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DESERTEC

TRANS-MEDITERRANE CONCENTRATED SOLAR


POWER (TRANS-CSP)

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


ENERGY - SITUATION
More than 6.8 bill people consume far more
natural resources and produce far more waste
than our planet can provide or uptake
The ecological footprint already exceeds the
capacity of the planet earth

Until 2050 the equivalents of 3 planets earth will be


needed to satisfy the needs of the human race by then (ca. 9.5 bill)

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


ENERGY - SITUATION
Exajoule (1018) / Year Source: Royal Dutch / SHELL

2000
1990 2050 Moderate
Population [Billions] 5.2 9,5 economic growth
GDP p.a. in 103 $ 4.3 17 (A2/B2)
1500
Gigatons (109 t) HCU 12 29
(1 HCU = 29.4 MJ)
1000

500 De-materialization /
Optimized Resource
Efficiency (B1/B2)
0

1860 1900 1940 1980 2020 2060


ENERGY - SITUATION
Peak Oil
Mineral (crude) Oil
(WTI = West Texas Intermediate):
ca. 147 $/barrel, July 2008
ca. 84,50 $/barrel, April 14, 2010
DESERT POWER - POTENTIAL

During 6 hours the global deserts are uptaking


more solar energy than all global consumed
power within one year
Dr. Gerhard Knies
Chairman of the Supervisory Board of the DESERTEC
Foundation/ Member of the German Association CLUB
Of ROME (Deutsche Gesellschaft CLUB OF ROME)

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERT POWER - POTENTIAL
Solarthermal power plants have been operating
commercially since several decades, e.g. in the deserts
of California, USA
Some facilities such as at Kramer Junction (Cal. USA)
have been producing electricity since 1985 without any
major failure
Recently new CSP power plants started operation in
Andalucia (Spain)

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERT POWER - POTENTIAL

MENA

Energy supply scenario in MENA countries until 2050. Due to this prediction CSP may
cover up to 68% of the power demand in the region whereas nearly 20% may be
exported to Europe. In addition some13% may be used for desalination in the MENA-
Region
Source: DLR [Wording of graph: Installed performance [GW]
DESERTEC - DAS PROJEKT

CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER, CSP


DESERTEC - THE PROJECT

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - THE PROJECT

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - TECHNOLOGY
Usage of High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission Lines (HVDC) enables
power transfer with a loss of ca. 3% per 1000 km

High voltage DC line


(HVDC):
Low transfer losses
(no 50 Hz radiation -
no electro-smog)

Example (Sweden):
5 GW, 800 kV;

Losses:
~3% per 1000 km

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - TECHNOLOGY
Production and installation of HVDC transmission lines and relevant
techniques for changing of voltages are available

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - TECHNOLOGY

Scematic graph of a Concentrating Solarthermal Power Plant (CSP). Heat media: thermo oil or
liquified salt crystals (temperatures up to 550 C, improved efficiency) - R&D is needed !
Source: DLR
DESERTEC - TECHNOLOGY
Concentrating Solar-Thermal Power Plants (CSP) provide the advantage, other than
PV-plant, to store sun power more efficiently and at relatively moderate costs. Thus,
continously generation of electric power is possible even during night or on cloudy
days.

Heat storage tanks with molten salt (melting point at approx. 200 C)

Thermal energy storage (liquid salt)


CSP Andalucia (Spain)

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - TECHNOLOGY
Solar power day and night

Mirror
Field

Thermal energy storage (liquid salt)


CSP Andalucia (Spain)

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - KEY FACTS
According to different scenarios a total capacity of 1500 GWatt is feasible in the frame of
DESERTEC CSPs (different scenarios)
Annual electricity production potential: 7800 TWh (equivalent to ca. 3 x of all 400 currently
operating nuclear power plants worldwide)
Electricity import to EU may starts at 60 TWh/a from 2020/25 on and may be extended up to
700 TWh/a (or more) until 2050
Goal: To cover between 15 and 20 % of the electricity demand in northern Europe
Land use: min. 2500 km2 (collectors) + 3600 km2 (HVDC lines for power transmission)
Import costs are projected to go down as low as 0.05 /kWh due to high solar radiation in
MENA and marginal transmission loss (if HVDC is applied)
If CSP plants would primarily substitute coal power plants, it is possible to reduce CO2-and
GHG emissions by 4.7 bn tons per year (2008: annual GHG emission EU-27 = 4,9 bn t)
Projected total investment: DESERTEC: 400 bn (350 bn for CSP, 50 bn transmission)
CSP is considered as a boom factor to trigger further business activities: up to15 bn
additional investments are assumed more than 200 000 new jobs

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - ADDITIONAL BENEFITS

The WMO and WHO predict:

By 2025 about 2/3


of mankind will suffer
from moderate to
dangerous water
scarcity

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - ADDITIONAL BENEFITS
DESALINATION OF MARINE WATER + AGRICULTURE
Waste heat from CSP systems may be used for
desalination of (salty) marine waters to produce
clean freshwater (close to drinking water quality)

Another option would be to use the shadowed area


below the collectors for agriculture (approx. 2.500
km2), desalinated water may be used for irrigation

