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FACULTY OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

Master of Science in Information Management


(IS 770)

Management of Electronic Records


(SMM 750)

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT:

MOREQ AND RKMS AS A REPUTABLE STANDARD METADATA

By:

Mohamed Narazid Bin Mohd Dan


(2006652633 - FLP)

Prepared for:

Dr. Rusnah Bt. Johare


MOREQ AND RKMS AS A REPUTABLE STANDARD METADATA

Individual Assignment:

MOREQ AND RKMS AS A REPUTABLE STANDARD


METADATA

By:
Mohamed Narazid Bin Mohd Dan
(2006652633 FLP)

Master of Science in Information Management


Faculty of Information Management
Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)
Shah Alam, Selangor

17th October 2007

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Table of Contests

Abstract 3

1.0 Introduction 4

2.0 Metadata 6
2.1 Conceptual Definition 6
2.2 Types, Principal and Features 10
2.3 The Values, Uses and Functions 14

3.0 Records 20
3.1 Theoretical Definition 20
3.2 Electronic Record 21

4.0 Model Requirements of Electronic Record (MoReq) 23


4.1 Introduction 23
4.2 MoReq Specification 25
4.3 The Uses of MoReq 26
4.4 MoReq: The weaknesses 28
4.5 MoReq: The Strength 29

5.0 Australian Record Keeping Metadata Schema (RKMS) 31


5.1 Introduction 31
5.2 RKMS: A Record Keeping Metadata 32
5.3 RKMS: The Elements and Uses 33
5.4 RKMS: Summary of Elements and Qualifiers 38

6.0 MoReq and RKMS Towards Reputable Standard Metadata 42


6.1: MoReq 42
6.2 RKMS 43

7.0 Conclusion 47

8.0 Bibliographies 48

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Abstracts:

The overall aim of this paper is to review and summarize two metadata standards
in electronic records management. One of the intentions is to understand on
MoReq (Model Requirements for the Management of Electronic Records) and
RKMS (Australian Record Keeping Metadata Schema) able to perform as a
reputable metadata standard in electronic record territory. This paper also
examines the metadata elements including features and uses in their context.
Finally, the paper concludes on the MoReq and RKMS as a reputable standard
metadata in electronic record areas.

Keywords: Metadata, Electronic Record.

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

The emergence of computer technologies few decades ago has drastically


changed the requirements of metadata and its capabilities for using, capturing,
storing and retrieving. The growth of the Internet nowadays, with its focus on
accessibility to digital material stored has added a new level of the essence and
significant of metadata as a descriptive tool that facilitates the discovery and
retrieval of digital resources.

Metadata is a key to ensuring that resources will survive and continue to be


accessible into the future (National Information Standard Organization: 2004).
Metadata can describe resources at any level of aggregation such as collection,
a single resource, or a component part of a larger resource. Traditionally,
metadata is the information that was captured on file covers and index cards, and
is now being captured in electronic recordkeeping systems (Australian Society of
Archivists: 2004). Meanwhile, Gill (1998) mentioned that metadata is also often
used in the management and administration of digital network resources. This is
carry the meaning that metadata itself now becomes the significant information
that allows user to identify, find and manage records over the time in any
discipline of record management.

In the other category, metadata also can be embedding in a digital object or it


can be stored separately such as in HTML documents and in the headers of
image files. Yu, Lu and Chen (2005) agreed that metadata which have a
fundamental role of digital content before has now become an important part of
the global information construction in planning, processing, restoring and
managing. Meanwhile, Heery, Powell and Day (1997) pointed metadata has
become a fashionable term, and is often overused. In term of improve resource
discovery, metadata are also being developed for other purpose including
administrative control, security, personal information, management information,
content rating, rights management and preservation (Taylor: 2003).

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Metadata provides the essential link between the information creator and the
information user. According to Dempsey and Heery (1998), metadata known as a
knowledge, where allows human and automated users to behave intelligently.

This paper will further explore on the two existing metadata in the records
territory as a reputable standard of metadata in electronic record management
areas.

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2.0 METADATA

2.1 METADATA: CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION

Metadata is data about data. This statement are agreed by the several authors
such as Dempsey and Heery (1998), Bary (1996), Maxymuk (2005), Day (1998),
Yu, Lu and Chen (2005), Gilliland (1998), Gill (1998), McKemmish, Acland and
Reed (1999). In addition, Bary (1996) explained that metadata is an old
information management and engineering word that has been used for many
years in the design of information directories and systems.

In the other definition that has been highlighted by Taylor (2003), metadata is a
structured data that describes the characteristics of a resource. He explained
that each metadata schema usually have the characteristics such as limited
number of elements, the name of each element and the meaning of each
element. He added that metadata itself shares many similar characteristics to
the cataloguing that takes place in libraries, museums and archives. The
metadata record consists of a number of pre defined elements representing
specific attributes of a resource, and each element can have one or more
values. Figure 1 in the next page provides an example of a simple metadata
record that adapt from Taylor.

Meanwhile, Dempsey and Heery (1998) has given a preliminary definition of


metadata and declared that metadata is data associated with objects, which
relieves their potential user of having to have full advance knowledge of their
existence or characteristics. Bearman (1996), elucidate metadata as a
documentation which created by any computer system or digital application that
describes its design, functionality, performance and its use. Maxymux (2005) in
his further conclusion, clarify metadata as form of cataloging used to give
structure to unstructured digital information using standardized presentation and
content.

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In the other sources that taken from Hendley (2007), metadata is the term used
in the computer industry to describe data that is held and associated with files
and folders to uniquely identify each content object, document or record and to
provide information on its content, context, structure and use. The metadata is
what is used to identify and retrieve the content, to organize it, control access to
it and assure its integrity.

Figure 1: Basic Metadata Record

Adapted from Chris Taylor (2003). An Introduction to Metadata, From World Wide Web
http://www.library.uq.edu.au/iad/ctmeta4.html

Other delineation that has been raise by Evans, McKemmish and Bhoday (2005)
describe metadata as key component in the creation, management and
preservation of electronic records, as well as their innovative use as archives,
memory and knowledge. Gilliland (1998) in her further explanation, elucidate
metadata as an additional internal and external documentation for the
identification, representation, interoperability, technical management,
performance, and use of data contained in an information system. In addition,
Berners-Lee (1997) elucidates metadata as machine understandable information
about web resources or other things.

Through the international information and record management guidelines, the


conceptual of defining the metadata is wider and distinctness. ISO15489-1
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Information and Documentation- Records Management (2001) and Territory


Record Office of Australian Capital Territory (2007) define metadata as data
describing context, content, and structure of records and their management
through time.

