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3/11/2013

Introduction to Building
Automation Systems (BAS)

Ryan R. Hoger, LEED AP


708.670.6383
ryan.hoger@tecmungo.com

Building Automation Systems


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Centralized controls
Change scheduling for multiple
HVAC units at same time
Monitor health of equipment
Internet accessible
Alarming via text msg or email
Collect/trend data
Integrate to lighting control or
security system

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DDC - Direct Digital Control of an HVAC


system

A method of monitoring and controlling


HVAC system performance by collecting,
processing, and sending information
using sensors, actuators, and
microprocessors.

What is DDC?

DDC is the concept or theory of HVAC


system control that uses digital controls

Physically, DDC encompasses all the


devices used to implement this control
method: a whole group of DDC
controllers/microprocessors, actuators,
sensors, and other devices.

What is DDC?

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DDC - the Control


Theory
input-process-output
cycle

A point is ANY input or


output device used to control
the overall or specific
performance of equipment or
output devices related to the
equipment.

What Is a Point?

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AI z Analog input - a sensor that monitors physical


data, such as temperature, flow, or pressure.
DI z Discrete input - a sensor that monitors status.
Momentary and maintained switches, ON-OFF
equipment status, and digital pulses from flow
and electric power meters are discrete inputs.
AOz Analog output - a physical action of a proportional
device in the controlled equipment - e.g., actuator
opens air damper from 20% to 40%, other dampers,
valves, inlet guide vanes, etc.
DOz Discrete output - changes or maintains device
status. Performs momentary or maintained
switching for start/stop of pumps, fans,
two-position dampers, and on/off control.
Four Kinds of Points

Input sensors and status


devices react to changes in
conditions. Conditions
include internal load, outside air
temperature, and output actions.

Output devices act based


on sensor and status
device reactions.

Ex. 1:

Open cooling coil valve (output action). Supply air temperature sensor

Ex. 2:

Filters on an air handler get dirty (conditions). Air switch reacts by

SAT detects (input reaction) decrease in temperature.

closing contact for filter dirty alarm.


DDC: Actions and Reactions

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Control Point
Identification Exercise

AI
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Temperature

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DI
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Thermistors
Resistance Temp. Detectors
(RTDs)
Transmitters

Pressure
Humidity
Flow (CFM, GPM)
Voltage
Current
CO2

Switch dry contact


(open or closed)

High/low limit switch


(alarm or normal)

Airflow
Water
Differential pressure

Freeze alarm
Smoke detectors

Wattmeter pulses
(pulse initiator or
counter)
Sensor and Status Devices
used as Input Points
(Reactions)

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AO

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Damper actuators
Modulating valves
VFD

DO

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Solenoid valves
Relays /
contactors
Alarm signal

Devices used as Output Points


(Actions)

Closed Loop Control is accomplished by the control


signal being sent to the controlled device with
constant feedback from the sensor/status device
providing input to the controller.
DDC: Closed Loop Control

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Closed loop control is determined by:


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Control algorithms

Configuration values

Time schedule data

Setpoint schedule data

Closed Loop
Control

Heating/cooling coil control


Humidification/dehumidification
Mixed air damper optimization
VAV fan control
VAV supply & return fan tracking
Indoor air quality
Generic PID control
Control point reset

Typical Control
Algorithms

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Time of day scheduling


Discrete device controlled as analog
Discrete interlock
Discrete staging
Proportional thermostat
Primary/secondary pump control
Night free cooling
Adaptable start/stop
Permissive interlock

Typical Control
Algorithms (contd)

Proportional

PI

Proportional-Integral

PID Proportional-Integral-Derivative

Algorithm Type Used by


Processor Determines
Control Strategy

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PID =
Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control
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What it is: This type of control algorithm is based on


value/amount (proportion), rate of change (integral),
and error allowances (derivative). PID control
calculates and sends commands for outputs based
on all three types of information.
Advantages: More precise than P and PI controls,
PID wastes less energy based on more frequent
feedback and quicker responses.

What Is PID Control?

What it is: Control algorithm based only on


value/amount (proportion).

