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SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE
Two Marks with Answers
UNIT I- FUNDAMENTALS OF SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE

1) Write the statement of key management axiom.


A key management of axiom says that what is not tracked is not done
2) What is the prime benefit of an SQA program?
The prime benefit of an SQA program is ASSURANCE it provides management that the
officially established process is actually being implemented.
3) What are the goals of SQA?
a) To improve software quality by appropriately monitoring both the s/w and the
development process that produces it.
b) To ensure full compliance with the established standards and procedures for the software
process
c) To ensure that any inadequacies in the product, the process or the standards are brought
to management attention so that inadequacies can be fixed.
4) Write the responsibilities of SQA?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Review all development and quality plans for completeness


Participate as inspection moderators in design and code inspections
Review all test plans for adherence to standards
Periodically audit SCM performance to determine adherence to standards

5) Write the 8 steps for launching an SQA PROGRAM?


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

Initiate the SQA program


Identify SQA issues
write the SQA plan
Establish the standards
Establish the SQA function
Conduct training and promote the SQA program
Implement the SQA plan
Evaluate the SQA program.

6) Write the reason for software quality assurance organization fail to have much impact
on software quality.
a) SQA organizations are rarely staffed with sufficiently experienced or knowledgeable
people
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b) The SQA management team is often not capable of negotiating with development
c) Senior management often backs development over SQA on a large percentage of issues
d) Software development groups rarely produce verifiable quality plans.
7) Write short notes on SQAP.
Software Quality Assurance Plan that specifies its goal, the SQA tasks to be
performed, the standards against which development work is to be measured and the procedure
are organizational structure.
8) What are the points to be considered when SQA can be effective, while considering SQA
people?
a) The practice of starting new hires in SQA is a partial solution that can be effective only if
there are enough experienced people there already
b) Rotation schemes can also be effective from SQA.
c) New development managers be performed SQA
d) SQA to be effective, they must have good people and full management backing.
9) What are the roles of IV&V?
Independent Verification and Validation
a) IV&V role is to ensure that the customers needs are adequately reflected in the work.
b) To ensure that the right skills and attitudes are in place
c) To provide an independent development or maintenance organizations performance.
10) Write the minimum content for the section on standards, practices and conventions of
IEEE.
a)
b)
c)
d)

Documentation Standards
Logic structure standards
Coding standards
Commentary standards

11) Mention some potential pitfalls while SQA monitoring the responsibilities?
a) It is a mistake to ensure that the SQA people themselves can do anything about quality
b) The existence of an SQA function does not ensure that the standards and procedures are
followed
c) Unless management periodically demonstrates its support for SQA by following their
recommendation SQA will be ineffective.
12) What is the simple rule on SQA Reporting?
The one simple rule on SQA reporting is that it not be under the software development
manager. Project schedules are always tight, so these line managers are not likely to listen
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sympathetically to reports of inadequate test plans, human factors problem or documentation


errors.

13) List out the key SCM tasks?


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Change management
configuration control
Revisions
versions
deltas
conditional code

14) What are the roles of CCB?


Change Control Board or Configuration Control Board
On moderate to very large projects, a central control mechanism is needed to ensure that
every change is properly considered and coordinated
It is to ensure that every baseline change is properly considered by all concerned parties
and that every change is authorized before implementation
15) Mention any 4 general ground rules for SCM audits?
a)
b)
c)
d)

They are periodically needed to ensure the integrity of the software boundaries
A successful audit is performed before every major baseline change
The audit verifies that changes to the baseline are implemented as intended.
The auditing function is an integral part of the SCM system.

16) Define Software Quality.


Conformance to explicitly stated functional and performance requirements, explicitly
documented development standards, and implicit characteristics that are expected of all
professionally developed software.
17) Define SCM.
Software Configuration Management
SCM are the practices and procedures for administering source code, producing software
development builds, controlling change, and managing software configurations.
18) What is SCI?
Software Configuration Identification
Uniquely identifies every project development item. SCI definitions are kept under configuration
control and expanded as more is learned about the product and its structure
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19) What are the special SCM function needs in during implementation?
a) Source code change out and change in facilities
b) Read only access to specifications and object code
c) A procedure for making approved changes to module specifications.
d) An SCM procedure to ensure that any new source code is consistent with the module
specifications
20) What is SCMP?
Software Configuration Management Plan
A first step in establishing an SCM system. It includes objectives, responsibilities and the
approach and methods to be used

UNIT II - MANAGING SOFTWARE QUALITY

1) What are the basic principles of Project Management?