Meanwhile, Australian Society of Archivists (2004) defined the closer concept as


ISO15489-1 and Territory Record Office, where classify Metadata as the
information that allows user to identify, find, manage records over time and can
describe either paper or electronic records. It is information that captured on file
covers and index cards, and currently being capture in electronic recordkeeping
systems. The Minnesota Electronic Records Management Guidelines (2003)
provides one of the best descriptions and rationale for metadata where identify
metadata allows users to locate and evaluate data without each person having to
discover it further with every use. Its basic elements are a structured format and
a controlled vocabulary, which together allow for a precise and comprehensible
description of content, location, and value.

The definition of metadata also provided by the National Information Standards


Organization (2004). It states metadata is a structured information that describes,
explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an
information resource. In addition, Model Requirement for the Management of
Electronic Records specification (2001) defined Metadata as structured or semi
structured information which enables the creation, management and use of
records through time and within and across domains in which they are created.

Table 1 in the next page is summarizing the definitions that given from several
sources in the different perspectives from the IT context, records management
context, archival context and information management context.

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Table 1: Metadata Definitions from Several Perspectives


Authors Metadata Definitions Perspective Overview

Dempsey and Heery (1998), Data about Data General


Bary (1996), Maxymuk (2005),
Day (1998), Yu, Lu and Chen
(2005), Gilliland (1998), Gill
(1998), McKemmish, Acland
and Reed (1999)
Bary (1996) Old information management and Information Management
engineering word
Taylor (2003) Structured data that describes the Record Management
characteristics of a resource
Dempsey and Heery (1998) Data associated with objects Record Management
Bearman (1996), Documentation which created by Information Technology
any computer system or digital
application that describes its
design, functionality, performance
and its use
Maxymux (2005) Form of cataloging used to give Record Management
structure to unstructured digital
information using standardized
presentation and content
Hendley (2007) Describe data that is held and Information Technology
associated with files and folders
to uniquely identify each content
object, document or record and to
provide information on its content,
context, structure and use
Evans, McKemmish and Key component in the creation, Record Management
Bhoday (2005) management and preservation of
electronic records, as well as their
innovative use as archives,
memory and knowledge
Gilliland (1998) Additional internal and external Information Management
documentation for the
identification, representation,
interoperability, technical
management, performance, and
use of data contained in an
information system
Berners-Lee (1997) As a machine understandable Information Management
information about web resources
or other things.
ISO15489-1 Information and Data describing context, content, Record Management
Documentation- Records and structure of records and their
Management (2001) and management through time
Territory Record Office of
Australian Capital Territory
(2007)
Australian Society of Archivists Information that allows user to Archival and Record
(2004) identify, find, manage records Management
over time and can describe either
paper or electronic records

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National Information Standards Structured information that Information Management


Organization (2004) describes, explains, locates, or and Record Management
otherwise makes it easier to
retrieve, use, or manage an
information resource
Model Requirement for the Structured or semi structured Information Management
Management of Electronic information which enables the and Record Management
Records specification (2001) creation, management and use of
records through time and within
and across domains in which they
are created

From the above classifications and outlines that has been given from the various
authors about the conceptual definition of metadata, able to conclude that
metadata itself as an entity of information where indicates context, content and
composition of records that can describes either paper or electronics records for
the management purpose either in business management, government
management or any organization management.

2.2 METADATA: TYPES, PRINCIPLES AND FEATURES

Metadata generally divided into three categories where includes the Descriptive
metadata, Structural metadata and Administrative metadata (Franks and Kunde:
2006). This assertion also supported by the National Information Standards
Organization (2004) and Day (1998) where giving the same classification of
metadata types. The descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes
such as discovery and identification. Metadata in this area can include such
elements as author, title, and abstract. Elements that one would find in a typical
bibliographic record are examples of metadata. Meanwhile, the structural
metadata indicates how compound objects are located together, like the pages
and chapters in an e-book or the audio and text in a power point presentation.
The last categories of metadata is administrative metadata which provides
information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created,
file type and other technical information, and who can access it. Table 2 in the
next page is explained the types and function of metadata.

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However, from the other sources Maxymuk (2005) and Gilliand (1998) has
pointed five types of metadata where added another two more types - Technical
and preservation metadata. The technical metadata outlines file characteristics
such as file format, scanning specifications, file size, software used, quality, and
extent. Meanwhile, preservation metadata is used to document the preservation
process used to create the digital object or collection.

According to Bearman (1996) the common types of metadata are includes


software and hardware documentation, information locator system such as GLIS,
Institutional Resources Directory System (IRDS), business classification system
and filing guidelines, standard and protocol for data structuring, input and output,
audit trails, and cataloging records.

Table 2: Types of Metadata and Their Functions

Type Definition Examples

Administrative Metadata used in managing - Acquisition information


and administering
information resources - Rights and reproduction tracking

- Documentation of legal access requirements

- Location information

- Selection criteria for digitization

- Version control and differentiation between


similar information objects

- Audit trails created by recordkeeping systems

Descriptive Metadata used to describe or - Cataloging records


identify information resources
- Finding aids

- Specialized indexes

- Hyperlinked relationships between resources

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- Annotations by users

- Metadata for recordkeeping systems


generated by records creators

Preservation Metadata related to the - Documentation of physical condition of


preservation management of resources
information resources
- Documentation of actions taken to preserve
physical and digital versions of resources, e.g.,
data refreshing and migration

Technical Metadata related to how a - Hardware and software documentation


system functions or metadata
behave - Digitization information, e.g., formats,
compression ratios, scaling routines

- Tracking of system response times

- Authentication and security data, e.g.,


encryption keys, passwords

Structural Metadata used for storage of - Pages are ordered to form chapters.
objects in a repository and - Maps physical files (digital assets) to logical
for presentation items (complex digital objects)
- Scanned print material
- A/V Material

- Multimedia presentation

- E books

Adapted from Anne J. Gilliland (1998). Setting the Stage: Introduction to Metadata. Retrieved
24 August 2007, From World Wide Web
http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata/setting.html

In order to effectively develop the robust metadata, it is requiring a constructing


the theoretical framework for metadata principles and its uses (Han, Lee and
Jeong: 2006). They added that Metadata must have adequateness, where must
be designed in a community oriented or domain oriented manner. The metadata
must meet the functional requirements of applications and services required by
community, based on syntactic, semantic and operational features of information
resources. In this point, able to conclude that the systematic development of
metadata schema requires analyzing the conceptual features of community
information resources and the business guidelines.