Disadvantages: Less precise than PID and PI control;


cannot respond to error margins or time. Uses the most
energy due to over- and under- outputs.
Proportional Control (P)

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What it is: Control algorithm based on value/amount


(proportion), rate of change (integral). PID uses error
allowances (derivative) as well.
Advantages: More precise control and less energy
used than proportional (P); minimum swings from
setpoints.
Proportional-Integral Control (PI) &
(PID)

Exercise 1:
Building Direct Digital Control on
a CV Air Handler

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Exercise 1: Base CV
Air Handler Unit -No
Controls

Exercise 1: AHU - DDC


Control of
Start / Stop
Scheduling

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Exercise 1: AHU - Add


DDC
Damper

Exercise 1: AHU - Add DDC


Cooling Coil

Control

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Exercise 1: AHU - Add DDC Outside Air reset


and Enthalpy Control

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Control Point Summary


for Base CV AHU

Exercise 2:
Building Direct Digital Control on
a VAV Air Handler

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History
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VAV systems came into favor for mid and large size
facilities in the 1960s and 1970s

Save energy
Improve comfort
Take advantage of building diversity
Cooling needed year round for true interior core zones

Sequence

Main AHU provides morning warm-up heat until RAT


setpoint is satisfied all zones at 100% design airflow
AHU switches to 55F discharge air controlled cooling
zones modulate CFM to controls space temp
No AHU heat remainder of day individual zone reheat or
baseboard as needed

Zoning Systems

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Single Zone Systems


Heating/Cooling
Unit

Heating/Cooling
Unit

Heating/Cooling
Unit

Heating/Cooling
Unit

ROOF

TMT

TMZC

TM
ZONE 1

ZONE 2

ZONE 3

TM
ZONE 4

Multiple Zone Systems

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To Build DDC on a VAV AHU,


Start with DDC on a CV AHU...

Exercise 2: Create a VAV


AHU with Inlet Guide

* If using VFD, use two Variable Frequency Drives instead, but


you will still need the same control points and HPS shown.

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Filter Status (FLTS)


FreezeStat (FRZ)
Smoke Detector (SMK)

Typical DDC Items You Can Add


as Optional Items:

Exercise 2: VAV AHU with DDC Filter Status

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Exercise 2: VAV AHU with DDC


FreezeStat

Exercise 2: VAV AHU with DDC Smoke


Detector

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Control
Point
Summary
for Base
VAV AHU

DDC Controllers
Application
Specific
controllers

Programmable
controllers

Factory integrated
controllers

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Types of Direct Digital Control Networks

Interface - devices and software that work as


a translator between a DDC system and the
humans who operate it.

An interface is the operators window into a


buildings operating systems and conditions.

Interfaces to DDC

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User interfaces:

Allow more efficient system operation monitoring.


You can look at whats happening on all floors from
the tenth floor if DDC network is peer-to-peer.

Allow immediate diagnosis of HVAC units and


controls, including changes, without physically being
in front of the unit.

Can provide reports (e.g., historical, consumable,


run times, system activity) to be used as records of
building operations.

Can provide graphical representations of the


controlled system.
User Interface Benefits

User Interface Types

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Interface
Examples

Hand-held Connected to a DDC Controller

PC Connected to a DDC Network


Interface
Examples

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Web Server Connected to DDC Network

Interface
Examples

Web Interfaces
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Standard web
browser or WAP
access
View system status
Access schedules
and setpoints
Trending, alarming,
reporting
Real time interactive
graphics

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FLOOR PLAN GRAPHICS

EQUIPMENT GRAPHICS

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EQUIPMENT GRAPHICS

FLEXIBLE SCHEDULING

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TRENDING

Internet Thermostats
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Low cost alternative to


BAS
Direct to Ethernet
No PC software uses
standard web browser
No access fees
Text/email alerts

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Internet Thermostats

Internet Thermostats

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Phone Apps for Thermostats

Integration
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Information Transfer

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Add new HVAC equipment to an existing Building


Management System

Common User Interface


Building Integration

Lighting, HVAC, Security, Fire & Life Safety


Enterprise Integration-Utilities, Financial

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Building Management Systems

Security
Lighting
Power
Metering

HVAC

Common Protocols

PT

MODBUS

PT

PT

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Integration
Interoperability is the ability of different devices from the
same or different manufacturers to function accurately
together.
Standard protocol - a set of guidelines for commands,
inputs, and output encoding to create a universal language
for all DDC devices. When the same standard protocol is
used in DDC devices, interoperability is possible.
Gateways - devices added to DDC networks to make
standard protocols available and interoperability possible.
Interoperability

BACnet

Standard protocol requirements for Building Automation


and Control networking, created by ASHRAE to ensure
interoperability. BACnet uses software and a LAN
interface to DDC to provide:

Representation of all manufacturer devices internal


functioning in a common, network-visible way.
A common command set for device services.
Common encoding of commands, understandable by
all devices and interfaces adhering to the protocol.