Each project has a plan that is based on a hierarchy of commitments.


A management system resolves the natural conflicts between the projects and between
the line of staff organization.
An oversight and review system audits & tracks progress against the plans.

2) List at least four elements of an effective commitment?


a)
b)
c)
d)

The person making the commitment does so willingly.


There is agreement between the parties on what is to be done, by whom & when.
The commitment is openly & publicly started.
The person responsible tries to meet the commitment; even if help is needed.

3) What is the Contention Process?


Contention system is that the best decisions are based on a full understanding of the relevant
issues.
To encourage the open expression of differences and their rational resolution.
4) What is the need for Quarterly reviews?
It provides a forum for residing conflicts & monitoring progress against period and
product objectives. The topics should typically include an assessment of project performance
against plan & the organization performance against its goal.

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5) Mention any four principles of phase reviews.


a) Before initiation & at predetermined points during the project. Detailed technical &
management reviews are conducted.
b) The reviews are conducted by the project manager.
c) All involved line and staff organization participate.
d) The meeting is not resolving issues but to identify them & assign resolution
responsibility.
6) What are the four basic quality principles?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Unless you establish aggressive quality goals, nothing will change.


If these goals are not numerical, the 6.5 quality program will remain just task.
Without quality plans, only you are committed to quality.
Quality plans are just paper unless you track & reviews them.

7) Write short notes on Error Seeding.


Error seeding is a potentially intersecting way to evaluate program quality. The idea is
to inject a known number of dummy defects into the program & then to track how many of
them are found by the various tests or inspections.
8) Define availability.
The system ability to perform the intended function whenever needed, this is called
availability.
Availability= (1-MTTR/MTTR+MTBF) X100
MTBF: Mean time between failures
MTTR: Mean time required to response
Availability is the perfect of total time that the system is available for use.
9) Write short notes on Removal Efficiency.
It indicates the cumulative percent of the previously injected errors that have been
removed by the end of each project phase since defect removal costs can be expected to roughly
double with each project phase, attention should be focused on early removal.
10) List at least two critical elements of Software Quality Management system?
a) A responsible authority is named to own the quality data and the tracking and reporting
system.
b) Quality performance is tracked and reported to this authority, during both development
and maintenance.
c) Resources are established for validating the reported data and retaining it in the process
database.
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11) What are the principles of the Contention System?


a) All major decisions are reviewed with the involved parties in advance, and the parties are
requested to agree. Where possible, any issues are resolved before proceeding.
b) When the time comes for the decision, all dementing parties are present and asked to state
their views.
c) When there is no disagreement, the senior manager determines if there is knowledgeable
agreement.
If any disagreeing parties are absent or if more preparation is needed. In later two cases, the
decision is defined until the necessary homework has been done.
12) What are the principles of Software Defect Prevention?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

The programmers must evaluate their own process


Feedback is an essential part of defect prevention
There is no single cure-all that will solve all the problems
Process improvement must be an integral part of the process
Process improvement takes time to learn.

13) What are the 6 categories of error suggested by Enders?


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Technological
Organizational
Historic
Group dynamic
Individual
Other cases & inexplicable Causes

14) write at least 4 key action team responsibilities.


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Prioritize all action items


Establish an implementation plan for the highest priority items.
Assign responsibilities
Track implementation
Report to management as progress
Continue with the next priority items.

15) Write at least 4 process changes for defect prevention.


a)
b)
c)
d)

Kick off meeting


Task data from the process task is entered in the process DB.
All improvement suggestions are retained in the action tracking system.
A feedback system is established to ensure that the results are communicated to the
professionals and that their contributions are recognized.

