­
vidu al w o r k e r s w h ile in the same job, and (3) changes in a vera g e
w a ges due to changes in the labor fo rc e resu ltin g fr o m la b or turn­
o v e r , fo r c e expan sion s, fo r c e redu ctions, and changes in the p r o p o r ­
tions of w o r k e r s e m p lo yed by establishm ents with d iffe re n t pay le v e ls .

Digitized for FRASER
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The use of constant em ploym en t w eigh ts elim in a tes the e ffe c t
of changes in the p ro p o rtio n of w o rk e rs re p resen ted in each job in­
cluded in the data.
The p ercen ta ges of change r e fle c t only changes
in a v e ra g e pay fo r s tra ig h t-tim e hours.
T h e y are not influenced by
changes in standard w o rk schedules, as such, or by p rem iu m pay
fo r o v e rtim e . W h ere n e c e s s a ry , data w e r e adjusted to rem o ve fro m
the indexes and p ercen ta ges of change any sign ifica n t e ffe c t caused
by changes in the scope of the su rvey.

6
A. Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
.(A verage straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an are a b asis
by industry division, R aleigh, N. C. , August 1967)
N um ber of w o rk ers receiving straigh t-tim e w eekly earnings of—
Nu mbe r

Sex, occupation, and industry division

of
workers

Under

hours1
(standard)

$

$

Averag e
weekl y
M ean 2

M e di a n 2

Mi ddl e range 2

50

S
55

$

$
60

65

$
70

$
75

$
80

$
85

$
90

$
95

$
100

$
105

$
110

$
115

S
120

$
125

t
130

$

$
135

140

and
under

$
50

145

and

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

105

110

115

-

6

-

4

2
-

100

145

over

120

125

130

135

140

1

3

3

4

-

-

-

3

2

3
-

1

1

1

-

-

2

3

-

-

-

-

MEN
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

38

3 9 .0

$
1 0 7 .0 0

$
1 0 4 .0 0

$
$
9 2 .5 0 -1 2 4 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

2

20

4 0 .0

1 0 4 .5 0

1 0 2.00

9 1 .0 0 -1 2 3 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

2

18

3 8 .5

1 0 9 .0 0

1 0 9.00

9 4 .0 0 -1 2 8 .0 0

U
5
6

-

2

2

-

2

-

-

-

1

CLERKS. ACCOUNTING, CLASS B --------------

18

4 0 .0

8 2 .5 0

7 9 .0 0

7 1 .0 0 -

9 3 .0 0

-

-

-

-

4

3

3

2

1

OFFICE BOYS ---------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

24

3 9 .0

6 6 .0 0

6 4 .0 0

6 0 .0 0 -

7 3 .0 0

_

-

6

8

3

3

2

1

1

24

3 9 .0

6 6 .0 0

6 4 .0 0

6 0 .0 0 -

7 3 .0 0

6

8

3

3

2

1

1

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B -----------------------------------------------------

20

4 0 .0

9 2 .5 0

9 0 .5 0

8 4 .0 0 -

9 9 .5 0

7

3

4

19

4 0 .0

7 7 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

7 3 .0 0 -

8 3 .5 0

19

4 0 .0

7 7 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

7 3 .0 0 -

8 3 .5 0

~

_

-

3

1

1

-

2

2

1

1

WOMEN

BILLERS, MACHINE (B IL L IN G
MACHINE I --------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B ----------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A ------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING-----------------------------CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS 8 -------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

35

4 0 .0

7 7 .5 0

8 0 .0 0

7 1 .5 0 -

8 5 .0 0

24

4 0 .0

7 6 .5 0

7 7 .5 0

7 0 .0 0 -

8 9 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

8 9 .0 0

5

_

5

8 2 .5 0 -

9 4 .0 0

16

4 0 .0

8 9 .0 0

9 2 .0 0

8 2 .0 0 -

9 7 .0 0

-

3 8 .0

9 0 .0 0

8 8 .5 0

8 2 .5 0 -

9 3 .5 0

-

-

-

162

3 9 .0

7 6 .0 0

7 5 .5 0

6 8 .5 0 -

8 2 .5 0

_

_

8

-

-

-

3 8 .5

3 9 .0

8 0 .0 0

8 0 .5 0

7 2 .5 0 -

8 8 .0 0

3 9 .0

7 5 .0 0

7 4 .5 0

6 8 .0 0 -

8 1 .0 0

CLERKS. F IL E , CLASS B -------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

53

3 9 .0

6 3 .5 0

6 2 .5 0

5 9 .0 0 -

6 7 .0 0

53

3 9 .0

6 3 .5 0

6 2 .5 0

5 9 .0 0 -

6 7 .0 0

CLERKS, PAYROLL -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

30

3 9 .5

8 8 .0 0

8 3 .5 0

7 6 .0 0 -1 0 2 .0 0

17

3 9 .5

9 3 .5 0

9 8 .5 0

8 2 .0 0 -1 0 6 .0 0

COMPTOMETER OPERATORS -------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

26

4 0 .0

7 4 .0 0

7 2 . 50

6 7 .0 0 -

8 0 .5 0

17

4 0 .0

7 3 .5 0

7 0 .0 0

6 4 .5 0 -

7 9 .0 0

_
_
_

98

3 9 .0

8 6 .5 0

8 6 .5 0

8 1 .5 0 -

9 1 .0 0

_

82

3 9 .0

8 5 .0 0

8 5 .5 0

8 0 .5 0 -

8 9 .5 0

-

8 4 .0 0

_
-

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

95

3 9 .5

7 7 .0 0

7 6 .0 0

38

4 0 .0

8 2 .5 0

8 2 .5 0

7 6 .5 0 -

8 9 .0 0

57

3 9 .5

7 3 .5 0

7 2 .5 0

6 7 .0 0 -

8 0 .5 0

-

OFFICE GIRLS -------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING------------------------------

18

3 8 .0

6 0 .5 0

5 9 .5 0

5 5 .5 0 -

6 5 .5 0

_

16

3 7 .5

5 9 .5 0

5 9 .0 0

5 5 .0 0 -

6 3 .5 0

SECRETARIES3---------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 4--------------------------

309

3 9 .5

9 7 .5 0

9 6 .0 0

8 4 .5 0 -1 0 9 .5 0

Digitized for FRASER
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

~

47

36

See footnotes at end of table.

_

2

_

63

126

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A ------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

2

6 9 .5 0 -

_

_

_

-

-

-

5

3

7

5

3

7

~

1

_

3

5

1

1

1

-

1

11

1

9

1

6

l

5

1

5

2
-

2

6

13

4

-

2

5

11
-

17
4

4

1

1
-

2

2

4

8

11

13

-

1

1

31

32

15

9

1

_

_

1
_

-

2

6

24
-

7

5

8

3

5

1

-

-

8

10

24

24

27

15

12

4

-

-

-

3

14

19

10

4

2

-

-

3

14

19

10

4

2

5

5

5

3

4

16

-

-

-

_
1

4

4

9

2

3

_

1

-

1

4

4

3

2

~

1

1

~

_
_
4

3

-

6

5

1

1

5

3

3

1

1

9

1

2

2

37

35

34

26

27

34

28

7

11

19

12

19

16

15

16

4

3

6

1

-

19
2

6

8

3

22

17

31

27

29

-

-

1

3

4

-

4 0 .0

1 0 6.00

1 0 6.50

9 6 .0 0 -1 1 4 .5 0

3 9 .5

9 4 .0 0

9 1 .5 0

8 2 .0 0 -1 0 5 .5 0

-

43

3 9 .5

1 0 9 .5 0

1 1 1.50

9 8 .0 0 -1 2 2 .0 0

-

-

-

-

11

-

90
219

-

20

1

-

5

-

1
1

6

22
-

-

-

11

3

-

5

~

2

_
_
-

3

_

1

_

_

_

-

-

-

3

_
-

10

5
5
5

1
-

~

1

4

4

-

1

21

_
-

-

-

13

6

-

6

1

-

~

6

5

-

-

1

8

1

1

1

1

15

17

-

~

30

2

-

2

27

8

_

3

19

4

_

3

22

3

-

_

-

5

6

-

-

-

1

1

5

5

1

~

_
-

1

4

3

1

-

-

_
-

-

4

10

-

1

"

_
-

2

10

1

_
-

2

3

10

9

2
-

3

_

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

4

_
-

2

1

*

1

1
-

1

1

_
_

2

-

23

1

~

_

-

-

_

_

-

_

_

_

_
-

_
-

-

-

_
-

12

-

9

_
-

6

_

1

4

2

3

3

2

1

4

2

9

6

4

-

-

-

5

3

4

-

-

-

7

Tabic A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women— Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Raleigh, N. C. , August 1967)
Weekly earnings*
(standard)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

WOMEN -

SECRETARIES3 -

Number
of
workers

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—
Under

Mean2

Median 2

Middle range 2

1

f;

$

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

.1
t
100

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
-

4
4

2
-

5
5

1

-

-

-

-

6
2
4

7
2
5

5
5

$
50

1

fi

55

$

$

$

$

i;

<i

$

$

$

$

$
$T
$
135
140
145

105

110

115

120

125

130

105

1 10

115

120

125

130

135

140

145

over

2
-

2
2

2
2

-

-

1
1

2
-

-

-

1
1

-

-

3
1
2

4
4

3
3

4
4

3
3

3
1
2

5
2
3

1
1

~

1
1

1
1
-

2
2
-

and
under

$
50

and

CONTINUED

CONTINUED

SECRETARIES* c l a s s a -----------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

