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2 Concentration Units

Molarity

Molarity is a unit of measurement important for solutions. Molarity is the measure of how much of

one substance has dissolved or diluted into another substance. In terms of solutions as we

discussed previously, the terms solute and solvent become important.

solute – the substance being dissolved or diluted (a solid or a liquid); the substance present in the

solution in the lesser amount

solvent – the substance dissolving or diluting the other (usually water); the substance present in the

solution in the greater amount

Molarity is the most frequently used unit for concentration of a solution. Molarity is abbreviated by

using M, and has the units of moles solute divided by volume of solution in dm3.

M = moles of solute .

2.5 L water

First, we need to get the given units into the units in the equation for M.

We do this in two steps, one in which we convert the grams of sugar into moles of sugar using the

formula mass of the compound. Then, we will use conversion factors to relate the unit of volume

given to dm3.

180.015 g C6H12O6

Theses conversion factors may come in handy when converting volume units:

1.00 L = 1.00 dm3 = 1000 cm3 = 1000 ml

2.5 L 1 dm3 = 2.5 dm3

1L

Now, since we have both numbers in units that correspond to those in the actual molarity equation, we

substitute these values into the equation.

2.5 L solution

If given information about the concentration of the solution and the volume of the solution, it is

possible to figure out how the solution was made.

ex. Given: 3.00 M NaCl solution How was this solution made?

1.00 dm3 solution

(We are actually asking how many grams of solute are necessary to make this concentration.)

To solve these problems, use the M= mol/dm3 equation and work backward.

3.00 M = x .

3

1.00 dm solution

1 mole NaCl

To answer the question asked, we need to write a sentence describing how the solution was made.

Construct this sentence by adding the italicized words to the numbers calculated or given.

Molality

Another useful concentration measurement for solutions is molality. Molality (m) is defined as

m = mol of solute

kg of solvent

Here, it is really important to make sure you know a lot of information about the solvent you are using

Very often information about the solvent’s density will be included in the question. Molality and

molarity share some common characteristics, mainly in that they both use moles of solute as the

numerator term.

ex. Given: 150.0 g C6H12O6 What is the molality of this solution at 25 oC?

250 mL water DH2O at 25 oC = 1.00 g/mL

First, we need to get the given units into the units in the equation for m.

We do this in two steps, one in which we convert the grams of sugar into moles of sugar using the

formula mass of the compound. Then, we will use density to relate the unit of volume given to

kilograms.

180.015 g C6H12O6

1 mL 1000 g

kg solvent 0.0025 kg

Mole Fraction

Mole fraction is a concentration unit that compares mole of solute to moles of solution present. Mole

fraction is abbreviated by (Χ) and is a unitless value.

ex. Given: 150.0 g C6H12O6 What is the mole fraction of this solution?

250 mL water

First, calculate the moles of solute, just as before . . .

180.015 g C6H12O6

250 mL H2O 1.00 g 1 mol = 13.877 moles water

1 mL 18.0154 g

(13.877 moles + 0.833 moles)

Mass percent (percent by mass) is defined as the mass of the solute in grams multiplied by 100

divided by the mass of the solution in grams. Mass percent is most often used when a solid is

dissolved in a liquid.

mass of solution

Volume percent (percent by volume) is usually used when the solution is made by mixing two

liquids.

For example, rubbing alcohol is generally 70% by volume isopropyl alcohol. That means that 100 ml

of solution contains 70 ml of isopropyl alcohol. That also means that a liter (or 1000 ml) of this

solution has 700 ml of isopropyl alcohol plus enough water to bring it up a total volume of 1 liter, or

1000 ml.

One potentially confusing thing about volume percent stems from the fact that the volumes of liquids

are not always additive. Sometimes the volumes change when two liquids are mixed together. For

example, mixing 70 ml of isopropyl alcohol and 30 ml of water will not give you exactly 100 ml of

solution.

volume of solution

===

Dilution

Once a solution has been created, and the concentration of that solution is accurately known, it is possible to create new

solutions of _____________ concentration from the original one.

Stock solution-

Often it is necessary to take a concentrated solution and dilute it. However, solutions should be diluted it in a controlled

way so it is possible to know the concentration after dilution.

The solute (denoted by the dots) is concentrated in the beaker on the left.

concentrated-

Adding water (or whatever the solvent might be) dilutes the solution as shown with the beaker on the right.

dilute-

However, note that although the concentration changes upon dilution, the number of solute molecules does not. In

other words the number of moles of solute is the same before and after dilution

Dilution calculations involve determining how much water (or whatever the solvent) must be added to an

amount of stock solution (the solution in higher concentration) to get a new concentration while keeping the number of

moles the same.

of solute after dilution

(M1)(V1) = (M2)(V2)

Serial dilution-

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