Configuration of CSP-systems for combined production of electricity,


heat-absorption cooling and multi-effect desalination (MED)
DESERTEC - ORGANISATION
DESERTEC Foundation Clean Power from Deserts inaugurated on Jan 20, 2009

Supervisory Board Monitoring of general goals

Executive Board Friedrich Fhr


Dr. Gerhard Timm

Curatorship Strategic consultancy

Support and knowledge-transfer


Networks and Members

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - CONSORTIUM

4/14/2010
DESERTEC - CONSORTIUM
MARCH 22, 2010: 4 new partners join the consortium

Enel Green Power (Italy)


Nareva Holding (Marocco)
Red Electrica de Espana (Spain)
Saint-Gobain Solar (France)

4/14/2010
DESERTEC - MEASURES
Oct 15, 2009: Siemens AG overtook 100% of the Israelian enterprise
SolelSolar for 418 Mio USD to be prepared within Desertec
(notable: AREVA, the world largest nuc power constructor, was one
of the competitors in biding for SolelSolar)

Siemens-Divison Renewable Energy CEO Ren Umlauft: Within the


next 6 to 8 years first Desertec CSP plants could be finished and
may start power production

Germany s R&D ministry (BMBF) has officially announced to


support the Desertec project

Germany s new government has integrated Desertec at high


priority in its coalition contract

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - MEASURES
Oct 30, 2009: Founding of Desertec Industrial Initiative GmbH (DII
GmbH) in Munich (leadership by Siemens). Its tasks would be:

To analyse, how Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle


East could be supplied with climate-friendly solar power
from North African deserts
In addition to the 12 founding enterprises of the Desertec
consortium at least 5 more enterprises from MENA countries
will join
Until 2012 a business plan and a feasability study shall be
finished for the huge investment (ca. 400 bn within 30 y.)

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - MEASURES
GW-Kick-off programme to demonstrate general feasability pilot
project will be realised on Egyptian territory and by applying
desalination shall contribute to water supply of the Gaza Strip (may
help to reduce conflict potential caused by water shortage in the Near
East region)
Initiation of a Capacity-Building programme to enable participating
countries and ist citizens to benefit from both the expected technical
innovation and cash flow (at this point integration of NGO s is highly
recommented)
Long-term contracting to sell CSP to European countries
Financial support for innefficient coalpower plants mainly in Southern
European countries should stimulate and accelerate closing and
substitution by CSP from Desertec (shut-down award)

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


CSP - ADDED VALUE

Two final production scenarios are discussed: moderate = 830 GWel until
2050; ambitious = 1520 GWel until 2050
Total added value potential for German industry from 2010 until 2050 may
variate between 269 to 1.102 bn EUR (moderate) and 476 to 1.953 bn EUR,
respectively (ambitious)

Variataions are due to potential but currently unknown share of German business
of global added value chains

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - PROSPECTS

Detailed business plan


Investors and business Questions of regulations
Technical specification
angels should be and foreign affairs:
and feasability: approached Energy situation in
CSP systems
(including worldwide capital EUMENA-states, security
HVDC transmission
investment markets, issues
government bonds, etc.)

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - CONCLUSION
It seems reasonable for European countries to import solar-electricity from
MENA, because

CSP-electricity can be produced at minimised cost


Solar thermal plants provide reliable and constant power

Economy: due to enhanced use CSP technologies will become cheaper

There are no direct competition and conflicts related to


regional dispersed and scarce resources (as crude oil, gas,
uranium, etc.). Moreover, additonal CSP plants and
transmission networks may be installed in future.

Mutual linkages and multilateral projects support peaceful development


and cohesion. By generation of new jobs, economic growth and wellfare,
DESERTIC may be seen as an anti-terrorism policy!

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


DESERTEC - MULTIPLICATORS
December 2009:
The Worldbank initiates a large-scale solar project and provides 5.5 bn
USD jointly with other investors. The project aims at buidling 11 CSP power
plants in 5 Arabian countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Marocco, Tunesia).

It is assumed that an additional investment of approx. 4.85 bn USD may be


triggered. The 11 CSP power plants should generate ca. 1 GW of electricity
and, thus, may triple the current global CSP power.

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


SUMMARY
DESERTEC along with other huge industrial initiatives and investments (in
total > 600 bn ) such as SMART WIND (North Sea, Dogger Banks) and
inter-European renewable energy transmission networks (HVDC SUPER
GRID) cleary show in which direction a consistent European energy policy
develops: Renewable energies rather than fossil and nuclear energy.
Conventional energy supply is considered a bridge technology which
may go on for an interim period of approx. 20 years with fast declining
importance and market shares.

Other countries such as Japan, the U.S. and even China, too, have entered
the train of sustainable / renewable energies. Those countries who do not
learn the message and join now may suffer disadvantages not only in future
energy availability but moreover in technical innovation and may not
participate in the fast growing market of renewables.

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


SOURCES
www.desertec.org

www.dlr.de Deutschen Zentrums fr Luft- und


Raumfahrt

www.physik.uni-giessen.de/dueren/sepa

www.clubofrome.de

Clean Power From Deserts The DESERTEC Concept


for Energy, Water and Climate Security WhiteBook,
4th Edition (2009)

Prof. Dr. Bernd Delakowitz 4/14/2010


MANY THANKS