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# Sect. 14.

2 Concentration Units

Molarity

Molarity is a unit of measurement important for solutions. Molarity is the measure of how much of
one substance has dissolved or diluted into another substance. In terms of solutions as we
discussed previously, the terms solute and solvent become important.

solute – the substance being dissolved or diluted (a solid or a liquid); the substance present in the
solution in the lesser amount

solvent – the substance dissolving or diluting the other (usually water); the substance present in the
solution in the greater amount

Molarity is the most frequently used unit for concentration of a solution. Molarity is abbreviated by
using M, and has the units of moles solute divided by volume of solution in dm3.

M = moles of solute .

## ex. Given: 150.0 g C6H12O6 What is the molarity of this solution?

2.5 L water

First, we need to get the given units into the units in the equation for M.
We do this in two steps, one in which we convert the grams of sugar into moles of sugar using the
formula mass of the compound. Then, we will use conversion factors to relate the unit of volume
given to dm3.

## 150.0 g C6H12O6 1 mole C6H12O6 = 0.833 moles C6H12O6

180.015 g C6H12O6

## 2.5 L  ________ dm3

Theses conversion factors may come in handy when converting volume units:
1.00 L = 1.00 dm3 = 1000 cm3 = 1000 ml
2.5 L 1 dm3 = 2.5 dm3
1L

Now, since we have both numbers in units that correspond to those in the actual molarity equation, we
substitute these values into the equation.

## M = 0.833 moles C6H12O6 = 0.33 M C6H12O6 solution

2.5 L solution

If given information about the concentration of the solution and the volume of the solution, it is
possible to figure out how the solution was made.

1.00 dm3 solution
(We are actually asking how many grams of solute are necessary to make this concentration.)

To solve these problems, use the M= mol/dm3 equation and work backward.

3.00 M = x .
3
1.00 dm solution

## 3.00 moles NaCl 58.3453 grams = 175.016 g NaCl

1 mole NaCl

To answer the question asked, we need to write a sentence describing how the solution was made.
Construct this sentence by adding the italicized words to the numbers calculated or given.

## Dissolve 175.016 g NaCl in enough water to make a 1.00 dm3 solution.

Molality

Another useful concentration measurement for solutions is molality. Molality (m) is defined as

m = mol of solute
kg of solvent

Here, it is really important to make sure you know a lot of information about the solvent you are using
Very often information about the solvent’s density will be included in the question. Molality and
molarity share some common characteristics, mainly in that they both use moles of solute as the
numerator term.

ex. Given: 150.0 g C6H12O6 What is the molality of this solution at 25 oC?
250 mL water DH2O at 25 oC = 1.00 g/mL

First, we need to get the given units into the units in the equation for m.
We do this in two steps, one in which we convert the grams of sugar into moles of sugar using the
formula mass of the compound. Then, we will use density to relate the unit of volume given to
kilograms.

## 150.0 g C6H12O6 1 mole C6H12O6 = 0.833 moles C6H12O6

180.015 g C6H12O6

1 mL 1000 g

## m= mol solute = 0.833 mol = 3.33 m sugar

kg solvent 0.0025 kg
Mole Fraction

Mole fraction is a concentration unit that compares mole of solute to moles of solution present. Mole
fraction is abbreviated by (Χ) and is a unitless value.

ex. Given: 150.0 g C6H12O6 What is the mole fraction of this solution?
250 mL water
First, calculate the moles of solute, just as before . . .

## 150.0 g C6H12O6 1 mole C6H12O6 . = 0.833 moles C6H12O6

180.015 g C6H12O6

## Next, calculate the moles of solvent present . . .

250 mL H2O 1.00 g 1 mol = 13.877 moles water
1 mL 18.0154 g

## Χ = 0.833 moles = 0.0566

(13.877 moles + 0.833 moles)

## Mass Percent/Percent by Volume

Mass percent (percent by mass) is defined as the mass of the solute in grams multiplied by 100
divided by the mass of the solution in grams. Mass percent is most often used when a solid is
dissolved in a liquid.

## mass % = mass of solute x 100

mass of solution

Volume percent (percent by volume) is usually used when the solution is made by mixing two
liquids.

For example, rubbing alcohol is generally 70% by volume isopropyl alcohol. That means that 100 ml
of solution contains 70 ml of isopropyl alcohol. That also means that a liter (or 1000 ml) of this
solution has 700 ml of isopropyl alcohol plus enough water to bring it up a total volume of 1 liter, or
1000 ml.

One potentially confusing thing about volume percent stems from the fact that the volumes of liquids
are not always additive. Sometimes the volumes change when two liquids are mixed together. For
example, mixing 70 ml of isopropyl alcohol and 30 ml of water will not give you exactly 100 ml of
solution.

## Volume % = volume of solute x 100

volume of solution

===

Dilution
Once a solution has been created, and the concentration of that solution is accurately known, it is possible to create new
solutions of _____________ concentration from the original one.

Stock solution-

Often it is necessary to take a concentrated solution and dilute it. However, solutions should be diluted it in a controlled
way so it is possible to know the concentration after dilution.

The solute (denoted by the dots) is concentrated in the beaker on the left.

concentrated-

Adding water (or whatever the solvent might be) dilutes the solution as shown with the beaker on the right.

dilute-

However, note that although the concentration changes upon dilution, the number of solute molecules does not. In
other words the number of moles of solute is the same before and after dilution

Dilution calculations involve determining how much water (or whatever the solvent) must be added to an
amount of stock solution (the solution in higher concentration) to get a new concentration while keeping the number of
moles the same.

## Moles of solute before dilution = Moles

of solute after dilution

(M1)(V1) = (M2)(V2)

Serial dilution-