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# DYNAMICS

## BDA 2013 LECTURE 2

NORIHAN BIN IBRAHIM@TAMRIN
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

INTRODUCTION

Mechanics
- the state of rest or motion of bodies
subjected to the action of forces
- branch of physical sciences
Static
- equilibrium of a body that is either at . .
. rest or moves with constant velocity

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Branches of mechanics
Mechanics

Rigid Bodies
(Things that do not change shape)

Statics

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Deformable Bodies
(Things that do change shape)

Dynamics

Fluids

Incompressible Compressible

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Dynamics
Dynamics consists two distinct parts:
kinematics and kinetics.

## Kinematics deals with the study of

motion without reference to the force
which cause motions
Kinetics relate the action of forces on
bodies to their resulting motions
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Force

force

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## Particle and rigid body

A particle is a point mass. This means the mass
is concentrated at a single point and the particle
has neither dimensions (height, width, etc) nor
orientation (angular position)

## Under certain conditions a physical body can be

modeled as a particle; for example,
a.when considering translation of a body, or
b. when all forces acting on a body pass
through the centre of mass, or

## c. when the dimensions of a body are very

much smaller than those of its path of motion
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## The body motion cannot be replaced by a particle

(rotation involved)

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Translation - Rotation

Translation

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Combination Translation
and Rotation

## Kinematic of a particle : Translation

straight, curve and circular paths

There is no
orientation of
the body
Straight
path

Curve path

Circular
path

Can be
simplified as
particle
Straight
path
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Curve path

Circular
path
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Rectilinear Kinematics:
Continuous Motion

## Rectilinear Kinematics specifying at any

instant, the particles position, velocity, and
acceleration

Position
1) Single coordinate axis, s
2) Origin, O
3) Position vector r specific location of
particle P at any instant

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Continue.
4) Algebraic Scalar s in metres

## Note : - Magnitude of s = Dist from O to P

- The sense (arrowhead dir of r) is defined
by algebraic sign on s
=> +ve = right of origin, -ve = left of origin
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Continue.

vector quantity

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Continue.

=> r r r
s s

## s is +ve if particles position is right of its

initial position
s is -ve if particles position is left of its initial
position
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Continue.

Velocity
Average velocity,

vavg

r
t

## Instantaneous velocity is defined as

vins
vins

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lim
t

r/ t

dr
dt
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Continue.
Representing vins as an algebraic scalar,

ds
dt

## Velocity is +ve = particle moving to the

right
Velocity is ve = Particle moving to the left
Magnitude of velocity is the speed (m/s)
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Continue.
Average speed is defined as total
distance traveled by a particle, sT, divided
by the elapsed time t .
vsp

avg

sT
t

## The particle travels along

the path of length sT in time
vsp

=>

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vavg

avg

sT
t
s
t

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Continue.

## Acceleration velocity of particle is known

at points P and P during time interval t,
v
a
average acceleration is
t
avg

aavg

v
t

## v represents difference in the velocity

during the time interval t, ie

v v' v
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Continue.
Instantaneous acceleration at time t is found
by taking smaller and smaller values of t
and corresponding smaller and smaller
values of v, a lim v / t
t

a
a

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dv
dt
d 2s
dt 2
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Continue.

## Particle is slowing down, its speed is

decreasing => decelerating => v v'
will be negative.
Consequently, a will also be negative,
therefore it will act to the left, in the
opposite sense to v
If velocity is constant,
acceleration is zero

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Average v
Velocity avg

Position (m)

s
t

Instantaneous
velocity
s

s
t

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time (s)

lim
t

s
t

ds
v
dt
v s

Average
a
Acceleration avg

v
t

Instantaneous
acceleration

lim
t

v
t

dv d 2 s
a
dt dt 2
a v
s

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graphically
s

ds
s0

t0

vdt
t0

t
v

dv
v0

t0

## The area under v(t) is

the DISTANCE TRAVEL

t0

t1

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## The area under a(t) is

the NET CHANGE IN VELOCITY
t

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dv

Multiply by v

v dv

v a dt

ds
a dt
dt

a ds

v dv

a ds

or

s ds
s ds

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EXAMPLE 12.1
The car moves in a straight line such that for a
short time its velocity is defined by v = (0.9t2 +
0.6t) m/s where t is in sec. Determine it position
and acceleration when t = 3s. When t = 0, s = 0.

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EXAMPLE 12.1
Solution:
Coordinate System. The position coordinate
extends from the fixed origin O to the car,
positive to the right.

## Position. Since v = f(t), the cars position can

be determined from v = ds/dt, since this equation
relates v, s and t. Noting that s = 0 when t = 0, we
have
ds
v
0.9t 2 0.6t
dt
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EXAMPLE 12.1
s
0

ds

0.3t

0.9t 2 0.6t dt
3

0.3t

t
0

0.3t

0.3t

When t = 3s,
s = 10.8m

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EXAMPLE 12.1
Acceleration.
Knowing v = f(t), the acceleration
is determined from a = dv/dt, since this equation
relates a, v and t.
dv d
a
0.9t 2 0.6t
dt dt
1.8t 0.6

When t = 3s,
a = 6m/s2
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QUIZ.
1.

Some objects can be considered as particles provided motion of the body is characterized by motion
of its mass center and any rotation of the body can be neglected.
True
False

2.

True
False

3.

True
False

4.

True
False

5.

True
False

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Rectilinear motion
at constant velocity
s

ds
s0

t0

s s0
s

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vdt

v (t t0 )

s0 + v (t t0 )

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v

dv
v0

v v0

a t t0

t0

v
v

v dv
v0

a ds
s0

1 2
v
2

v0 2

a s s0

v2
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v 0 + a t t0

v0 2 + 2a s s0
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## Distance at constant acceleration

s

ds
s0

vdt
t0

ds
s0

( v0 + a t t0 )dt
t0
t

s s0

v0 dt a t t0 dt
t0

t0

v0 dt a tdt at0 dt
t0

s
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t0

s0 v0 (t t0 )
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t0

1
a t 2 t0 2
2

at0 t t0
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Practical situation
0

## Usually a particle start moving

when the time is set to 0 and the
distance goes from 0

v 0 + a t t0

v0 + a t

v2

v0 2 + 2a s s0

v2

v 0 2 + 2a s

t0

0 and s0

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s0 v0 (t t0 )

at t and distance s
s v0 (t )

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01

a t

t0

at0 t t0

1
a t2
2

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Problem 1
The displacement of a mechanical component follows a
ruled path as a function of time. The function dis(t) = 2t3
24t + 6 meter.
a.Derive the velocity and acceleration based on the
given
displacement function dis(t).
b.Calculate the time to reach velocity of 72 m/s.
Calculate the
corresponding acceleration at that time.
c.Plot the displacement, velocity and acceleration
versus time for
the first 4 seconds every 1 second.
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Problem 2
A car starts from rest and reaches a
speed of 20m/s after traveling 125m
along a straight road. Determine its
constant acceleration and the time of
travel.

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