24
15

39.5
39.5

$
94.50
94.00

$
$
8 5 .5 0 - 1 1 2 . 0 0
8 5 . 0 0 -1 1 2 .5 0

SECRETARIES. CLASS B -----------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

48
16
32

39.5 107.00 104.50
40.0 116.50 114.50
39.5 102.50 100.50

8 9 .5 0 - 1 2 6 . 0 0
9 1 .0 0 - 1 3 9 .0 0
89 .0 0 -1 2 1 .0 0

-

SECRETARIES. CLASS C -----------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

92
52

39.5
39.0

9 1 . 0 0 -1 1 2 .0 0
8 2 .5 0 - 1 0 7 .5 0

-

-

SECRETARIES. CLASS 0 -----------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 4 --------------------------

145
25
120
17

91.5 0
39.5
39.5
97.50
39.5
90.00
40.0 101.50

90.00
100.00
88.50
99.00

8 1 .0 0 - 1 0 1 . 5 0
9 1 .0 0 - 1 0 7 . 0 0
7 9 . 0 0 - 98.50
9 4 .0 0 -1 1 2 .5 0

-

STENOGRAPHERS. GENERAL -----------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 4--------------------------

174
119
50

38.5
37.5
39.0

77.50
69.50
74.50

6 6 .5 0 - 86.50
6 3 . 5 0 - 83.00
6 6 . 5 0 - 83.50

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR -------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 4--------------------------

121
72
49
24

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

91.50
90.00
92.00
91.00
90.50
88.50
101.00 111.00

8 3 .0 0 - 1 0 1 . 0 0
8 5 .5 0 -1 0 0 .5 0
7 8 .5 0 - 1 1 1 . 0 0
8 8 . 0 0 -1 1 7 .5 0

_
~

SWITCHBOARD CPERATORS, CLASS 8 -------NONM ANUr AL JUKI Nb —— ———————————

30
27

40.0
.u

56.00
Do * UU

3 9 .5 0 - 67.00
nn- lq
on
3V«UU—
oo»UU

59

SWITCHBOARD 0PERAT0R-RECEPT10NISTSkinMUAKIliC £L
ATTMOTKir
MJ^nANUr
JUK I njb ———————————————

33

39.5

80.00
r f . DU

6 9 . 5 0 - 88.00
t7 a a . O
o*7
Of#UU*
lfUaa
U

-

*3

77.50
ft>. uu

38.5

o*
69.50

68.50

LA
A
OO# AA.
UU— ~f"\
f 3# A
UU
l t UU“
AA— r3#UU
AA
boa

38,3

fH. uu

DU

L7 AA—
Q1 3U
CA
of#
UU— o3#

37 5

65.00
63.00

63. 00
62 • 00

CO
AA— o
4Lf#
7 OU
CA
0 V#UU—
cn_ OD•
2C DU
ca
0co
o# OU—

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
rbfcrNfc
r
XAL —————— —— ——— ——————————
kinkiukkiuc AL
* r n1UR
in n
i r —— — — ——————
NUN^ANUr
I Nb

kirnai

DU
30

T

101.50 105.00
95.50
97.50

77.00
73.50
76.00

60.50
O l.U U

-

-

"
-

-

-

2

120
106

-

-

2
2

2
2

5
5

10
8

3
3

6
4

6
5

13
8

19
6

10
3

6
2

5
2

4
2

-

_

1

-


_

1
1
*

20
20

12
12

17
2
15
~

23
4
19
2

18
3
15
3

16
4
12
5

8
4
4
1

10
6
4
1

12
1
11
3

3
1
2
2

4
4

1
1
~

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

19
19
2

15
15
6

30
28
14

16
8
4

14
11
8

27
16
6

31
15
5

10
2
2

8
3
1

2
-

_
-

!
1
1

1
1
1

_
-

_
-

-

-

~

-

-

2
2
~

2
2

8
3
5

9
4
5
3

16
10
6
2

24
17
7
2

16
12
4
2

12
8
4
2

11
10
1

6
5
1
1

6
3
3
3

8
8
8

1
1
1

-

_
-

_
-

5

1

-

5

3

5
3

6

1

4
3

10

14
12


-

-

6
_

6

3

3

2

5

7

3

3

16

3
3

1U

15

36

43

20

-

_
-

_
"
_
-

3

3

1

7A
AA— oHfUU
QA AA
rU#UU—

r\/n
ACC
a
1Yr rl rori rbi rL iL A
oo A
——————
kiniiu
Akmc AL
AfTiin
r kir —————————— ———
nJUNrlANU*
1UK IrVIL
TUB
C*T
f 1A
ACC
O
...
! Y rIS
1jC*f CL
jj n
——
——————
kinMUAkuir
A m1UR
in rkir
N'JnlnANUr AL
I Nb ———————————— ——

$
99.50
99.00

3
3
,
1

3

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond
to these weekly hours.
2 The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing by the number of workers.
The median designates position— half of the employees surveyed receive more
than the rate shown; half receive less than the rate shown.
The middle range is defined by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn less than the lower of these rates and a fourth earn more than
the higher rate.
* May include workers other than those presented separately.
4 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
5 A ll workers were at $35 to $40.

Digitized for FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

8

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men
(A v e ra g e straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Raleigh, N. C. , August 1967)
Weekly earnings1
(standard)
Number

Occupation and industry division

workers

Number of workers receiving straight -time weekly earnings of—
$

weekly
hours1
( standard)

$
75

Mean1
2

Median 2

Middle range2

20
20

$
$
$
$
40,0 157.00 154.00 14 3.0 0 -1 7 4 .5 0
40.0 157.00 154.00 1 4 3 .0 0 -1 7 4 .5 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B
MANUFACTURING -

34
34

40.0 119.50
40.0 119.50

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS C
MANUFACTURING -

27
22

40 .0
40.0

100.50
95.00

118.00
118.00

1 0 6 .00 -1 33 .0 0
1 0 6. 00 -1 33 .0 0

97.50
95.50

9 2 . 0 0 -1 1 0 .0 0
9 1 .0 0 - 1 0 0 . 5 0

$

$

$

$

$

80

85

90

95

100

105

no

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

t

$

120

125

130

135

140

145

150

155

160

165

170

180

120

125

130

135

140

145

150

155

160

165

170

180

190

1
1

3
3

2
2

2
2

3
3

1
1

2
2

3
3

3
3

-

-

-

_

7
7

2

_

1
1

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

7
7

6
6

2

2
2

1
1

1
1

2

7

1
1

4
4

1
1

3
3

5
5

3
3

2
2

2
1

1

1

-

_

2

7

2

1 Standard hours reflect the w orkw eek for which em ployees receive their re gu lar straigh t-tim e sa la rie s (exclusive of pay for overtim e at re gu lar and/or prem ium ra te s),
to these w eekly hours.
2 F o r definition of term s, see footnote 2, table A - l .

Digitized for FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

*

$

$

115

and
under
80

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A
MANUFACTURING -

$

_
-

and the earnings correspon d

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(A v e r a g e s tra ig h t-tim e w eek ly h o u rs and e a rn in g s fo r s e le c te d occupations studied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u stry d iv isio n , R a le ig h , N .C ., A u gu st 1967)
Average

O ccu pation and in d u stry d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard) (standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

Average
Number
of
workers

O ccupation and in d u stry d iv is io n

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS -

Weekly

Weekly

hours 1

earnings 1

(standard)

(standard)

CONTINUED

Average
Number

O ccupation and in d u stry d iv isio n

of
workers

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

-

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

CONTINUED

$

B IL L E R S . MACHINE (B IL L IN G
MACHINE I -----------------------------------------------------NCNMANUF A C T U R IN G --------------------------------

15

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

o
o

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS A --------------------------------------------------------

19
19

$
7 7 .0 0
7 7 .0 0

8 5 .5 0

OFFICE BOYS AND G IR LS ----------------------- —
NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

42
40

SECRETARIES1
2------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3---------------------------

314
92
222
46

3 8 .5

6 3 .5 0

3 8 .5

6 3 .5 0

3 9 .5

9 8 .0 0

4 0 .0

1 0 6 .0 0

3 9 .5

9 4 .5 0

3 9 .5

1 1 1 . 50

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS.
CLASS B -------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

37
24

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 8 .0 0
7 6 .5 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS A ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

27
16

3 9 .5

1 0 1 .0 0

3 9 .5

1 0 2 .5 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A --------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

101
36
65

3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 8 .0

9 6 .0 0
9 8 .0 0
9 5 .5 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS B ------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

49
16
33

3 9 .5

1 0 8 .0 0

4 0 .0

1 1 6 .5 0

3 9 .5

1 0 3 .5 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

180
40
140

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

7 6 .5 0
8 0 .5 0
7 5 .5 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS C ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

92
52

3 9 .5

1 0 1 .5 0

3 9 .0

9 5 .5 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS 0 ------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3----------------------------

146
25
121
18

3 9 .5

9 1 .5 0

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3---------------------------

175
119
50

3 9 .0

7 6 .0 0

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR --------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NQNMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3---------------------------

125
73
52
24

4 0 .0

9 0 .5 0

4 0 .0

9 2 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS 8 -------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

30
27

CLERKS, F I L E , CLASS B --------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

55
55

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

6 5 .5 0
6 5 .5 0

CLERKS, PAYROLL ----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

40
15
25

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

9 1 .5 0
8 0 .5 0
9 8 .0 0

COMPTOMETER OPERATORS ---------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A --------------NCNMANUFACTURING -------------------------------KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

27
18
98
82
95
38
57

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

7 5 .5 0
7 6 .0 0
8 6 .5 0
8 5 .0 0
7 7 .0 0
8 2 .5 0
7 3 .5 0

1 Stan dard h o u rs r e fle c t the w o rk w e e k fo r w hich em p lo y ees re c e iv e th eir r e g u la r
c o rre s p o n d to these w e e k ly h o u rs .
2 M a y inclu d e w o r k e r s other than those p resen ted se p a ra te ly .
3 T ra n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n icatio n , and other public u tilitie s.

