You are on page 1of 35

SUBSONIC AMBULANCE

AIRCRAFT
A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted By

In partial fulfillment for award of the degree


Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN
AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
V.S.B ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KARUR

ANNA UNIVERSITY : COIMBATORE


APRIL 2010

ANNA UNIVERSITY: COIMBATORE


BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that this project report
AIRCRAFT is the bonafide work of

SUBSONIC

AMBULANCE

who carried out the project work under my supervision.


SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

Mr. GOBINATH

Mr.

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

SUPERVISOR

Dept. of Aeronautical Engg,


V.S.B Engineering College

Lecturer
Dept. of Aeronautical Engg,
V.S.B Engineering College

Date :
Submitted this project for viva voce on ..
Internal Examiner

External Examiner

ABSTRACT
Subsonic Ambulance aircrafts are useful when the mission
requires transporting critical care patients. They provide the stability of a
pressurized, environmentally-controlled cabin, with high cruise speeds and
the ability to fly over poor weather, yet land at shorter airfields located
closest to the medical facilities. The design of these air ambulances requires
the calculation of all the critical performance parameters.
In the Aircraft Design Project Phase-II, we have calculated the
maneuvering, the gust loads acting on the aircraft, and V-n diagram. It also
involves structural design calculations, design of components of wings and
fuselages.
The design calculations are supported by three view CAD
drawings. From the calculations we can conclude that subsonic air
ambulances can have a maximum load factor of about 3.8, and the design of
the components are similar to conventional low wing aircrafts.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SL No

Topic

Pg No.

List of Symbols

V-n Diagram

Structural Design Study- Theory Approach

11

Wing and Fuselage Design

17

Detailed layouts

25

Three view Diagram

27

Conclusion

28

References

28

LIST OF SYMBOLS
Sl Symbol
No

Description

Unit

Weight of the aircraft

Lf

Fuselage length

Df

Fuselage diameter

Wing mean chord

Velocity of aircraft

m/s

Gust velocity

m/s

CL

Lift coefficient

Lift

Load factor

10

Wing area

m2

11

AR

Aspect ratio

12

Wing span

13

W/S

Wing loading

N/m2

14

Acceleration due to gravity

m/s2

15

Thrust

16

CD

Drag coefficient

17

Lift curve slope

18

kg

Gust alleviation factor

19

t r, t t

Thickness of root, tip section

V-n DIAGRAM
The flight operating strength of an airplane is presented on a
graph whose horizontal scale is based on load factor.

Fig 2.1: Typical V-n diagram.


The diagram is called a Vg diagramvelocity versus g loads or
load factor.Each airplane has its own Vg diagram which is valid at a certain
weight and altitude.The lines of maximum lift capability (curved lines) are
the first items of importance on the Vg diagram.The subject airplane in the
illustration is capable of developing no more than one positive g at 62
m.p.h., the wing level stall speed of the airplane.
Since the maximum load factor varies with the square of the
airspeed, the maximum positive lift capability of this airplane is 2 g at 92
m.p.h., 3 g at 112 m.p.h., 4.4 g at 137 m.p.h., and so forth. Any load
factor above this line is unavailable aerodynamically; i.e., the subject
airplane cannot fly above the line of maximum lift capability (it will stall).

Essentially the same situation exists for negative lift flight with the
exception that the speed necessary to produce a given negative load factor is
higher than that to produce the same positive load factor.
If the subject airplane is flown at a positive load factor greater
than the positive limit load factor of 4.4, structural damage will be possible.
When the airplane is operated in this region, objectionable permanent
deformation of the primary structure may take place and a high rate of
fatigue damage is incurred. Operation above the limit load factor must be
avoided in normal operation.
There are two other points of importance on the Vg diagram.
First, is the intersection of the positive limit load factor and the line of
maximum positive lift capability. The airspeed at this point is the minimum
airspeed at which the limit load can be developed aerodynamically. Any
airspeed greater than this provides a positive lift capability sufficient to
damage the airplane; any airspeed less does not provide positive lift
capability sufficient to cause damage from excessive flight loads. The usual
term given to this speed is maneuvering speed, since consideration of
subsonic aerodynamics would predict minimum usable turn radius to occur
at this condition. The maneuver speed is a valuable reference point, since an
airplane operating below this point cannot produce a damaging positive
flight load. Any combination of maneuver and gust cannot create damage
due to excess airload when the airplane is below the maneuver speed.
Next, is the intersection of the negative limit load factor and line
of maximum negative lift capability.Any airspeed greater than this provides
a negative lift capability sufficient to damage the airplane; any airspeed less
does not provide negative lift capability sufficient to damage the airplane
from excessive flight loads.
The limit airspeed (or redline speed) is a design reference point
for the airplanethe subject airplane is limited to 225 m.p.h. If flight is
attempted beyond the limit airspeed, structural damage or structural failure
may result from a variety of phenomena.
Thus, the airplane in flight is limited to a regime of airspeeds
and gs which do not exceed the limit (or redline) speed, do not exceed the
limit load factor, and cannot exceed the maximum lift capability. The
airplane must be operated within this envelope to prevent structural