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Metadata must entail the modularity and reusability, where the reuse of well
define metadata is more effective to realize the quality of the representation.
When reusing metadata through the composition of schemas in the specific
domain, it should achieve the interoperability of heterogeneous metadata
elements and provide a mechanism to satisfy local requirements for the specified
domain. Metadata schema should secure modularity for the reusability, and
provide a mechanism for the interoperability.

Han, Lee and Jeong (2006) and National Information Standards Organization
(2004) also mentioning that Metadata must provide an appropriate level of
interoperability in functional requirements of communities or domains.
Interoperability is the ability of multiple systems with different hardware and
software platforms, data structures, and interfaces to exchange data with minimal
loss of content and functionality. The realization of interoperability requires
conceptual mapping or cross work for data elements.

Refinement and Specialization of Metadata pursues the generalization for the


representation of information resources in communities or domains. They added
that in the real applications of metadata schema, the communities tend to require
more specialized data elements to capture domain specific features including
functional requirements. Meanwhile, metadata also must have the Extensibility
where divided to two forms that include the addition of new data elements and
the mechanism for the accommodation of specified applications or local
requirements. The addition of new data elements is a management problem
related to the standards of metadata schemas. Application profiles can solve the
constraints on data element and semantic interoperability for accommodating
specified applications or local requirements.

In addition, Gilliland (1998) in her literature highlighted on three basic features of


metadata that includes content, context, and structure where can reflect through
metadata itself. The Content relates to what the object contains or is about, and

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is essential to an information object. Context indicates who, what, why, where,


how aspects associated with the object's creation, while Structure relates to the
formal set of associations within or among individual information objects. There
are similar point as Gilliland that has been elucidated by Rusch-Feja (1998),
where defined six features of metadata which related to identification and
resource discovery purposes (resource discovery"), access conditions and
usage requirements (terms and conditions"), structural aspects (structure"),
contextual aspects (context"), content aspects (content"), the use of this
resource (use history").

Through the evidences and related sources, able to conclude here that metadata
are carry the complex and precision forms on their types, features and principles
that can benefits on the overall usage to the users in the context of record
management cycle. A good metadata can identify which systems, record types
and data elements exist within an organization. It also helps the system monitor
and describe itself, enforcement of standards, facilitate archival identification,
appraisal, and description of electronic records, implement records retention
schedules, facilitate short and long term retrieval and perform a collection of
statistics.

2.3 METADATA: THE VALUES, USES AND FUNCTIONS

According to Day (1998), the computer science community primarily applies


metadata to help administer and manage resources as well as for documentation
purpose. Meanwhile, Dempsey and Heery (1998) pointed that metadata will
assist effective human use of resources and become knowledge where allows
human and automated users to behave intelligently. They added that metadata
will become integral to the web and desktop applications as an organizing
component to support information management and navigation.

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Maxymux (2005) elucidate that using metadata is a one part of building a digital
collection. For example, such metadata allows libraries and publishers to
maintain a safe copy of owned digital resources and allows users to harvest,
organize, and archive digital assets. Metadata consists of complex structures that
can be expensive to create and maintain (Gilliland: 1998). The development of
the World Wide Web and other networked digital information systems has
provided information professionals with many opportunities, while at the same
time requiring them to confront issues that they have not had occasion to explore
previously. Gilliland added that metadata will increase the accessibility through
the effectiveness of searching that can be significantly enhancing the consistent
metadata.

Metadata can also make it possible to search across multiple collections or to


create virtual collections from materials that are distributed across several
repositories, but only if the descriptive metadata are the same or can be mapped
across each site. Such functions of metadata are includes the implementation of
specific rules for authentication of records such as specifying which records are
authenticated, by whom and how. It also helps to identify an authoritative record
when multiple copies or versions exist and document procedures used in the
removal and transfer of inactive records to archival storage.

Iannella and Waugh (1997), describe the uses of metadata in the significance
ways by justify few relevant elements and explained the eight points as
summarized in table 3. Meanwhile, metadata according to Gilliland is reacting as
retention of context. In the digital world it is not difficult for a single object from a
collection to be digitized and then to become separated from both its own
cataloging information and its relationship to the other objects in the same
collection. Metadata plays a critical role in documenting and maintaining those
relationships, as well as in indicating the authenticity, structural and procedural
integrity, and completeness of information objects. In addition, she described that
metadata are expanding it use through the digital information systems either in

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museum and archival collections and make it easier to disseminate digital


versions of unique objects to users around the world.

Multi versioning is one of the uniqueness of metadata and its impotency to the
record management as clarify by Gilliland. She added that the existence of
information and cultural objects in digital form has heightened interest in the
ability to create multiple and variant versions of those objects. This process may
be as simple as creating both a high resolution copy for preservation or scholarly
research purposes and a low resolution thumbnail image that can be rapidly
transferred over a network for quick reference purposes.

In the other source, Day (2005) pointed another value of metadata in term of
facilitating data sharing and reuse. Large scale data sharing requires
standardized forms of data and metadata so that users are able to correctly
process the retrieved data. Many scientific disciplines and sub disciplines,
therefore, have been involved in developing standards that can facilitate the
exchange of data and metadata. He added the example on metadata sharing
where it is particular importance in the geosciences, where a number of
standardization initiatives have existed.

Day also elucidate on the value of metadata as a resource discovery and


retrieval. A large number of metadata standards have been developed to support
resource discovery, although most of these tend to be focused on particular
types of object or subject domain. The types of information required for resource
discovery tends to differ according to the type of digital object being described.
For document like objects, there tends to be a strong focus on the types of
information traditionally used by library catalogues or abstracting and indexing
services such as author and editor names, titles, abstracts and subject headings.
He also pointed that metadata standards supporting the discovery of images or
multimedia tend to include information describing semantic content as well as a
range of relevant technical characteristics.

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Gilliland (1998) has stressed that metadata able to perform for helping in legal
issues. In this section, metadata allows repositories to track the many layers of
rights and reproduction information that exist for information objects and their
multiple versions. Metadata also documents other legal requirements that have
been entailed on objects such as the privacy concerns or proprietary interests. In
the other metadata value, she indicate that Metadata have the important role in
system improvement and economics. According to her, the technical data that
can be obtained automatically by a computer is necessary to evaluate and refine
systems in order to make them more effective and efficient from a technical and
economic standpoint. The data also can be use in planning and developing for
new systems.

