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Inspection Procedure

00-SAIP-74
1 August 2009
Inspection of Corrosion
under Insulation and Fireproofing
Document Responsibility: Inspection Engineering Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards


Table of Contents
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Scope............................................................
References....................................................
Definitions......................................................
Responsibilities..............................................
Susceptible Systems for CUI.........................
Common Locations of CUI in Susceptible
Systems.........................................................
Guidelines for Inspection Program of CUI.....
Inspection for Corrosion Under
Fireproofing (CUF).................................

Previous Issue: 31 July 2004 Next Planned Update: TBD


Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin
Primary contact: Kakpovbia, Anthony Eyankwiere on 966-3-8747226
CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2009. All rights reserved.

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Document Responsibility: Inspection Engineering Standards Committee


Issue Date: 1 August 2009
Next Planned Update: TBD

00-SAIP-74
Inspection of Corrosion
under Insulation and Fireproofing

Scope
This SAIP provides guidelines to inspection personnel on the development of an
inspection program for corrosion under insulation (CUI) and corrosion under
fireproofing (CUF) for plant facilities. Inspection for CUI includes insulation for cold
and hot services in piping systems, pressure vessels and tanks.

References
The following documents are to be used as reference for this procedure.
2.1

Saudi Aramco References


Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedures
SAEP-20

Equipment Inspection Schedules

SAEP-1135

On-Stream Inspection Administration

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard


SAES-N-001

Basic Criteria, Industrial Insulation

Saudi Aramco Inspection Procedure


00-SAIP-75

External Inspection

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings

2.1

AA-036911

Insulation Details for Hot Piping

AA-036912

Insulation Details for Hot Vessels

AA-036913

Sht 1 Insulation Details for Cold Piping

AA-036913

Sht 2 Insulation Details for Cold Vessels

AC-036915

Details Fireproofing for Column and Vessel Skirts

Industry Codes and Standards


American Petroleum Institute
API-510

Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: Maintenance


Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration

API-570

Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Re-rating of


in-Service piping systems

API-653

Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and


Reconstruction

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Document Responsibility: Inspection Engineering Standards Committee


Issue Date: 1 August 2009
Next Planned Update: TBD

00-SAIP-74
Inspection of Corrosion
under Insulation and Fireproofing

National Association of Corrosion Engineers


NACE RP0198

The Control of Corrosion Under Thermal


Insulation and Fireproofing Materials- A
systems Approach

Definitions
Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI): CUI is an external corrosion which takes place as
a result from the collection of water in the annulus space between the insulation and the
metal surface. Sources of water may include rain, water leaks, humidity condensation,
cooling water tower drift, deluge systems and steam tracing leaks. It is a localized form
of corrosion that occurs if certain operating conditions are met. It also includes chloride
stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel under insulation.
Susceptible Systems for CUI: Equipment and plant facilities that have greater
tendency to become damaged by corrosion under insulation (CUI), due to its
construction materials, process operating parameters or its geographical location (i.e.
offshore or onshore as defined by SAES-H-001.)
Vulnerable Location: are locations within susceptible systems for corrosion under
insulation that, due to its geometrical shape or insulation condition, will be damaged by
CUI more than other locations. The inspection program for corrosion under insulation
shall monitor these locations which will represent the general condition of the insulated
facility.

Responsibilities
4.1

4.2

The inspection unit supervisor shall be responsible for:


4.1.1

Assuring that an inspection programs for inspection of corrosion under


insulation (CUI) and inspection for corrosion under fireproofing (CUF)
are established and all susceptible systems for corrosion under
insulation are being inspected and monitored.

4.1.2

Ensuring a worksheet or logbook entry for a minor defect found by the


CUI inspection program or corrosion under fireproofing (CUF)
inspection program is issued.

The plant corrosion engineer shall be responsible for:


4.2.1

Identifying all locations in the susceptible systems that are vulnerable


for corrosion under insulation.