damage and ensure that the anticipated service lift of the airplane is
obtained. The pilot must appreciate the Vg diagram as describing the
allowable combination of airspeeds and load factors for safe operation. Any
maneuver, gust, or gust plus maneuver outside the structural envelope can
cause structural damage and effectively shorten the service life of the
airplane.
Load factors in airplane design:
The answer to the question how strong should an airplane be is
determined largely by the use to which the airplane will be subjected. This is
a difficult problem, because the maximum possible loads are much too high
for use in efficient design. It is true that any pilot can make a very hard
landing or an extremely sharp pullup from a dive, which would result in
abnormal loads. However, such extremely abnormal loads must be dismissed
somewhat if airplanes are built that will take off quickly, land slowly, and
carry a worthwhile payload.
The problem of load factors in airplane design then reduces to that
of determining the highest load factors that can be expected in normal
operation under various operational situations. These load factors are called
limit load factors. For reasons of safety, it is required that the airplane be
designed to withstand these load factors without any structural damage.
Although the Code of Federal Regulations requires that the airplane
structure be capable of supporting one and one-half times these limit load
factors without failure, it is accepted that parts of the airplane may bend or
twist under these loads and that some structural damage may occur.
This 1.5 value is called the factor of safety and provides, to
some extent, for loads higher than those expected under normal and
reasonable operation. However, this strength reserve is not something which
pilots should willfully abuse; rather it is there for their protection when they
encounter unexpected conditions.
The above considerations apply to all loading conditions, whether
they be due to gusts, maneuvers, or landings. The gust load factor
requirements now in effect are substantially the same as those that have been
in existence for years. Hundreds of thousands of operational hours have
proven them adequate for safety. Since the pilot has little control over gust
load factors (except to reduce the airplanes speed when rough air is

encountered), the gust loading requirements are substantially the same for
most general aviation type airplanes regardless of their operational use.
Generally, the gust load factors control the design of airplanes which are
intended for strictly nonacrobatic usage.
An entirely different situation exists in airplane design with
maneuvering load factors. It is necessary to discuss this matter separately
with respect to: (1) Airplanes which are designed in accordance with the
Category System (i.e., Normal, Utility, Acrobatic); and (2) Airplanes of older
design which were built to requirements which did not provide for
operational categories.
Airplanes designed under the Category System are readily
identified by a placard in the cockpit, which states the operational category
(or categories) in which the airplane is certificated. The maximum safe load
factors (limit load factors) specified for airplanes in the various categories
are as follows:
CATEGORY

LIMIT LOAD

Normal*

3.8 to 2.2

Utility (mild acrobatics, including spins)

4.4 to 2.4

Acrobatic

6.0 to 3.0

* For airplanes with gross weight of more than 4,000 pounds, the limit load
factor is reduced. To the limit loads given above, a safety factor of 50
percent is added.
There is an upward graduation in load factor with the increasing severity of
maneuvers. The Category System provides for obtaining the maximum
utility of an airplane. If normal operation alone is intended, the required load
factor (and consequently the weight of the airplane) is less than if the
airplane is to be employed in training or acrobatic maneuvers as they result
in higher maneuvering loads.
Airplanes that do not have the category placard are designs that were
constructed under earlier engineering requirements in which no operational
restrictions were specifically given to the pilots. For airplanes of this type
(up to weights of about 4,000 pounds) the required strength is comparable to

present-day utility category airplanes, and the same types of operation are
permissible. For airplanes of this type over 4,000 pounds, the load factors
decrease with weight so that these airplanes should be regarded as being
comparable to the normal category airplanes designed under the Category
System, and they should be operated accordingly.
V-n Diagram Calculations:a) V-n Diagram for maneuverability loads:1. Vd =1.2 Vcruise
Vcruise = 103.889 m/s
Vd = 1.2 * 103.889 = 124.67m/s
2. L = 1/2CLv2S
CLmax(+ve) = 2.34
CLmax(-ve) = -1.9
S=18.487m
W=23596.023m
L = 2.34 * 0.5*1.2256* (10)2*18.487 = 2650.947 N
3. n = L/W
n= 2650.947/23596.023 = 0.112
Sl No

