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UDC 904:622.342 652 (497.

11)
904:669 652 (497.11)

155

MIODRAG TOMOVIC
Archaeological Istitute, Belgrade

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING


AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

raku Lu Jordan is the first archaeometallurgical


complex of Antiquity in Serbia I that has come
under systematic investigation (intermittently between
1971 and 1991). 2 It has been defined as a mining and
metallurgical complex, and in addition to gold related
to the mining of ores from which, in the furnaces
discovered within the fortification, iron and copper
were extracted (and even a variety of brass producedj.'
However, recent excavations" and a comparison to the
data obtained previously do not give grounds for such
an interpretation of the function and character of this
complex. On the other hand, the assumptions we
propose do not downplay but underscore the fact that
it was a multipart and multipurpose centre engaged in
gold mining and metallurgy, for the time being unique
in the territory of the Roman Empire.
Mines - metalla, i.e. mining - res metallica was
the backbone of the Roman economy in the territory of
present-day Serbia, and that is what made the region
important to the Empire. Between the 1st and 4th
centuries, the metalla Moesiae Superioris grew into
one of the main suppliers of the Empire with metals
(principally silver, lead, gold, iron and copper). The
mines in the Pek Valley, where Kraku Lu Jordan is
situated, along with those in the Mlava Valley belonged
to a special mining district known as metalla Pincensia'
The key role was played by the Pek Valley, where the
major mines of the district were concentrated: Majdanpek (copper, iron, gold), Vitovnica (lead, silver, iron),
Kucajna (gold, copper, silver), and Brodica (gold, copper, iron). What classified the Pek Valley among the
regions of vital importance to the Roman Empire was
gold. The Roman res metallica was from the very
outset in the service of an expanding monetary and
economic system demanding a steady and everincreasing metal supply intended primarily for gold
and silver coinage. After the loss of Dacia, whose
famous gold resources were the probable reason for its

STARINAR L, 2000.

I Earlier large-scale excavation of two major complexes and,


probably, the centres of two mining regions rich in argentiferous lead:
the settlement at Socanica (Municipium Dardanorum ?) and Stojnik
(presumed Roman Demessus or Demessum ?) focused on fortifications, necropolises, sacral and secular structures, whereas their industrial (mining and smelting) zones have remained unexplored.
2 Archaeological activity had two phases: at first between
1971 and 1979, and then in 1986-87 and in 1991. (Between 1973 and
1976, it was part of a joint Yugoslav and American project carried
out by the National Museum, Belgrade, and San Diego State University, Department of Anthropology, San Diego, California.) Only
a few preliminary reports have been published: B. Bartel, V. Kondic,
M. R. Werner, Excavations at Kraku lu Jordan, Preliminary Report,
1973-76 Seasons, Journal of Field Archaeology VI, 1979, 127--49;
P. R. Bugarski, S. V. Janjic, D. F. Bogosavljevic, Prilog boljem poznavanju metalurske prerade nasih ruda gvozdja u vreme Rimljana
(Summary: Contribution to Better Understanding of our Iron Ore
Production in the Roman Age), Zhornik radova Muzeja rudarstva i
metalurgije II, Bor, 1982, 57-67; B. KOHAHh, PHMJbaHH na nOApy'-ljy Bopa H y lberoBoM cycencray, Sop u OKO/lUIW. Ilpoucnoctu u
tupaquuuouanua KY/llllypa I, Bop 1973, 49-52; Idem, Poznorimska
galerija u Rudnoj Glavi (Summary: Late Roman Gallery at Rudna
Glava), in: B. Jovanovic, Rudna Clava. Najstarije rudarstvo hakra
na centralnom Balkanu (Rudna Clava. Das iilteste Kupferherghau
im Zentralbalkan), Bor-Beograd 1982, 107-8; M. Tomovic, Kraku
lu Jordan. Late Roman Fortified Metallurgic-Smelting Complex,
Archaeological Reports 27 (1986), Ljubljana 1987, 121-2; M. R.
Werner, The Archaeological Evidence for Gold Smelting at Kraku
lu Jordan, Yugoslavia, in the Late Roman Period, Furnaces and
Smelting Technology in Antiquity (ed. P. T. Craddock and M. J.
Hughes), Occasional Paper 48, London 1985,219-27; Idem, The
Moesian Limes and the Imperial Mining Districts, Studien zu den
Militargrenren Roms, Stuttgart 1986, 561--4.
3 B. Bartel, V. Kondic, M. R. Werner, op. cit., 1979, 127--49;
P. R. Bugarski, S. V. Janjic, D. F. Bogosavljevic, op. cit., 1982, 60;
V. Kondic, op. cit., 1973, 50; Idem, op. cit., 1982, 107; M. R.
Werner, op. cit., 1985, 219, 223.
4 In 1986-87 and in 1991, in which the writer of this text took
part.
S On the division of Upper Moesian mining districts, their
organization and administration, see the works by S. Dusanic (with
earlier bibliography): Aspects of Roman Mining in Noricum,
Pannonia, Dalmatia and Moesia Superior, Aufstieg und Niedergang
der romischen Welt 1I/6, Berlin-New York 1977,52-94; Organizacija rimskog rudarstva u Noriku, Panoniji, Dalmaciji i Gornjoj
Meziji, Istorijski glasnik 1-2, Beograd 1980, 7-55; The Roman

156

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

Fig. 1. The Pek Valley with its tributaries,


eastern Serbia (drawing: A. Kapuran)

conquest, the Pek Valley with its rich and accessible


gold deposits, along with the valleys of the Mlava, the
Timok and numerous other rivers and streams on the
slopes of Mt Deli Jovan, became a precious substitute
for the lost Dacic aurariaeP As a result, towards the
end of the 3rd century the northeast of Upper Moesia
developed a busy mining activity that carried on until
the end of the 4th century.
The river Pek with its tributaries (fig. 1) is our
richest auriferous region with copious remains of
ancient gold works. The Pek yields gold (fig. 2) from
its source to its confluence with the Danube (120 km),
while its basin is 1236 sq m in area. Besides washing
out gold from the auriferous sand in the Pek, Brodica,
Komsa, Glozane, Zeleznik and Crna Reka valleys,
Roman technology included the recovery of native
gold from placer deposits, notably the alluvia of the
Pek and Brodica rivers where gold had deposited for
thousands of years and also, though on a much smaller
scale, the winning of this metal from primary deposits,

mainly the auriferous quartz veins in the Pek Valley.


Kraku Lu Jordan is practically in the middle of those
riches (fig. 3).
The site is adjacent to the village of Brodica (fig. 3),
15 km east of Kucevo (eastern Serbia), at the confluence
of the Brodicka Reka and the Pek, quite far from the
Danubian limes (eea 70 km to the south). The building
site in the narrow valley traversing Severni Kucaj (a
branch of the Carpathians) was very carefully chosen.
It is an elongated, narrow elevation (eea 80 m wide by
160 m long) with three steep and almost inaccessible
sides (fig. 4). Being bounded by the Pek and Brodicka
Reka rivers on three sides (north, east and south), it
gives the impression of an island," and was quite
unsuitable for building defences and structures. Even
so, the fortification was erected on the south side
sloping at an angle of about 20 (hence its division into
several sections) between the north rampart on the
hilltop and the south rampart, and from the latter to the
bottom at an angle of 45. The entire elevation being
stony, even formed of massive blocks of rock, the area
was first turned into a quarry. Two problems were thus
solved: by shattering rock and digging out stone the
terrain was gradually levelled and rooms could be
sunken into the ground and, at the same time, the stone
for building ramparts and walls was obtained. There
were two kinds of rock, but only slate was cut and used
for building purposes. Being of poor quality, however,
it was combined with pebbles from the Pek and
Brodicka Reka riverbeds. Hard and large eruptive
rocks were simply circumvented, which left the
eastern part of the plateau void of buildings. For
example, the uncovered part of room 9 (north of the
wall supporting room 8) indicates that it was only in
that part of the plateau that the sinking of similar
Mines of IIlyricum: Organization and Impact on Provincial Life,
Mineria y Metalurgia en las Antiguas Civilizaciones Mediterraneas
y Europeas, vol. II, Madrid 1989, 148-56.
6 Interesting is an information provided by V. Simic (ITpHJIOr
sa rtosuaaan.e Harne crapnje TeXHOJIOrHje y pynapcrny, 360pilUK
paqoea XVI, Bor 1974, 149) that in the Pek area the word aurari is
still used for the Gypsies, and in Romania for the gold panners of
Gypsy origin. T. 'Bophesah (0 IJ,l1raHI1Ma yonurre H 0 fhHXOBOM
nocersanan.y aa DaJIKaHCKO rronyocrpso, CpUCKU KH,UJICe811U
lJWCIIUK, Beotpaq 1904) says Walach Gypsies call themselves
miners and aurari. According to F. Miklosic, miner and aurar is a
term for gold prospectors in Transylvania (in: B. CHMHfi, op. cit.,
1974, 149).
7 The original course of the Brodicka Reka, bounding the
elevation on the east and north sides, was displaced in 1947 for the
purpose of laying down the Kucevo-Brodica railway line; today, it
runs west of the elevation and flows into the Pek to the southwest
of it.

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

157

Fig. 2. The Pek Valley with major Roman archaeometallurgical sites registered between Majdanpek and Sena
(drawing: A. Kapuran)

rooms, parallel with those within the defences, could


be resumed. As the rooms were cut into the stony
slope, in order to secure them against possible falls of
rocks their north side was supported by a robust
retention, itself reinforced on the inside with a wall
alongside which communication between the furnace
rooms was possible.
Strategic reasons were not the only motive for
building the complex on this particular elevation.
Apparently, a fortification had to be built at the heart
of mine works or in their immediate vicinity. Gold being
at issue, it was crucial to put the obtained amount in a
safe place and work it into ingots without delay.

STARINAR L, 2000.

