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# Tutorial and Assignment-1

OPTICS
Module No.1 A: INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT
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TUTORIAL:1
The double slit arrangement is illuminated by light of wavelength 546nm. The
slits are 0.12mm apart and the screen on which interference pattern appears is
55cm away.
a) What is the angular position of (i) first minima and (ii) tenth maxima?
b) What is the separation between two adjacent maxima?

2.

Two slits are 0.08 mm apart, and the screen is 2 m away. How far is the third
dark fringe located from the central maximum if = 600 nm?

3.

## In a Youngs interference experiment, the two slits are separated by 0.0250

mm and the incident light includes two wavelengths: 1 = 510 nm (green) and
2 = 430 nm (blue). The overlapping interference patterns are observed on a
screen 1.50 m from the slits. Calculate the minimum distance from the center
of the screen to a point where a bright fringe of the green light coincides with a
bright fringe of the blue light.

4.

Measurements are made of the intensity distribution within the central bright
fringe in a Youngs interference pattern. At a particular value of y, it is found
that I/Imax = 0.90 when 600-nm light is used. What wavelength of light should
be used to reduce the relative intensity at the same location to 64.0% of the
maximum intensity?

5.

A thin film of oil (n = 1.25) is located on smooth, wet pavement. When viewed
perpendicular to the pavement, the film reflects most strongly red light at 640
nm and reflects no green light at 512 nm. How thick is the oil film?

6.

## An oil film (n = 1.45) floating on water (n = 1.33) is illuminated by white light

at normal incidence. The film is 280 nm thick. Find (a) the wavelength and

color of the light in the visible spectrum most strongly reflected and (b) the
wavelength and color of the light in the spectrum most strongly transmitted.

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## A material having an index of refraction of 1.30 is used as an antireflective

coating on a piece of glass of refractive index 1.5. Determine the minimum
thickness of the film needed to minimize reflection of 500nm light.
A disabled tanker leaks kerosene (n=1.20) into the Persian Gulf, creating a
large slick on top of water (n = 1.33).
(a) If you look straight down from aeroplane on to the region of slick where
thickness is 460nm, for which wavelengths of visible light is the
reflection is greatest?
(b) If you are scuba diving directly under this region of slick, for which
wavelengths of visible light is the transmitted intensity is strongest?
TUTORIAL: 2
An air wedge is formed between two glass plates separated at one edge by a
very fine wire of circular cross section as shown in Figure. When the wedge is
illuminated from above by 600-nm light and viewed from above, 30 dark
fringes are observed. Calculate the diameter d of the wire.

10
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Two glass plates 10.0 cm long are in contact at one end and separated at the
other end by a thread with a diameter d = 0.050 0 mm. Light containing the
two wavelengths 400 nm and 600 nm is incident perpendicularly and viewed
by reflection. At what distance from the contact point is the next dark fringe?

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## A broad source of light (wavelength = 680nm) illuminates normally two glass

plates 120 mm long that touch at one end and are separated by a wire
0.048mm in diameter at the other end. How many bright fringes appear over
120 mm distance?

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When a liquid is introduced into the air space between the lens and the plate in
a Newtons-rings apparatus, the diameter of the tenth ring changes from 1.50
to 1.31 cm. Find the index of refraction of the liquid.

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## and its diameter is 20mm.

(a) How many rings are produced?
(b) How many rings would be seen if the arrangement is immersed in water
(n = 1.33)?
(Assume wavelength = 589nm)

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## In a Newtons-rings experiment, a plano-convex glass (n =1.52) lens having

radius r = 5.00 cm is placed on a flat plate. When light of wavelength = 650
nm is incident normally, 55 bright rings are observed, with the last one
precisely on the edge of the lens. What is the radius R of curvature of the
convex surface of the lens?

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TUTORIAL: 3
Yellow light (wavelength = 589nm) illuminates a Michelson interferometer. How
many bright fringes will be counted as the mirror is moved through 1.0 cm?
In a Michelson interferometer 100 fringes cross the field of view when the
movable mirror is displaced by 0.0229 m. Calculate the wavelength of the
monochromatic light.
Assignment: Theory Questions
What is the necessary condition on the path length difference (and
phase difference) between two waves that interfere (A) constructively
and (B) destructively ?
Explain the Interference phenomena? State the necessary condition to produce
interference of light.
Explain the term coherence.
Obtain an expression for the fringe-width in the case of interference of
light of wavelength , from a double-slit of slit-separation d. Prove that in
this case of interference dark and bright bands are of equal width. In Youngs
double slit experiment, what change occurs to the fringe width if the
wavelength of the laser light is changed from green to red?
Derive an expression for the intensity of light on screen in Youngs double slit
experiment by phasor method and with the help of a neat diagram.
Draw a schematic plot of the intensity of light in a double-slit
interference against phase-difference (and path-difference).
Discuss the origin of circular fringes in Newtons rings?
Obtain an expression for the radius of m TH order bright ring in the case
of Newtons rings.
Write the condition for maxima for Newtons rings (Given: the thickness of the
air film in between the glass plate and the lens = t). Prove with proper diagram
that the diameter of the bright circular fringe(s) in a Newton ring set up is
proportional to the square root(s) of the odd natural numbers.
Prove that the diameter of n th dark circular fringe in the Newtons ring

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## experiment is proportional to the square root of the natural number.

Explain Michelsons interferometer.
Explain how microscopic