Vd

n(+ve)

n(-ve)

10

0.112

-0.091

20

0.449

-0.365

30

1.011

-0.821

40

1.798

-1.46

50

2.809

-2

60

3.5

-2

70

3.5

-2

80

3.5

-2

90

3.5

-2

10

100

3.5

-2

11

110

3.5

-2

12

120

3.5

-2

13

130

3.5

-2

Fig 2.2: V-n Diagram for maneuverability loads

b) V-n Diagram for gust loads:1. L = 1/2 CL vSu

U= k Ue

CL =a = (dCL/d) = 4.694
Ue = equivalent gust velocity (in m/s)=9.144m/s
Ve = equivalent airspeed (in m/s)
Kg = gust alleviation factor

= (2*23596.023/18.487)/(1.2256*9.81*1.662*4.694) = 27.215
Kg = (0.88*27.215)/(5.3+27.215) = 0.737
U= k Ue = 0.737*9.144 = 6.735 m/s
L = 1/2 CL vSu = 0.5*1.2256*6.735*10*18.487*4.694 = 3581.559 N

n = L/W = 3581.559/23596.023 = 0.152.


Sl No

Vd

n(+ve)

n(+ve)

Total
n(+ve)

Total
n(+ve)

10

0.112

-0.091

0.152

0.264

-0.243

20

0.449

-0.365

0.304

0.753

-0.669

30

1.011

-0.821

0.455

1.466

-1.289

40

1.798

-1.46

0.607

2.405

-2.067

50

2.809

-2

0.759

3.568

-2.2

60

3.5

-2

0.912

3.8

-2.2

70

3.5

-2

3.8

-2.2

80

3.5

-2

3.8

-2.2

90

3.5

-2

3.8

-2.2

10

100

3.5

-2

3.8

-2.2

11

110

3.5

-2

3.8

-2.2

12

120

3.5

-2

3.8

-2.2

13

130

3.5

-2

3.8

-2.2

Fig 2.3: V-n Diagram for gust loads


c) Combined V-n Diagram :It includes both the gust loads and the maneuverability loads as
shown in the figure.
Fig 2.4: Combined V-n Diagram

From the graph, it can be concluded that the maximum positive


load factor is 3.8 and maximum negative load factor is -2.2.

STRUCTURAL DESIGN STUDY-THEORY APPROACH


Lift load on each wing = W/2 = 2405.3/2 = 1202.65 kg.
The shrunks curve is given by,
X= a cos t=11.3 cos t
Y= b sint=5.65 sint

Lift load at root = (W*yo/2)/ Area of shrunk curve = 1202.65*2.255/15.96 =


169.92 kg/m
Load at any point y = (y/yo)*(W/2)*yo/ Area of shrunk curve.
At various points of y

Load kg/m

1.4125

106.44

2.825

212.87

4.224

318.299

5.05

425.76

7.05

531.253

8.46

637.5

9.87

743.75

11.3

851.51

a) Wing structural weight distribution :Root chord (y1) = 2.137m


Tip chord (y2) = 1.069m
X1= 0m
X2= 11.3/2= 5.65m
Equation of chord distribution* over the span of the wing =(y-y1)/(y2-y1) =
(x-x1)/(x2-x1) = (y- 2.137)/(1.069-2.137) = (x-0)/(5.76-0)
= y= 2.137-0.1854x.
Distance from wing Effective chord c
root x
0

2.137

1.255

1.904

2.51

1.672

3.767

1.439

5.022

1.206

6.076

0.973

7.533

0.74

8.78

0.508

10.04

0.275

11.3

0.042

Air load =122.88


Chord value= 1.662m
Wg= Ww/2 =k () cx2 dx => 151.82= k () 1.6622 dx => k=30.43
Resultant load =122.88-(30.48)2(1.8)2 = 24.2868 kg

b) Determination of lifting load intensity :Lifting load intensity q= w/(s*x)