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UNIT III -SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE METRICS

1. What is software Quality?


Software quality is the degree to which a system, component, or process meets Specified
requirements, and customer or user needs or expectations
2. List out some of the Characteristics of software quality?

Characteristics
Software Quality is not absolute
Software Quality is multidimensional
Software Quality is subject to Constraints
Software Quality is about acceptable Compromises
Software Quality Criteria are not independent, but interact with each other Causing
Conflicts

3. What are five different views of quality suggested by Garvin?

Transcendental View
User view
Manufacturing View
Product View
Value-based View

4. What is Value-based view?


The value-based view sees quality as dependent on the amount a customer is willing to pay
for it
5. What is Transcendental View?
The Transcendental view sees quality as something that can be recognized but not defined in
some tractable form. A good quality object stands out, and it is easily recognized
6. What is user view?
The User view sees quality as fitness for purpose. Quality Concerns the extent to which a
product meets user needs and exceptions.
7. What is manufacturing view?
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The manufacturing view sees quality as conformance to specification.it focuses on product


quality during production after delivery
8. What is defect count?
Defect count is the total number of known defects recorded against a product during
development and use
9. what are the three areas addressed by McCall Model?

Performance
Design
Adaptation

10. What are all McCalls criteria of quality?

Efficiency
Integrity
Reliablity
Usability
Correctness
Maintainability
Verifiability
Expandability
Flexibility
Interoperability
Portability
Reusability

11. What is Correctness?


Correctness is the degree to which Software performs its desired function
12. Define Usability?
Reliability is a set of attributes that bear on the effort needed for use and on the individual
assessment of such use by a stated or implied set of users
13. Define Reliability?
Reliability is a set of attributes that bear on the capability of software to maintain its level of
performance under stated condition for a stated period of time.it is also defined as the probability
of failure-free Operation.

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14. What is Maintainability?


Maintainability is a set of attributes that bear on the effort needed to make specified
modifications
15. Define MTTC
MTTC is the time it takes to analyze, design and implement the change. Maintainable
programs have a lower MTTC
16. What are the Criteria included in Maintainability?

Consistency
Simplicity
Conciseness
Self-descriptiveness
Modularity

17. What is verifiability?


Verifiability deals with the capacity to verify that the software design and
implementation is in accordance with program specifications
18. List out the criteria of Verifiability

Criteria include
Consistency
Simplicity
Conciseness
Self-descriptiveness
Modularity

19. What is Expandability?


Expandability deals with the relative effort involved in increasing the capability of the software
20. What is Interoperability?
Interoperability is the ability of the software to work with other software system or to coexist
without causing difficulties.
21. What is portability?
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Portability is a setoff attributes that bera on the capability of software to be transferred from
one environment to another

22. Define Reusability


Reusability is the ability of components of the software to be used in other applications
23. What are the Criteria available for reusability?

Generality
Self-descriptiveness
Modularity
Simplicity
Document Accessibility
System Clarity
Machine Independence
Application Independence

24. Define TQM


Total Quality Management is a Management system for a customer focused organization
that involves all employees in continual improvement of all aspects of the organization
25. What are the principles of TQM?

Be customer focused
Insure Total Employee involvement
Process Centered
Integrated system
Strategic and Systematic approach
Continual Improvement
Fact Based Decision Making
Communication

26. What are the types of Failure Cost


Failure costs can be split in to those resulting from
Internal failure
External failure
27. When does an internal failure cost occur?
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Internal failure costs occur when results fail to reach quality standards and are detected before
they are shipped to the customer
28. When does an external failure cost occur?
External failure costs occur when the products or services fail to reach quality standard,
but are not detected until after the customer receives the item
29. What is PDCA cycle?
PDCA(Plan-do-Check-act)is an iterative four-step management method used in business
for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products.it is also called:PDCA
cycle, Deming Cycle,Shewhart Cycle
30.What is the purpose of Software Quality Metrics?
The purpose of software metrics is to make assessments throughout the software life cycle as
to whether the software quality requirements are being met.
UNIT IV- SOFTWARE QUALITY PROGRAM

1.