Meanwhile, Gilliland (1998), Maxymux (2005), Day (2003) and National


Information Standards Organization (2004) agreed that metadata have the own
part values of preservation. If digital information objects that are currently being
created have a chance of surviving migrations through successive generations of
computer hardware and software or removal to entirely new delivery systems, it
is need to have metadata that enables to exist independently of the system that
is currently being used to store and retrieve. Technical, descriptive, and
preservation metadata that documents how a digital information object was
created, maintained, behaves and relates to other information objects will be
essential.

In the other sources, Rusch-Feja (1998) clarify that metadata are used to
describe digitized and non digitized resources that located in a distributed system
in a networked environment. According to her, metadata are most frequently
used in three ways as <META Tags> in the HEADER of HTML-documents,
separate file of Meta-Information <META =. . . > to describe a non-HTML-file
(sound, image, or program file) and as a database category in a subject-oriented
WWW-server or distributed information system (with its own Harvester and/or
search engine).

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Metadata are essential to data management as enlightened by Pavlovic (2007).


He pointed four valuable aspects of metadata in exposing quality information to
clients and users, ensuring the right data for the right purpose, enabling discover
and search operations on products, services and resources. Meanwhile, Hofman
(2004) mention that metadata able to ensuring that business systems are
captured through a managed records, preventing unauthorised access, risk
mitigation, providing sustainability of systems and for long term retention of
electronic records.

Table 3: The Uses of Metadata


Summarize the meaning of the data
Allow users to search for the data
Retrieve and use a copy of the data
Instruct how to interpret the data
To give the history of data such as the
original source of the data and any
Iannella and Waugh (1997) subsequent transformations
To give contact information about the
data such as the owner.
To indicate relationships with other
resources
To control the management of the data
such as archival requirements and
destruction authority
Day (1998) Help administer and manage resources
The Uses of for documentation purpose Computer
Science
Metadata Assist the effective human use of
Dempsey and Heery (1998) resources and become knowledge -
allows human and automated users to
behave intelligently
helping in legal issues
Gilliland (1998) Planning and developing for new
systems.
describe digitized and non digitized
Rusch-Feja (1998) resources that located in a distributed
system in a networked environment
exposing quality information to clients
Pavlovic (2007) and users,
Enabling discover and search operations
on products, services and resources.
ensuring that business systems are
captured through a managed records
Hofman (2004) Providing sustainability of systems and
for long term retention of electronic
records.

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From the above sources, able to conclude that in term of acting as a key
component in electronic records, metadata has the own values that can benefit
and giving the advantages to the territory of digital collections and also to
electronic records management areas.

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3.0 ELECTRONIC RECORDS

3.1 RECORD: THEORETICAL DEFINITION

There are several delineation and definition about record in the various contexts.
Baltin (2002), Fresko (2005) and Territory Record Office of Australian Capital
Territory (2007) defined record as recorded information in any form, created or
received and maintained by an organization or person in the transaction of
business or the conducts of affairs and kept as evidence of such activity.
Meanwhile, according to the Federal Records Act (1950) a record is, recorded
information, regardless of medium or characteristics, made or received by an
organization that is evidence of its operations and has value requiring its
retention for a specific period of time.

As elucidated in National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) records


are include, all books, papers, maps, photographs, machine-readable
materials, or other documentary materials, regardless of physical form or
characteristics, made or received by an agency of the U. S. Government under
Federal law or in connection with the transaction of public business and
preserved or appropriate for preservation by that agency or its legitimate
successor as evidence of the organization, functions, policies, decisions,
procedures, operations, or other activities of the Government or because of the
informational value of the data in them. The other definition of record has been
defined by Bearman (1996) where pointed record as a very specific type of
information and it should meet particular functional requirements in orders to be
considered trustworthy.

In the other literature, Mc Kemmish and Ward (1999) pointed record as a


recorded information in any form created or received and maintained by an
organization or person in the transaction of business or the conduct of affairs and
kept as evidence. They added that records have a fixed content, structure that
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can continually be represented and enough persistently linked contextual


information to support meaning over time and beyond the domain in which they
were created.

3.2 ELECTRONIC RECORDS

Nowadays the form of record have been change from the manual record to the
digital and electronic record due to the drastically emergence of information
technology. There are several definitions on the concept of electronic record, but
the meaning is equally same on describing the delineation. Emery (2005)
highlighted that electronic records is a professional discipline that is primarily
concerned with the management of document based information systems. He
added that the purpose of records management is to promote economies and
efficiencies in recordkeeping, to assure that useless records are systematically
destroyed while valuable information is protected and maintained in a manner
that facilitates its access and use.

Meanwhile, the Minnesota Recordkeeping Metadata Standard (2003) defined


electronic record as a created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or
stored by electronic means. In addition, Model Requirement for the Management
of Electronic Records specification (2001) described a simple term of electronic
record as a record which is in electronic form. Another definition has been
highlighted by Thibodeau (2003) where pointed that electronic record as a
document encoded in digital form and requiring a computer for the processing.

According to the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives (2007),


electronic record is a record created, generated, sent, communicated, received,
or stored by electronic means. This is means that electronic records must be
maintained in a reliable and secure format for the entire retention period. They
added that electronic records are machine readable and require hardware and

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software to be interpreted. To manage electronic records efficiently and


effectively it require automate processing trough the incorporate laws,
regulations, policies, sound archival and records management principles in the
system. Indirectly it will make electronic records more self describing and self
validating to facilitate processing and management.

The further discussion in this paper will elaborate the elements of Model
Requirement of Electronic Records (MoReq) and Australian Record Keeping
Metadata Schema (RKMS) as a reputable standard metadata in electronic record
territory.

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4.0 MODEL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF


ELECTRONIC RECORDS (MoReq)

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The Model Requirements for the Management of Electronic Records (MoReq) is


a generic specification for systems designed to manage electronic records. It
can be used to design, select, and audit such systems (Piers: 2003). Moreq been
produced in 2001 in the framework of the IDA programmed as a comprehensive
specification of the functional requirements for the management of electronic
records (European Commission Archival Policy: 2007) and (Model Requirements
for The Managements of Electronic Records Specification: 2001). MoReq used
as basis for national regulations in several European countries and describes the
functional requirements from IT systems for managing electronic files called
ERMS (Electronic Records Management Systems). Fresko (2004) pointed that
MoReq covers the minimum requirements for good management of electronic
records. As MoReq mainly focuses on managing static documents in terms of a
classic document management system, it provides a starting point to develop
advanced specifications on the basis of a generally accepted platform.

In addition, MoReq able to assist organizations to ensure that the Electronic


Records Management System and procedures that develop comply with records
management principles. MoReq is created to be applicable to the private and
public sectors and it is become an international in scope and has translated into
the languages of the European member states (Handley: 2007). MoReq also
provides a template on setting out the requirements by describing each
requirement and then giving a detailed definition statement of each function
making recommendations if the function should be "mandatory" or "desirable."