S= planform area of the wing/2= 5.652/2= 2.826 m2
x= width of one element = 0.34
W=0.9W= 680.32 m2
D=area under one element
Load intensity = ((0.3*1.74)*0.5*(1.76-1.74)) 680.32)/ (2.62*0.34)
q = 401.2574 kg/m.
c) Determination of structural load intensity :Structural load intensity=w/(s*x)
W=0.1Wo/2 = 0.1*680.32/2= 34.016 kg

Distance from the


fuselage

Structural load
intensity

0.6

27.544

0.94

27.08

1.28

26.61

1.62

25.22

1.96

25.22

2.3

24.29

2.64

22.439

2.98

19.807

3.32

16.55

3.66

12.99

5.012
d) Fuel weight Distribution :Amount of fuel stored in the wing = Wfuel + Wreserved + Wtrapped = 113.32 +
34 + 4 = 151.32 kg
50% of fuel is stored in the two wings and the remaining 50% in the
fuselage.
Wfuel in each wing=0.25*151.32=37.83kg
Taking dimension of the tank from adp-1

Shear force diagram for fuel:-

SFb=0
SFc=0
SFd=151.32*1.6985=257.017 N
SFa=257.017 N

Bending moment diagram for fuel:BMb=0


BMc=0
BMd=-(257.017*1.69925/2)= -218.368 Nm
BMa=-(257.017 *1.69985)= -435Nm

Shear force and Bending Moment Distribution along the length of the
wing:

Sl No

Distance

Shear force

Bending Moment

3.6538

3.252

57.41

11.66

2.845

170.05

102.31

2.439

172.311

105.049

2.632

229.82

186.878

1.086

278.725

274.86

1.219

344.65

420.266

0.81

402.52

573.24

0.4

460.529

750.153

10

0.0

516.355

943.328

WING AND FUSELAGE DESIGN


a) Components of wing structure :The wings are airfoils attached to each side of the fuselage and
are the main lifting surfaces that support the airplane in flight. There are
numerous wing designs, sizes, and a shape used by the various
manufacturers.Each fulfills a certain need with respect to the expected
performance for the particular airplane.
Wings may be attached at the top, middle, or lower portion of
the fuselage. These designs are referred to as high-, mid-, and low-wing,
respectively. The number of wings can also vary. Airplanes with a single set
of wings are referred to as monoplanes, while those with two sets are called
biplanes.
Many high-wing airplanes have external braces, or wing struts,
which transmit the flight and landing loads through the struts to the main
fuselage structure. Since the wing struts are usually attached approximately
halfway out on the wing, this type of wing structure is called semicantilever. A few high-wing and most low-wing airplanes have a full
cantilever wing designed to carry the loads without external struts.The
principal structural parts of the wing are spars, ribs, and stringers.(fig 4.1)

These are reinforced by trusses, I-beams, tubing, or other devices,


including the skin. The wing ribs determine the shape and thickness of the
wing (airfoil). In most modern airplanes, the fuel tanks either are an integral
part of the wing structure, or consist of flexible containers mounted inside of
the wing.
Attached to the rear, or trailing, edges of the wings are two types of control
surfaces referred to as ailerons and flaps. Ailerons extend from about the
midpoint of each wing outward toward the tip and move in opposite
directions to create aerodynamic forces that cause the airplane to roll. Flaps
extend outward from the fuselage to near the midpoint of each wing. The
flaps are normally flush with the wing surface during cruising flight. When
extended, the flaps move simultaneously downward to increase the lifting
force of the wing for takeoffs and landings.
b) Design of component of wing:Maximum BM= 943.328 kg-m = 9254.047 N-m
Maximum failing stress =f = SFmax/S = 516.355/18.487 =27.93 Pa
Total depth of the spar = (tr + tt)/2 = (0.254 +0.127)/2 = 0.1905 m
Moment of Inertia Ix=th3/12 = 2e-3*(0.1905)3/12 = 1.15e-6 m4