It is clear, however, that the complex is not


altogether typical of Roman fortifications and that its
ground-plan and general conception do not conform
strictly to military purposes (figs. 4 and 5). Its division
into three sectors was apparently determined by the
relief and its multipurpose function (fig. 5). Sector I
occupies the area between the north rampart and the
towered south one; sector II, some 10m wide - between
the towered south rampart and a parallel partition
outside the rampart; sector III - between the partition
and the presumed south rampart at the hill bottom. The
function of sector II is still obscure due to a poor
degree of investigation. In trenches 1-2/91, expected

158

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

Fig. 3. Position of the site ofKraku lu Jordan (photo: M. Tomovic)

to yield some tangible results, excavation has barely


begun. Under the humus layer mixed with demolition
debris there is a stratum containing shattered furnaces.
In sector III residential and ancillary buildings have
been presumed but the 1991 excavation (fig. 5, trenches
3-10) has revealed neither such structures nor any trace
of the south rampart. Nor have such structures been
found between the hill bottom and the Pek: a layer of
humus overlies a layer of uncontaminated river sand,
an indication that the riverbed moved towards the
elevation.
Notwithstanding the uniformity of building
techniques and materials, the architecture provides
evidence that not everything was built at the same
time, and several building phases are distinguishable.
However, they did not result from demolition or
renovation, but from the need to boost the compound's
defensive and productive capacities. A distinct craft
and metallurgical area made up of a row of seven
rooms explored so far (fig. 5, rooms 1-8) is situated in
the east part of sector II, along the inner side of south
rampart between the central (2) and east (3) towers.
Virtually the same in size, all were sunken into the
slope and built in the same way. The rampart

functioned as their south wall. They were separated by


partitions about 0.70 m thick, while a wall of the same
thickness propped up the vertically cut slope on the
north side. The rooms were accessed by a few steps in
the northeast comer. The rooms have walls of the same
height (cca 1.40 m) and nearly identical floor levels.
As there is no evidence for brick-built roof systems, it
has been presumed that they were not covered at all.s
However, regardless of the function of either the
rooms or furnaces (for smelting ores or for a craft), this
is hardly plausible, and for one reason: how can one
think of any worker performing whatever task exposed
to a heavy fall of snow or rain? We are more inclined
to assume timber roofs resting on the upper, wooden,
wall zones. The builders had another important
problem to solve, namely to ensure proper ventilation,
a requisite for the burning of fuel, for driving away
gases, and for reducing high temperatures around the
furnaces thereby enabling the workmen to perform. As
the fortification suffered a great fire, their remnants
have been difficult to register among the collapsed
furnaces and burnt wooden walls. The complex was
8

M. R. Werner, op. cit., 1985,221.

159

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

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Fig. 4. The site of Kraku lu Jordan in relation to the Pek and Brodicka Reka Rivers
(plans matched up and drawn by A. Kapuran)

----

...........

Fig. 5. Kraku lu Jordan. Site plan showing uncovered parts of the fortified complex,
sectors, c raft and metallurgical workshops, and trenches on completion of the last campaign in 1991
(plans matched up and drawn by A. Kapuran)

STARINAR L, 2000.

160

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

Fig. 6. Layout of Kraku lu Jordan showing: external


quadrilateral tower (no. 3) at east end of south rampart;
surviving floors of the old and young furnaces inside
of it; part of south defences; room 8 with surviving kiln
floor south of the partition wall; a space adjoining
east wall of room 8 with finds of complete ceramic
vessels; and uncovered part of room 9
(plans matched up and drawn by A. Kapuran)

not only composed of the rooms in its larger, east, part.


In the west part, where administrative buildings are
presumed, all the available space also was fully used
for working processes, especially as the mining
activity grew busier. Illustrative are towers 2 and 3 the
ground floors of which (above ground level) also
contained furnaces. In the east tower (3), remains of
two furnaces have been discovered on top of each
other (fig. 6). Of the top and younger one part (1.60 by

0.72 m) ofthe floor system (identical to that in room 8)


has been discovered in situ consisting of a smoothed
plastered finish 2-3 em thick and a subflooring of
smaller flat stones laid over the levelled older furnace
whose floor was packed, red-fired earth mixed with
gravels. Naturally, a furnace for smelting iron and
copper ores is impossible to install in the ground floor
of a tower less than 10 sq m in area and enclosed with
strong and tall walls. These furnaces are likely to have
been employed in a craft, but for the lack of evidence
it cannot be specified in which (they may have served
for smelting gold or simply for cooking, as suggested
by the material from tower 3 consisting mostly of
pottery shards).
In the context of our assumptions about this site,
we shall dwell only on the data obtained from the
excavation of rooms 2 and 8 (figs. 5-6). The remains
of furnaces and the moveable material offer the
possibility of forming some general hypotheses about
the function and character of not only these rooms but
of the fortified complex at large. As the key proof of
the view that the layout of the complex was completely
determined by its basic purpose - smelting of ores,
primarily iron and copper - results of the investigation
of room 2 have been put forward. Placed in a wider
context, however, they do not give grounds for such a
hypothesis. Neither economic interests (to obtain as
much metal as possible at lowest cost) nor technological,
practical and security reasons could have justified the
smelting of iron or copper ores within the fortification.
This is corroborated by the very opening information
about a completely destroyed timber-built, clay-lined
furnace. Furnaces for smelting iron or copper ores were
much stronger in structure (fig. 43) because they had to
accommodate big charges, withstand high temperatures (about 1,500 C) and allow an easy discharge after
the smelting phase." Their existence in the fortification
would have involved laborious and costly transportation
of ores from more or less distant mines (or the socalled ferruginous gossans, chapeaux de fer w) usually
located in almost inaccessible areas. Excavations in
the territory of the Empire clearly show that the pro-

9 Remains of furnaces registered in the territory of the Roman


Empire show that both their floors and walls had a footing of largesized stones. In the territory of Serbia remains of furnaces for smelting
iron and copper ores have been found at the site of Zajacak, Kremici,
western Kopaonik: M. TOMoBl1n, B. EOrOCaBJbeBl1n, 3ajaQaK-KpeMl1nl1. KaCHOaHTI1QKI1 apxeOMeTaJIyplIIKI1 KOMllJIeKC (Zajacak-Kremici, Late Classical Mining-Metallurgy Complex), TJlaCHUK
eM 12, Beorpan 1996, 108-12, figs. 3-4.
10 Outcrops or surface deposits of iron ore.

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

161

Fig. 7. Reamins o] Antique slag in close proximity to the


fortification at the site of Grad
(Roman Demessus or Demessum ?) on Mt Kosmaj
(photo: M. Tomovic)

Fig. 8. Kraku lu Jordan. Interior of room 8 with


shattered pottery kiln before it was cleared out
(photo M. Tomovic}

Fig. 9. Kraku lu Jordan.


One of complete vessels from room 8
(photo: M. Tomovic)

Fig. /0. Kraku lu Jordan. Variedly shaped pieces of


plaster bearing imprints of the timber kiln structure in
room 8 (photo: M. Tomovic)

cesses of roasting, enriching and smelting iron, copper


or silver-bearing lead ores were carried out in close
proximity to mines, on elevated plateaux or gentle
slopes (as evidenced by the Kosmaj mines, where
argentiferous lead ores were smelted on a few nearby
plateaux covering an area of about 5 sq m round the
castrum of Stojnik; fig. 7).11 Technological reasons
were also involved. Such places provided an adequate
circulation of air for tending fires in ore roasting and
smelting (figs. 7 and 43), and for solving the problem
of noxious fumes. The issue of cost-effectiveness
included the availability and short-distance transport
of large amounts of fuel. Since probably charcoal was
used, charcoal burners were also built on the site (or in
its immediate vicinity). A relatively small amount of
ash registered in the furnaces suggests the use of hard

wood such as oak. 12 Cost-effectiveness imposed two


basic tasks. The first one - to mine as much ore as
possible - was fulfilled by employing ample labour
force. The second one - to smelt the ore as fast as
possible - entailed the building of numerous furnaces, as
big as the current technological development allowed.
A furnace could be fed once or, at most, two or three
times. At any rate, as its upper part had to be tom down
after each smelting in order to remove slag, cinder and

STARINAR L, 2000.

11 About 160 sizeable slag heaps have been registered there,


their mass being estimated at about 1,500,000 tonnes: M. Tomovic,
Roman Mines and Mining in the Mountain of Kosmaj, Ancient
Mining and Metallurgy in Southeast Europe, Belgrade-Bar 1995,
203-12, with bibliography.
12 Il. P. Byrapcxn, C. B. Jalhlfh,,Il,. <D. Borocaaneaah, op. cit.,
1982,66.

162

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

Fig. 11. Kraku lu Jordan. Fragment ofplaster


and pottery shard from kiln in room 8
(photo: M. Tomovic)

Fig. 12. Kraku lu Jordan.


An intact ceramic vessel from kiln in room 8

13

15

Figs. 13-16. Kraku lu Jordan. Vitrified pottery shards fused with nonmetallic slag from kiln in room 8
(photo: M. Tomovic)

16

163

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

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c

f..

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.;

STARINAR L, 2000.

