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Bibliometrics, Cybermetrics,
Informetrics, and
Scientometrics Sites and
Sources
Gerry McKiernan AB, MS

a a

Iowa State University Library, Ames, IA, 50011, USA


Published online: 23 Sep 2008.

To cite this article: Gerry McKiernan AB, MS (2005) Bibliometrics, Cybermetrics,


Informetrics, and Scientometrics Sites and Sources, Science & Technology Libraries,
26:2, 107-115, DOI: 10.1300/J122v26n02_06
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SCI-5

Bibliometrics, Cybermetrics, Informetrics,


and Scientometrics Sites and Sources
Gerry McKiernan

Bibliometrics is traditionally associated with the quantitative measure of documentary materials and embraces all studies which seek to
quantify the process of written communication . . . Bibliometric methods are [also] used in studies of properties and behaviour of recorded
knowledge, for analysing the structures of scientific and research areas,
and for evaluation of research activity and administration of scientific
information. Various statistical methods have been used to study the
patterns of authorship, publication and literature use, the relationship
within scientific domains and research communities, and . . . [the] structure of specific fields (Persson, 2001).
Bibliometrics has been applied in a large number of contexts that include science studies, research evaluation, knowledge management, environmental scanning, trend analysis, and the optimization of library
and information resources (Persson, 2001). In this SCI-5 column, we
profile five significant Web resources relating to bibliometrics and related approaches.
Gerry McKiernan, AB, MS, is Associate Professor, Science and Technology Librarian, and Bibliographer, Iowa State University Library, Ames, IA 50011 (E-mail:
gerrymck@iastate.edu).
Science & Technology Libraries, Vol. 26(2) 2005
Available online at http://www.haworthpress.com/web/STL
2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1300/J122v26n02_06

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CITE:
Olle Persson, Nordic PhD-course: Bibliometrics. <http://
www.umu.se/inforsk/phdbib.htm> (accessed 4 June 2005).
***
WHAT?

Biblometrics

WHERE? http://apollo.iwt.uni-bielefeld.de/mw/bibliometrics/
WHEN?

January 5, 2005 [Last update]

WHY?
Biblometrics is a compendium of links which may be of
interest for bibliometric researchers.
HOW?
The site provides access to a categorized directory of key
Conferences, Mailing Lists, Journals, Societies, Research Groups,
Commercial [Sites], Science & Technology Indicators, Classification Schemes, and Miscellaneous.
The Conferences group provides links to select homepages for the International Conference on Scientometrics & Informetrics (1997, 2001, 2003,
2005), while the Mailing Lists group includes links to the electronic mailing list archive of the International Society for Scientometrics and
Informetrics (ISSI) (http://listserv.rediris.es/archives/issi.html) and to
the listserv of SIGMETRICS, a Virtual Special Interest Group of the
American Society for Information Science and Technology, which is
interested in the issue of measurement of information generation, production, dissemination, and use (http://web.utk.edu/~gwhitney/sigmetrics.
html).
The Journals grouping offers links to the homepages of a dozen significant science, information science, and library science serials (e.g.,
Bibliometric Notes, Cybermetrics, Journal of the American Society for
Information Science and Technology), while the Societies group does the
same for major organizations (e.g., ADEST (France), ASIST (USA),
ISSI (International), and SFBA (France). The Research Group list
provides links to the homepages of major research groups or organizations (e.g., BIRG [Bibliometric and Informetric Research Group (Australia)], CINDOC [Centro de Informacin y Documentacin Cientfica
(Spain)], Inforsk [Information Research Group (Sweden)]), while the
Commercial group provides links to important companies, products,
or services in the field (e.g., Thomson ISI (http://www.isinet.com/).
The Science & Technology Indicators list provides links to major national and international sources (e.g., Main Science and Technology Indicators (OECD), Science and Engineering Indicators 2004 (USA-NSF),

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109

World Science Report (UNESCO)), while the Classification Schemes


is a linked list to major classification schemes (e.g., ACM Computing
Classification System, DDC (Dewey Decimal Classification), LCC
(Library of Congress Classification)) as well as important categorization or subject schemes. The last category, Miscellaneous, is a list that
provides links to a wide range of additional bibliometric as well as
non-bibliometric sources and sites.
WHO?

