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You are on page 1of 17

In statistics, an average is defined as the number that measures the central tendency of a given set of

numbers. There are a number of different averages including but not limited to: mean, median, mode

and range.

Mean

Mean is what most people commonly refer to as an average. The mean refers to the number you

obtain when you sum up a given set of numbers and then divide this sum by the total number in the

set. Mean is also referred to more correctly as arithmetic mean.

The mean is found by adding up all the a's and then dividing by the total number, n

Example 1

Solution

The first step is to count how many numbers there are in the set, which we shall call n

The last step is to find the actual mean by dividing the sum by n

Mean can also be found for grouped data, but before we see an example on that, let us first define

frequency.

Frequency in statistics means the same as in everyday use of the word. The frequency an element in a

set refers to how many of that element there are in the set. The frequency can be from 0 to as many

as possible. If you're told that the frequency an element a is 3, that means that there are 3 as in the

set.

Example 2

Age (years)

Frequency

10

11

12

13

14

Solution

The first step is to find the total number of ages, which we shall call n. Since it will be tedious to count

all the ages, we can find nby adding up the frequencies:

Next we need to find the sum of all the ages. We can do this in two ways: we can add up each

individual age, which will be a long and tedious process; or we can use the frequency to make things

faster.

Since we know that the frequency represents how many of that particular age there are, we can just

multiply each age by its frequency, and then add up all these products.

In the Introduction to Statistics section, we defined a population and a sample whereby a sample is a

part of a population.

In statistics there are two kinds of means: population mean and sample mean. A population mean is

the true mean of the entire population of the data set while a sample mean is the mean of a small

sample of the population. These different means appear frequently in both statistics and probability

and should not be confused with each other.

Population mean is represented by the Greek letter (pronounced mu) while sample mean is

represented by xx (pronounced x bar). The total number of elements in a population is represented

by N while the number of elements in a sample is represented by n. This leads to an adjustment in the

formula we gave above for calculating the mean.

The sample mean is commonly used to estimate the population mean when the population mean is

unknown. This is because they have the same expected value.

Median

The median is defined as the number in the middle of a given set of numbers arranged in order of

increasing magnitude. When given a set of numbers, the median is the number positioned in the exact

middle of the list when you arrange the numbers from the lowest to the highest. The median is also a

measure of average. In higher level statistics, median is used as a measure of dispersion. The median

is important because it describes the behavior of the entire set of numbers.

Example 3

Solution

From the definition of median, we should be able to tell that the first step is to rearrange the given set

of numbers in order of increasing magnitude, i.e. from the lowest to the highest

Then we inspect the set to find that number which lies in the exact middle.

Lets try another example to emphasize something interesting that often occurs when solving for the

median.

Example 4

Solution

As in the previous example, we start off by rearranging the data in order from the smallest to the

largest.

Next we inspect the data to find the number that lies in the exact middle.

We can see from the above that we end up with two numbers (4 and 5) in the middle. We can solve for

the median by finding the mean of these two numbers as follows:

Mode

The mode is defined as the element that appears most frequently in a given set of elements. Using the

definition of frequency given above, mode can also be defined as the element with the largest

frequency in a given data set.

For a given data set, there can be more than one mode. As long as those elements all have the same

frequency and that frequency is the highest, they are all the modal elements of the data set.

Example 5

Solution

Mode = 3 and 15

As we saw in the section on data, grouped data is divided into classes. We have defined mode as the

element which has the highest frequency in a given data set. In grouped data, we can find two kinds of

mode: the Modal Class, or class with the highest frequency and the mode itself, which we calculate

from the modal class using the formula below.

where

f0 is the frequency of the class before the modal class in the frequency table

f2 is the frequency of the class after the modal class in the frequency table

Example 6

Find the modal class and the actual mode of the data set below

Number

Frequency

1-3

4-6

7-9

10 - 12

13 - 15

16 - 18

19 - 21

22 - 24

25 - 27

28 - 30

Solution

Modal class = 10 - 12

where

L = 10

f1 = 9

f0 = 4

f2 = 2

h=3

therefore,

Range

The range is defined as the difference between the highest and lowest number in a given data set.

Example 7

Solution

Assumed Mean

In the section on averages, we learned how to calculate the mean for a given set of data. The data we

looked at was ungrouped data and the total number of elements in the data set was not that large.

That method is not always a realistic approach especially if you're dealing with grouped data.

Assumed mean, like the name suggests, is a guess or an assumption of the mean. Assumed mean is

most commonly denoted by the letter a. It doesn't need to be correct or even close to the actual mean

and choice of the assumed mean is at your discretion except for where the question explicitly asks you

to use a certain assumed mean value.