Digitized for FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

s t ra ig h t-tim e

3 9 .5

9 7 .5 0

3 9 .5

9 0 .5 0

4 0 .0

1 0 3 .0 0

3 8 .5

7 7 .0 0

3 7 .5

7 3 .5 0

4 0 .0

8 8 .5 0

4 0 .0

1 0 1 .0 0

4 0 .0

5 6 .0 0

4 1 .0

5 6 .0 0

s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e

SWITCHBOARD CPERATO R-RECEPTIO NISTSNONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

33
24

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

7 7 .5 0
7 6 .0 0

TABULATING-M ACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS 8 --------------------------------------------------------

23

4 0 .0

9 1 .5 0

TRANSCRIBING-M ACHINE OPERATORS,
GENERAL -------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

30
30

3 8 .5
3 8 .5

6 9 .5 0
6 9 .5 0

T Y P IS T S . CLASS A -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

89
65

3 9 .0
3 8 .5

7 5 .5 0
7 4 .0 0

T Y P IS T S , CLASS B -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

126
112

3 7 .5
3 7 .5

6 5 .0 0
6 2 .5 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

20
20

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 5 7 .0 0
1 5 7 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

37
37

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 2 0 .0 0
1 2 0 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS C ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

27
22

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 0 0 .5 0
9 5 .0 0

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS

of pay fo r o v e rtim e at r e g u la r an d/or p re m iu m

r a t e s ), and the earn in gs

10

Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e ra g e straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, R aleigh, N. C. , August 1967)
Hourly earnings 1

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Num ber of w orkers receiving straight-tim e hourly earnings of—
$

Me:

Median 2

Middle range 2

t

$

U n d e r 2 ,1 0
*
and
2.1 0 under

$

2 ,2 0 2,30 2 ,4 0
_
_
_

$

$

2,5 0

2,60 2 ,7 0
_

2.20 2.30 2. 40 2. 50 2.60

$
$
2 . 6 8 - 3.38
2 . 6 6 - 3.23

2.80

2.86

2.75-

3.05

2.10

2.23

1.59-

2.64

3i 0

17
17

2.71
2.71

2.95
2. 95

2 . 3 5 - 3. 14
2 . 3 5 - 3. 14

2

102
81

2.92
3.07

2.95
3.31

2.372.77-

3.36
3.37

70
64

2.76
2.70

2.73
2. 71

2.392.38-

3.06
2. 99

$
3. II
2.92

STATIONARY ----------

15

MAINTENANCE TRADES

21

ENGINEERS.
HELPERS,

$
3.05
2. 95

29
23

ELECTRICIANS. MAINTENANCE -----MANUFACTURING ------------------------

MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE
MANUFACTURING -----------MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE) -----------NONMANUFACTURING MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE
MANUFACTURING ----------

1
I

3

2
7

4
-

5
5

10

-

4

5
5

1
1

12

14
14

2
2

$

2 ,9 0 3,0 0

$

2
2

2
2

4
4

-

-

2
2

2
2

12
12

7
7

2

8

$
2 ,8 0

$

$

$

$

$

3 ,1 0

3 ,2 0

3 ,3 0

3 ,4 0

3* 50 3 ,6 0

2.70 2.80 2.90 3. 0 0 3.10 3.20

2

1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 F o r definition of term s, see footnote 2, table A - l .
3 W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s:
6 at $1.50 to $1.60; and 4 at $ 1.80 to $1.90.

Digitized for FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

I
1

$

2

3.30

3
3

3.4 0 3.50

$

3.6 0

$

$

3 ,7 0

3 ,8 0

3.7 0 3. 80 3.9 0

3
3

5
2

-

2
2

3
3

7
5

2
2

7
7

4
4

11

6

10

5

2
2

4
4

1

1
35
35

4
4

4
4

6
6

4
4

-

1
1

-

5
5

1

-

3

1

-

-

11

Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v erage straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an a re a basis
by industry division, R aleigh, N .C ., August 1967)
Hourly earnings^

Num ber of w o rk e rs receivin g straight-tim e hourly earnings of-

O ccupation 1 and industry division

*
*
$
$
*
$
$
$
$
$
1.00 l . i o L.20 1 .3 0 1 .4 0 1.5 0 1.60 1.70 1.8 0

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1.90 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 2 .3 0 2 .40 2 .5 0

a* d
under

-

-

-

1.10

1.20

1.3 0

1.40

-

-

1.50

-

1.60

-

-

32
28

$
2.0 6
2. 15

$
2 .3 4
2 .3 7

$

GUARDS AND WATCHMEN -----------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------JANITORS. PORTERS. ANC CLEANERS ----MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

431
114
317

1. 52
1.65
1.47

1.48
1.64
1.46

1 .4 4 - 1.61
1 .5 4 - 1.7 5
1 .4 3 - 1.50

235
18
217

JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS
( WOMENI ----------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

33
27

1.45
1. 39

1.47
1.46

1 .4 3 - 1.56
1 .4 2 - 1.49

18
18

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING -------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

273
98
175

1.76
1.60
1.85

1.57
1. 56
1.57

1 .4 9 - 2 . 2 1
1 .5 1 - 1.65
1 .4 7 - 2 .2 7

79
18
61

ORDER FILLERS ---------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

121

2 .3 4
1.99
2 .3 6

1 .9 9 - 2 .42
1 .6 4 - 2.4 3
2 .0 9 - 2 .4 3

6

26
95

2. 17
1.98
2 .2 3

PACKERS, SHIPPING ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

35
29

1.71
1.77

1 .6 8
1.74

1 .5 3 1 .5 8-

1 . 86
1. 89

4
4

RECEIVING CLERKS -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

34
23

2.09
2.17

1.95
1.96

1 .8 3 - 2.66
1 .8 5 - 2 .6 9

1
-

3
3

8
6

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS --------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

25
19

2.24
2.29

2. 28
2 .2 7

2 .58
2 .75

-

4
4

2

T R U C K D R IV E R S4 -------------------------------------------

213
49
164

2 .0 0
1.67

1. 78
1.59

2 . 10

2 11

1 .5 6 - 2.5 6
1 .4 9 - 1.91
1 .5 8 - 2 .6 0

MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

.

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1-1/2 TONS) ---------------------------------------TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM (1 -1 / 2 TO
AND INCLUDING 4 TONS) -------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

1 .5 3 -

139

1.96

121

2.02

1.69
1.76

1.96
1.87

1.97
1.91

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS,
TRAILER TYPE I -----------------------------------TRUCKERS, POWER ( FORKLI FT I --------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

1
2
3
4

$
1 .5 2 - 2.52
1 .5 7 - 2 .5 4


-

64
30
34

40
23
17

18
14
4
8
2
6

2
4

21

-

14
7

57
12
45

18
2
16

11
5

48
40

12
12

47
32
15

3
1

86

-

-

-

5
1
4

.

1

3
2

-

1
4
4

4
2

14
4
10

-


-

-

2

-

-

4

5
2

3
2
1

36
36

39
8
31

-

-

-

-

-

3
2

-

2

4
4
2
-



-

6
6
-

-

7
4
3

6

1 .5 5 - 2 .5 4
1 .5 6 - 2.5 5

-

4
4

5

-

5

30
-

-

-

1 .6 4 - 2 .3 3
1 .7 7 - 2. 15

10
10


2
2
13

-

-

5

-

-

-

-

2

30

-

6

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

2
-

-

32

2

-

32
-

over

-

-

-

2
2

-

27
27

2 .0 5 - 2 .8 6

and

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
8
2
6

-

-

1

-

-

-

1

7
-

-

6
5
1

2

-

7
5

2

-

1

40
40

7

-

4
4

4

4
4
-

-

5

1
1

4
3

5
5
-

5

-

2
2

4

2

5
5

-

3
8

-

1

1.

-

8

-

1
-

-

$
2 .8 0 2.90

2 .4 0 2.50 2 .6 0 2 .7 0 2 .8 0 2 .9 0

-

10
10
-

5

-

5
-

-

4
4

-

$
2 .7 0

13

1.69

Data lim ited to men w o rk e rs except where otherwise indicated.
E xcludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
F o r definition of te rm s, see footnote 2, table A - l .
Includes a ll d r iv e r s , as defined, re g a rd le ss of size and type of truck operated.

Digitized for FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

6
5

49
37

-

1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 2 .3 0

$
2.60

13
13

-

1
1
22
22

4
4

12
B.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

Table B-l.

Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers

(D is trib u tio n o f e sta b lish m e n ts studied in a ll in d u strie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by m inim um entrance s a la r y fo r se le c te d c a t e g o r ie s
o f in e x p e rie n c e d w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s , R a le ig h , N . C . , A u gu st 1967)
In e x p e rie n c e d typists
M an u factu rin g
M in im u m w eek ly stra ig h t-tim e s a la r y 1

A ll
sch edules

83

E s ta b lish m e n ts having a sp e c ifie d m in im u m ---------------------------

20

$ 52.50
$ 55.00
$ 57.50
$ 60.00
$ 62. 50
$ 65. 00
$ 67.50
$ 70.00
$ 72.50
$ 75. 00

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
u n der
un d er
under
u n der
u n der
under
u n der
u n der
u n der

$ 5 5.00 _______________________________________
$ 5 7. 50 ______________________________________
$ 60. 00______________________________________
$ 62 .5 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 65 .0 0 ______________________________________
$ 67. 50_______
-----------------------------------$ 70 .00 _______________________________________
$ 7 2 .5 0 ______________________________________
$ 75 .0 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 77. 50____________________ ________________

E sta b lish m e n ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m -----------------------E sta b lish m e n ts w h ich did not em ploy w o r k e r s
in this c a t e g o r y ------------------------------------------------------------------

------

40

31

XX X

A ll
schedules

40

52

XXX

11

7

-

-

5

9

9

_
5
3
3

_
-

-

-

-

3

1

3
3
-

-

-

2
1
2
2

2
1
1
2

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

"

2

1

XXX

21

XXX

2

61

2
1

2
1

2
1
1
2

1

1
40

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 of—
A ll
sch ed u les

40

83

31

XXX

52

XX X

38

13

13

25

18

-

-

4

4

2
15

2
8
3

1
2
1
2
2

1

-

1

-

2

2

-

-

2
1
1
2

2
1
1
2

A ll
sch ed u les

2
11
1
8
1
1
-

1

40

1
8
-

6
1
1
-

1

-

XXX

13

7

XXX

6

XXX

XXX

32

11

XX X

21

XXX

1 T h e se s a la r ie s re la te to fo r m a lly e sta b lish e d m in im u m startin g (h irin g ) r e g u la r s tra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s that a re paid fo r
2 E x c lu d e s w o r k e r s in s u b c le r ic a l jo b s such as m e s s e n g e r o r o ffic e g i r l.
3 D a ta a re p re se n te d fo r a ll stan dard w o rk w e e k s c o m b in ed , and fo r the m o st com m on stan dard w o rk w e e k re p o rte d .

Digitized for FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N o n m an u factu rin g

M a n u fa c tu rin g
A ll
in d u stries

B a s e d on stan dard w e e k ly h ou rs 3 of—

A ll
in d u strie s

E s ta b lish m e n ts stu d ied -----------------------------------------------------------------

O ther in e x p e rie n c e d c le r i c a l w o r k e r s 1
2
N onm anufacturing

standard w o rk w e e k s .

Digitized for FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

13

Table B-2. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe re n tia ls o f m a n u fa c tu rin g plan t w o r k e r s 1 by type and am ount o f d iffe r e n t ia l,
R a le ig h , N . C . , A u g u st 1967)
P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c tu rin g plant w o r k e r s —
In e sta b lish m e n ts h avin g fo r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1
2 fo r—

Shift d iffe re n tia l

Second shift
w o rk

T o t a l.. ............ ................... ............................ ................

58 .9

W ith shift pay d iffe r e n t ia l__________________________

38. 1
2 7 .6

U n ifo rm cents (p e r h o u r )_______________________
5 cents
7 c e n t s __________________________________________
ft rpnt.s
_
...
9 rpnts
........
10 rpn ts
...
. -.
_
14 re n ts
_
15 rpnts
25 ren ts
2f>2/3 rpnts
U n ifo rm p e r c e n t a g e ------

----------------------------------

10 p e r c e n t .._____ __________________________ ____
O th er f o r m a l pay d iffe r e n t ia l

_

W ith no shift pay d iffe r e n t ia l______________________

4.
3.
5.
2.
6.

1
7
8
7
8

_

_

T h ir d o r oth er
shift w o rk

A c t u a lly w o rk in g on—

Second shift

13.4

5. 0

29 .6

7 .0

2 .6

20. 1

4. 5

1.9

.
.
2.
.

1. 6

38.9

8. 1
2. 5
_

2. 7
3 .6
3. 2

4. 5

3
3
2
1

_
_
_

. 2

(3)

1.6

10. 5

2 .4

10. 5

-

2 .4

-

9 .5

-

9 .3

6. 5

20. 9

T h ir d o r oth er
shift

1 E x c lu d e s w o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts fo r w h ic h sh ift d ata w e r e not a v a ila b le .
2 Includes e sta b lish m e n ts c u r r e n t ly o p e ra tin g la te shifts, and e sta b lish m e n ts w ith f o r m a l p r o v is io n s
even though they w e r e not c u rre n tly o p e ra tin g la te sh ifts .
3 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p ercen t.

.7
2 .4

c o v e rin g late sh ifts

14

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours 1
of first-shift workers, Raleigh, N. C. , August 1967)
O ffic e w o r k e r s

Plan t w o r k e r s
W e e k ly h ou rs
A ll in d u s trie s 1
2

M an u factu rin g

A ll w o r k e r s ____________________________________________

100

100

39 hours
_
__
_
________ ___________
37 h ou rs
......
.........
37 lf-, h o u rs
........
D y p r 371/-, flnrl nnripr 40 h o u rs ..
... .
40 h ou rs
_
_ .......... .
O v e r 40 and under 49 h o u rs
__ _ _ _________
45 h o u r s ________________________________________________
O v e r 45 and under 48 h o u r s ________________________
48 h o u rs
.................... ....
.
O vp r 48 h o u rs
.............. _ .... .

3
1
6

4

1
2
3
4
5

71
4
6
1
6
1

1

88
3
3
_
2

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3

100

_
_
_
83
7
3
7
_

A ll in d u strie s 4

M an u factu rin g

100

100

5

( 5)

20
8
66

5
_

100

_
24
_
75
1
_

94

( 5)
1

_

0
(5)

1

Scheduled h ou rs a re the w e e k ly h o u rs w h ich a m a jo rity o f the fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s w e r e expected to w o r k , w hether they w e r e paid fo r at s tr a ig h t -t im e o r o v e rtim e
In cludes data fo r w h o le s a le t ra d e , r e t a il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s , in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly .
T ra n s p o rta tio n , com m u n ication , and oth er pu blic u tilitie s .
Includes data fo r w h o le s a le trad e; r e t a il tra d e ; fin an ce, in s u ra n c e , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s , in addition to those in dustry d iv isio n s shown s e p a ra te ly .
L e s s than 0. 5 percen t.

Digitized for FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3

_

ra t e s .

15

Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Raleigh, N. C. , August 1967)
O ffice w o rk e rs

Plan t w o r k e r s
Item

A l l w o r k e r s ____________________________________________

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p ro v id in g
paid h o lid a y s ________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
no paid h o lid a y s ____________________________________

A ll in d u strie s 1

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 1
2

100

100

100

92

91

100

8

9

A ll in d u s trie s 3

M an u factu rin g

Public u tilit ie s 2

100

100

100

99

99

100

1

( 4)

N u m b e r o f days

1 h o lid a y ________________________________________________
2 h o lid a y s ______________________________________________
3 h o lid a y s ______________________________________________
4 h o li d a y s ______________________________________________
5 h o li d a y s ______________________________________________
5 h o lid a y s p lus 1 h a lf d a y __________________________
6 h o lid a y s __________________________________________ —
6 h o lid a y s plus 1 h a lf d a y -------------------------------------______________________________________
7 h o lid a y s _
7 h o lid a y s plus 1 h a lf d a y -------------------------------------8 h o lid a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------9 h o lid a y s _________________________________ ____________
9 h o lid a y s plus 1 h a lf d a y -------------------------------------10 h o lid a y s _____________________________________________

_

_ ,

_

7
3
7
20
1
14
3
15
2
10
9

9
5
6
5
18
1
13
3
14
17

4
7
11
3
51
5
19

-

-

-

"

_

-

-

( 4)
( 4)
( 4)
1
7
1
29
1
27
1
14
10
7
1

0
( 4)

_

1
1
11

-

-

16
(4)
14
4
16
36

-

( 4)
14
1
62
4
19
-

-

-

-

_

_

T o ta l h o lid a y tim e

10 d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------9 V2 d ay s o r m o r e _______ __________ _______________
9 day s o r m o r e _______________________________________
8 day s o r m o r e _______________________________________
7 V2 day s o r m o r e _____________________________________
7 days o r m o r e _______________________________________
6V2 d ay s o r m o r e _____________________________________
6 d a y s o r m o r e _______________________________________
5 V2 d a y s o r m o r e _____________________________________
5 day s o r m o r e _______________________________________
4 days o r m o r e _______________________________________
3 day s o r m o r e -------------------------------------------------------2 d ay s o r m o r e _______________________________________
1 day o r m o r e _________________________________________

1
2
3
4

_

_

-

-

9
19
22
36
39
54
55
74
82
85
92
92

17
31
34
46
48
65
65
70
76
82
91
91

_
19
24
75
78
89
89
96
96
100
100
100

1
8
17
31
33
60
61
90
91
98
98
98
98
99

36
52
56
70
70
87
87
98
98
98
98
99

Includes data for w holesale trade, retail trade, rea l estate, and se rv ic e s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for w holesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and rea l estate; and se rv ic e s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L e ss than 0. 5 percent.

