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Notre Dame University

Faculty of Engineering Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering

Cen 443 Final Project

Jeffrey Fadlallah

Prepared by

Roukoz Abi Khalil Jabbour

Emilio El Hajj

Saly

Letter of Submittal

Dear Dr. Jawad,

Enclosed we submit our report for Zabbough-Dei Ziraaya highway in accordance with your request. The purpose of this report is to present the work completed on the design of the highway including Capacity Analysis, No of lanes, Geometric characteristics, Drainage, Pavement design and the final results regarding the length and expected expropriation for the project.

The report also contains all the information needed starting with the office studies and surveys, demographical data analysis is conducted to the area of study, the assumptions based on ASSHTO standards of the cross sectional elements and alignment.

Our team has performed the required hand calculations in parallel with Civil 3D application.

Hopefully this work fulfills your expectations. Best regards,

Jeffrey Fadlallah

Roukoz Abi KhalilEmilio El Hajj

Saly Jabbour

Table of Contents

Letter of Submittal__________________________________________________________1 List of Tables________________________________________________________________2 List of Figures_______________________________________________________________5 I. Abstract_________________________________________________________________5 II. Introduction_____________________________________________________________6

III. Principle of Highway Engineering________________________________________8

  • A. Office Study of Existing Information____________________________________8

    • 1. Engineering:_______________________________________________________8

    • 2. Environmental:_____________________________________________________8

    • 3. Economic:__________________________________________________________9

  • B. Reconnaissance Survey________________________________________________9

  • C. Preliminary Location Survey____________________________________________9

    • 1. Economic Evaluation_______________________________________________9

    • 2. Environmental Evaluation___________________________________________10

IV.

Highway Classification_________________________________________________10

  • V. Highway Characteristics________________________________________________10

    • B. Design Speed_________________________________________________________11

    • C. Cross Sectional elements_____________________________________________11 Lane width_____________________________________________________________11 Shoulder width_________________________________________________________11

Median_________________________________________________________________11

Sidewalks______________________________________________________________11

Guard rails_____________________________________________________________11 Cross slope____________________________________________________________12

  • D. Maximum highway grade___________________________________________12

  • E. Number of lanes (hand calculations)__________________________________13

Calculating the value of PTSF___________________________________________13 VI. Design of Alignments__________________________________________________16

  • A. Horizontal Alignments________________________________________________16

2.

Minimum Radius based on Stopping Sight Distance________________17

B.

Vertical Alignments___________________________________________________18

C.

Transition Curves_____________________________________________________20

VII.

Road Sign Design_____________________________________________________22

Distance from the intersection to the stop sign___________________________22

Stopping Sight Distance________________________________________________22 Reduction in speed sign__________________________________________________23

Distance from the horizontal curve to the sign____________________________24

VIII.

Pavement design_____________________________________________________24

Design Considerations___________________________________________________24

 

i.

Pavement Performance_____________________________________________24

ii. Traffic Load_________________________________________________________25

iii.

Roadbed Soils_____________________________________________________26

iv.

Materials of Construction__________________________________________26

IX. Drainage Design_______________________________________________________32

i.

Surface Drainage_____________________________________________________32

ii.

Transverse Slope_______________________________________________________32 Longitudinal Slope_____________________________________________________32 Curbs and gutters______________________________________________________32 Drainage Structures____________________________________________________32 Calculation of surface drainage_________________________________________32 Subsurface Drainage_________________________________________________34

Components___________________________________________________________34

Determination of Discharge Quantity___________________________________35 Design of longitudinal collectors________________________________________36

X.

Environmental Impact Statement_______________________________________38

i.

Project purpose and need_____________________________________________38

ii.

The alternatives to the proposed project______________________________38 Alternative#1: Alignment passing through the villages_________________38 Alternative#2: Alignment passing about the villages____________________38 Alternative#3: Alignment between the two regions_____________________38 Alternative#4: Do Nothing_____________________________________________38

iii.

Environmental Effect________________________________________________38

Water Quality__________________________________________________________38 Air Quality_____________________________________________________________39 Noise Impact___________________________________________________________39 Ecological Impact______________________________________________________39

iv.

Analysis of short-term as differentiated from long term impact______39

  • v. Economic Impact_____________________________________________________39

XI. Cost Estimations_______________________________________________________40

  • i. Cost of Expropriation_________________________________________________40 Computing Overhaul Payment________________________________________40

ii.