Radius of gyration r = 0.1905/2 =0.095 m


Area of the corresponding boom at 0.1905 m= I/r2 =1.15-6/(0.1905)2
1 = 3.168e-5 m2
1+2 = (Mh/2)/(f ) = 9254.047*0.095/27.93 = 31.476 m2
2= 31.476 m2
Area of each L section = 2/2 = 15.738 m2
Assume dimensions of the L section is
t=1mm
b=5cm
h=5cm
Approximate cross sectional area =(5*1)e-5 + (5e-2*e-3) = 1e-4 m2
Remaining area = 15.738-0.01 = 15.728 m2 .
Considering another L section there will be 5. Totally there will be 5*4=20
booms on top side and bottom side of the wing.
c) Components of Fuselage structure:The fuselage includes the cabin and/or cockpit, which contains
seats for the occupants and the controls for the airplane. In addition, the
fuselage may also provide room for cargo and attachment points for the
other major airplane components. Some aircraft utilize an open truss
structure. The truss-type fuselage is constructed of steel or aluminum tubing.
Strength and rigidity is achieved by welding the tubing together into a series
of triangular shapes, called trusses.

Figure 4.2: The Warren truss.


Construction of the Warren truss features longerons, as well as diagonal and
vertical web members. To reduce weight, small airplanes generally utilize
aluminum alloy tubing, which may be riveted or bolted into one piece with
cross-bracing members.
As technology progressed, aircraft designers began to enclose the truss
members to streamline the airplane and improve performance. This was
originally accomplished with cloth fabric, which eventually gave way to
lightweight metals such as aluminum. In some cases, the outside skin can
support all or a major portion of the flight loads. Most modern aircraft use a
form of this stressed skin structure known as monocoque or semimonocoque
construction.
The monocoque design uses stressed skin to support almost all imposed
loads. This structure can be very strong but cannot tolerate dents or
deformation of the surface. This characteristic is easily demonstrated by a
thin aluminum beverage can. You can exert considerable force to the ends of
the can without causing any damage.
However, if the side of the can is dented only slightly, the can will collapse
easily. The true monocoque construction mainly consists of the skin,
formers, and bulkheads. The formers and bulkheads provide shape for the
fuselage.

Figure 4.3: Monocoque fuselage design.


Since no bracing members are present, the skin must be strong enough to
keep the fuselage rigid. Thus, a significant problem involved in monocoque
construction is maintaining enough strength while keeping the weight within
allowable limits. Due to the limitations of the monocoque design, a semimonocoque structure is used on many of todays aircraft.
The semi-monocoque system uses a substructure to which the airplanes skin
is attached. The substructure, which consists of bulkheads and/or formers of
various sizes and stringers, reinforces the stressed skin by taking some of the
bending stress from the fuselage.

Figure 4.4: Semi-monocoque construction.


The main section of the fuselage also includes wing attachment points and a
firewall.
On single-engine airplanes, the engine is usually attached to the front of the
fuselage. There is a fireproof partition between the rear of the engine and the
cockpit or cabin to protect the pilot and passengers from accidental engine
fires. This partition is called a firewall and is usually made of heat-resistant
material such as stainless steel.
d) Design of component of fuselage:Combined shear force and bending moment diagram:
Loading conditions:P1=89.91Kg;P2=207.72Kg;P3=7.7Kg;P4=3.8586;q1=100Kg/m;
W2=50Kg/m; q3=100k/m; W4=25Kg/m;W5=15Kg/m

Calculations:Take moment about A,


RB*2= (15*2.5) + 50 * 2.75+3.8586*2+7.7*1.5+100*1.5-207.72*1.550*3.1985+89.81*1.6985

- (100*2.492*0.5)*0.925
RB*2 = -89.9505kg
RB=-44.975Kg
Consider this as equilibrium,
RA+RB=15*0.5+100*0.5+3.8586+7.7+25*0.5+15*0.5+100*0.5*0.5+89.91+
207.72
RB=386.686Kg
Shear force Diagram:
(SF)E=0
(SF)D= (-15*0.5)-(100*0.5)+3.8586-7.7
(SF)D=-61.3414Kg
(SF)C=(-15*0.5)-(100*0.5)+3.8586-7.7+25*0.25
(SF)C=-33.4414Kg
(SF)B=(-15*0.5)-(100*0.5)+3.8586-7.7+25*0.5+7.7
(SF)B=-41.1414Kg
(SF)A=-15*0.5-100*0.5+3.8586-7.7+25*0.5+7.7+148*1.5+100*0.5+50
(SF)A=280.8586Kg
Bending moment diagram:(BM)E=0
(BM)D= (15*0.5*0.25) + (100*3*1.5)
(BM)D=451.875Kg-m
(BM)C=
(15*1*1.861)+(100*0.1*1.615)+(2.5*1.3615*0.72)+(44.975*1.3615)
(BM)C=129.805Kg-m
((BM)B=(15*1*2.325)+(100*0.1*3.265)+(25*1.3615*1.3615)+(44.975*2.22
3)+(7.7*1.3615)
(BM)B=224.33Kg-m
(BM)A=(15*1*2.325)+(100*0.1*4.505)+(25*1.3615*3.1435)+(7.7*4.205+7.
7*3.1435)+(148*1.8)*
2.182+(100*2.482*1.654)-44.975*4.205+386.6886*2.482
(BM)A=0