...
Fig. 17a-f Kraku lu Jordan.
Vitrified fragments ofpots and pithoi with
remains ofnonmetallic slag from kiln in room
8 (drawing: A. Kapuran)

164

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

Fig. 18. Kraku lu Jordan. Complete or fragmented


ceramic vessels from a space adjoining east wall
of the kiln from room 8 (examination (~f this room is in
its early stage, cf. fig. 6)

other non-ore residues, such sites had the advantage of


an easy waste disposal (slag heaps were formed on the
nearest slopes). After all, even if we disregard all these
factors, a series of practical questions arise. How can the
operations of building furnaces and of storing ores and
fuel be carried out in a confined space about 20 sq m in
area? Moreover, at temperatures of about 1,500 0 C, as
required for smelting iron and copper ores? Considering
the rooms were within tall ramparts (as many as two on
the south side) and the fortification had a single gate,
not too large and with a stairway, the list of questions
goes on: the problem of noxious gases; of the stream of
air necessary for tending fires; or the problem of fire
hazard within the fortification; or of clearing furnaces
and of disposing of huge amounts of slag and cinder. No
trace of slag dumps has been registered within the ramparts, on the slopes or at the bottom of the elevation, or
anywhere around it. There is no evidence either that a
slag heap was wiped out by some subsequent human
activity (the use of slag in building or as a fluxing
agent). Regrettably, no physicochemical analyses have
been performed of the slag diagnostic of origin - that
from the furnace rooms. As a proof that the furnaces
served for smelting iron and copper ores the results
have been offered of a test (X-ray diffraction, thermic,
DTA-T6 and chemical methods) conducted by the
Institute for Copper, Bor, on four slag samples (but the
report does not specify where the samples come from;
we can only assume it is room 2 - fig. 21).13 Namely,
from these results (fig. 42 a-e) it has been inferred that
the ore came from ferruginous outcrops, that quartz and
large amounts of feldspar were used for ore enrichment,
and that the iron was of remarkable quality (three pithoi

Fig. 19. Kraku lu Jordan. Early Bronze Age finds:


a) stone mallet; b) pottery shards; c) scraper

found by the north wall of the room have been related


to the possible roasting of pyrite). 14 In our opinion, the
slag did not result from ore smelting but from metalworking. Two iron ingots found on the remains of the
furnace are not the end product of ore smelting carried
out in room 2,15 but were brought from another smelting
13 IT. P. EyrapCKI1, C. B. Jalbl1n,,II,. <D. EOrOCaBJbeBl1n, op. cit.,
1982,57-67.
14 B. KOH~l1n, op. cit., 1973,50; Idem, op. cit., 1982, 107.
15 IT. P. EyrapCKI1, C. B. Jalbl1n,,II,. <D. EOrOCaBJbeBl1n, op. cit.,
1982,60.

165

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

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Fig. 20. Kraku lu Jordan. Part of typology o] Roman pottery shapes

STARINAR L, 2000.

166

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

Fig. 21. Kraku lu Jordan.


Remains of shattered furnace in room 2
(after B. Bartel, V. Kondic, M. R. Werner, 1979,fig. 19)

Fig. 22. Kraku lu Jordan. Fragment of a ceramic vessel


fused with nonmetallic slag from furnace in room 2

Fig. 23. Placer mining location


in the Pek Valley exploited until mid-20th century
(after B. CUMun, 1951, jig. 120)

centre. That room 2 was an artisan's workshop is


additionally suggested by the abundant and varied
material discovered in it. The latter shows it was a
smithy manufacturing tools, mostly from iron, needed
by the miners working nearby: pickaxes, shovels, wedges, mattocks, chisels, nails, clamps, and an elaborate
and ornate piece of metalwork - a powerful iron bracket
(although its function is not clear, it may be seen as a
support for a vessel, such as the one above the blacksmith's hearth, rather than related to an ore furnace;).
The identical deduction has been applied to copper
despite the fact that no ingots have been found. The
information, however, that several locations at the site
have yielded numerous pieces of sheet copper suggests
these were metalwork refuse. Considering the scope of
mining activity and the resulting need for tools and
other metal items, it seems reasonable to presume several smithies. Macroscopic, i.e. physical characteristics
of the slag from the furnace rooms and from the layers
of building debris confirm unambiguously that it did
not result from the process of smelting iron and copper
ores (see Appendix and fig. 42 a-e).
On the east end of the furnace-rooms complex, room
8 has been explored, 5.50 by 7 m, with walls 0.60-0.70 m
thick (figs. 6 and 8). A partition divides it crosswise
into two compartments (the north being 2.60 m long
and the south 4.50 m). It was accessed by descending a
few very wide steps in the northeast corner. Three large
steps, approximately in the middle of the partition,
connected the two compartments. The floor in the south
compartment, about 1 m lower, consisted of a 3-cm-thick
layer of plaster over a layer of gravel and the footing
of smaller flat stones levelling off the uneven stony
ground. On a layer of ash and soot the floor was covered
with remains of a collapsed furnace have been found
possessing all the characteristics of a closed assemblage. That its walls were built of split logs interwoven
with rushes is evidenced by pieces of clay mixed with
quartz and feldspar the construction was plastered with
and which bear imprints of the logs and rushes (figs.
10 and 11). The pieces of clay with concave hollows
indicate that the furnace was barrel-vaulted. Being
abundant, the remains suggest it was large and must
have occupied the space between the east and west walls
which were used to reinforce its lower part (figs. 6 and 8).
It must have been higher than the partition, as evidenced
by many of its fragments registered in the upper compartment. This was a pottery kiln. Among its remains a
huge quantity of fragmented (or even complete) vessels
have been found. The most remarkable information is
that most fragments are completely deformed and fused

167

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

~
I.
1.60- 2m

T
i

:...---_l
b

Fig. 24. Almost identical medieval location in G. Agricola's


De re metallica

with the clay coating from the kiln walls and with nonmetallic slag. Such a degree of vitrification must have
been caused by extremely high temperatures. That the
kiln had been in use before is indicated by a noteworthy
area adjoining the outer side of the compartment's east
wall where a number of complete and fragmented wellfired vessels have been found. The complete vessels
have been found in situ: mostly turned upside down
(figs. 6, 9 and 18). They are identical in shape to the
vitrified ones. There is a predominance of large-sized
vessels such as pithoi, pots and amphorae (with lids), and
an absence of small-sized vessels for everyday use.!"
And finally, fused and deformed pottery shards also
occur embedded in very large (max. 1.20 by 0.90 m) and
very light pieces of slag.
Interesting information can be drawn from a comparison with room 2, which has served as a basis for
the assertion that it was an iron ore furnace. Macroscopically and physically, the slag is identical. In this case
too, there occur strikingly large (0.80 by 0.60 m and
0.50 by 0.40 m) and disproportionately light pieces of
nonmetallic slag fused with deformed pottery shards.
Both rooms 2 and 8 have predominantly yielded largesized vessels (pots, amphorae, pithoi) and not a single

STARINAR L, 2000.

Fig. 25. a) Roman stone troughs for


washing out gold discovered in the valley
of the Kunuku Brook, the Pek area;
b) wooden troughs for washing out gold
in the Pek Valley still in use today
(after B. CUMuli, 1951,figs. 114 and 12l)

piece of household earthenware. The remains of the


furnaces disclose the same building materials. The
principal difference lies in portable archaeological
material. Whereas that from room 8 consists almost
exclusively of vessels and thus indicate a pottery kiln,
the finds from room 2 suggest a smithy in which iron
ingots brought from some other place were heated in a
forging furnace and shaped into a variety of mining
and gold panning tools (nails, clamps, knives, wedges
etc.). These obviously were not the only rooms
intended for pottery making and metalworking. The
scale of industrial activity in the area engaging many
panners, miners and other workmen required large
amounts of diverse material not only for their work but
also for building the structures for their accommodation.
There are indications that there were glass furnaces.
Unfortunately, the location of find for more than 100
16 In the other rooms, in the west part of the fortification, two
types of pottery are clearly distinguishable. One includes imported
luxurious ware (mainly bowls, plates, smaller pots and amphorae),
while the other comprises pottery manufactured on the site (their
highly micaceous and quartzose paste is a distinctive feature of the
clay sources in the Kraku lu Jordan area). Decoration occurs rarely
and is reduced to simple linear and geometrical patterns.

168

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

Fig. 26. Medieval placer mining


locations and launders
in G. Agricola :\'
De re metallicae.fol. 266

Fig. 27. Heating of ore veins


by fire (G. Agricola,
De re metallica, fol. 80)

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

a
o

169

Fig. 28. Kraku lu Jordan. Iron ingots


(drawing: A. Kapuran)
b

Fig. 29. Zeleznik. Part of the fetters for the feet


of slaves (drawing: A. Kapuran)

Fig. 31. Kraku lu Jordan. Various types offloor tiles


from rooms in northwest part offortification

STARINAR L, 2000.

Fig. 30a-c. Mining toolsfrom Kraku lu Jordan:


iron pickaxes and shovel

Fig. 32. Kraku lu Jordan. Bronze mirror

170

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

Fig. 33. Kraku lu Jordan: a-b) iron keys; c) iron tool; d) part of an iron lock;
e) iron tool; f) iron weigh;g) iron scissors, 8 em in length

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

Fig. 34. Washing out gold from the Sikolska River, early
20th century (after B. CUMuh, 1951,fig. 123)

Fig. 35. Group oflocal gold prospectors from Mala


Jasikova setting offto work with launders on their hacks
(after B. CUMuh, 1951,fig. 126)

Fig. 36. Sorting out remains ofAntique ores at Blagojev


Kamen near Kraku lu Jordan, early 20th century
(after B. CUMuh, 1951,fig. 126)

STARINAR L, 2000.

