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NORIHAN BIN IBRAHIM@TAMRIN

KHAIRULNIZAM BIN NGADIMON

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

INTRODUCTION

Mechanics

- the state of rest or motion of bodies

subjected to the action of forces

- branch of physical sciences

Static

- equilibrium of a body that is either at . .

. rest or moves with constant velocity

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Branches of mechanics

Mechanics

Rigid Bodies

(Things that do not change shape)

Statics

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Deformable Bodies

(Things that do change shape)

Dynamics

Fluids

Incompressible Compressible

Dynamics

Dynamics consists two distinct parts:

kinematics and kinetics.

motion without reference to the force

which cause motions

Kinetics relate the action of forces on

bodies to their resulting motions

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Force

force

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A particle is a point mass. This means the mass

is concentrated at a single point and the particle

has neither dimensions (height, width, etc) nor

orientation (angular position)

modeled as a particle; for example,

a.when considering translation of a body, or

b. when all forces acting on a body pass

through the centre of mass, or

much smaller than those of its path of motion

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(rotation involved)

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Translation - Rotation

Translation

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Combination Translation

and Rotation

straight, curve and circular paths

There is no

orientation of

the body

Straight

path

Curve path

Circular

path

Can be

simplified as

particle

Straight

path

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Curve path

Circular

path

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10

Rectilinear Kinematics:

Continuous Motion

instant, the particles position, velocity, and

acceleration

Position

1) Single coordinate axis, s

2) Origin, O

3) Position vector r specific location of

particle P at any instant

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11

Continue.

4) Algebraic Scalar s in metres

- The sense (arrowhead dir of r) is defined

by algebraic sign on s

=> +ve = right of origin, -ve = left of origin

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12

Continue.

vector quantity

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13

Continue.

=> r r r

s s

initial position

s is -ve if particles position is left of its initial

position

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14

Continue.

Velocity

Average velocity,

vavg

r

t

vins

vins

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lim

t

r/ t

dr

dt

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15

Continue.

Representing vins as an algebraic scalar,

ds

dt

right

Velocity is ve = Particle moving to the left

Magnitude of velocity is the speed (m/s)

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16

Continue.

Average speed is defined as total

distance traveled by a particle, sT, divided

by the elapsed time t .

vsp

avg

sT

t

the path of length sT in time

vsp

=>

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vavg

avg

sT

t

s

t

17

Continue.

at points P and P during time interval t,

v

a

average acceleration is

t

avg

aavg

v

t

during the time interval t, ie

v v' v

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18

Continue.

Instantaneous acceleration at time t is found

by taking smaller and smaller values of t

and corresponding smaller and smaller

values of v, a lim v / t

t

a

a

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dv

dt

d 2s

dt 2

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

19

Continue.

decreasing => decelerating => v v'

will be negative.

Consequently, a will also be negative,

therefore it will act to the left, in the

opposite sense to v

If velocity is constant,

acceleration is zero

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20

Average v

Velocity avg

Position (m)

s

t

Instantaneous

velocity

s

s

t

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time (s)

lim

t

s

t

ds

v

dt

v s

Average

a

Acceleration avg

v

t

Instantaneous

acceleration

lim

t

v

t

dv d 2 s

a

dt dt 2

a v

s

21

graphically

s

ds

s0

t0

vdt

t0

t

v

dv

v0

t0

the DISTANCE TRAVEL

adt

t0

t1

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the NET CHANGE IN VELOCITY

t

22

dv

adt

Multiply by v

v dv

v a dt

ds

a dt

dt

a ds

v dv

a ds

or

s ds

s ds

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23

EXAMPLE 12.1

The car moves in a straight line such that for a

short time its velocity is defined by v = (0.9t2 +

0.6t) m/s where t is in sec. Determine it position

and acceleration when t = 3s. When t = 0, s = 0.

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24

EXAMPLE 12.1

Solution:

Coordinate System. The position coordinate

extends from the fixed origin O to the car,

positive to the right.

be determined from v = ds/dt, since this equation

relates v, s and t. Noting that s = 0 when t = 0, we

have

ds

v

0.9t 2 0.6t

dt

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25

EXAMPLE 12.1

s

0

ds

0.3t

0.9t 2 0.6t dt

3

0.3t

t

0

0.3t

0.3t

When t = 3s,

s = 10.8m

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26

EXAMPLE 12.1

Acceleration.

Knowing v = f(t), the acceleration

is determined from a = dv/dt, since this equation

relates a, v and t.

dv d

a

0.9t 2 0.6t

dt dt

1.8t 0.6

When t = 3s,

a = 6m/s2

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27

QUIZ.

1.

Some objects can be considered as particles provided motion of the body is characterized by motion

of its mass center and any rotation of the body can be neglected.

True

False

2.

True

False

3.

True

False

4.

True

False

5.

True

False

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28

Rectilinear motion

at constant velocity

s

ds

s0

t0

s s0

s

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vdt

v (t t0 )

s0 + v (t t0 )

29

v

dv

v0

adt

v v0

a t t0

t0

v

v

v dv

v0

a ds

s0

1 2

v

2

v0 2

a s s0

v2

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v 0 + a t t0

v0 2 + 2a s s0

30

s

ds

s0

vdt

t0

ds

s0

( v0 + a t t0 )dt

t0

t

s s0

v0 dt a t t0 dt

t0

t0

v0 dt a tdt at0 dt

t0

s

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t0

s0 v0 (t t0 )

MOHD NO RIHAN IBRAHIM

t0

1

a t 2 t0 2

2

at0 t t0

31

Practical situation

0

when the time is set to 0 and the

distance goes from 0

v 0 + a t t0

v0 + a t

v2

v0 2 + 2a s s0

v2

v 0 2 + 2a s

t0

0 and s0

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s0 v0 (t t0 )

at t and distance s

s v0 (t )

01

a t

t0

at0 t t0

1

a t2

2

32

Problem 1

The displacement of a mechanical component follows a

ruled path as a function of time. The function dis(t) = 2t3

24t + 6 meter.

a.Derive the velocity and acceleration based on the

given

displacement function dis(t).

b.Calculate the time to reach velocity of 72 m/s.

Calculate the

corresponding acceleration at that time.

c.Plot the displacement, velocity and acceleration

versus time for

the first 4 seconds every 1 second.

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33

Problem 2

A car starts from rest and reaches a

speed of 20m/s after traveling 125m

along a straight road. Determine its

constant acceleration and the time of

travel.

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34

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35

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