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Data Communication and Networks

Muhammad Adan Abid


FAST National University of Computer and Emerging
Sciences
muhammad.adan@nu.edu.pk
Monday, September 05, 2016

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

Lab 4

Packets and Header Structure

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

Lab Contents

Introduction to Packets
OSI and TCP/IP Models
Layers and Headers
Introduction to IPv4 Header in detail

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

Understanding of Network Layers

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

OSI Model

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

Exchange Using OSI Model

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

TCP/IP and OSI Models

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EL 317

05-Sep-16

Addresses

Three different levels of addresses are used


in internet using typical TCP/IP protocols
Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

Layering

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

Layering

EL 317

05-Sep-16

Physical Addresses

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EL 317

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100

Example

The node with physical address 10 sends


a frame to a node with physical address
87 connected by a link.

At data link level, this frame contains


physical (link) addresses in the header

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EL 317

05-Sep-16

111

IPv4 Header IPv4 Header

4500
003c
1c46
4000 4006
0a63
ac10
0a0c
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b1e6
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ac10
122

IPv4 Datagram Format

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133

Version
Current IP Protocol Version is 4,
called IPv4

4
Version

16
TOS

HLen
Identification

TTL

19

Protocol

31
Length

Flags

Fragment
Offset
IP Header Checksum

Source IP Address
Destination IP Address
Options (variable)

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

Pad (variable)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

144

Header Length
Length of IP Header in number of 32 bit words
including options. Maximum header size is 60
bytes.

4
Version

16
TOS

HLen
Identification

TTL

19

Protocol

31
Length

Flags

Fragment
Offset
IP Header Checksum

Source IP Address
Destination IP Address
Options (variable)

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

Pad (variable)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

155

Type of Service
The type-of-service field (8-bit) is used to differentiate the packets based
on the services they need. (It is largely ignored in current routers)

4
Version

16
TOS

HLen
Identification

TTL

19

Protocol

31
Length

Flags

Fragment
Offset
IP Header Checksum

Source IP Address
Destination IP Address
Options (variable)

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

Pad (variable)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

166

Length
Total length of IP datagram (including header) in bytes. It is a 16 bit
field. Largest size of an IP datagram thus is 65,535 bytes. Maximum
header size is 60 bytes.

4
Version

16
TOS

HLen
Identification

TTL

19

Protocol

31
Length

Flags

Fragment
Offset
IP Header Checksum

Source IP Address
Destination IP Address
Options (variable)

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

Pad (variable)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

177

Identification

Identification field uniquely identifies each datagram sent by a host. It


is normally incremented by one each time a host sends a datagram.
Very useful for fragmentation and reassembly.

4
Version

16
TOS

HLen
Identification

TTL

19

Protocol

31
Length

Flags

Fragment
Offset
IP Header Checksum

Source IP Address
Destination IP Address
Options (variable)

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

Pad (variable)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

188

Flags
flags field also used for fragmentation and
reassembly.

4
Version

16
TOS

HLen
Identification

TTL

19

Protocol

31
Length

Flags

Fragment
Offset
IP Header Checksum

Source IP Address
Destination IP Address
Options (variable)

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

Pad (variable)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

199

Fragment Offset
Fragmentation offset used for fragmentation
and reassembly.

4
Version

16
TOS

HLen
Identification

TTL

19

Protocol

31
Length

Flags

Fragment
Offset
IP Header Checksum

Source IP Address
Destination IP Address
Options (variable)

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

Pad (variable)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

20

TTL

Time-to-live or TTL field sets an upper limit on how many routers a


datagram can go through. Every router decrements TTL by 1 before
sending it forward. If TTL reaches 0 the datagram is dropped.

4
Version

16
TOS

HLen
Identification

TTL

19

Protocol

31
Length

Flags

Fragment
Offset
IP Header Checksum

Source IP Address
Destination IP Address
Options (variable)

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

Pad (variable)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

221

Protocol
Identifies the protocol that sent the datagram. The protocol
(today) can be TCP, UDP, ICMP, IGMP etc.

4
Version

16
TOS

HLen
Identification

TTL

19

Protocol

31
Length

Flags

Fragment
Offset
IP Header Checksum

Source IP Address
Destination IP Address
Options (variable)

Pad (variable)

22
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22

Header Checksum
The header checksum is calculated over the IP header only.
TCP, UDP etc protect their own data and header by a
checksum.
0

4
Version

16
TOS

HLen
Identification

TTL

19

Protocol

31
Length

Flags

Fragment
Offset
IP Header Checksum

Source IP Address
Destination IP Address
Options (variable)

Muhammad Adan Abid (FAST-NUCES)

Pad (variable)

EL 317

05-Sep-16

23

Packet Sniffer Structure

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