Matthias Winterhager
***

WHAT? Bibliometrics Research Group, Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research (CIBER), City University, London, England.
WHERE? http://ciber.soi.city.ac.uk/bibindex.php
WHEN?

2001

WHY?
The broad aims of the Group are to engage in evaluation research and consultancy in strategic areas of the . . . science base and thus
inform public policy of the United Kingdom (UK).
HOW?
The Bibliometric Research Group is the largest group of its
kind in the UK. The Group is mainly concerned with research evaluation and the development of new indicators of research impact and outcomes. The Group undertakes a wide range of consultancy work,
mostly in the areas of biomedicine, but it has recently broadened its
scope to explore public policy issues relating to knowledge production,
including technology transfer (http://ciber.soi.city.ac.uk/).
Since its inception, members of the Group have been active in developing alternatives to classic bibliometric evaluation techniques, including the design of journal diffusion indicators which have received
international attention. The Group is active in developing measures
which rely on novel forms of citation, such as the incorporation of research into clinical guidelines, thus demonstrating how research works
its way from the laboratory bench to the patients bedside (http://ciber.
soi.city.ac.uk/).
In addition to . . . [its] work on funding acknowledgements, [the
Bibliometrics Research Group] . . . has also been active in exploring
spatial and ethnicity aspects of science production, aiming to enrich the
bibliometricians palette. This approach is reviving bibliometrics as an

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SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LIBRARIES

evaluation tool by making it much more immediately policy-relevant.


In addition, the Group is actively involved in the study of bibliometrics
and scholarly communication, including the application of these techniques in the social sciences, arts and humanities (http://ciber.soi.
city.ac.uk/).
The research, teaching and scholarship activities of . . . [the Bibliometrics Research Group] overlap extensively with CIBERS new Virtual Scholar programme, especially in relation to its expertise in citation
analysis and the management of large data sets (http://www.ucl.ac.
uk/ciber/ciber.php).
WHO?
The Bibliometrics Research Group was formed . . . when
the Department of Information Science [of City University, London] . . .
was awarded a major grant from the Wellcome Trust to take over and
develop its Research Outputs Database (ROD), a major national dataset
comprising funding acknowledgements for more than 460,000 peer-reviewed papers in UK and Irish biomedicine. The grant award made it
possible to consolidate the Departments long-standing research interests in the area of bibliometrics . . . (http://www.ucl.ac.uk/ciber/
bibindex.php).
Professor Grant Lewison
Co-Director, Bibliometric Research Group
The Department of Information Science
City University, London
Northampton Square
London EC1V 0HB
http://ciber.soi.city.ac.uk/peoplelewison.php
Dr. Ian Rowlands
Director, CIBER
and Co-Director, Bibliometric Research Group
The Department of Information Science
City University, London
Northampton Square
London EC1V 0HB
http://ciber.soi.city.ac.uk/peoplerowlands.php
CITE:
The Bibliometrics Research Group Publications
<http://ciber.soi.city.ac.uk/bibpub.php> (accessed 6 June 2005).

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***
WHAT? Cybermetrics: International Journal of Scientometrics, Informetics and Bibliometrics
WHERE? http://www.cindoc.csic.es/cybermetrics/
WHEN?