Digitized for FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

19
23
85
86
99
99
100
100
100
100
100

16
Table B-5. Paid Vacations1
(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Raleigh, N.C., August 1967)
O ffic e w o r k e r s

Plan t w o r k e r s
V a catio n p o lic y
A ll in d u strie s 2

A ll w o r k e r s _____

____________________________________

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3

100

100

100

99
90
9
-

100
83
17
-

100
100

A ll in d u strie s 4

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3

100

100

100
99
1
-

100
100

4
38
8
17

7
63
4
( 5)

79
-

_
20
80

_
53
47

100

M ethod of paym ent

W o rk e rs in esta b lish m e n ts p ro v id in g
paid va c a tio n s______________________________________
L e n g t h -o f-t im e p a y m e n t________ _____________
P e rc e n ta g e paym ent_____________________ ___
O t h e r ____ ________________________________________
W o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts p ro v id in g
no paid vacatio n s ___ ___________________________

-

1

99
99
( 5)
-

"

( 5)

'

Am ount of vacation p a y 6

A ft e r 6 m onths of s e r v ic e
U nder 1 w e e k ___________ _____________ _____________
1 w eek __________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s _________________________
2 w e e k s ________________________________________________

_

13
24
1

21
23
-

1
70
25
1

_
68
26
2

_

_

58
42

28
72

-

-

2
39
7
50
1

3
44
6
44
2

_
11
14
75
"

6
3
91
"

9
91

2
19
79

2
28
4
65
1

3
33
8
55
2

4
4
93
-

3
97
"

6
94

1
99

2
25
4
67
1

3
30
8
57
2

3
97

4
96

68
-

A ft e r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e
U nder 1 w e e k _________________________________________
1 w eek __________________________________________________
2 w e e k s ________________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s _________________________

-

A ft e r 2 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
U nder 1 w eek
1 w eek __________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s _________________________
2 w e e k s _____________________ ____ ____________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s _________________________

-

-

-

A ft e r 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
U nder 1 w e e k _________________________________________
1 w eek __________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s _________________________
2 w e e k s ________________ _____________________________
O ver 2 and u n der 3 w e e k s _________________________

_

"

A ft e r 4 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
U nder 1 w e e k _________________________________________
1 w eek
....... .
_ . _
O ver 1 and u n der 2 w e e k s _________________________
2 w e e k s ________________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s _________________________

See footnotes at end of table.

Digitized for FRASER
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

.

4
4
93

1
99

17

Table B-5. Paid Vacations1— Continued
(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Raleigh, N.C., August 1967)
O ffice w o r k e r s

Plan t w o r k e r s
V a c a tio n p o lic y
A ll in d u s t r ie s 2

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3

A ll in d u s t r ie s 4

M an u factu rin g

Pu blic u tilitie s 3

A m ou n t of va c a tio n p a y 6— Continued

A ft e r 5 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k __________________________________________
1 w e e k __________________________________ ________________
O v e r 1 and u n der 2 w e e k s _________________________
2 w eeks
........
.....
_
_ ____
O v e r 2 and u n der 3 w e e k s _________________________
3 w e e k s _________________________________________________
O v e r 3 and u n der 4 w e e k s _________________________

2
18
2
66
10
1

3
21
4
53
17
2

4
96
-

_
2
86
1
11
"

4
60
36

.
100

-

20
50
28
1

24
40
34
2

_
41
59
-

2
31

4
23

( 5)
66
1

( 5)
73
-

56
44
-

20
43
3
33
1

24
34
2
37
2

11
18
71
-

2
24
5
68
1

-

"

( 5)
78

20
37
31
10
1

24
29
27
17
2

_

11
80
9

2
21
65
1
11

4
13
46
36

20
36
16
27
1

24
27
16
31
2

11
25
64
~

20
36
12
30
1

24
27
14
33
2

A ft e r 10 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ___________________________________________________
2 w e e k s _________________________________________________
O v e r 2 and u n der 3 w e e k s _________________________
3 w e e k s _________________________________________________
4 w e e k s _________________________________________________
O v e r 4 and u n d er 5 w e e k s ________________ _______

"

A ft e r 12 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k __________________________________________________
2 w e e k s __________________________________________ .______
O v e r 2 and un d er 3 w e e k s _________________________
3 w e e k s _________________________________________________
4 w e e k s _________________________________________________
O v e r 4 and un d er 5 w e e k s _________________________

4
18

14
38
48

A ft e r 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k -------------------------------- -----------------------------------2 w e e k s __________________________________ ____________
3 w e e k s ___________________________ _____________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s ______________________
4 w e e k s ______________ __________________ ____________
O v e r 4 and under 5 w e e k s _________________________

_

5
94
1

"

A ft e r 20 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________ _______________
2 w e e k s _________________________ ______________________
3 w e e k s ________ ____________________ ________________
4 w e e k s --------------------------- ------------------------------------5 w e e k s _________________________________________________
O v e r 5 and u n der 6 w e e k s _______________________

_

2
21
27
49
1

_

5
47
48
-

4
12
32
53

2
21
20
49
1
8

4
12
26
58
-

5
9
86
-

A ft e r 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _____ ___________________________________________
2 w e e k s ________________ _________________________ _____
3 w e e k s __________________________ ______________________
4 w e e k s _________________________________________________
O v e r 4 and u n der 5 w e e k s _________________________
5 w e e k s _________ _____________________________________
O v e r 5 and u n d er 6 w e e k s _____________________ —

See footnotes at end of table,

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_
11
7
82
-

18
Table B-5. Paid Vacations1--- Continued
(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Raleigh, N.C., August 1967)
P lan t w o r k e r s

O ffic e w o r k e r s

V a c a tio n p o lic y
A ll in d u strie s 1
2

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u tilities 3

A ll in d u s trie s 4

M a n u fa c tu rin g

-

2
21
20
49
9
"

4
12
26
58
-

5
9
86
( 5)

2
21
20
49
8
1

4
12
26
58
-

5
9
86
( 5)
-

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3

Am ount of vacation p a y 6— Continued

A ft e r 30 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s _________________________________________________
3 w e e k s _________________________________________________
4 w e e k s __________________________________________ _____ 5 w e e k s ------------------------------ --------------------------------------O ver 5 and under 6 w e e k s __________________________

20
36
12
30
( 5)
1

24
27
14
33
2

20
36
12
30
( 5)
1

24
27
14
33
2

11
7
82
( 5)

-

M ax im u m vacation a v a ila b le
1 w eek___________________________________________________
2 w e e k s _________________________________________________
3 w e e k s _________________________________________________
4 w e e k s _________________________________________________
5 w e e k s _________________________________________________
O ver 5 and under 6 w e e k s __________________________
O ver 6 w e e k s __________________________________________

.
11
7
82
( 5)
-

1 In cludes b a s ic plans only. E x c lu d e s plans such as v a c a tio n -s a v in g s and those plans w hich o ffe r "e x te n d e d " or "s a b b a t ic a l" ben efits beyond b a s ic p lan s to w o r k e r s w ith q u alify in g lengths
of s e rv ic e .
T y p ic a l of such e x c lu sio n s a r e plans in the ste e l, alu m in u m , and can in d u strie s.
2 Includes data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e t a il tra d e , r e a l estate, and s e r v ic e s , in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly .
3 T ra n s p o rta tio n , com m un ication , and other public u tilitie s.
4 Includes data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e t a il tra d e ; fin an ce, in s u ra n c e , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s , in addition to those in d u stry d iv is io n s shown s e p a ra te ly .
5 L e s s than 0.5 p ercen t.
6 In cludes paym ents other than "len gth of t i m e , " such a s p e rc e n ta g e of annual e a rn in g s o r fla t -s u m p aym en ts, con verted to an equivalen t tim e b a s is ; fo r e x a m p le , a paym ent of 2 p erc e n t
of annual e a rn in g s w a s c o n s id e re d a s 1 w e e k 's pay.
P e r io d s of s e r v ic e w e r e ch osen a r b i t r a r i ly and do not n e c e s s a r ily re fle c t the in d ivid u al p ro v is io n s f o r p r o g r e s s io n .
F o r e x a m p le , the
changes in p ro p o rtio n s indicated at 10 y e a r s ' s e r v ic e include ch an ges in p ro v is io n s o c c u rrin g betw een 5 and 10 y e a rs .
E stim a te s a r e cu m u lativ e.
T h u s, the p ro p o rtio n e lig ib le fo r 3 w e e k s '
pay or m o re a fte r 10 y e a r s in clu d es those e lig ib le fo r 3 w e e k s' pay o r m o re a fte r fe w e r y e a r s of s e r v ic e .

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19

Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t o f plant and office w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s em ployed in e sta b lish m e n ts p ro v id in g
health, in s u ra n c e , and pension b e n e fits , 1 R a le ig h , N . C . , A u gu st 1967)
O ffice w o r k e r s

P lan t w o r k e r s
Type o f be n e fit

A l l w o r k e r s _____________________________________________

A ll in d u s t r ie s 4

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s 3

100

100

A ll in d u s t r ie s 1
2

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3

100

100

100

100

87

92

87

97

98

95

60

55

66

51

48

68

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g :
L ife in s u r a n c e _____________________________________
A c c id e n ta l death and d is m e m b e rm e n t
in s u ra n c e _______________________________________ _
S ick n ess and a c c id en t in su ra n c e o r
sick le a v e o r b o t h 5 _____________________________

73

69

90

91

90

92

S ick n ess and a c cid en t in s u r a n c e ___________
Sick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w a itin g p e r io d )_______________________________
Sick le a v e (p a r t ia l pay o r
w aitin g p e r io d )_______________________________

44

47

50

47

43

57

24

17

24

75

75

29

16

9

40

6

3

24

H o s p ita liz a tio n in s u r a n c e _______________________
S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e ________________________________
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e ________________________________
C a ta stro p h e in s u r a n c e ___________________________
R e tire m e n t p e n sio n _______________________________
N o health , in s u ra n c e , o r pen sion p la n ----------

86
86
65
63
67
4

90
90
64
68
70
2

96
96
89
89
85

95
95
81
86
90
1

94
94
77
94
89
1

92
92
91
91
77

1 In clu d es those p lan s fo r w h ich at le a st a p art o f the co st is bo rn e b y the e m p lo y e r, except those le g a lly re q u ire d , such as w o rk m e n 's com p en satio n , s o c ia l s e c u rity , and r a ilr o a d re tire m e n t.
2 Inclu d es data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , re t a il tra d e , r e a l estate, and s e r v ic e s , in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a ra te ly .
3 T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n icatio n , and other public u tilities.
4 In clu d es data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e ta il trade; fin an ce, in s u ra n c e , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s , in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a ra te ly .
5 U n d u p licated total o f w o r k e r s re c e iv in g sick leav e o r sick n ess and accident in su ra n c e shown s e p a r a t e ly b e lo w .
Sick le a v e plans a re lim ited to those w h ich d e fin itely e sta b lish at le a st
the m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s ' pay that can be expected by each em p lo y e e .
In fo rm a l sic k le a v e a llo w a n c e s d e te rm in e d on an in d ivid u al b a s is a r e excluded.