What is SQP?
SQP stands for software Quality Program. Software Quality program is a framework
for and performance have been achieved

2. Give the objective of the software quality program


The objective of the software quality program is to assure the quality of
.Deliverable software and documentation
.The process used to produce deliverable software
.non deliverable software
3. What are the tasks establish Software Quality program?
.Swift and accurate collection of data
.Develop a plan for Quality
4. What is the use of Quality plan?
A quality plan helps you schedule all of the tasks needed to make sure that your
project meet the needs of your customer
5. What are the parts of Quality plan?
Quality plan comprises two parts
.The Quality Assurance Plan lists the independent reviews needed and
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.The Quality Control Plan lists the internal reviews needed to meet your Quality Targets

6. Give the purpose of Software quality plan


The purpose of this Software Quality Plan is to define the techniques, procedure,
and methodologies that will used to assure timely delivery of the software and that the
development system meets the specified requirements within project resources

7. What are the technical definitions of Quality Plan contain?


The technical definitions Consists of the following three parts
1. Requirements:
The organization must develop, manufacture and distribute consistently
Low cost product and service
The products must be what Customers believe they want
2. Confidence:
The products must be supplied at the level of reliability which matches the
clients needs
3. Constant improvement: Constant improvement of all products and all processes
must be made as integral part of the corporate culture for the Client to continue to
perceive a supplier as a Quality producer.

8. List out the basic system considerations for quality goals establishment.

System Characteristics
Trade-offs
Caveats
Quality Functions
Training

9. What are the systems characteristics on which the quality goals for a system depend?
The quality goals for a system depend upon system characteristics which include
the following

Functionality
Performance
Constraints
Technological Innovativeness
Technological and managerial risk

10. What is the scope of SQA plan (SQAP)?


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The scope of SQA plan (SQAP) is tailored to fit the current software development
effort and is related to the project planning and lifecycle description documents for this project. It
traces the all phases of this software development process and how the qualities of the product
are ensured.
11. What is the task of SQA group?
The SQA group ensures the quality of the software process and thereby ensures the
quality of the product. SQA groups tasks cover the entire software lifecycle from conception to
delivery.
12. What is the objective of reviewing the software?
The objectives of reviewing software are:

To reveal all kinds of code errors and bugs in project implementation


To verify that the software meets its requirements
To ensure that the software has been represented according to predefined
conventions and standards
To achieve software to be developed in a uniform manner

13. List out the types of Errors.


1. Documentation errors
2. Program code errors
14. What are the factors that affect the SQA effort?

System Size
System Criticality
Cost of correcting errors
Type of release
Relationship with the user

15. List out the effective leadership guidelines.

Trust your subordinates


Develop your vision
Keep u cool
Encourage risk
Be an expert
Invite dissent
Simplify

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16. Define system size.


System Size refers to the amount of effort needed to produce the system.
UNIT V SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE STANDARDIZATION

1. What is a Software standard?


Software standard is a standard, protocol, or other common format of a document, file,
or data transfer accepted and used by one or more software developers while working on one or
more than one software programs
2. Define ISO
ISO stands for International Organization for Standardization .It is a worldwide
federation of national standards bodies, at present comprising 140 members, one in each country
3. List out the purpose of ISO
The purpose of ISO are
Promote the development of standardization and related world activities to facilitate the
international exchange of goods and services
Develop Cooperation in intellectual, scientific and Economic activity
Ensure a quality standard and specific requirement to use
Show that a company is consistent in its input of product as well as the output of product
based on a customers requirements
Facilitate global consensus agreements on international quality standards.
4. What is ISO 9000?
The ISO 9000 is a generic name given to a family of standards represents an
international Consensus on good management practices with the aim of ensuring that the
organization can time and time again deliver the product or services that meet the clients
Quality requirements
5. Give the objective of ISO 9000?
The ISO 9000 is a generic name given to a family of standards represent an
international Consensus on good management practices with the aim of ensuring that the
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organization can time and time again deliver the product or services that meet the clients quality
requirements
6. What are the Older Standards of ISO 9000?
ISO 9001 Model for quality assurance: design, development, production, installation
and servicing.
ISO 9002 Model for quality assurance : production, installation and servicing
ISO 9003 Model for quality assurance : final inspection and test.
7. What are the Current Standards of ISO 9000?
The family of ISO 9000 Standards has been developed by Iso and it is made up of four
core standards:
ISO 9000:2005 Fundamentals and Vocabulary
ISO 9001: 2008 Quality Management Systems Requirements
ISO 9004:2009 Quality Management Systems Guidelines for performance
improvements
ISO 19011:2002 Guidelines for quality and / or environmental management systems
auditing
8. Why is the Quality System needed?
To satisfy customers through a quality product
To gain self-confidence - we get what we planned
To achieve competitiveness in both the local and overseas markets
As a blueprint for efforts to improve the quality system of the organization
9. Mention the eight quality management principles?
Focus on your customers
Provide leadership
Involve your people
Use a process approach
Take a systems approach
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Encourage continual improvement