171

glass fragments discovered until 1976 has not been


specified. I? In trench 2, barely opened in 1991 (fig. 5),
the layer of shattered furnaces has yielded thirty odd
glass fragments of small dimensions (fig. 37 a-c).
Among them there are several deformed and vitrified
pieces, and a few small amorphous pieces, the final products coming out of a glass furnace. A number of fragments of flat glass suggest the possibility of window
glass having been manufactured in addition to vessels.
Also interesting is the information that the furnace
rooms have shown a predominance of large-sized
vessels (principally pots, amphorae and pithoi) and an
absence of household ware. We believe the explanation
would lie in the multipurpose function of this complex
suited for gold mining and metallurgy and for supplying
the panners and miners with everything their work and
everyday life required. Both mining techniques - placer
mining and digging for ores in a mine - may have made
use of large-sized vessels, which could also serve for
the transportation and storage of gold-bearing sand and
the raw materials employed in gold smelting, cupellation (figs. 9 and 41) or metalworking. Of course, such
vessels were also much needed for storing grains and
other food, or water, indispensable to metallurgists,
potters or blacksmiths. Both mining techniques were
in fact very simple technological procedures requiring
ample labour force supplied principally by slaves, convicts (as evidenced by the fetters from a smithy in the
nearby village of Zeleznik; fig. 29) and, under duress,
by the local population.
The first technique involved the washing of tonnes
of sand from the floodplains of the Pek and its major
auriferous tributaries - the Brodica, Zeleznik, Glozane,
Komsa, Bukovska Reka etc. 18 Some idea about the
17 B. Bartel, V. Kondic, M. R. Werner, op. cit., 1979, 146 (the
information pertains to the excavations conducted between 1973
and 1976). The authors report about predominantly small pieces,
possibly parts of drinking glasses.
18 It is in the area of Kraku lu Jordan that the most copious
finds of ancient mine works in the Pek Valley are concentrated
(Brodica, Neresnica, Zeleznik, Kucajna, Voluja: or the tributaries:
Brodicka Reka, Komsa, Zeleznicka Reka etc). They comprise heaps
of gravel (mounds, piles, barrows, tumuli) 1-4 m in height, the
vestiges of placer mining in the floodplain, usually on the lowest
terraces, on one or either side of the river. Of course, as they are
completely unexplored (not even a trial excavation has been undertaken so far), the question of their date remains open. Their attribution
to the Roman period, however, is indicated by the information that
the dredging of alluvial deposits that began in the late 19th century
uncovered Roman coins, mining tools, earthenware, as reported by
a number of geologists (M. Riznic, M. Milicevic, V. Karic, F. Hofman,
M. Blagojevic, D. Jovanovic, V. Sirnic). Between 1945 and 1952 V.
Simic surveyed the entire Pek Valley and concluded assuredly that

172

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

1/

Fig. 37. Kraku lu Jordan. Glass fragments (drawing: A. Kapuran)

Fig. 38a-e. Kraku lu Jordan.


Terra sigillatafragments

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

173

FiR. 39a-d. Kraku lu Jordan. Ceramic lamps

methods that may have been applied by Antique panners


is offered indirectly by G. Agricola (fig. 24) and, also,
by the practice that has survived in the Pek Valley till
this day (fig. 23).19 In both cases there seems to be
little difference from what Agricola describes as
medieval practice.I" The second technique was to dig
for auriferous quartz veins making use of simple hand
tools; to crush and grind the ore; and then to wash it.
No mines that could be reliably identified as Roman
have been found yet in the broader area of Kraku lu
Jordan. Nevertheless, the richness and availability of
auriferous quartz veins that reach the surface makes
the idea of their existence realistic. Few mines
discovered in the territory of the Empire and classical
sources clearly show those were regular shafts with
galleries that followed the vein. A good illustration is

STARINAR L, 2000.

these were Roman placering locations with waste material heaped


up on the surface of terraces, and gold-bearing washes deeper
below. In evidence of his assertion, he offered the finds of Roman
coins and other artefacts (B. CI1MI10, HCUlopujCKU paseoj Hamel
pyqapctuea, Eeorpan 1951, 242-67, 314-27, 333-40). For the
remains of ancient mine works in the Pek Valley see also: F. Kanic,
Srbija. Zemlja i stanovnistvo, vol. I, Beograd 1985, 242-48. O.
Davies. Roman Mines in Europe, Oxford 1935, 217-21; D.
Iovanovitch, Serbie Orientale. Or et Cuivre. Historique. Geologie,
Mineralogic. Exploitation, Paris 1907. 17 ff. To illustrate the
richness of gold-bearing gravels in the Pek Valley I shall offer two
pieces of information: at Neresnica in the Pek Valley (only a few
kilometres upstream from Kraku lu Jordan) between 1903 and
1905, 445,000 cu m of gravel processed by two elevator dredgers
(known as Cyclopes - 32 m long, 8.5 m wide, draught depth of 3 m,
and a capacity of 225 cu m per hour) yielded an average of 288.8
mg of 86%-gold per cubic metre of gravels. According to some
data, between 1904 and 1918 alone 3 tonnes of gold were obtained
(B. CI1MI10. op. cit., 1951, 321-2, and Table 86).

174

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

Fig. 40a-b. Kraku lu Jordan.


Glass beads
the Dolaucothy mine, Wales, with two horizontal galleries cut through a hill, about 48 m long, 1.8-2.1 m high,
1.5-1.8 m wide, and dated to the late 1st and 2nd centuries.I! Large-sized vessels may have been used in a
number of ways in mining auriferous quartz ores.
Tylecote believes the basic mining technique was firesetting.I? Rock was heated and then water was dashed
against it (the same procedure is vividly described by
Agricola; fig. 27). It is reasonable to presume, then,
that large vessels may have been used for carrying and
storing the water for this purpose. The next step in the
process was to crush the ore and grind it to quartz
sand. The sand, which contained tiny grains of gold,
was washed under a stream of water: lighter particles
of quartz were washed off whereas the gold, being
heavier, settled on the bottom. Large vessels may have
been put to good use in this process too. This accounts
for the fact that no slag has been found at Kraku lu
Jordan. Numerous millstones registered in the valleys
of the Pek and its tributaries (fig. 25a) are evidence for
the primary grinding of auriferous quartz ore in close
proximity to the mine. 23 Numerous finds of millstones
within the fortification, however, pose a special problem.
Perhaps security reasons at times required that the
crushed ore be transferred to the fortification to be
ground to quartz powder, which then was washed on
the banks of the Pek and Brodicka Reka at the bottom
of the fortification. And finally, there was no running
water within the fortification, and for the washing of
sand or ground ore, or for the activity of potters, blacksmiths and other craftsmen ample water was needed.
This may in part account for the predominance oflarge
lidded vessels. Such vessels (especially pithoi) were
ideal also for storing salt and other minerals used in the
process of gold extraction.
The Romans did not make use of common ore furnaces. The obtained gold grains were fired in fire-clay
receptacles at a temperature of no less than 1,000 0 C.
This is yet another explanation for the absence of metal1urgical slag at Kraku lu Jordan. Naturally occurring
gold (at least 80% gold)24 melted at Kraku Jordan probably was associated with an amount of silver or copper.
Pliny the Elder had already noted that gold containing
more than 20% of silver is called electrum 25(the first

Greek gold coins were struck from such gold in Lydia


about 640 BC).26 Roman metallurgists were familiar
with the process of its removal. Pliny says that, besides
salt, other minerals were also added to gold in the
process of extraction, the rightly proportioned mixture
being of vital importance. In the first phase twice as
much salt as gold and thrice ground copper pyrite were
added. In the second phase to the molten gold was added
twice as much salt and one part of the stone called
schistos, as specified by a formula in the Leyden
Papirus.P Noxious substances were thereby released,
while the other minerals burnt away leaving pure gold
19 Gold prospectors in the Pek Valley (fig. 25b) make use of
wooden troughs (accommodating 3--4 kg of sand) or of a special
wooden device, the launder as they call it, usually handled by two
men (figs. 23 and 45). The identical device is shown in Agricola's
De re metallica (figs. 24 and 26). In their words, an average of 2-3
g of gold can be obtained (in tiny grains or leaves, or grenades in
local parlance; some have found nuggets weighing a few grams).
Three grains of gold about 109 each were recovered at Ram by the
Danube in the 1880's (B. CI1Ml1n, op. cit., 1951,3(5). S. A. W. Herder
tRudarski put po Srbiji, Beograd 1845) relates about groups of panners
he met on his way to Majdanpek in 1835. They were particularly
active in spring when, after the thaw and ample rain fall, even the
littlest stream was fed with enough water for washing out gold (B.
CI1Ml1n, op. cit., 1951,317). R. F. Tylccotc (op. cit., 1962,2) quotes
an l Sth-century record referring to a 21.5-ounce nugget recovered
from the brooks of Krogan Kinselag, Ireland.
20 On mining techniques in Antiquity in the context of Agricola's De re metallica. see especially C. Dornerguc, Les techniques
minicrcs antiques et lc De re metallica d' Agricola, Myneria y Metalurgia en las Antiguas Civilizacianes Mediterraneas y Europeas,
vol. II, Madrid 1989, 76-95 (with literature).
21 R. F. Tylecote, op. cit, 1962,2.
22 R. F. Tylecote, op. cit, 1962, 2.
23 Reporting ahout frequent finds of millstones for ore grinding
in the valleys of Pek and its tributaries, B. CI1Ml1n (1951,326) quotes
C. Tpojanosah tHetqauma tipuepeqa u UyUlCBU y cpucxus "ICM.rbaMa,
Beorpan 1902) that in one place alone in the Lipa Valley parts of
about 300 millstones were piled. One of them, transferred to the
Museum of Mining by the end of the 19th century, had the lower
part 83 by 46 cm and weighing about 100 kg, while the upper part
was 45 em in diameter and 80 kg in weight.
24 R. F. Tylecotc, op. cit., 1962, 3.
25 Plin., NH, XXXII1, 80. In Upper Moesia a particular kind
of this gold was used, the so-called Glam silver (gold-hearing
silver), obtained mostly from the mines of Novo Brdo and Janjcvo,
In the Middle Ages, the Glam silver became famous and extremely important to the Serhian state. V. Sirnic (1951, 235) quotes a
letter of July 9, 1428, which says that soda and other materials
needed for the separation of gold from silver may he sent to Serbia
and suggests the separation is a well-paid jon.
26 1. F. Healy, Greek Refining Techniques and the Composition
of Gold-Silver Alloys, Revue belge de Numismatique CXX, Bruxelies 1974, 21; E. S. G. Robinson, The Date of the Earliest Coins,
NC, 6th ser., XVI, 1956, 8.
27 L. B. Hunt, The Oldest Metallurgical Handbook, Gold Bulletin, vol. 9 (1976), l, 24--30 (the author refers to E. R. Caley, The Leyden Papirus X, Journal of Chemical Education, 1926, 1149-66).

175

KRAKV LV JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

I
I

I
I

\
\

\
\

''

'
------~

"-cc:

'\]7
\ I f
~c::u

\
\t

'(

<::

}
I

'1

I"".

)
I" II

STARINAR L, 2000.