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Document Responsibility: Inspection Engineering Standards Committee


Issue Date: 1 August 2009
Next Planned Update: TBD

00-SAIP-74
Inspection of Corrosion
under Insulation and Fireproofing

Commentary Note:
The corrosion engineer should interface with the process engineer to
identify all piping systems and plant equipment that are susceptible to
corrosion under insulation. He should also verify that all existing
insulation on piping or equipment is needed either for energy
conservation or personnel protection. All unneeded insulation shall be
removed and related drawings and documents should be updated.

4.2.2
4.3

Review all repair procedures and make sure that factors promoting
corrosion under insulation are being eliminated if possible.

The area Inspection shall be responsible for:


4.3.1

Ensuring all susceptible systems for corrosion under insulation and


fireproofing are identified and monitored by the OSI program as per
SAEP-1135.

4.3.2

Ensuring appropriate inspection methods are used for each vulnerable


location for corrosion under insulation and fireproofing as per the
schedule.

4.3.3

Ensuring that all insulated lines in the plant were considered for
inspection for corrosion under insulation program.

4.3.4

Performing inspection on the vulnerable locations for corrosion under


insulation and fireproofing as per the schedule.

4.3.5

Initiating a work sheet for any major findings and a logbook entry for
any minor findings.

4.3.6

Performing visual inspection as per 00-SAIP-75 guidelines.

Susceptible Systems for CUI


5.1

Piping Systems
Insulated piping systems shall be included in an inspection program for
corrosion under insulation if any of the followings conditions apply:
5.1.1

Piping systems made of carbon steel and operating temperature


between 25F (-4C) and 250F (121C).

5.1.2

Piping systems made of carbon steel and operating temperature above


250F (121C) or below 25F (-4C) but in intermittent service.

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Document Responsibility: Inspection Engineering Standards Committee


Issue Date: 1 August 2009
Next Planned Update: TBD

5.2

00-SAIP-74
Inspection of Corrosion
under Insulation and Fireproofing

5.1.3

Piping systems made of austenitic stainless steel and operate between


100F (38C) and 400F (204C).

5.1.4

Piping located in areas exposed to mist overspray from cooling water


towers.

5.1.5

Piping systems located in areas exposed to steam vents.

5.1.6

Piping systems exposed to deluge systems.

5.1.7

Piping systems subject to process spills, ingress of moistures or acid


vapors.

5.1.8

Deadlegs and protrusions from insulted piping that operates at different


temperatures of the main line.

5.1.9

Steam traced piping systems that may experience tracing leaks,


especially at tubing fittings beneath the insulation.

5.1.10

Piping systems with deteriorated coating and wrapping, damaged


insulation cladding, or insulation that might be damaged by piping
vibration.

Insulated Drums, Vessels and Heat Exchangers:


Insulated equipment shall be inspected for corrosion under insulation if any of
the following conditions apply:

5.2.1

Equipment operating between 25F (-4C) and 250F (121C).

5.2.2

Equipment operating above 250F (121C) or below 25F (-4C), but in


intermittent operation.

5.2.3

Equipment protected by deluge water system.

Common Locations of CUI in Susceptible Systems


6.1

Common locations in piping systems as per API 570 and NACE RP0198:
Piping systems susceptible to CUI as stipulated in 5.1 may have specific
locations, which will be more vulnerable to CUI than the rest of the piping
systems.
6.1.1

All penetrations or breaches in the insulation jacketing such as


deadlegs (vents, drains, instrument tapping and similar items), pipe
hangers and supports and steam tracing tubing penetrations.
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Document Responsibility: Inspection Engineering Standards Committee


Issue Date: 1 August 2009
Next Planned Update: TBD

6.2

00-SAIP-74
Inspection of Corrosion
under Insulation and Fireproofing

6.1.2

Irregular insulation surfaces such as valves and fittings.

6.1.3

Bolted-on shoes.

6.1.4

Terminations of insulation at flanges and other piping components.

6.1.5

Damaged or missing insulation jacketing or when the seams of the


insulating jacketing are located on the top of horizontal piping.

6.1.6

Termination of insulation in a vertical piping.

6.1.7

Caulking that has hardened, has separated or is missing.

6.1.8

Bulges or staining of insulation or jacketing.

6.1.9

Low points in piping systems that have a known breach in the


insulation system, including low points in long unsupported piping
runs.