Fuselage Bending stress analysis:The dia of fuselage df=1.165m


We know that f =M/I*y
Where y=df/2=0.5825
I=2Ay2
f is the failing stress limit
Therefore f=M/2Ay2*y
f=M/2Ay
For 2024 alloy:
f =275.79MPa as(from data book)
MMAX=3293.31N-m=3.2938*103N-m
A=Mmax/2 fy=3.293*103/ (2*275.79*106*0.5825)
A=1.02496*10-05m2

DETAILED LAYOUTS
a) Cockpit or Flight Deck layout :The following conditions play an important role in the layout of
cockpit or a flight deck.
1. The pilot and other crew members must be positioned so that they can
reach all controls comfortably, from some reference position.
2. The pilots and other crew members must be able to see all flight
essential instruments without undue effort.
3. Communication by voice or by touch must be possible without undue
effort.
4. Visibility from the cockpit must adhere to certain minimum standards.

The word cockpit is associated with small to medium sized


airplanes. The word flight deck is usually associated with large
airplanes
In our aircraft the cockpit extends for 3.84m with a total weight of
340 kg as calculated in adp-1.

b) Cabin layout :-

The fuselage consists of a sleeping unit which is arranged in space


efficient manner. They include bunks extending longitudinally or
transversely. They have dual medical sleds. The medical packages including
vinyl floor and sidewalls can be installed permanently, or on a temporary
basis allowing easy transition from VIP transportation to medical mercy
mission and back to VIP transportation in a minimal time. While the medical
sleds are accommodated by the standard passenger doors, some optional
cargo doors can also be installed.
The cabins are equipped with advanced life support systems. While
equipment tends to be high level and conveniently grouped, it may not be
possible to perform some assessment procedures like chest auscultation,
while in flight. The cabin is also pressurized as it flies above 10,000 ft above
sea level. The cabin extends for a length of 4.5m.

c) Baggage layout:The baggage section extends behind the cabin for about 0.75 m. It
may be used as a storage unit or for storing extra fuel requires for long
flights. The total weight of this section is about 191kg.
d) Landing gear:The landing gear used is a tricycle type landing gear. It provides
more propeller clearance. It has less drag and weight. It allows wing to
generate more lift for rough field operation.
The landing gear must absorb the shock of bad landing and smooth
out the ride when taxiing. As there should be minimal vibration for the
patients to be comfortable, we have used air oleo struts along with shimmy
dampers.
e) Wings and tail plane:The wing configuration used is a low wing. The major advantage of a
low wing configuration is that the landing gear can be directly retracted into
the wing box, which is usually the strongest element of the aircraft structure.
For lateral stability low wings require some amount of dihedral. The tail
plane type used is a conventional type due to low weight.

THREE VIEW DIAGRAM

CONCLUSION

Thus the theoretical designing of a SUBSONIC AMBULANCE


AIRCRAFT was made as per design standards and the project report has
been prepared with all of required data and information.

REFERENCES
1. Perkins C and Hage R, Airplane Performance, Stability and
Control, Wiley New York 1949.
2. Roskam.J, Airplane Design, Roskam Aviation and
Engineering Corp. Ottowa KS 1985.
3. J.D Anderson, Aircraft Performance and designMacmillan
Publishing Company,New York 1989.
4. J.D Anderson, Introduction to flight,3rd edition,, Mc-Graw
Hill,New York,1989
5. Daniel.P.Raymer, Aircraft Design:A conceptual Approach,
AIAA Education series, Washington D.C 1992.