Assumed mean is used to calculate the actual mean as well as the variance and standard deviation as

we'll see later.

It's very important to remember that the above formula only applies to grouped data with equal class

intervals.

fi is the frequency of each class, we find the total frequency of all the classes

in the data set (fi) by adding up all the fi 's

where h is the class interval and each di is the difference between the mid

element in a class and the assumed mean.

Therefore ui becomes

Let's try an example to see how to apply the assumed mean method for finding mean.

Example 1

The student body of a certain school were polled to find out what their hobbies were. The number of

hobbies each student had was then recorded and the data obtained was grouped into classes shown in

the table below. Using an assumed mean of 17, find the mean for the number of hobbies of the

students in the school.

Number of hobbies

Frequency

0-4

45

5-9

58

10 - 14

27

15 - 19

30

20 - 24

19

25 - 29

11

30 - 34

35 - 40

Solution

We have been given the assumed mean a as 17 and we know the formula for finding mean from the

assumed mean as

we can find the class interval by using the class limits as follows:

We now have one component we need and we're one step closer to finding the mean.

So we can solve the rest of this problem using a table where by we find each remaining component of

the formula and then substitute at the end:

Hobbies

0-4

5-9

10 - 14

15 - 19

20 - 24

Frequency fi

45

58

27

30

19

xi

2

7

12

17

22

ui = dih

di = xi - a

-15

-10

-5

0

5

-3

-2

-1

0

1

fiui

-135

-116

-27

0

19

25 - 29

30 - 34

35 - 40

11

8

2

fi = 200

27

32

37

10

15

20

2

3

4

22

24

8

fiui = -202

substituting

Example 1:

The pie chart below shows the percentages of blood types for a group of 200

people.

a) How many people, in this group, have blood type AB?

b) How many people, in this group, do not have blood type O?

c) How many people, in this group, have blood types A or B?

Solution to Example 1:

a) 19% * 200 = 19 * 200 / 100 = 38 people

b) (100% - 40%) * 200 = 60 * 200 / 100 = 120 people

c) (16% + 25%) * 200 = 41 * 200 / 100 = 82

Example 2:

The pie chart below shows the percentages of types of transportation used by

800 students to come to school.

a) How many students, in the school, come to school by bicycle?

b) How many students do not walk to school?

c) How many students come to school by bus or in a car?

Solution to Example 2:

a) 45% * 800 = 360 students

b) (100% - 15%) * 800 = 680 students

c) (30% + 10%) * 800 = 320 students

Example 3:

The pie chart below shows the percentages of the world population in each

continent. The present world population is about 7 billion.

a) How many people live in Africa?

b) How many people do not live in Asia than?

c) How many more people live in North America than in South America?

Solution to Example 3:

a) 15% * 7 = 1.05 billion

b) 7 - 60.4% * 7 = 2.772 billion

c) (7.3% - 6%) * 7 = 91 million

Example 4:

The total area of Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Europe and

Australia is 134 million square kilometers. The pie chart below shows the

percentages of each continent.

a) What is the area of Asia?

b) What is the area Europe?

c) How much bigger is Africa than Europe?

Solution to Example 4:

a) 33.2% * 134 = 44.5 million square kilometers

b) 7.5% * 134 = 10.5 million square kilometers

c) (22.3% - 7.5%) * 134 = 19.8 million square kilometers

The bar graph given below shows the sales of books (in thousand number) from six branches of

a publishing company during two consecutive years 2000 and 2001.

Sales of Books (in thousand numbers) from Six Branches - B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 and

B6 of a publishing Company in 2000 and 2001.

1.

What is the ratio of the total sales of branch B2 for both years to the total sales of

branch B4 for both years?

A.

2:3

B.

3:5

C.

4:5

D.

7:9

2.

Total sales of branch B6 for both the years is what percent of the total sales of branches

B3 for both the years?

A.

68.54%

B.

71.11%

C.

73.17%

D.

75.55%

3.

What percent of the average sales of branches B1, B2 and B3 in 2001 is the average

sales of branches B1, B3 and B6 in 2000?

A.

75%

B.

77.5%

C.

82.5%

D.

87.5%

4.

What is the average sales of all the branches (in thousand numbers) for the year 2000?

A.

73

B.

80

C.

83

D.

88

5.

Total sales of branches B1, B3 and B5 together for both the years (in thousand numbers)

is?

A.

250

B.

310

C.

435

D.

560

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