6.1.10

Carbon or low-alloy steel flanges, bolting and other components under


insulation in high-alloy piping systems.

6.1.11

UT measurement windows in the insulation jacketing.

Common locations of CUI in insulated vessels and tanks as per API 510,
API 653 and NACE RP0198.
Insulated vessels and tanks that are susceptible for CUI have locations that are
more prone to CUI than the rest of the equipment. Examples of highly suspect
areas include, but not limited to the following:
6.2.1

Stiffening rings and insulation suppport.

6.2.2

Areas around nozzles and manways.

6.2.3

Areas around protrusions; like lifting lungs and platforms supports.


Commentary Note:
If practical, these locations can be inspecteed internally by thickness
measurements during equipment T&I in lieu of insulation removal or
NDT.

Guidelines for Inspection Program of CUI


Insulated equipment and piping systems shall be identified and checked if they meet
any of the criteria stipulated in this procedure for vulnerability to corrosion under
insulation. All equipment and piping systems susceptible for CUI, as per section 5 of
Page 6 of 8

Document Responsibility: Inspection Engineering Standards Committee


Issue Date: 1 August 2009
Next Planned Update: TBD

00-SAIP-74
Inspection of Corrosion
under Insulation and Fireproofing

this procedure shall be inspected frequently through an inspection program structured as


per this procedure. Inspection frequency shall be as per SAEP 20.
Susceptible systems shall be thoroughly inspected visually. Visual inspection shall
identify any sign of damaged insulation, jacketing or deviations from SAES-N-001 and
Saudi Aramco standard drawing requirements as referenced in this SAIP. Bulges in the
insulation have to be identified since they may be signs of corrosion under insulation.
Any other sign of corrosion under insulation has to be identified through the external
visual inspection.
Commentary Note:
It should be noted that CUI might take place without any sign of it on the external surface
of the insulation. NDT may be used in lieu of insulation removal provided the method and
extent of NDT is approved by Inspection Department.

Samples of the common locations of corrosion under insulation as described in section


6 of this procedure and locations of damaged insulation found through visual inspection
of the system shall be inspected by either NDT or insulation removal. Quantities of
inspection samples are as shown in Table 1. Piping classification is per section 6.2 of
API-570. All vessels and tanks are to be classified as class 1.
Table 1
Class
1
2
3

% of locations found with damaged


insulation to be inspected by NDT or
insulation removal
75%
50%
25%

% of locations defined by section 6 of


this procedure to be inspected by NDT
or insulation removal
50%
33%
10%

If the inspection of the locations found significant corrosion under insulation, then the
percentage of location selection should be increased. If the system is known to have a
good coating system, or if the system has a good history from previous inspections for
corrosion under insulation, then the percentage of locations selected can be decreased
50% of the amounts given in Table 1.
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Inspection for Corrosion Under Fireproofing (CUF)


Fireproofing on static equipment and piping systems shall be considered as insulation.
Equipment furnished with fireproofing shall be inspected for corrosion under
fireproofing as per the guidelines of sections 5, 6 and 7 of this procedure.
8.1

For Static Equipment Skirts, Saddles and Elevated pipe Supports


Thorough visual inspection shall be performed. Areas near moisture and water
entry points shall be given more attention during inspection. Any crack in the
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Document Responsibility: Inspection Engineering Standards Committee


Issue Date: 1 August 2009
Next Planned Update: TBD

00-SAIP-74
Inspection of Corrosion
under Insulation and Fireproofing

fireproofing shall be studied to find out if it is indicating any sign of corrosion.


Inspection windows might be made to verify any external sign of corrosion
under fireproofing. If corrosion is found then the fireproofing shall be removed
to expose all corroded area.
8.2

For Structures and Pipe Racks


Visual inspection shall be performed to find out any external sign of corrosion
under fireproofing. Inspection windows in form of horizontal stripes should be
made if deemed necessary. They should intersect cracks at random locations. If
corrosion is found, then all corroded area shall be exposed.
If any NDT can be applied to inspect the equipment under fireproofing for
corrosion, then inspection windows or stripes should not be made.

1 August 2009

Revision Summary
Editorial revision to change the Primary Contact.

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