1997

WHY?
Cybermetrics is both an Electronic-only Journal and a Virtual Forum (The Journal) devoted to the study of the quantitative analysis of scholarly and scientific communications in the Internet.
Since 2003, Cybermetrics has focused on methodologies and results
of scientometric, bibliometric or informetric research with emphasis
placed on aspects related to Internet, notably the
application of scientometric methodology to the analysis of scientific communication in the Web and the Usenet, including the
development of new Internet R&D indicators;
analyses of hypertext linking phenomena, the informetric laws and
distributions, and any mathematical model derived;
impact of the Internet on scientific co-operation and other aspects
related to science organization, information flows and interdisciplinary connections; and the
evaluation of electronic scientific journals and peer-review processes in the World Wide Web.
HOW?
Since its inaugural issue, several volume/issues of Cybermetrics have been published and include the following articles:
Daily Time Series of Common Single Word Searches in AltaVista
and NorthernLight (Ronald Rousseau)
Mapping University-Industry-Government Relations on the Internet:
The Construction of Indicators for a Knowledge-Based Economy
(Loet Leydesdorff and Michael Curran)
A Profile in Statistics of Journal Articles: Fifty Years of American Documentation and the Journal of the American Society for
Information Science (Wallace Koehler, Abby D. Anderson,
Beverly A. Dowdy, Daniel E. Fields, Michael Golden, Dawn
Hall, Amy C. Johnson, Carey Kipp, Lina L. Ortega, Erika B.
Ripley, Robert L. Roddy, Karla Burt Shaffer, Shane Shelburn, and
Carol D. Wasteneys)

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Search Engine Results over TimeA Case Study on Search Engine


Stability (Judit Bar-Ilan)
Sitations: An Exploratory Study (Ronald Rousseau)
A Statistical Analysis of UK Academic Web Links (Nigel Payne
and Mike Thelwall)
(http://www.cindoc.csic.es/cybermetrics/issues.html).
The Cybermetrics site also provides access to the programs for periodic meetings (Cybermetrics XX) (Seminars) (http://www.cindoc.
csic.es/cybermetrics/seminars.html) held in conjunction with various
related international conferences (e.g., International Conference on
Scientometrics & Informetrics). For select presentations, access to abstracts, slides, and/or associated papers are provided. In addition, the
site also provides a wide variety of resources related to Scientometrics, Tools, and R&D Policy & Resources. The Scientometrics
category includes resources related to Research Groups, Associations, Scientists, Papers & Abstracts, E-Journals, Conferences,
Mailing Lists, Projects, and Directories and other Resources (http://
www.cindoc.csic.es/cybermetrics/scientometrics.html), while the Tools
category includes resources related to Measuring the Net, Searching
the Web, Bibliographic and Patent Databases, Companies, and
Books and Software (http://www.cindoc.csic.es/cybermetrics/tools.
html). The R&D Policy & Resources category provides access to Indicators, Institutions, Information Centres, V Framework Program
(EU), S&T in the Web (http://www.cindoc.csic.es/cybermetrics/rd.
html).
WHO?
Cybermetrics is an open access, peer-reviewed, English-language, born-digital electronic journal published by the Centro de Informacin y Documentacin Cientfica (CINDOC) of the Consejo
Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (CSIC) in Madrid (Spain).
CITE:
Isidro F. Aguillo, Cybermetrics: Definitions and Methods
for an Emerging Discipline <http://www.eicstes.org/EICSTES_PDF/
PRESENTATIONS/Cybermetrics%20(Aguillo).PDF> (4 June 2005).
***
WHAT? Inforsk (The Information Research Group), Department of
Sociology, Ume University, Sweden
WHERE? http://www.umu.se/inforsk/

Sci-5

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WHEN?