An effort was made by the EU Document Lifecycle Management (DLM) Forum to


set up a new EU de facto standard (MoReq2) and an associated compliance
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testing with an appropriate organization. The overall aims for the MoReq2
development are to build extended functional requirements within a European
context and to support a compliance scheme, strengthening from MoReq that
have become key areas and covering important new areas of requirements with
clarity, ensuring that the functional requirements are testable and developing test
materials to enable products to be tested for compliance with the requirements
and making the requirements modular to assist application in the various
environments in which they will be used (Handley: 2007) and (European
Commission Archival Policy: 2007).

To provide compatibility, MoReq2 is to be an evolutionary update to the original


MoReq, not a radically different product. The MoReq requirements are to be
arranged in a base module that constitutes the minimum necessary to provide
credible electronic records management and as optional modules. See Moreq2
optional modules in the figure 2 below.

Management of physical records and hybrid file


retention and disposal (existing)
Document management and collaborative working
(existing)
Integration with workflow (existing)
Casework (new)
Integration with content management systems (new)
Electronic signatures, encryption, electronic
MoReq optional Modules watermarking (existing)
Distributed systems (new, including existing
requirements drawn from base and other sections)
Offline and remote working (new)
Definition and description of record keeping processes
(new)
Fax integration (new)
Security categories

Figure 2: MoReq2 optional modules


Adapted from Handley, T. (2007). Managing information and documents: The definitive guide.
Infoconomy Ltd & Cimtech Ltd. UK.

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4.2 MOREQ SPECIFICATION

The MoReq specification is design to be pragmatic, easily used, and applicable


for all. According to Piers (2003), MoReq specification is clearly laid out and
structured and sometimes called a standard specification. There are separate
chapters covering classification schemes, controls and security, retention and
disposal, records capture, reference, search, retrieval, rendering, and
administrative functions. Other functions, such as managing non electronic
records, workflow, electronic signatures, encryption, electronic watermarks, and
workflow, are also touched upon. In addition, the specification covers
nonfunctional requirements such as ease of use, scalability, and technical
standards. In addition, there is an entire chapter on metadata requirements.

Macfarlane (2003), elucidated that MoReq specification was designed explicitly


with pragmatism and usability in mind. It was primarily intended to serve as a
practical tool in helping organizations meets their business needs for the
management of both computer-based and paper based records. Meanwhile,
Waldron (2002) in his literature, has pointed four main modules of MoReq where
includes core records management functions, other system functions that include
electronic signatures, document management and workflow, detailed metadata
elements and non functional aspects including operational needs and standards.
Figure 3 in the next page is explained the four main modules for MoReq as
described by Waldron.

Main Modules:

MoReq 1. Metadata
2. Record management functions
3. Non functional Technical standard, Legal etc.
4. Others function EDMS, Content, Workflow etc.

Figure 3: Main modules of MoReq

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Adapted from Martin Waldron (2002). European Strategic Initiatives: Adoption of Electronic
Records Management. Retrieved 23 September 2007, From World Wide Web:
http://www.eapc.es/documents/2004/15061_erm_en.doc

Meanwhile, the Managing Information and Documents Guide (2007) have


pointed the twelves MoReq best module that included a few items as per figure 4
below:

1. Introduction
2. Overview of ERMS requirements
3. Classification scheme
4. Controls and security
5. Retention and disposal
MoReq best module 6. Capturing records
7. Referencing
8. Searching, retrieval and rendering
9. Administrative functions
10. Optional modules (see below)
11. Non functional requirements
12. Metadata requirements

Figure 4: MoReq best modules


Adapted from ________ (2007). Managing information and documents: The definitive guide.
Infoconomy Ltd & Cimtech Ltd. UK.

MoReq are designed to be entirely generic. It does not consider any platform-
specific or sector-specific issues. MoReq consist 100 pages and 390
requirements where it is distributed as a Microsoft word document with 127
elements of metadata model in MoReq. The contents of Moreq as elucidated by
Fresko (2005) is included a reference model, glossary, introductory text,
references and appendices.

4.3 THE USE OF MOREQ

The European Commission Archival Policy (2007) and the Model Requirements
for The Managements of Electronic Records Specification (2001) elucidate
MoReq is widely utilized across the European Union and has achieved its
present status and intended to be used by:
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User For
Potential ERMS users As a basis for preparing an invitation to tender
ERMS users As a basis for auditing or checking an existing ERMS
Training organizations As a reference document for preparing records management
training, and as course material
Academic institutions As a teaching resource
ERMS suppliers and developers To guide product development by highlighting functionality
required
Record management service To guide the nature of the services to be provided
providers
Potential users of outsourced As an aid in specifying the services to be procured
record management services

MoReq is useful on deciding between software applications that have been


certified as capable of managing electronic records, as its comprehensive list of
requirements could be used as prompt during this process.

MoReq's target audience is very broad, covering every economic sector,


business and public organizations. It also can be used as a basis for invitations
to tender for ERMS, evaluating software products, preparing records
management training and course material as a resource for training and
education in Electronic Record Management (ERM), teaching resource for
academic institutions, product development guide that highlights required
functionality for ERMS suppliers and developers and as a guide for records
management service providers as a basis for the development of products by
software suppliers (Waldron: 2002) and (Piers: 2003).

According to Waldron (2002), MoReq perform to setting out the system


requirements to support the e-business and e-government strategy. He added
that there are various activities in implementing the corporate e-business and e-
government program adoption by organizations that has move to an e-business
world that is influencing the way organizations do their business, the business
methods of meeting governments' statutory or regulatory requirements and the
way services are received from local and central government.

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In the other sources, Crumpton (2003) pointed that Moreq is use to assist in
introduction of ERMS or assess an ERMS, addresses the formal records
management techniques such as retention and disposition and adopt the needs
of users who are office workers in using ERMS as part of their routine such as
Records Managers or Archivists.

MoReq also defines and develops other terms implied in the management of
documents, such as electronic files and volumes, classification schemes,
classes, management systems, user roles, access, movements, safety copies
and entity-relationship models. The creation of this standard will consent the
implementation and extension of record management automation, with the
ambition on the part of the European Commission to fulfill its objectives while
simultaneously facilitating the search and the access of information by citizens
for their own interest, thereby increasing transparency to a maximum (IBM
Corporation Newsletter:2007)

4.4 MOREQ: THE WEAKNESSES

MoReq cannot provide answers to such basic performance requirements as


acceptable retrieval times which, in fact, are likely to be critical in deciding among
otherwise suitable software applications.