Fig. 41. Kraku lu Jordan.


Various types and shapes of earthenware

176

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

in the container (these data should be considered


highly reliable because Pliny was procurator of Spain
at the time). 28 The method of extraction by using salt
was first recorded by Diodoros Siculus.I? All the
surviving subsequent records about gold refinement
also mention salt, while the other elements slightly vary:
a similar, though somewhat modified, combination is
quoted by Strabo, while Agatharcides, about 100 BC,
includes lead and tin. 3o Agatharcides' method has been
confirmed experimentally by a five-day heating of a
gold alloy at a temperature of about 800 0 C. The purity
of the gold thus obtained was 93.6%.31 1. F. Healy is
positive that Roman metallurgists used to extract gold
by cupellation (the process of heating in a small fireclay container) from galena and other lead ores, or by
liquation (the phased heating of the alloy beginning
with the component with the lowest melting point)
from pyrite and chalcopyrite.V Slag with high contents
of arsenic and antimony further confirms the assumption that they extracted gold from arsenopyrite and
stibnite as well. 33 Unfortunately, neither the identification has been attempted of pottery shards that may have
been parts of such fire-clay receptacles nor the ceramics
or slag have been put through physicochemical analyses.
Nor has any attention been paid to the possible existence
of artefacts that served for assaying the purity of gold.
The traditional Roman medium was the so-called
Lydian stone (siliceous schist was also used for that
purposej.l" The procedure was as follows: this stone of
fine but abrasive texture was rubbed over a gold
object. A comparison of a streak or any mark thus produced with the objects or test plates of known purity
gave a fairly accurate estimate. Among the finds suggesting the recovery of gold at Kraku lu Jordan is to be
singled out a goldsmith's balance with weighs, from a
hoard containing 52 coins. 35

CONCLUSION
Kraku lu Jordan reveals an unusual architectural
and defensive conception determined by the relief and
multipurpose function of the complex. It was a powerful fortification enabling control and protection of gold
mine works; a place of safety where the gold obtained
was deposited, melted and cast in ingots; a centre of
crafts and metallurgy with numerous smithies, potteries
and other workshops manufacturing whatever equipment for mining in the vicinity of Kraku lu Jordan;
and, finally, an administrative centre controlling the
production of gold and the consignment of gold ingots.

Although no structures have been discovered, the


finds of pottery fragments and flint tools (figs. 19 a-c)
within the fortification suggest occupation as early as
the Bronze Age. Considering the area is very rich in
copper ores, the settlement is likely to have been
associated with the activity of prehistoric miners and
metallurgists. The immediate vicinity abounds in
Kostolac-Cotofeni settlements on similar dominant
elevations (Cukar at Kaona, Stenje at Turija, Krs at
Neresnica, and Krst at Voluja are bigger settlements
registered by survey). Quite close is Rudna Glava, the
oldest copper mining and metallurgy site.
The beginnings of mining and smelting activity in
the Pek Valley after the Roman conquest are related to
the late Ist and 2nd centuries.I" The scale of activity
and the number of workers are indirectly evidenced by
the fact that Hadrian (117-138) had a special issue
minted for his officials in the Pek Valley with the
inscription Aeliana Pincensia.i' As we have remarked,
the metalla Pincensia were administrated from
Pincum, the settlement of non-municipal rank and the
eponym of the civitas situated at the confluence of the
Pek and the Danube (modern Veliko Gradiste).
Plin., NH, III, 2, 8.
Diodorus Siculus, I, 14 (c. H. Oldfather, Loeb Edition,
London 1935, vol. II, 121; Plin., NH, XXXIII, 2, 8).
30 Plin., NH, III, 2, 8.
3\ J. F. Healy, op. cit., 1980,177.
32 Ibid., 179.
33 Ibid., 179.
34 R. F. Tylecote, op. cit., 1962, 4 and note 16 (at the site of
Hengistbury, England, a piece of siliceous schist used for that
purpose has been found). For gold alloys with high contents of
silver this method is reliable and precise, the possible deviation
being 1-2%.
35 Y. Kondic, op. cit., 1982, 107. Unfortunately, this is the
only information about it (the published works bring neither a
drawing nor a photograph).
36 Unlike the late Roman period, there is little evidence for
early Roman activity (certainly due to small scale of investigation).
In a shaft near Majdanpek a hoard of denarii has been found with
the youngest coins dating from Nerva's rule (Y. Kondic, op. cit.,
1982, 106). K PI13HI1n (CTapI1HCKI1 OCTaIlI1 Ycpe3Y 3BI1UIKOM, oxp.
nO)KapeBa'{KI1, Ctuapunap Y, 1888) records that before 1884 the
Brodicka Reka washed ashore a vessel of red clay, painted black
and ornamented in white, containing several hundred silver coins
dating from 141 to 235 AD, and two silver bracelets 61.45 g in
weight. Speaking about the remains of an Antique settlement (a
miners' town) on the road from Dobra, halfway between Babino
mostilo and Tilva (an area 3 km long and 600 m wide), and referring
to the same vessel, F. Kaniz (op. cit., 247-48) says that it was
excavated in 1884, contained 220 coins dating from 141 to 235, and
that, together with two silver bracelets (7 em in diam.) found by the
Cestobrodica river, it was taken to the Museum of Belgrade.
37 S. Dusanic, Anticko rudarstvo, Rudarstvo Jugoslavije,
Beograd 1972,121 (with literature).
28
29

177

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

*t~t~ Flame (Continuous) ****~***~******t~~****~ 1999/12/17 13:13:11

Element

Ni

p,

232.0

NI)

S,6.f"lPLE

N,6NE
VI I I
::(\l

4
5

6
7

X'y' I I I

(3

9
10

XI I

11

XI I I

12
13

X'v'I

14
15
16
17
18

19
20
21
24
25
26

Conc.
(ppm)

-D.CI313
-el.091/
-CI CI320
-0.0306
-(1.1774
-1).271:15
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0.4755
0.8771

0.8906
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0.3690
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CI.1640
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IX

x'v' I I

0.3227

0.2959
XIX

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0.2215
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Zoltan Ceh

Cone. Conversion Mode


Ana IIJ;::t

si~.r"1F' LE

XI

(J .1803

o. 1572

I). 1800

0.1572

1/,1E

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0.0182
(1.0076
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-0.0002
-0.0007
0.1)034
0.0035
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0.(11)61

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2.7654
2.7654
2.72(1(1
2.721)(1
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1.0(101)
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5.1445

5. 1445
0.0043 (1.9280

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2.1)544

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Ci.0032

Ni

---li,,!.6,Rr',~ If'oJC1;~~---

Data Fr ocess i nl~l

No

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lIJ

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STARINAR L, 2000.

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Fig.42a

178

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

*****

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Element

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Analyst .

*t***

Fe
24::;: .:3 nm
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Zolatn Ceh

---------------------------------------;:;,6,r"lPLE

Nt)

1+
2+

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SN"'lF'LE

N,t-,r','lE
\/111
::(\l

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5 + ,:(:{
6+
7 + ::0::\,1 1I I

::: +
9+

12+

1::; + :{\,.' I
14+
15 + x

11.41]97

17+ rx
18 +
19 + X'v' II

2 J . 7510
1

30.952(-)
30.8948

XIX

5CI.1255
50.4083
:::6.7118
36. :::935
:'~: 1 ~i1J02
::: 1.6C195

xiv

24+

25 +

26.6912
~ti. 7630
":~:5. 72fi5
-,":1.6579
49.6:::Q'J

24.2607
24.2746

UH

2:::+

31.78~16
::~:"1 7:347

42.6577
42.9640
36.6664
:36.6196
11.4268

10+

22+

(p pnl)

49.:::214
XI I

11+ /. I I I

20+
21+

p"b s

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1.0465 2.54:32
1 .0464 2 54:32
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Cl.8811
1.1762
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1.62:3:::
1.4C144
1.4145
1.2072
1.2C156
(1.3762

o 3756

::. 1349
2.1349
'::.2(i51
:::.2651
4.35::: 1
4.3581
2. 7t~J~,4
2.7654
2. 72CI(1
2.721)1)
[I. ;30::"(1

CI.802(1

(1.79::;7 2 .O~144
0.7992 2 JI544
(1.9795 1.3(112
(1.9461 1:::(112
1.0191 5.1445
1.0172 5 1445
1 .650:::; (I 92:3(1
1 r:; 596 Ci .';)2;::(1
1.2087 : : .(51) 1
1.2146 ::: .6 5Cl1
1.1)4CI49.3411
1.0407 9.:::411

,6,CTU,6,L
(JJq.. / I])

Sred.'.. . red.
( PpIli)

624.'J
624 q
fi25.1

624

1;1

626 i::

547.1
546. (I
57el.l
56C'.9
771.:3

56::: ':1

776.8

77:::. (I

fi74.1)

673.: :

712.4
711 .:~:
51;JI) . 5

711':::

f"IIJI) :::

59(.1. t~,

114:::11 CI4

1124.U

:::1)1).8
:::(10. :3

:::0\) r;

27CI(I.7
~~Il

2lei::: .1:1

tl (I

5CI2 9
5CI r;. 4
169.1

~d):3

169.2

169.1

CI

D,jt a Pro oc ess i nl~l


C,j l i In ijt ion Curve

one.
r',~

:)

pili)

,6,b:::

24;::

ell) Ci D
(11)1)1:1
(II)(IC:

nil:

':1

::: 4

1:1.

41
9:::

':1.

I)

.2 Ci

..

-t

CI)Nr:~

~>

to 1 e c ~

( PP:II:'

t Ur"i C: ~ i ':'n k e I:J

E it

Fr i nt
Fig.42b

179

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

*****

Flame (Continuous)

******i~~i~~*********ti

Eleluent

Cu
324.8 nm

),

Cone. Conversion Mode


,/J,na lus t
SM"'1F'LE
["JI)

c"-',

SN"U'LE
N,/J,f'' lE

(p Pili)

::<\/

..)