113

1975

WHY?
The overall research focus of Inforsk is the study of communication among scientists and engineers. During its first decade, the
group was involved in a series of studies on information use and informal communication . . . Since 1985, it has been involved in the application of bibliometric research methods to answer research questions in
library and information science, science policy, sociology of science, history of ideas, [and] cognitive and social mapping of research fields . . .
Members of the Inforsk group have taught in the Library and Information Science program at Ume university since the early 1990s.
HOW?
The Inforsk site provides access to information about members of the research group as well as to a variety of links related to specific group research projects and bibliometrics resources. The latter
includes a link to the Bibexcel, freeware designed to assist a user in
analysing bibliographic data, or any data of a textual nature formatted in
a similar manner (http://www.umu.se/inforsk/Bibexcel/) and to several bibliographic maps of research fields, notably Influential Authors in Library and Information Science 2000-2002; a bibliometric
view of the journal Scientometrics, a high-impact journal in its field;
and to a First Author Co-Citation Map of Olle Persson, among others.
The site also provides a link to recent issues of Bibliometric Notes,
an online newsletter edited by Persson intended to present bibliometric research results to a wide audience (http://www.umu.se/
inforsk/BibliometricNotes/index.htm).
In addition, access is also provided to the homepages of several recent
Nordic bibliometric workshops (Nordic Workshop on Bibliometrics)
(2001-2005). The site also provides other noteworthy links that include
a Timeline of Bibliometrics (http://users.pandora.be/ronald.rousseau/
html/timeline_of_bibliometrics.html) and resources related to Visualisation/Navigation (e.g., Atlas of Cyberspaces).
WHO?
Inforsk (The Information Research Group) started in 1975,
and has since then been at the Department of Sociology at Ume University, Sweden. Inforsk was founded by Olle Persson (http://www.
umu.se/soc/personal/persson_olle.htm), who currently also serves as
head of the Sociology department, and is a professor in the departments
Library and Information Science program. In addition, Persson is Research School Director for NORSLIS, a Nordic Research School in Library and Information Science (http://www.norslis.net/).

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CITE:
Olle Persson [Publications] <http://www.umu.se/soc/personal/
persson_olle.htm> (accessed 6 June 2005).
***
WHAT?

Zipfs Law

WHERE? http://www.nslij-genetics.org/wli/zipf/
WHEN?

January 4, 2005 [Last update]

WHY?
Zipfs law, named after the Harvard linguistic professor
George Kingsley Zipf (1902-1950), is the observation that frequency of
occurrence of some event (P), as a function of the rank (i) when the rank
is determined by the above frequency of occurrence, is a power-law
function Pi ~ 1/ia with the exponent a close to unity (1).
Zipfs Law is a comprehensive bibliography of 500 select articles,
books, chapters, conference papers, dissertations and theses, technical
papers, working papers, and preprints about Zipfs Law. In addition,
[d]ue to the second form of . . . Zipfs law, as well as [the] relationship between Zipfs law and other empirical laws, the bibliography
also includes citations to publications to . . . Paretos principle,
Lotkas law, Bradfords law, Benfords law, Heaps law, etc.
HOW?
Citations in Zipfs Law are arranged alphabetically by the
name of the first author within chronological groupings. Citations are
grouped by decade (e.g., 1890s, 1910s, 1920s), except for the most
recent fifteen years (1990-2005), which have entries organized by individual years (e.g., 2003, 2004, 2005).
The bibliography includes a significant number of English-language
entries and select citations to French, German, and Russian publications
that cover a range of disciplines. In addition to bibliometrics, linguistics, and statistics, the sources include publications in the fields of
computer science, mathematics, and psychology, as well biology, economics, and physics. As expected, there are numerous citations from
the information science and library science publications. For some entries, a brief Abstract or note is included. Publications that cover other
laws are indicated by the name of the law in brackets (e.g., [Paretos
principle]) beneath relevant citations. In select cases, a link to a PDF
version of a publication is provided.
The Zipfs Law site also includes brief profiles of related statistical
laws (e.g., Bradfords law, Lotkas law, Paretos principle) with embedded links to at least one more comprehensive source for each.

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WHO?

115

Wentian Li

CITE:
Lada A. Adamic and Bernardo A. Huberman, Zipfs Law and
the Internet, Glottometrics 3 (2002): 143-150. Also available at <http://
www.hpl.hp.com/research/idl/papers/ranking/adamicglottometrics.pdf>
(accessed 6 June 2005).
***
NOMINATIONS
Members of the science and technology community are invited to
nominate quality science and technology Web sites and resources for
potential review in Sci-5. Of greatest interest are sites with uncommon
but useful content, and those with innovative features and functionalities. Nominations should be sent to Gerry McKiernan (gerrymck@
iastate.edu).