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20

Table B-7.

Premium Pay for Overtime Work

(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by overtime premium pay
provisions, Raleigh, N. C. , August 1967)
P lan t w o r k e r s

O ffic e w o r k e r s

P re m iu m pay p olicy

A l l w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------

A ll in d u s trie s 1

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 1
2

100

100

100

100

A ll in d u s trie s 3

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

100

100

D a ily o v e rtim e at p re m iu m ra te s
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts having
p ro v is io n s fo r d a ily o v e rtim e pay 4
at p re m iu m r a t e s ___________________________________
T im e and o n e - h a l f _______________________ ____ ___
E ffe c tiv e after:
7 l/z h o u r s --------------------------------------------------8 h o u r s -------------- ---------------------------------------9 h o u r s ______________________________________
10 h o u r s _____________________________________

43

53

74

31

70

48

43

53

74

31

70

48

40
2
1

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts h aving no
p ro v isio n s fo r d a ily o v e rtim e pay
at p re m iu m ra te s 6__________________________________

51
2

61
7
7

3
28

(!)

68
2

24
23
1

( 5)

47

26

69

30

52

92

100

90

99

100

99

92

100

90

99

100

99

_

.

4
8
87

-

-

95

76

W e e k ly o v e rtim e at p re m iu m ra te s
W o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts having
p ro v is io n s fo r w e e k ly o v e rtim e pay 4
at p re m iu m r a t e s ___________________________________
T im e and o n e - h a l f ---------------------------------------------E ffe c tiv e a fte r:
35 h o u r s _____________________________________
37 lh h o u r s ___________________________________
383/4 h o u r s ___________________________________
40 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------44 h o u r s _____________________________________
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts having no
p ro v isio n s fo r w e e k ly o v e rtim e pay
at p re m iu m ra te s 6__________________________________

( 5)
2
-

90
1

-

1
4

-

-

-

96

90

5

24

( 5)

10

( 5)

1 In cludes data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s , in addition to those in d u stry divisio n s shown se p a ra te ly .
2 T ra n s p o rta tio n , com m u n ication , and other pu blic u tilitie s.
3 In cludes data fo r w h o le s a le trad e; r e t a il tra d e ; fin an ce, in s u ra n c e , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s , in addition to those industry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a t e ly .
4 In cludes w o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts c o v e re d by le g is la tiv e re q u ire m e n ts r e g a r d in g p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e , even though such w o r k e r s a c tu a lly do not w o r k o v e rtim e .
G rad u ated
p ro v isio n s fo r p re m iu m pay a re c la s s ifie d under the f i r s t effective p re m iu m ra te .
F o r e x a m p le , a plan c a llin g fo r time and o n e -h a lf a fter 8 and d ouble tim e a fte r 10 h o u rs w ou ld be c o n sid e re d
as tim e and o n e -h a lf a fte r 8 h o u rs.
S im ila r ly , a plan c a llin g fo r no pay o r pay at a r e g u la r rate a fte r 35 h o u rs and tim e and o n e -h a lf a fter 40 h o u rs w o u ld b e c o n s id e re d as tim e and o n e -h a lf
a fte r 40 h o u rs.
5 L e s s than 0. 5 percen t.
6 In cludes w o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts exem pt fro m le g is la tiv e re q u ire m e n ts r e g a r d in g p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and w h e r e , as a m atte r o f p o lic y , o v e rtim e is not w o rk e d .

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Appendix. Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field
staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles
and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area.
This permits
the grouping o f occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may
differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes.
In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors;
apprentices; learners; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BILLER, MACHINE— Continued

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than
an ordinary or electromatic typewriter.
May also keep records as to
billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to
billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are clas­
sified by type o f machine, as follows:
Biller, machine (billing machine). Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc. , which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of pre­
determined discounts and shipping charges, and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the
b ill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

columns and computes, and usually prints automatically the debit or
credit balances.
Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher,
Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without a type­
writer keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the
structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper
records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each
phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets,
and other records by hand.
Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, cus­
tomers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc.
May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills
as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the
simultaneous entry o f figures on customers' ledger record. The ma­
chine automatically accumulates figures on a number o f vertical

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Note: Since the last survey in this area, the Bureau has discontinued collecting data for duplicatingmachine operators and elevator operators.

21

22

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A.
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or accountant,
has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a complete set
of books or records relating to one phase of an establishment's busi­
ness transactions.
Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary
ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts payable;
examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper accounting
distribution; and requires judgment and experience in making proper
assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, adjusting, and
closing journal entries; and may direct class B accounting clerks.
Class B. Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or accounts
payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling
bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by general
ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not
require a knowledge o f accounting and bookkeeping principles but
is found in offices in which the more routine accounting work is
subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A . In an established filin g system containing a number
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc.
May
also file this material.
May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B. Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer sub­
headings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids.
As requested, locates clearly identified material in files and forwards
material.
May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain
and service files.

CLERK, ORDER

Receives customers' orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating o f customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping
invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary
data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers' earnings
based on time or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll
sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working days, time,
rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class C.
Performs routine filin g of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classi­
fication system (e. g. , alphabetical, chronological, or numerical).
As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards
material; and may fill out withdrawal charge.
Performs simple
clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service files.

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Class A .
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards.
Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application

23

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR— Continued
of coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.
Class B. Under close supervision or following specific procedures
or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to punched
cards.
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combination
keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May verify cards.
Working from various standardized source documents, follows specified
sequences which have been coded or prescribed in detail and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be punched.
Problems arising from erroneous items or codes, missing information,
etc. , are referred to supervisor.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating
minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing
m ail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Assigned as personal secretary, normally to one individual. Main­
tains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work
activities of Hie supervisor. Woiks fairly independently receiving a mini­
mum of detailed supervision and guidance. Performs varied clerical and
secretarial duties, usually including most of the following: (a ) Receives
telephone calls, personal callers, and incoming mail, answers routine
inquiries, and routes the technical inquiries to the proper persons; (b)
establishes, maintains, and revises the supervisor's files; (c ) maintains the
supervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed; (d) relays
messages from supervisor to subordinates; (e) reviews correspondence, mem­
oranda, and reports prepared by others for the supervisor's signature to
assure procedural and typographic accuracy; and (f) performs stenographic
and typing work.
May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks o f com­
parable nature and difficulty. The work typically requires knowledge of
office routine and understanding of the organization, programs, and pro­
cedures related to the work o f the supervisor.

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SECRETA RY— Continue d
Exclusions
Not all positions that are titled "secretary" possess the above
characteristics. Examples of positions which are excluded from the def­
inition are as follows: (a ) Positions which do not meet the "personal"
secretary concept described above; (b) stenographers not fully trained in
secretarial type duties; (c ) stenographers serving as office assistants to a
group of professional, technical, or managerial persons; (d) secretary posi­
tions in which the duties are either substantially more routine or substan­
tially more complex and responsible than those characterized in the def­
inition; and (e) assistant type positions which involve more difficult or more
responsible technical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical
duties which are not typical of secretarial woik.
NOTE: The term "corporate officer," used in the level definitions
following, refers to those officials who have a significant corporate-wide
policymaking role with regard to major company activities.
The title
"v ic e president," though normally indicative o f this role, does n otin all
cases identify such positions. V ice presidents whose primary responsibility
is to act personally on individual cases or transactions (e. g. , approve or
deny individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts;
directly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate
officers" for purposes o f applying the following level definitions.
Class A
a.
Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a
company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
b.
Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of
the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but
fewer than 25,000 persons; or
c.
Secretary to the head (im m ediately below the corporate
officer le ve l) of a major segment or subsidiary of a company that employs,
in all, over 25,000 persons.
Class B
a.
Secretary to the chairman of the board or president o f a
company that employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the
board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer
than 5,000 persons; or

24

SECRETA RY— Continued

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL— Continued

c.
Secretary to the head (im m ediately below the officer lev e l)
over either a major corporate-wide functional activity (e .g . , marketing,
research, operations, industrial relations, e tc .) or a major geographic or
organizational segment ( e . g . , a regional headquarters; a major division)
of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
employees; or

May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively rou­
tine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not
include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine operator. )

d. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.
(or other equivalent leve l of officia l) that employs, in all, over 5,000
persons; or

STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical or
specialized vocabulary such as in leg al briefs or reports on scientific re­
search from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine; and transcribe dictation.
May also type from written
copy.
May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR
e.
Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational
Performs
stenographic
duties
requiring significantly greater inde­
segment (e. g . , a middle management supervisor of an organizational seg­
pendence
and
responsibility
than
stenographers,
general as evidenced
ment often involving as many as several hundred persons) of a company
by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic speed and
that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.
accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge o f general business and
Class C
office procedures and of the specific business operations, organization,
policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in per­
a.
Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon­
forming
stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as, main­
sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific leve l situations in the def­
taining followup files; assembling material for reports, memorandums,
inition for class B, but whose subordinate staff normally numbers at least
letters, e t c .; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading
several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments
and routing incoming mail; and answering routine questions, etc.
Does
which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level
not include transcribing-machine work.
includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or
two; or

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

b.
Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.
(or other equivalent level of o fficia l) that employs, in all, fewer than
5,000 persons.