4
5
6

xx
xv I I I

()
l.~ I

9
1CI
11
12,.:.
1

'a.!

14
15
16
17
1.;.
19
20

)::I

III

i.-

22
().,)

z, ..)

0 ::3fj:3:3

1:1

.02::3::::

-(I .0131
-(I .0100

XVI
'./

0 .0813
0 .0597

,"I.

I ,v....

0 1726
0 1786
(I .6297
0 c:i:337
0 1405
n1492:

XVI I
\,~

i '..

Ix

0
.:3201

XI\,/

24
25

(:12::::7

0 .:3 q(j2

I.)

r" ..

I)

0 7::::40
7792
0 .3973

'"r

/'L

0 .329:3
0 51 15
0 5262

26

,!J,b .:::. .
324 .:3 nln

0 .(1987
0 10:::7
0 .2585
CI .2656
(I .1) 57:;:j
(I (1730
0 .3700
(I

J"1.

Calib r at ion
Zolatn Ceh

Cone .

\l I I I

1999/12/16 10:27:55 *r***

1,I, 1E I C;HT

,6,Cnl,6,L

(I;)
2 5,:1

(Uq,/ 1])

2 54
2 13

1
6 1
6 2

(I .1)063

0 .1)(17CI
I) .0 166
(I 0 170
(I .0037
0 .1)047

nr13

:::~

(-',

,)

II

1)7

.~I

4 .36
4.36

0 .050::::
0 05(1CI
1:1 .0255
0 0254
-(I .0008
-0 (:1(:106
(I .0052
1:1 0038
11
(I .01
(I .01 15
(I .0404
0 .0407

(--I

77
II'"

L:::.

.-r

"7 (-'J

tc

(I

.)
<"I

.65

q .34
q .34

13 .0338

I)

L.
I)

ed .

.1:1

L..

1.':1

4 .L
f)

.~

14 .i14.., 1
(0.,

;;:::

f ....'

0.0205

1 1
4

.9:3
:3 .65

I L

f)

[I .0211
I) .1)328

':1 9

-0 .6
'- .0
1 5
fj .6
6 .9
6 I
6

(I .UO~)O
I) .0096

0 .:30
f)
'- .05
.:::.. .05
1 .30
1.3CI
5 14
514
(:1 .93

"7 .....,

"-'I

":1

.
7
-0

1./ f"'

(, PP III)

! .9
c;

(I
.8(1
,

.::::.

Sr' eel

7,

14 . 1

.)

'-:;1

..)
Q

,'-'.

..)

. 1..1

,,)

I
4.4
I)
~

I) .0

1 :3
6 .'-.'I;>
..-)

6 .L

7, Ci

4 5
I'-'j

z,

7I .1;1

4 5

7
I

1:_:1

L. .1.)

f-.

(I

I)

Dat aPr' oc ess i nq

Calibration Curve
;:;TD

Cone.

["j 0

(ppIII)

1:1.51)1)1)
1.00(11)

Ahs ,

:::24.8nll!

2.1)0(11)

M:3.
1).2(1

I) CI:~:29

(1.1:1654

1).1275

I:I.':{I
('.(1

:::.u

[M:;:;J =1<1+ [G] +1':::::


KO= 8.8000, Kl= 0.8642

Select function key.


Fig.42c

STARINAR L, 2000.

180

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

*****

Flame (Continuous) ****~***********~*****~ 1999/12/16 11:24:32


Element

Zn
21:~:.9

Cone. Conversion Mode


,t..nal l,j8t
NO.
1
2
,-:.

N,Ii,~lE

vr I I

..)

x'v'

4
5
6

XX

""7

,","

XVI I I

()

rJ

XI I

10
11

XI I I

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

XIX

.-).,)
L' l

XIV

r 1'..
t...L.

XVI
v
r,

IY
X\? I I

24
25

26

XI

niH

Calibration
Zolatn Cs h

Cone.
(ppm)
0.7860
0.7704
0.7397
0.7270
0.6732
0.6753
0.9:375
0.9315
1.3278
1.3265
0.8719
0.8754
0.5336
0.5264
0.5107
0.5113
0.6238
8.6180
8.6269
0.6238
0.6145
0.6124
0.8272
0.8213
8.5647
8.5554

SA~11PLE

S,8.r'~PLE

Iiat i:t PI' ocess i n~l

6tb:::

~\IE

213.9nm
0.2393
0.2345
0.2252
(1.2213
0.2050
0.2056
0.2854
0.2836
0.4042
0.4038
0.2655
I) .21)65
0.1624
o. 1603
(1.1555
0.1557
(1.1899
0.1881
0.1909
O. 1899
O. 1871
(1.1864
0.2518
0.2500
0.1719
0.1691

IGHT

,8,CTU,8,L

( ~l)

(JJI~1/9)

2.54
2.54
2. 13
2.13
.....
)

()(

..) . L

I'

<I ')7

"). L I

4.36
4.36
2.77
2.77
2.72
2.72
0.80
0.80
2.05
2 .es
1.30
1.30
5. 14
5.14
0.93
0.93
3.05
3.65
9.34
9.34

15.5
15.2
17.4
17.1
10.3
10 .3
10 .8
10.7
24.0
23.9
16.0
lb .1
33.3
32.9
12.5
12.5
24.0
23.8
6.1
6.1
33.0
32.9
11.3
11.3
3.0
::: .0

Sred.vr'ed.
(ppm)
15.4
17.:3
10.3
10.S
24.0
W.1
3:3.1

12.5
23.9
6.1

33.0
11.3
:~

.n
Z n

Calibration Curve
3TD

Cone.

r"j IJ

( ppm)

1
,',
L
.)
'.)

1.0000
1.5IJUCI
2.000el

*****

./!".b s ,

21:::.9nm
0.3325
0.4560

'6'
.6,BS.

13. HI

(1.5953

13. (II)

0.0

Select function key.

[,Ll,BS] =KldC] tKO


KO= 0.0088, Kl= 0.3044

::: (I

CONC.(ppm)

Fig.42d

181

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

*****

Flame (Continuous)

***********************

Element

Ana l ust
S,il,r','1F'LE
NCI.

SM"'lPLE
NM"lE

Cal i br at ion
Zu l et n Ceh

(p pIli)

\/I I I

0.:::151J

\.'~ I

0.5(150
1).5057
(1.45:3:3
(1.4808
8.1955
;: ; 14:::(1
(1.:::142

0.:~:159

xx
::0::\/ I

II

9
10

XI I

11
12
13

):: I I I

14
15
16
17
I :~:
I'~

21)
21

0.65~::1

0.4:300
(1.4:3(18
0.2759
I] 27Cil]
0.1661
1).1661
(1.0649
(1.0899
IJ.21:;47
(1.2650
(1.6:360
0.6369
-I) 1136
-CI.0837
CI.0524
(1.0899

I ,.I,.v

XI,,'" I I

):: IX

22
::0:: I \/

24

cnr.:.)

nlll

,il,CTIJAL

Cone.

A'I

)::1

26

217.0nm
CI.O(139
o.01):39
n(1062
':1.1)0(12
(1.005b
(1.0059
0.1001
(1.09IJ5
0.0099
C1.0080
0.0052

(I~

(k.l'~l r,/ ~l )

2.54:32
2.54:32
2.1:349
2- .1349
3.2651
3.2651
4.35::~:1

4.3581
2.7654
2.7b54
2.7200
(I.CJ05::: 2.7200
(1.0034 (1.8020
0.8(12(1
(I. CI0:34
1).002(1 2.0544
(1.002(1 2.0544
1).000:3 1.3012
0.0(111 1.:31JI2
O.C10:32 5.1445
(1.0(1:3::: 5.1445
(1.0(17::: 0.9280
(1.007::; 0.92:30
-0.0014 ::;: .6501
-I). CI(II (I .:' .65(11
oCI(IOb 9.3411
1:1. (II) 11 !L:3411

Sred. ',Ir ed
( ppnl)

6.2
6.2
11 :::
11 J:
7 .1)
7.4
1;14.0

11.::;
7I

No.

14.7
11 .9
7.9

7.9

7.9

17 .2

17.2
4.0
4.1)

4.CI

2.5
::: 5

::: .1)

17.2

2Ji

2.6

:::4. ::;
-1.ti

-1.1

(I. U

(I. :::
1).5

(1.4
Fb

,il,b :::

Cunr,
(ppnl)

M:;:~.

217.(lnn,

5.D(I(ICI
:3 (1)(1(1
1(1.1)1)1)(1

CI.20

(1.0545
(1.1)965
(I. 1265

[,I:.

K':i=

=K]i [C]

+YU

n = r::. III

Fig. 42a-e Kraku lu Jordan. Analyses of slag from kiln in room 8

STARINAR L, 2000.

..:.-.