In some situations, such as integrated financial management systems in the


public sector, a bespoke solution may be necessary or preferable because of a
sector's special requirements. For bespoke systems, however, MoReq's length is
a key issue. It is difficult to imagine many IT directors showing much enthusiasm
for adding another 128 pages of electronic records management specifications to
a new system's already substantial mainstream requirements. The cost would be
significant, and unfortunately, most organizations regard records management as
an occasionally useful, but not particularly valuable, service.

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In the Information Age online magazine (2005), MoReq is identified are having
lacks of feature. In addition, MoReq also require to an update due to it is now
more than three years old and the records management software industry has
been developing fast.

4.5 MOREQ: THE STRENGTH

The use of metadata to enable the creation, management and use of electronic
records is essential to any ERMS, and MoReq mention that the metadata should
be extracted automatically. According to Chalder (2007), MoReq is as a
communications tool for achieving corporate buy in and explains concepts well,
with a minimum of technical jargon, and provides reasons for each group of
requirements. In this context, the comprehensive scope of the requirements turns
into a benefit. The document may have a useful career either in its original format
in explaining electronic records management issues to IT directors, senior
management, and other stakeholders who need to know more about the subject
than just the high level issues. Events may show that MoReq has the greatest
potential and benefit for a wider audience in this area

MoReq recognizes that documents made or received in the course of business


become records when they are captured by the organizations information
systems. MoReq provides detailed guidance around security controls (such as
access control, backup and recovery from backup, controls over information
transfer, authenticity and confidentiality, and audit), as well as detailed coverage
of retention schedules, identifying the need for a review process prior to record
destruction that allows for an individual records retention date to be changed

Crumpton (2003) clarify that MoReq have the own essence where included
generic, rigorous, detailed treatment of hybrid files, detailed metadata model and
designed for all situations. In addition, Clemens (2003) pointed that MoReq

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supplies a very detailed requirement for functional requirements of an electronic,


paper based records system management, relevant electronic transaction
processing and document management systems. MoReq includes guidelines for
the consideration from operational systems and management systems and does
not establish only requirements for custody of electronic recordings, but also for
the requirements of other electronic document gotten functions as workflow, E-
Mail and Electronic Signatures. The requirement check lists of MoReq represent
a kind of stencil for every field of application. In these requirement lists, all
requirements are described and every individual function specifies defines

Through the evidences given, via unique features and specific functionality of
MoReq, it was indirectly perform the extraordinary strength and intensity to be a
reputable metadata in electronic records territory. The widest of concept with
several values are bringing MoReq to be more effectiveness and convenience
metadata standard where can be utilize by the users as a symbol of references in
the electronic record areas.

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5.0 AUSTRALIAN RECORD KEEPING METADATA SCHEMA


(RKMS)

5.1 INTRODUCTION

Australian Record Keeping Metadata Schema (RKMS) had developed in for the
understanding of metadata and it designed to reliably assist archival processes
(Day: 1998). Therefore, its objectives range from ensuring the appropriate
creation and disposal of record entities, to identification and authentication of
collection items, rights management, and documenting the history of a record.
RKMS is an extensible scheme that makes explicit connections between
business such as social and organizational activity, the people of agents who do
business and the records which are the by-products of that business. It is also
links the dynamic world of business and social activity to the passive world of
information resource management in cyberspace. Based on the data model used
by the Resource Description Framework (RDF) the schema elements have been
mapped against several major metadata schemas, including Dublin Core and
EAD.

As pointed by Minnesota Recordkeeping Metadata Development Committee


(2001), the goal of the RKMS is to help agencies to identify, authenticate,
describe, and manage their electronic records in a systematic and consistent way
to meet business, accountability, and archival requirements. RKMS developed by
the Records Continuum Research Group lead by Monash University. The project,
amongst other things, attempted to specify and standardize the whole range of
recordkeeping metadata that would be required to manage records in digital
environments (McKemmish, et al., 1999). RKMS is also known as the mother of
all entity model recordkeeping metadata as clarify by Australian Society of
Archivists (2004). It is quite a complex scheme but covers all the sorts of things
about records and the associated functions and entities.

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5.2 RKMS: A RECORDKEEPING METADATA

What is record keeping? Record keeping performs a making and maintaining


complete, accurate and reliable evidence of business transactions in the form of
recorded in information that includes a creation of records, design, establishment
and operation of recordkeeping systems, management of records currently used
in business and as archives (McKemmish et. al: 1999).

Recordkeeping metadata is structured or semi structured information that


enables the creation, registration, classification, access, preservation and
disposal of records through time and across domains. Recordkeeping metadata
can identify, authenticate, and contextualize records and the people, processes
and systems that create, manage, maintain and use them (State Records Office
of Western Australia: 2004). Meanwhile, record keeping metadata as pointed by
McKemmish and Ward (1999) is a standardized information that identifies,
authenticates, describes, manages, makes accessible through time and space
and captured in recordkeeping, archival, workflow knowledge and document
management.

Record keeping metadata has supports the electronic business and contributes
to the reliability and responsibility of business transactions. According to
McKemmish and Acland (1999), record keeping metadata enables access to
essential evidence of business activity in networked environments by promoting
the visibility of records, facilitating searches for records through common user
interfaces, enabling records to be located and accessed by authorized users over
time, ensuring that records are always complete, accurate, reliable and authentic,
representing the records identically to any authorized user at any time, making
the meaning of the records clear over time by linking them to their business
contexts and the people who created and use them, enabling delivery of records
to authorized users in accordance with access policies and user permissions,
restricting unauthorized access and use and supporting interoperability.

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Recordkeeping metadata includes descriptive metadata about records and


context encompassing people, organizational structures, functions and activities,
systems and processes. The RKMS uses recordkeeping understandings to make
explicit connections between business, defined broadly to encompass all social
and organizational activity, the people or agents who do business, and the
records which are by products of that business.

In addition, McKemmish and Ward (1999) has stressed the point that RKMS is
possible to identify, categories, label and present in formal, standardized way the
metadata that supports recordkeeping through time and space regardless of
where, when or how that metadata is captured. According to them,
recordkeeping metadata needs to be specified using protocols and conventions
of wider metadata community.

5.3 RKMS: THE ELEMENTS AND USES

According to Kilkki (2001), RKMS allows for documentation of all and any records
management actions such as audit, custody transfer, declassification and
publishing. He added that the design of RKMS based on a consistent theoretical
analysis of a recordkeeping environment to identify all possible metadata
elements required to support a recordkeeping system maintaining complete,
reliable and authentic records.