Class A . Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone
switchboard handling incoming, outgoing, intraplant or office calls. Per­
forms full telephone information service or handles complex calls, such as
conference, collect, overseas, or similar calls, either in addition to doing
routine work as described for switchboard operator, class B, or as a fu ll­
time assignment. ( ’’Full'’ telephone information service occurs when the
establishment has varied functions that are not readily understandable for
telephone information purposes, e.g., because of overlapping or interrelated
functions, and consequently present frequent problems as to which exten­
sions are appropriate for calls.)

Class D
a.
Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational
unit ( e . g . , fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or
b.
Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional
employee, administrative officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert.
(NOTE: Many companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as
described above, to this le v e l of supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.)
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a normal routine v o ­
cabulary from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine; and transcribe dictation.
May also type from writ­
ten copy.

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Class B. Operates a singler or multiple-position telephone
switchboard handling incoming, outgoing, intraplant or office calls. May
handle routine long distance calls and record tolls. May perform lim ited
telephone information service. ( '’Limited’' telephone information service
occurs if the functions of the establishment serviced are readily understand­
able for telephone information purposes, or if the requests are routine,
e . g . , giving extension numbers when specific names are furnished, or if
complex calls are referred to another operator. )

25

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

In addition to performing duties of operator on a single-position
or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type or
perform routine clerical woik as part of regular duties.
This typing or
clerical work may take the major part of this worker* s time while at
switchboard.

TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR—Continued

some filing woik.
The work typically involves portions of a work
unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or repetitive
operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
TABULATING-M A CHINE OPERATOR

Class A . Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines, typically including such machines as the tabulator,
calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs complete
reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs difficult
wiring as required.
The complete reporting and tabulating assign­
ments typically involve a variety of long and complex reports which
often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring some planning and
sequencing o f steps to be taken. As a more experienced operator,
is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations,
or partially trained operators in wiring from diagrams and operating
sequences o f long and complex reports. Does not include working
supervisors performing tabulating-machine operations and day-to-day
supervision o f the work and production of a group o f tabulatingmachine operators.

Class B. Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the
sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under specific
instructions and may include the performance o f some wiring from
diagrams.
The woik typically involves, for example, tabulations
involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but small
tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more complex report. Such
reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where the pro­
cedures are w ell established. May also include the training of new
employees in the basic operation of the machine.

Class C.
Operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting
machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, e t c ., with
specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams and

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Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation involving
a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports
on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in
shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified as a stenog­
rapher, general.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicating
processes.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filin g records and reports, or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming mail.

Class A . Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctu­
ation, e t c ., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing o f complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing.
May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circumstances.

Class B. Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance policies,
e t c .; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more
complex tables already setup and spaced properly.

26
PROFESSIONAL* A ND

TECHNICAL

DRAFTSMAN— Continued

DRAFTSMAN
Class A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from established
drafting precedents. Works in close support with the design originator,
and may recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of
each change on the details of form, function, and positional relation­
ships of components and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory
assistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator for con­
sistency with prior engineering determinations.
May either prepare
drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level draftsmen.
Class B. Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application o f most of the standardized drawing tech­
niques regularly used. Duties typically involve such work as: Prepares
working drawings o f subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple
functions, and precise positional relationships between components;
prepares architectural drawings for construction of a building including
detail drawings o f foundations, wall sections, floor plans, and roof.
Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary computations
to determine quantities of materials to be used, load capacities,
strengths, stresses, etc.
Receives initial instructions, requirements,
and advice from supervisor. Completed work is checked for technical
adequacy.
Class C. Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for
engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes.
Types
of drawings prepared include isometric projections (depicting three
dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning
of components and convey needed information. Consolidates details
from a number o f sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required.

Suggested methods of approach, applicable precedents, and advice on
source materials are given with initial assignments. Instructions are
less complete when assignments recur.
Work may be spot-checked
during progress.
DRAFTSMAN-TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing
cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not
include tracing lim ited to plans primarily consisting o f straight lines and
a large scale not requiring close delineation.)
and/or
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items.
is closely supervised during progress.

Work

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general m edi­
cal direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or
suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the follow ing: Giving first aid to the ill
or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping
records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation
or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation o f plant en­
vironment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety
of all personnel.

MAINTENANCE AND

POWERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE— Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain
in good repair building woodwoik and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made
of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Plan­
ning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal
instructions using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools,

and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations
relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the
work.
In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

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27

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES— Continued

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the in­
stallation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any o f a variety o f
electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, con­
trollers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other
transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or
other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical
system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load
requirements o f wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of
electrician's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general,
the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind
of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted
to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are
also performed by workers on a full-tim e basis.

ENGINEER, S TA TIO N AR Y
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of
stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the
establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or
air-conditioning.
Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines,
ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed
water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation
of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption.
May also supervise
these operations.
Head or chief engineers in establishments employing
more than one engineer are excluded.

FIREMAN, S TA TIO N A R Y BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.
HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping

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MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or m illing machines, in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies.
Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling, and oper­
ation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recognize
when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants
and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study purposes,
machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are ex­
cluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and speci­
fications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety of machinist's
handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating
standard machine tools; shaping o f metal parts to close tolerances; making
standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds,
and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the
common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment re­
quired for his work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical
equipment. In general, the machinist's work normally requires a rounded
training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

28

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

OILER

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use o f such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment o f an establishment.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment o f an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechanical
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools
in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a
machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major
repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the pro­
duction of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling machines; and
making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of
a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers.
In general,
the m illw rights work normally requires a rounded training and experience
in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

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PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculi­
arities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or bmsh.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency.
In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types o f pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting
machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system o f an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents
and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures;
and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumbers snake. In general,
the woik of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

29

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

TOOL AND DIE MAKER— Continued

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves,
lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establish­
ment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out all
types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other
specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal­
working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, form­
ing, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles
as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(D ie

maker; jig

maker; tool maker; fixture maker;

volves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision measuring
instruments; understanding of the working properties of common metals
and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equip­
ment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
speeds,' feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating of metal parts during
fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qual­
ities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling of parts to pre­
scribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate materials,
tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's work requires
a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

gage maker)

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fixtures
or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work in-

CUSTODIAL AND

For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in
tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

MATERIAL

MOVEMENT

GUARD AND W ATCHM AN

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Guard. Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or
on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes
gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees
and other persons entering.

trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing
metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance
services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms.
Workers who
specialize in window washing are excluded.

Watchman. Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting
property against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman
or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commerical
or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,

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A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the following:
Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from
freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and trans­
porting materials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

30
ORDER, FILLER

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers'
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to fillin g orders and in­
dicating items fille d or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them
in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent
upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of con­
tainer employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of
items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following:
Knowledge o f various items of stock in order to verify content; selection
of appropriate type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container;
using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closing
and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on
container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible
for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work
involves: A knowledge o f shipping procedures, practices, routes, available
means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records of the goods
shipped, making up bills o f lading, posting weight and shipping charges,
and keeping a file o f shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing
the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves: Verifying or
directing others in verifying the correctness o f shipments against bills o f
lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting
damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper departments;
and maintaining necessary records and files.

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Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKD RIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of es­
tablishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
customers' houses or places of business.
May also load or unload truck
with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck
in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are
excluded.
For wage study purposes, truck drivers are classified by size and
type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the
basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under l* /2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1/2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials o f all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type o f truck,
as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

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A v a i l a b l e O n R e q u e s t -----

The seventh annual r e p o r t on s a l a r i e s f o r accountants, auditors,
attorn ey s, chemists, e n g i n ee r s, engine erin g technicians, dra ftsm en,
t r a c e r s , job anal ysts, d i r e c t o r s of pers on nel, m a n a g e r s o f o f f i c e
s e r v i c e s , buyers, fr e i g h t rate c l e r k s , and c l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s .
O r d e r as BLS Bulletin 1535, National
m i n i s t r a t i v e , T echnical , and C l e r i c a l
50 cents a copy.

Survey of P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d ­
P a y , F eb r u a r y —M a r ch 1966.

f t U.s. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1967 -3 0 3 -6 0 0 /2 3

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Area Wage Surveys
A l i s t o f the l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e b u lle tin s is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w .
A d i r e c t o r y in d i c a t i n g d a t e s o f e a r l i e r s t u d ie s , and the p r i c e s o f th e b u lle tin s is
a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t .
B u l l e t i n s m a y b e p u rc h a s ed f r o m the S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n , D . C . , 20402,
o r f r o m any o f the B LS r e g i o n a l s a le s o f f i c e s shown on the i n s i d e f r o n t c o v e r .