Get the facts before you decide
Work with your suppliers
10. Mention the elements of ISO 9000.
The standards of ISO 9000 detail 20 requirements for an organizations quality
management system in the following areas:

Management Responsibility
Quality System
Order Entry
Design Control
Document and Data Control
Purchasing
Control of Customer Supplied Products
Product Identification and Tractability
Process Control
Inspection and Testing Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment
Inspection and Test Status
Control of Nonconforming Products
Corrective and Preventive Action
Handling, Storage, Packaging and Delivery
Control of Quality Records
Internal Quality Audits
Training
Servicing
Statistical Techniques

11. List out the advantage of ISO 9000.


Increased customer satisfaction
Improved internal communication and raises morale
Improved customer service
Reduction of product liability risks

12. Give the structure of CMM.

The CMM is structured as follows:


Maturity Levels (Staged Representation)

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Key Process Area (KPA)


Goals: Generic and Specific
Common Features
Key Practices: Generic and Specific

13. What is Maturity Level?


A maturity level is a well-defined evolutionary plateau toward achieving a mature
software process.
14. What is CMMI?
CMMI or CMM Integration is developed to integrate current and upcoming models. It is
sort of an upgrade from the CMM Model and describes process improvement for organizations
especially in software development.
15. What are the benefits of CMMI?
Expand the scope of and visibility into the product life cycle and engineering activities ot
ensure that the product or service meets customer expectations.
Incorporate lessons learned from additional areas of best practice. Example Measurement, Risk Management and Supplier Management
Implement more robust high maturity practices
16. How is CMM Maturity Level organized?
The CMM is organized into five maturity levels:
Level 6: Initial
Level 7: Repeatable
Level 8: Defined
Level 9: Managed
Level 10: Optimizing

17. Difference between CMM and CMMI

CMM
CMM stands for capability maturity model
CMM designed only for Software Industry
It is initial model provide baseline toCMMI
CMM focus attention on processes, but the
new
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CMMI
CMMI stands for capability maturity model
integration
CMMI designed for all other industries like
call centre etc..,along with software
It is upgraded model of CMM
CMMI focus attention on result-Oriented
Process
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CMM describes about the software engineering CMM Integrated describes both software and
alone
system Engineering

18. List out the common feature of ISO 9000 and SEIS CMM
Capability to deliver with consistency
Aim at Quality Improvement of the products or services
Stress that Quality assurance should be a planned activity
Require management commitment to quality expressed through appropriate explicit
policy statement(s)
19. Give the relationship of the SQA group role to SEIS CMM
SEI Maturity level
Initial
Repeatable
Defined
Managed
Optimizing

Role of SQA
Testing
Quality Hurdle
Oversight, Metrics
Process and Management
Reference, Oversight

20. Compare the process elements of ISO9000 and CMM


Process elements unique to ISO 9000
1.Contract Management
2.Purchase and Customer Supplied
Components
3.Personnel issues
4.Package,Delivery and Installation

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Process elements unique to CMM


1.Project tracking and oversight
2.Process and Technology Change
Management
3.Intergroup coordination to meet customer
requirements
4.Organization-Wide Process Focus, Process
Development and Integrated Management

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