Meanwhile, Day (2003) pointed that RKMS also concerned with supporting
interoperability with more generic metadata standards like the Dublin Core and
relevant resource discovery schemas like the AGLS Metadata Standard. The
schema defined a highly structured set of metadata elements was designed to be
extensible and to be able to inherit metadata elements from other schemas. In
addition, RKMS proposes a conceptual model composed of business, agents,
records, business record keeping, relationships, and mandates entities after

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analyzing record management business environment (Han, Lee and Jeong:


2006).

The RKMS itself has been designed as a framework standard with the capacity
to encompass all recordkeeping activity (NSW Recordkeeping Metadata
Standard: 2004). This standard captures and maintains information about
records, the people and agencies that create and manage the standard, the
functions and processes that generate the standard and the recordkeeping
business activities that affect and regulate the standard. Because of its wide
scope, the RKMS is able to document records at the document, file, record
series, recordkeeping system or collective archive level and its capacity to
document people, functions or recordkeeping business activities is similarly
extensive.

RKMS provided 6 categorizes as elucidated by McKemmish et al. (1999). Its


react as a standardized set of structured recordkeeping metadata elements,
including as a framework for developing and specifying recordkeeping metadata
standards, framework for reading or mapping metadata sets, a classification of
recordkeeping metadata according to functionality or purpose, input to an
Australian National Standard for Recordkeeping Metadata and input to research
and development in the broader metadata community either in national stage and
international stage.

RKMS metadata elements is viewed as an activity common to many records


management actions and consequently it is embedded into terms and conditions,
structural, contextual and history of use layers. The design of RKMS is based on
a consistent theoretical analysis of a recordkeeping environment. As a theoretical
construct, the model is designed to identify all possible metadata elements
required to support a recordkeeping system maintaining complete, reliable and
authentic records.

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The Recordkeeping Metadata Scheme elements included generic elements


which identify and describe features of the business contexts in which records
are created, the people or agents involved the records, and the relationships
amongst and between these entities and elements that relate specifically to
recordkeeping processes. The Recordkeeping Metadata Scheme elements are
presented three subsets which included Business Metadata, Agent Metadata and
Record Metadata (McKemmish and Acland: 1999).

The Business Metadata are identifies and describes business dealings and
sometime defined as social and organizational activity of all kinds and
establishes relationships between the business being done, the people or agents
involved and the records created and used. Business metadata can be used to
identify and describe business transactions and activities as well as the business
functions and broader societal purposes that they serve.

Meanwhile, the Agent Metadata identifies and describes people or agents that
create, control, manage and use records and establishes relationships between
an agent and other agents, the business being done and the records that
document it.

The last elements is Record Metadata where identifies and describes records,
establishes relationships between a record and other records, agents and the
business context; and describes and manages recordkeeping processes.
Records may be at any level of desegregation or aggregation such as
component of a record, a file, a records system, a corporate archive and
collective archives.

The elements and qualifiers defined in the Recordkeeping Metadata Schema


identify and describe significant features of the business contexts in which
records are created, managed and used (Mc Kemmish et al.: 1999). The links of
the elements are described as per figure 5 in the next page. It identify, name,

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date and place the Business, Business Recordkeeping, Agents and Records
entities (Identifier, Title, Date, Place). The schema also specified Record to
Record, Agent to Agent, Business to Business, Business Recordkeeping to
Business Recordkeeping relationships, and link Business and Business
Recordkeeping entities to the Agents involved and the Records themselves.

In addition, the schema describe relevant mandates (Mandate), provide for the
functional classification of the entity (Functional Classification), state the
language or script in which the Business is conducted, the Agent does business
or the Record is captured, stored or rendered (Language), and provide for a brief
descriptive note (Abstract). In relation to the Business class and Business
Recordkeeping sub-class, the Business Rules element provides for description of
business rules, work processes, procedures and system specifications.

The RKMS indirectly enables management of recordkeeping functions, activities


and transactions that are concerned with creating, capturing, and managing
records, and enabling their use in transactions and activities relating to the
recordkeeping functions of appraisal, control, preservation, retrieval, access and
use of records. This is achieved through the unique Records metadata elements
of Appraisal, Control, Preservation, Retrieval, Access, and Use. There is also
provision for the tracking and documenting of recordkeeping processes (through
the Event History element).

RKMS provides for the importation of a full range of metadata elements, element
qualifiers, value components, and value qualifiers from another metadata
schema for any of its entities (Mc Kemmish et al.: 1999). RKMS also visualize
legacy of data values from another schema. Particularly when specifying
metadata associated with agents and business, it does not seek to create
separate recordkeeping views of these entities. Rather it enables reference to
metadata schemas that have been defined in other circumstances.

RKMS uses the convention of specifying the "names" of other metadata schemas
in RDF diagrams to indicate inheritance of sets and subsets of metadata

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elements, qualifiers, and values, and to identify the authority by which they were
created. However, the metadata community as a whole is only beginning to
explore the complexity of and relationships between, the schemas that govern
and control metadata elements, qualifiers, and values.

Figure 5: Record Keeping Metadata Elements

As conclusion, RKMS has embraces traditional expression of the vision and view
records as potential self managing information objects, intelligent agents that
transact business in complex way and dynamic organizational and social
environments. This is the rich metadata provided through the RKMS where
supporting the necessary functionalities. This vision links the dynamic world of
business and social activity in information resource management.

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5.4 RKMS: SUMMARY OF ELEMENTS AND QUALIFIERS

The below figures is a summarize of RKMS elements and qualifiers from


business elements, business record keeping elements, agents elements and
records elements as pointed by Acland (1999).

Figure 6: Business Elements


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Figure 7: Business Record Keeping Elements

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Figure 8: Agents Elements

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Figure 9: Records Elements

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6.0 MoReq AND RKMS TOWARDS REPUTABLE STANDARD


METADATA

6.1 MoReq

A true standard must be accepted by a practitioner community, either because it


is required by law or because everyone agrees to use it. Good standards provide
useful solutions in fields where common conventions are important and make
sense. A standard is successful if it solves technical problems, formalizes
solutions, and the market accepts it.

MoReq does successfully solve a technical problem and formalize a solution, but
the problem is not vital to the conduct of business (Piers: 2003). For an example,
businesses exchange e-mails or documents using ICT standards every day,
without needing to use a common electronic records management specification
standard. Piers added that each business or organization can effectively act as
an island with regard to specifying its ERMS without penalty.