93 4

Data Fro cese inc


Cd 1 i br at i on Cur ".,'e
STD

*****

Pb

217.IJ

Cone. Conversion Mode

1999/12/16 13:25:56

Fig.42e

182

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

Fig. 43. Site ofZajacak,


village of Kremnici,
west side of Mt Kopaonik
(photo: M. Tomovic)

The second, and probably still busier, phase of


exploitation began after the loss of Dacia in 272 (it is
reasonable to assume that the experienced miners and
metallurgists were brought from Dacia). Due to the
constant insecurity of the Danube frontier, mine works
began to be fortified. In addition to Kraku lu Jordan,
further evidence is offered by a number of sites related to
the mining and metallurgical activity of the late Roman
period. 38 As a precise chronological determination requires the publication of the entire material, we shall limit
ourselves to the assertion that the fortified complex at
Kraku lu Jordan was erected towards the end of the 3rd
century (probably under Diocletian), while its closure
should be placed in the end ofthe 4th century (as evidenced by the portable material, the coins ofTheodosius I,
and a hoard discovered by the north rampart with 52
coins from Constantine to Theodosius 1).39 The complex
was not built all at once but grew with the expansion of
gold exploitation. Its entire structure was determined
by gold, which was obtained by washing the auriferous
sand of the Pek and Brodicka Reka Rivers and by digging in classical mines with galleries. The gold was
primarily obtained from placer deposits, the most
important being the alluvia of the Pek and Brodica
Rivers, and much less from primary deposits (mainly

the auriferous quartz veins in the Pek Valley). In both


cases, it was native gold. The complex had an outstanding
position: on an elevation with steep and inaccessible
sides, and bounded on three sides by the Pek and the
Brodicka Reka, virtually at the heart of the area richest in
gold. It had a multipurpose function. On the one hand, it
was a collection point for gold recovered in the area. The
gold was melted there, cast in ingots and safeguarded
until it was transported further. At the same time, Kraku
lu Jordan was a craft and metallurgical centre with numerous potteries and smithies manufacturing tools for
gold panners, miners and other workmen. Considering
the scale of gold production in the Pek Valley, the
possibility that the centre also supplied forts along the
Danubian limes is groundless.t'' In the west part of the
38 In the complex of Eneolithic mine shafts of Rudna Glava
part of a late Roman (4th century) lO-m-long gallery has been
uncovered offering all the elements for a reconstruction (Y. Kondic,
op. cit., 1982, 106). At Debeli lug, before entering Majdanpek, there
is an unexplored mining and metallurgical centre fortified with
powerful walls and towers (dated to the 4th century from the
surface pottery evidence). In the immediate vicinity of Kraku lu
Jordan, vestiges of settlements and fortifications have also been
registered at Zeleznik, Neresnica and Kaona.
39 Y. Kondic, op. cit., 1982, 107.
40 B. Bartel, Y. Kondic, M. R. Werner, op. cit., 1979, 149.

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

183

APPENDIX

Fig. 44. The Pek Valley near Kraku lu Jordan.


The last local gold prospectors working with the
launder (photographed in the 1980's)

fortification was the administration managing and


controlling the entire process. A testimony to their way
of life are imported luxurious finds, few though. For
example, terra sigillata (fig. 38a-e) and red-painted
vessels, gems, mirrors, opulently decorated ceramic
lamps (figs. 32, 39-41). For the time being, it is
impossible to answer the question whether the west
section was also a residential zone. That the structures
were built solidly testify the finds suggesting the flooring with tiles of varied shapes (hexagonal, rectangular,
conical; fig. 31a-c). Although the initial assumption
about the residential structures on the slope, between
the partition wall and the presumed south rampart at
the bottom, has proved wrong, the possibility should
not be ruled out completely. Otherwise, perhaps such
structures may be expected in the area of the presumed
thermae, the only elevated spot in that part of the Pek
and Brodicka Reka Valleys and thus unaffected by
flooding.
The completion of this excavation (one-third of
the area has been explored so far; figs. 4-5) - which
includes the detection of necropolises, residential and
other structures at the disposal of those working in the
complex (fig. 5), the investigation of placer mining
locations and of a mine, as well as physicochemical
analyses of the slag, furnaces and pottery - would
create the perfect conditions for a study of Roman gold
mining and metallurgy.
The complex was destroyed in a great fire, probably
in a devastating attack by the end of the 4th century.
The subsequent centuries did not see its renovation nor
has any trace of life been found.

STARINAR L, 2000.

In the Laboratory for Quality Control, Hemomed,


Hemofarm, Vrsac (LKK-HMd), analyses of 16 slag
samples from the kiln in room 8 were performed''! by
means of an absorption atomic spectrometer (AAS) in
order to determine the presence and concentration of
certain metals (fig. 42a-e).42 Unfortunately, for the
lack of the adequate HC lamps, tests for the presence
of gold and silver could not be carried out. The results
clearly confirm our conclusions drawn from the
macroscopic properties of the slag; namely, that the
slag is nonmetallic and, consequently, that those were
not the furnaces for smelting iron, copper or lead ores.
The tables here enclosed show that the occurrence of
metals other than iron (Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni) is insignificant.
The values for iron are also minimal (even if multiple
smelting is taken into account). There is no
justification therefore for assuming that the slag came
from the process of smelting iron ores (for all the
tables: 1 ppm = 1ug/g). It is quite obvious that the slag
is nonmetallic and that the metals are of a mineral
origin. The slag samples (not only from room 2) we have
examined in the Museum of Mining and Metallurgy,
Bor, have the same properties and confirm its nonmetallic nature unrelatable with furnaces for smelting
iron and copper ores. 43

41 The tests were conducted by Z. Ceh, an analyst with the


Laboratory, to whom we owe a debt of gratitude.
42 Z. Ceh supplied the following information about the test
procedure. Spectrometry was automatic because the AAS is
equipped with its own software. The first step is transmission of
light of an He lamp that is made out of the element to be examined.
It emits the light of a given wavelength (00). The software measures
the mean wavelength of the transmitted light under the existing
laboratory conditions. The sample is then sucked in and dispersed
into the flame (G-mix. & As.s.). The repeatedly transmitted light is
measured and the quality and quantity of absorbing atoms is
determined. The measurement is performed in such a way that the
transmitted light is focused onto the sample, where it is absorbed by
the atoms of a given element (the atoms of a given element absorb
the very same light they emit), and then is focused onto the
monochromator, which by means of a diffraction grating isolates a
given wavelength. By means of a photomultiplier this light is then
quantified. The element in question is determined by the
wavelength and its quantity by the intensity.
43 The nonmetallic nature of the slag has been confirmed by
B. Rothenberg, Director of the Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical
Studies (Institute of Archaeology, University of London), who
visited Kraku lu Jordan in May 1990, along with other participants
in the international conference on Ancient Mining and Metallurgy
in Southeast Europe, held at Donji Milanovac.

184

Pe3HMe:

MIODRAG TOMOVIC

MI10,UPAf TOMOBl1li, ApXeOJIOllIKI1 I1HCTI1Tyr, Beorpan

KPAKY JIY JOP)l;AH


H AHTHqKO PY)l;APCTBO H METAJIYPrHJA 3JIATA

Kpaxy JIyJOP.UaH npencrasna npaa apxeoueranypunca aHTHqKH


KOMnJIeKC xojn je y Cp6HjH CHCTeMaTCKH HCTPa)KHBaH (ca xpafiHM, HJIH ,lJ,y)KHM npeKH,lJ,HMa, 0,lJ, 1971-1991. rO,lJ,HHe). Y JIHTeparypu, Kpaxy JIy Jopnan je ,lJ,e<pHHHcaH xao pynapcxo-sreranypWKH KOMnJIeKC, KOjH je, nopen 3JIaTa, nosohen y Be3Y ca pynapCTBOM H ronn.eaea pyna H3 KOjHX cy, y nehnaa oTKpHBeHHM y
YHYTPawlhocTH yrspbea.a, xao npauapaa MeTaJIH ,lJ,06HjaHH
rsozche H fiaxap (na qaK n jenna spcra MecHHra). Mel)yTHM, pe3yJITaTH ,lJ,06HjeHH TOKOM nOCJIe,lJ,IhHX repeacxax HCTPa)KHBalha
(1986-87, 1991), H IhHXOBO KOMnapHpalhe ca paHHjHMnO,lJ,aUHMa, He najy OCHOBa sa OBaKBO TYMaqelhe <pyHKUHje H xapaxrepa KOMnJIeKca. Ilpa TOMe, aaure npernocrasxe He yMalhyjy, seh
HanpOTHB jour nmne HCTHqy qHlheHHUY ,lJ,a ce pann 0 je,lJ,HOM CJIO)KeHOM H BHweHaMeHCKOM ueHTPY, sa cana, je,lJ,HHCTBeHOM na repHTOpHjH PHMCKor uapcrsa, KOjH je 6HO y <pyHKUHjH pynapcrsa
3JIaTa xoje ce O,lJ,BHjaJIO aa OKOJIHOM npocropy. Metalla Moesiae
Superioris, O,lJ,HOCHO pynapcrso - res metallica, qHHHJIH cy OKOCHHUy pHMcKe npaspene na reparopnja nanaunse Cpfinje, H y
TOMe je neacaonajsehn eKOHOMCKH sua-raj OBe repirropaje sa eKOHOMHjy UapCTBa. PY,lJ,HHUH y ,lJ,OJIHHH Ilexa, y KOjOj ce HaJIa3H
Kpaxy JIY Jopnan, sajenno ca PY,lJ,HHUHMa y ,lJ,OJIHHH MJIaBe, npananann cy noce6HOM pynapcxosr ,lJ,HCTPHKTY n03HaTOM non HMeHOM metalla Pincensia. Ilpnaapua ynora npnnanana je ,lJ,OJIHHH
Ileica, y KOjOj ce HaJIa3e HajBa)KHHjH penrcrpoaaan PY,lJ,HHUH y
OKBHpy osor ,lJ,HcTPHKTa: Majnannex (fiaxap, raosche, 3JIaTo), BHTOBHHua (OJIOBO, cpe6po, raosche), Kyxajua (3JIaTO, fiaxap, cpe6po) H Bponnua (3JIaTO, fiaxap, raozche). Mel)yTHM, OHO WTO je
pynapcrso y ,lJ,OJIHHH Ileica CBpCTaBaJIO y pernone 0,lJ, aajseher
saa-raja sa pHMCKy Hsmepajy, 6HJIO je 3JIaTO. PHMCKa res metallica je seh 0,lJ, cauor noxerxa 6HJIa y <pyHKUHjH eKnaH3HBHor
MOHeTapHor H npaspenaor CHCTeMa. Ilocne ry6HTKa.II.aKHje, ,lJ,0JIHHa Ilexa, ca CBOjHM 60raTHM H ,lJ,OcTynHHM aacnaraua 3JIaTa,
nocraje, sajenao ca ,lJ,OJIHHaMa THMOKa, H 6pOjHHX pexa H pe-mua na 06pOHUHMa .II.eJIH JOBaHa, nparouena aasrena sa H3ry6JheHena-nce aurariae. Kao pe3yJITaT TOra,na npocropy cesepoacro-nror nena I'opa,e Mesuje, 0,lJ, xpaja III sexa, ,lJ,OJIa3H ,lJ,0 CHa)KHe
pynapcxe aKTHBHOCTH, xoja rpaje CBe ,lJ,0 xpaja IV sexa.
lleK, ca npHToKaMa, je Hawa HajH3pa3HTHja 3JIaTOHOCHa
06JIaCT, ca HajBHwe OCTaTaKa cTapHx pa,lJ,OBa Ha ,lJ,06Hjalhy 3JIaTa. Y lleKy HMa3JIaTa 0,lJ, H3BopHwTa ,lJ,0 ywfia y .II.yHaB (,lJ,y)KHHe
120 km), ,lJ,OK yKynHa nOBpwHHa CJIHBa lleKa H lherOBHX npHTOKa, Kaoje,lJ,HHCTBeHe 3JIaTOHOCHe 06JIaCTH nOTBpl)eHe TParOBHMa cTape py,lJ,apCKe aKTHBHOCTH, H3HOCH 1236 km2. Ca acneKTa
aHTHqKOr py,lJ,apCTBa H TeXHOJIOmje, nope,lJ, HcnHpalha 3JIaTOHOCHor neCKa y ,lJ,OJIHHaMa lleKa, Ep0,lJ,Hue, .II.y60Ke, KOMwe, fJIo)KaHa, )l{eJIe3HHKa, UpHe peKe, CaMOpO,lJ,HO 3JIaTO je KonaHO, npe
CBera,y paCHnHMa, Mel)y KojHMa cy Haj3HaqajHHjH aJIyBHjaJIHH
HaHOCH lleKa H EpO,lJ,Hue, r,lJ,e ce 3JIaTO TaJIO)KHJIO XHJha,lJ,aMa
rO,lJ,HHa, a 3HaTHO Malhe y KopeHHM py,lJ,HWTHMa, Ha npBOM Mecry H33JIaTOHOCHHX KBapUHHX )KHuay ,lJ,OJIHHH lleKa. KpaKy JIy
Jop,lJ,aH ce npaKTHqHO HaJIa3H y cpe,lJ,Hwry OBHX Haj60raTHjHx
3JIaTOHOCHHX pY,lJ,HWTa (Fig. 1-6).