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Enterprise

CFO

Lighting

Energy

Security Systems

MODBUS

XML SQL
HTTP HTML

Fire Systems

LEGACY

Open System
Framework

Facility
Management

ODBC SNMP
JDBC

FTP

SMTP
WAP

Maintenance
Maintenance

HVAC Systems
And More

Typical Questions
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Q: What part of the control system is done by the HVAC designer?


What is done by the installing contractor? Do most HVAC engineers
actually do control system work or is that done by specialty
contractors?
A: Depends on the project

A good designer lays out the control system as an integral part of the
mechanical system, including:
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Sequence of operation
Front-end/user interface details

The details of hardware, software, and cabling should be left to the


contractor since every manufacturers system is different
Unfortunately, most designers rely on manufacturers to write project
specs, or worse, contractors to design in the field as they install

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Typical Questions
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Q: How does one select the type, number, and position of


sensors? (i.e. measure temp in a room or in the supply
duct? Where in the room or duct do the sensors go?
How many go in each room?)
A: Depends on the project

Best to measure what you want to control usually space temp


z
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Mount between 4 and 5 ft high, out of direct sunlight, and in the


return air path
One sensor per controllable piece of equipment is best usually one
per room

Many exceptions for specialty systems and/or install cost


compromises

Typical Questions
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Q: How does one go about determining the coefficients of


a P, PI, or PID controller and tune the system once it has
been installed?
A: Practice and Patience

Zero out the derivative term HVAC equipment and building


systems react too slowly for it to matter
Tune the proportional term first, then worry about integral term
Make small changes and monitor
Use a dynamic graph

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Typical Questions
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Q: Where can one go to get more information and


training?
A:

Iowa Energy Center / Iowa State University


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ASHRAE Learning Institute


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www.ddc-online.org
http://www.ashrae.org/education/page/1809

Continental Automated Buildings Association - www.caba.org


www.automatedbuildings.com
BACnet - www.bacnet.org

Case Study Conrad Hotel


352 HVAC units

311 guestrooms

Added DDC controls


Occupancy sensors

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Entrance door & motion

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Energy Savings Estimation Tools

Utility Rebates for Controls

Programmable Thermostat

Economizer Controls

Nicor Gas or NIPSCO Gas $50


Peoples Gas or North Shore Gas $80
Wisconsin Focus on Energy $100 per RTU
ComEd $40 per ton
Wisconsin Focus on Energy $250 per RTU

CO2-based DCV

ComEd $0.03 per ft2


DCEO $0.28 to 0.40 per ft2
Peoples Gas or North Shore Gas double custom
NIPSCO Gas $0.15 per ft2
Wisconsin Focus on Energy $0.05/CFM supply
Wisconsin Focus on Energy $350 per RTU

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Utility Rebates for Controls

Boiler Reset Control

Nicor Gas $0.50 per MBH


Peoples Gas or North Shore Gas $500
NIPSCO Gas $0.35 per MBH
Wisconsin Focus on Energy $75/controller

DDC Controls

ComEd $0.20 per ft2


DCEO $0.20 to 0.40 per ft2

Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)

ComEd $60 per Hp


DCEO $92 per Hp
NIPSCO Electric - $40 per Hp
Wisconsin Focus on Energy $50 per Hp

Utility Rebates for Controls

Hotel Guest Room Energy Mgmt System

Kitchen Exhaust Demand Control Ventilation

ComEd $25 to 65 per unit


ComEd $350 per Hp

Custom Incentives (based on annual


savings)

ComEd $0.06 to 0.07 per kWh


Nicor Gas $0.75 to 1.00 per therm
Peoples Gas or North Shore Gas $1.00 per therm
DCEO $0.12/kWh and $3.00/therm
NIPSCO $0.09/kWh and $0.60/therm

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Thanks for Coming!


and Special Thanks to those who allowed me to use their graphics

Ryan R. Hoger, LEED AP


708.670.6383
ryan.hoger@tecmungo.com

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