A standardized electronic records management specification's main benefit is to


lower procurement costs by minimizing the work needed to produce technical
specifications. In the European Community's public sector, the area where
MoReq which could have had the greatest impact where the European
governments have not made compliance with MoReq as a requirement for
procurement decisions, but have chosen to develop their own specifications
Kilkki: 2001). But at the outside Europe countries, MoReq is still relatively
unknown.

The main beneficiary of an international specification would be the ICT industry,


especially those suppliers wishing to develop ERMS or electronic document
management solutions that will be marketable in different national contexts. Such
a specification would relieve suppliers of the cost burden associated with product
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certification by individual national archives. In addition, an internationally


accepted specification would facilitate a global market for ERMS.

MoReq's developers should be clear if they want the initiative to form the basis of
an international standard: Develop the business case for an international ERM
specification and sell the concept to the ICT industry either make the bound to an
international standard or allow MoReq to go down.

Macfarlane (2006) indicate that model requirements are intended to be flexible


and can be tailored to different environments. MoReq2 will be building on the fact
of wide agreement and adoption of the original MoReq. In scope, it is to be an
evolutionary update to the original MoReq, not a radically different product.
MoReq 2 is not intended to shift its focus from mainstream management of
electronic records to a new area, such as specialist management of archives. In
extending the scope to compliance testing, it is known that the concept has been
proved already in several countries.

As a reputable standard metadata, MoReq are formally supported in the


European Commissions Report on archives in the enlarged European Union,
also by the Council of the European Union who accepted the report and
recommended that reinforcement of European interdisciplinary cooperation on
electronic documents and archives should be taken further. The recommendation
also specifies that updating and extending MoReq.

6.2 RKMS

Mc Kemmish and Ward (1999), mention that RKMS require on the further
modeling of RKMS set and ensuring the sufficient in the Business, Business
Recordkeeping, Agents, and Records entities. The current RKMS conceptual
framework in terms of metadata element sets is compulsory to re examined.

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Possible new models of the set include treating relation, mandates and
business rules as entities rather than elements, and possibly modeling entities
in terms of events

To become a reputable standard metadata, RKMS need to perform in describing


and modeling the relationships. The relationship is related to type such as
business activity, definition, date, mandate and business rules. The RKMS has
also pushed the description of relationships beyond the requirements of other
information resource metadata sets such as Dublin Core. While the conceptual
understandings of relationships is well developed in the RKMS, issues to do with
the taxonomy of relationships, the precision of the depiction of relationships and
the metadata expression of such relationships is a fruitful area for future research
in both the recordkeeping and wider metadata communities.

In identifying and describing Metadata Schemas, RKMS can be extended by


other metadata schemas and need to understand those schemas due to
schemas change over time (Mc Kemmish, Acland and Reed: 1999). Most
metadata communities visualize to use of metadata elements, qualifiers and
schemes from external metadata schemas. Use of external metadata requires
mechanisms for including and defining external metadata schemas. An exciting
area for further research that is closely related to the establishment of metadata
registries is the development of metadata sets to better define and describe
schemas. Recordkeeping description metadata has unique needs in this regard.
For recordkeeping purposes, the external schemas may need to be described in
terms of their period of validity, authority and so on.

Future work includes the development of a RDF schema for RKMS. RDF has
mechanisms for defining metadata schemas, for including external metadata
schemas, and for capturing the complex metadata structure that found in RKMS.
RDF also has the feature of having XML syntax (Extensible Markup Language,
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml). XML has a number of features useful for

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archival descriptions where it is definite, easy to generate and read by a


computer, extensible, supports internationalization, and independent. RDF/XML
can also be self describing where it can contain a pointer to a definition of own
structure.

Towards metadata standard, RKMS in formal mapping of metadata schemas has


done many maps such as EAD and CRS (Hofman: 2004). Mapping techniques
that can more rigorously depict and map the interrelationships between them are
needed. The RKMS has been designed as a framework in which other sets can
be mapped against each other. This facilitates the discovery of equivalences and
correspondences between them. The capacity for achieving semantic
interoperability between specific implementations of metadata when mapped
against a standardized set is one of the resulting benefits for the recordkeeping
community, nationally and internationally. However, currently, these mappings
are presented in comparative tables of elements and qualifiers, or as text. There
is a further research need to formalize these mappings in terms of the metadata
data model. This formalization would make the mappings amenable to machine
processing, allowing semi automated translation between metadata schemas.
This could also enable metadata, implemented in legacy systems, to be
translated by current metadata schema, thus making the metadata interoperable
in current system environments.

RKMS require to persistence new recordkeeping paradigms (Hofman: 2004).


Much recordkeeping context is expressed in the RKMS as references between
entities descriptions manifested in the relation element. For example, a Record
entity may reference the Agent entity which created it. The Agent entity may in
turn reference the Business Function which the Agent is implementing. A
problem with this method of recording context is that if a link cannot be de-
referenced then the context is lost. In the short term, uncertainties about
persistence of links may lead to implementation of recordkeeping metadata in
records centric ways if other systems cannot be trusted to sustain the links over

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time, then metadata must be brought explicitly within the boundaries of the
records system itself. This involves capturing metadata directly into the records
system or importing it from the other enterprise systems in which it was originally
created.

For conclusion, RKMS and MoReq have presented their own credibility, integrity
and veracity on the few aspects in term of strongest conceptual and
trustworthiness in certain areas especially in record management territory. Table
4 below pointed the main key elements of MoReq and RKMS towards reputable
metadata standard.

Table 4: Key Elements towards Reputable Standard Metadata


Towards Reputable MoReq RKMS
Standard Metadata
Technical Successfully solve a technical Mapping of metadata
problem and formalize a schemas- has done many
solution maps such as EAD and CRS
Specifications Develop own specifications - perform in describing and
ICT industry modeling the relationships
Flexibility Flexible and can be tailored to require to persistence new
different environments recordkeeping paradigms

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7.0 CONCLUSION

In reality, metadata is a useful and popular for managing and storing knowledge
in heterogonous format. Metadata is now seen as an essential part of the digital
world. In the other words, it performs the management and reuse of all kinds of
digital and non digital object. Metadata is recognized as an important point in
electronic record and metadata itself have move through time and space.

The Metadata standards had developed to support an extremely wide range of


activities. These include facilitating the discovery of objects, the management of
access and integration, documentation of object origins, life cycles and contexts
at all multiple levels of aggregation, focused on particular subject domains and
preservation of electronic records over the time

As a reputable standard metadata in electronic record territory, Moreq and RKMS


via its elements and specific features have gone through the tough challenge to
become an importance metadata which directly related to the roles they play in
supporting the discovery, management and preservation of digital resources.

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