JIoKaJIHTeT ce HaJIa3H y aenocpeanoj 6JIH3HHH cena Bponnue, 15 km HCTOqHO 0,lJ, Kyxeaa, na yurhy Ep0,lJ,HqKe pexe y
Ilex, ,lJ,y60KO y sanehy nyaancxor JIHMeCa (OKO 70 km jY)KHO).
Mecro na KOMe je asrpahen KOMnJIeKC y yCKOj ,lJ,OJIHHH Ilexa,
xoja rrpeceua nponyzcerax xapnarcxor nJIaHHHCKor nanua,
0,lJ,a6paHO je ca noceriaon na)KIhOM. To je jenno H3,lJ,y)KeHO H
yCKO yaaauren,e (unrpnne OKO 80 m H ,lJ,y)KHHe OKO 160 m), ca
CTPMHM H, ca TPH crpane, TeWKO npacryna-nuea nannnaaa, KOje ce nojnaa xao HeKO OCTPBO, jep je ca TPH CTPaHe (cesepne,
HCTOqHe a jyxore) 6HJIO oxpysceao EP0,lJ,HqKOM peicoa H Ilexou.
Ilopen crpareunoix, OqHrJIe,lJ,HO je na cy nocrojann H npyra pasJI03H KOjH cy yCJIOBHJIH rserosy narpamey ynpaso aa OBOM y3samersy. Ilo csesry cyneha 6HJIO je HeOnXO,lJ,HO,lJ,a ce yraphea,e
nonarne y cpenunrry, O,lJ,HOCHO y nenocpenaoj 6JIH3HHH, pynapCKHX panosa. Kaxo ce pa,lJ,HJIO 0 3JIaTy, 0,lJ, npecymtor ana-raja je
6HJIO na ce ,lJ,06HjeHe KOJIHqHHe WTO npe CKJIOHe na 6e36e,lJ,HO
MeCTO H ry nperone y CJIHTKe.
Kpaxy JIy Jopnan npencraana jenny neyodaxajeny apxuTeKToHcKy H <pOpTH<pHKaUHoHy xonuerruajy, yCJIOBJheHy KOH<pHrypaUHjoM JIOKaJIHTeTa H BHweHaMeHCKOM <pyHKUHjOM KOMnnexca, OH je CHa)KHa <pOpTH<pHKaUHja xoja je osroryhaaana
KOHTPOJIy H 3awTHTy pynapcxux panosa na ,lJ,06Hjalhy 3JIaTa,
carypaa uenrap y KOjH je nonpeaaao 3JIaTO, H MeCTO aa KOMe je
OHO TOnJheHO H H3JIHBaHO y nnrore, 3aHaTcKO-MeTaJIypwKH uenTap, y qHjHM 6pOjHHM KOBaqKHM, KepaMHqKHM, CTaKJIapCKI1M, 11
,lJ,pymM parmoaauawa, cy np0l13Bol)eHI1 np0I13BO,lJ,11 HeOnXO,lJ,HI1
sa acnapa-ncy H py,lJ,apcKy aKTHBHOCT xoja ce onsujana y OKOJIHHI1 Kpaxy JIy Jopnana, H na xpajy, ynpasaa uenrap KOjH je
nanrnenao np0113BO,lJ,lhy 3JIaTa H ornpesraae 3JIaTHI1X narora.
]/[aKO HHCy OTKpl1BeHI1 OCTaUI1 oojexara, HaJIa311 <pparMenara KepaMI1Ke H ofipahenux KpeMeHI1X aJIaTKI1 (Fig. 19. a-c)
ynyrap yrnphetsa, yxasyjy na ce y HaCeJhY na Y3BHwelhY )KHBeJIO jour TOKOM 6p0H3aHO,lJ,OnCKe enoxe. Ca ,lJ,OJIaCKOM PI1MJhaHa,
noserax py,lJ,apCKO-TOnHOHl1qapCKe aKTHBHOCTH y ,lJ,OJIHHI1 Ilexa sesyje ce aa xpaj I-II. 0 06HMHOCTH panosa 11 6pojy anra)KOBaHHX pa,lJ,HI1Ka nocpenno CBe,lJ,OqH nonarax na je Xanpnjan
(117-138) 3a cBoje CJIy)K6eHI1Ke y PY,lJ,HHUHMa lleKa KOBao noce6Hy BpCTy HOBua, C Haml1COM Aeliana Pincensia . .II.pyra, 11
BepoBaTHo, jow HHTe311BHHja <pa3a Ha eKCnJIOaTaUHjl1 py,n:HHKa
H npepa,n:H py,n:e, OTnOqeJIa je nOCJIe HanywTalha npoBHHUHje
.II.aKl1je, 272. ro,n:HHe (peaJIHO je npemOCTaBHTH ,n:a cy I1CKyCHI1
py,n:apH H MeTaJIyp311 KOjl1 cy pa,lJ,HJIH y PHMCKI1M py,n:HI1UHMa y
.II.aKHjH ,n:oBol)eHH y OBe KpajeBe). OTKpHBeHH HaJIa311 yKa3yjy
,n:a je yTBpl)eHH KOMnJIeKC Ha KpaKy JIy Jop,n:aHy no,n:l1rHyT KpajeM III BeKa, a Kao terminus post quem 3a lheroBy aKTI1BHOCT
MO)Ke ce Y3eTH Kpaj IV BeKa (nope,n: nOKpeTHor MaTepHjaJIa, 0
TOMe CBe,lJ,Oql1 OTKpHBeHH HOBau H3 BpeMeHa Teo,n:ocHja I, H
je,n:Ha OCTaBa HOBua oTKpHBeHa nope,n: ceBepHor 6e,n:eMa, Koja
ca,n:p)KH 52 HOBql1fia o,n: KOHcTaHTHHa ,n:o Teo,n:ocHja I). KOMnJIeKC Hl1je HaCTao y I1CTOM TPeHyTKy, Befi je ,n:orpal)HBaH ca
eKcnaH3HjoM eKCnJIOaTaUHje 3JIaTa. UeJIOKynHa lherOBa KOHuenUHja je 6HJIa no,n:pel)eHa 3JIary, Koje je ,n:06HjaHo HCIlHpalheM

KRAKU LU JORDAN AND GOLD MINING AND METALLURGY IN ANTIQUITY

3JIaTOHOCHor necxa Ilexa H Ep0iJ,Hl.JKe peice, H KonafheM y OKBHpy KJIaCHl.JHHX PYiJ,HHKa ca ranepajava. 11 Y jeiJ,HOM H y npyrov
cnysajy ce paiJ,HJIO 0 CaMOpOiJ,HOM, OiJ,HOCHO npHpOiJ,HOM l.JHCTOM 3JIaTY.
Yrspheae, OiJ,HOCHO KOMnJIeKC, je crpanao Y JKeCTOKOM noJKapyxpajexr IV nexa. Y KacHHjHM BeKOBHMa, MeTaJIyplllKo-3aHaTCKa aKTHBHOCT H yrspheae HHCy 06HOBJbaHH. Hejacao je

STARINAR L, 2000.

185

KaKO TYMal.JHTH CnOpaiJ,Hl.JHY nojany cPparMeHaTa CpeiJ,fhOBeKOBHe xepasnnce? KaKO y OKBHpy yrsphenor KOMnJIeKCa HeMa HO-

soaarpaheaux ofijexara H3 CpeiJ,fhOBeKOBHe enoxe, HHTH TParosa ofinaanaa,a HJIH anarrraunje crapujux aHTHl.JKHX rpahesaaa, Moryhe je na OHH CBeiJ,Ol.Je casro 0 'rparoaava JKHBOTa, 6e3
xopmnhen,a pyiJ,apCKO-TOnHOHHl.JapCKO-3aHaTCKe KOMnOHeHTe
crapnjer aHTHl.JKOr KOMnJIeKca.