Area

Bu lletin number
and p r i c e

A k r o n , O h io , Ju ly 1967 1 ___________________ ________ ________
A l b a n y —S c h e n e c t a d y ' - T r o y , N . Y . , A p r . 1967 _______ _____
A l b u q u e r q u e , N. M e x . , A p r . 1967 ______ _________________
A l l e n t o w n —B e t h l e h e m —E a s t o n , P a . —N. J . ,
F e b . 1967 ..____________________________________________________
A t l a n t a , G a . , M a y 1967 __________________________ ____________
B a l t i m o r e , M d . , N o v . 1966 1---------------------------------------B e a u m o n t —P o r t A r t h u r —O r a n g e , T e x . , M a y 1967 _____
B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , A p r . 1967 1 ___________________________
B o i s e C i t y , Id ah o, J u ly 1967 --------------------------------------B o s to n , M a s s . , O c t. 1966___________________________ _— -----

1 330 -86,
1530-62,
1530-60,

25 cen ts
25 c e n ts
20 c e n ts

1 53 0-53,
1530-7 1,
1530-30,
1530-74,
1 530-63 ,
1575-3,
1530-16,

2 5 c en ts
25 c en ts
30 c en ts
20 c en ts
30 c en ts
20 c en ts
25 c en ts

B u f f a l o , N . Y . , D e c . 1966 1____________________ ______________
B u r l i n g t o n , Vt. , M a r . 1967 1 ______________________________
C a n to n , O h io , A p r . 1967 _______________________________ _____
C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . , A p r . 1967 ____________________________
C h a r l o t t e , N . C . , A p r . 1967 ____________________ ____________
C h a t t a n o o g a , T e n n . - G a . , Sept. 1966 1_____________________
C h i c a g o , 111., A p r . 1967 1 __________________________________
C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o —K y . —I n d . , M a r . 1967 __ „_____ __________
C l e v e l a n d , O h io , S ep t. 1966 1_____________________________
C o l u m b u s , O h io , O c t. 1966 1______________________— -_____
D a l l a s , T e x . , N o v . 1966 1_____ - ____________________________

153 0-38,
1530- 52,
15 30-58,
1530-61,
1 530-64,
1530-8,
1530-73,
1530-56,
1530-13,
1530-20,
1530-25,

D a v e n p o r t —R o c k I s l a n d —M o l i n e , Io w a —111.,
O c t. 1966 1- _________________________ _________________________
D a y to n , O h io , Jan. 1967 ____________________________________
D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c . 1966---------- ---------------------- ---------D e s M o i n e s , Io w a , F e b . 19 67 -------------------------------------D e t r o i t , M i c h . , Jan. 1967 1 ________________________________
F o r t W o r t h , T e x . , N o v . 1966 1____________________________
G r e e n B a y , W i s ., J u ly 1967 --------------------------- ------------G r e e n v i l l e , S . C . , M a y 1967 ________________________ _______
H o u s to n , T e x . , June 1967 -------------- -------------------- ---------I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d . , D e c . 1966---------- ---------------------------J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b . 1967 ____________________ ____________
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , Jan. 1967 1 ----------------------------------K a n s a s C i t y , M o . - K a n s . , N o v . 1966______________________
L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i l l , M a s s . —N . H . , June 1967 -----------L i t t l e R o c k —N o r t h L i t t l e R o c k , A r k . , July 1967 ------- L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e i m —Santa A n a G a r d e n G r o v e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1967 1 __ __________________
L o u i s v i l l e , K y . - I n d . , F e b . 1967 1 ___________________ _____
Lu b b o c k , T e x . , June 1967 ____________ ______________________
M a n c h e s t e r , N . H . , J u ly 19 67 ---- ---------- -----------------------M e m p h i s , T e n n . - A r k . , Jan. 1967 ---- ---------------- ----------M i a m i , F l a . , D e c . 1966_________ __________ - ______________—
M id la n d and O d e s s a , T e x . , June 1967 ------------------------

Digitized for FRASER
D ata on es tab lis h m en t
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Area

Bu lletin number
and p r i c e

M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , A p r . 1967 1_______________________________
M i n n e a p o l i s —St. P a u l , M in n ., Jan. 1967 1__________ ________
M u s k e g o n —M u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h . , M a y 1967 __________
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C i t y , N . J . , F e b . 1967 ___________ ____
N e w H a v e n , C o n n ., Jan. 1967 __________________________ _____
N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , F e b . 196? 1 _____________________________
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 1967 1__________________________ ._____
N o r f o l k —P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s —
H a m p t o n , V a . , June 1967 1_________________________________
O k l a h o m a C i t y , O k l a . , July 1967 _______________________ ____

1 530-76,
1530-42,
1530-72,
1530- 55,
1530-41,
1530-51,
1530-83,

30cen ts
30cen ts
20 cen ts
25 cen ts
25 cen ts
30 cen ts
40 cen ts

1530-82,
157 5-4,

25cen ts
20cents

30 c e n ts
25 c e n ts
20 c en ts
20 c en ts
20 c e n ts
30 c en ts
30 c e n ts
25 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c en ts
30 c en ts

O m a h a , N e b r . - I o w a , O c t. 1966--------------- ---------------------P a t e r son—C l i f t o n —P a s s aic , N . J . , M a y 1967 ______________
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . —N . J . , N o v . 1966 1_______________________
P h o e n i x , A r i z . , M a r . 1967 —________________________________
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , Jan. 1967 1_________________________________
P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , N o v , 1966-----------------------------------------P o r t l a n d , O r e g . - W a s h . , M a y 1967 ________________________
P r o v i d e n c e —P a w t u c k e t —W a r w i c k , R . I . —M a s s . ,
M a y 1967 1 ___________________________________________________ _
R a l e i g h , N . C . , A u g . 1967 1-------------------------------------------R i c h m o n d , V a . , N o v . 1966___________________________________
R o c k f o r d , 111., M a y 1967 _____________________________________

1530-18,
1 5 30 -67 ,
1530-35,
1530-59,
1530-46,
1530-17,
1 530-79,
1530-70,
157 5-6,
1530-23,
1530-68,

30c en ts
25cen ts
25c en ts
20c en ts

1530-19,
1530 -45,
1530-32,
1530-44,
1530-48,
1530-28,
1575-5,
1530-66,
1530-85,
1530-37 ,

30 cen ts
25 c e n ts
25 c e n ts
25 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c en ts
20 c en ts
25 c en ts
25 c en ts
25 c e n ts

St. L o u i s , M o . —111., O c t. 1966 1_____________________________
S a lt L a k e C i t y , Utah, D e c . 1966 1--------------------------------San A n t o n i o , T e x . , June 1967 1 ________________ ____________
San B e r n a r d i n o —R i v e r s id e —O n t a r i o , C a l i f . ,
Sept. 1966-------- -----------------------------------------------------------San D i e g o , C a l i f . , N o v . 1966 1______________________________
San F r a n c i s c o —O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , Jan. 1967 1______________
San J o s e , C a l i f . , Sept. 1966-----------------------------------------Sav an n ah , G a . , M a y 1967 ____________________________________
S c r a n t o n , P a . , A u g . 1966----------------------------------------------S e a t t l e —E v e r e t t , W a s h ., O c t . 1966_________________________

1530-27 ,
1530-33,
1530-84,

30cen ts
25c en ts
25c en ts

1530-14,
1530-24,
1530-36,
1530-10,
1530-69,
1530-3,
1530-22,

25cents
25cen ts
30cen ts
20cen ts
20c en ts
20cents
25cen ts

1530-43,
1 530-39,
1530-26,
1 530-7/,
157 5-2,

20 c e n ts
25 c e n ts
25 c en ts
20 c e n ts
25 cen ts

1530-65,
1 530-49,
1530-7 5,
1575- 1,
1d 30-40,
15 3 0 - M ,
1 530-7 8,

30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
20 c e n ts
20 c en ts
25 c e n ts
25 c e n ts
20 c e n ts

S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k . , O c t. 1966_____________________________
South B e n d , In d., M a r . 1967 ________________________________
S po k an e , W a s h . , June 1967 1 ________________________________
T a m p a —St. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , Sept. 1966 1 ______________
T o l e d o , O h io —M i c h . , F e b . 1967 1----------------------------------T r e n t o n , N . J . , D e c . 1966 1________ ________________ ___________
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . —M d . —V a . , O c t . 1966 1____________________
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n ., M a r . 1967 ______________________________
W a t e r l o o , I o w a , N o v . 1966 1_________________ ________________
W i c h i t a , K a n s ., O c t. 1966 1__________________________________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , June 1967 ______________________________
Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1967 ----- ---------------------------------------------Y o u n g s t o w n —W a r r e n , O h io , N o v . 1966_____________________

1530-12,
1530-57,
1530-80,
1530-9,
1530-50,
1530-34,
1530-15,
1 530-54 ,
1530-21,
1530-11,
1530-81,
1 530-47,
1530-29,

20cen ts
20c en ts
25cen ts
25cen ts
30cen ts
25c en ts
30cen ts
20cen ts
25cen ts
25cen ts
25c e n ts
25c en ts
25cen ts

p r a c t i c e s a n d s u p p l e m e n t a r y w ag e p rov is io ns ar e also p r e s e n t e d .

25
35
20
30
20
25

25cen ts
c en ts
ce n ts
cen ts
cen ts
cents
c en ts

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