Calculations____________________________________________________________40

Zone II_________________________________________________________________41

Bibliography_______________________________________________________________42

List of Table

Table 1: Maximum Grades_________________________________________________________________10 Table 2: Minimum Design speeds for Functional Classifications_____________________________10 Table 3: Minimum design speeds for rural collector roads__________________________________10 Table 4: Fg for PTSF on two-way segments_________________________________________________12

Table 5:

EtEr for PTSF _______________________________________________________________12

Table 6:

fd /np for PTSF _________________________________________________________________13

Table 7: LOS_______________________________________________________________________________13 Table 8: Coefficient of side friction_________________________________________________________14 Table 9: K value for crest curve____________________________________________________________16 Table 10: K value for sag curve____________________________________________________________17 Table 11: Super-elevation Runoff Length___________________________________________________18 Table 12: Tangent Runout Length for spiral curve__________________________________________18 Table 13: Growth Factors__________________________________________________________________23 Table 14: Drainage coefficients and Quality________________________________________________26 Table 15: Design Reliability levels__________________________________________________________27 Table 16: Standard Deviation______________________________________________________________27 Table 17: a factor values__________________________________________________________________30 Table 18: Runoff Coefficients______________________________________________________________31

List of Figures

Figure 1: Zabbougha Location_______________________________________________________________3 Figure 2: Geological Map____________________________________________________________________4 Figure 3: Slope Distribution Map____________________________________________________________4 Figure 4: Variation of precipitation Map_____________________________________________________5 Figure 5: River Distribution Map_____________________________________________________________5 Figure 6: Stop sign sizes___________________________________________________________________18 Figure 7: speed limit_______________________________________________________________________19 Figure 8: Base layer Coefficients___________________________________________________________23 Figure 9: Subbase coefficients_____________________________________________________________24 Figure 10: Asphalt Concrete coefficient____________________________________________________24 Figure 11: Typical pavement structural section_____________________________________________26 Figure 12: Design Chart for flexible pavement_____________________________________________27 Figure 13: Designed pavement____________________________________________________________28 Figure 14: Design inflow rate of melt water from ice lenses________________________________32 Figure 15: Nomogram Relating Collector Pipe Size with flow rate, outlet spacing and pipe

gradient___________________________________________________________________________________33

Figure 16: Mass-haul Diagram (Civil3D)____________________________________________________36

I.

Abstract

Roads are the fundamental fragment of the transportation sector. Any highway alignment should be studied enough and well designed to best serve the system and to efficiently assist in developing economic and social benefits to the community.

All practical information and surveys shall be collected in the office study to scope the existing engineering, environmental and economic information

about the project, in addition to a reconnaissance and preliminary location survey. In parallel, demographical and traffic growth data are collected.

In order to achieve the task of designing a highway, some standards and limitations must be collected to setup a clear configuration of the design process. This geometric design will be based and guided by AASHTO criteria throughout all the elements; lane widths, shoulders, cross and longitudinal slopes, etc.

Google Earth and Civil3D are used to implement the design.

II.

Introduction

Zabbougha and Deir Ziraaya are located in the heart of Mount Lebanon, particularly in the Metn. The highway to be designed in the scope of this study is to enhance mobility within the Metn area and to provide a more proficient alternative for connecting the region of Zabbougha to the Deir Ziraaya and add to the circulation in the overall area. An estimated current travel time between the two regions is 9 mins. This area has a Jurassic geology and falls between moderate to very sloping landform.

II. Introduction Zabbougha and Deir Ziraaya are located in the heart of Mount Lebanon, particularly in

Figure 1: Zabbougha Location

II. Introduction Zabbougha and Deir Ziraaya are located in the heart of Mount Lebanon, particularly in

Figure 2: Geological Map

Figure 3: Slope Distribution Map III. Principle of Highway Engineering The highway should be located in

Figure 3: Slope Distribution Map

III.

Principle of Highway Engineering

The highway should be located in a way to ease the flow of traffic by suitable curvature and grade, while meeting the design and safety standards. Also it should cause minimal disruption to the landscape. Thus, the process of locating the highway encompasses the following phases:

A.Office Study of Existing Information

Before any further technical investigation is made to the highway design, an examination of the existing conditions shall be made on order to create a strong foundation to all assumptions and further calculations that will be made throughout this project.

These data’s availability depends upon the characteristics of the area in which it resides, the type of the highway and its function.

In general the following fields shall be investigated:

1. Engineering:

Topography: No available existing data, study shall be based upon Google Earth. Climate: Mediterranean climate, average precipitation 1300mm, and

average temperature of 15.3

°C

Traffic Volumes: AADT of 2500 vehicles per day, projected for an 18 years design period.

Figure 4: Variation of precipitation Map 2. Environmental:   No historical or archeological sites exist

Figure 4: Variation of precipitation Map

2. Environmental:   No historical or archeological sites exist in the surrounding area. No perennial
2.
Environmental:
No historical or archeological sites exist in the surrounding area.
No perennial waterways, small seasonal rivers may be found in the
surrounding valleys.
Figure 5: River Distribution Map
3.
Economic:

No agricultural, commercial, or industrial activities in our area of study.

B.Reconnaissance Survey

Several routes were identified in this phase of study, each within a band of limited width of few hundred feet. Information from Google earth and photographs obtained from the site visit were gathered and routes were analyzed taking into account its serviceability to population area and its connection to existing roads. Also, trial routes were filtered to remove ones requiring excessive cut and/or fill and failing to achieve slopes below 7%. Moreover, the hill configuration of the terrain made it difficult to attain a direct route, therefore a common ground between the previous factors and this latter was found to restrict the number of alternatives

C.Preliminary Location Survey

A closer investigation on the existence of control points is made to further restrain the alternatives. The road must connect the existing roads at Zabougha and Deir Zeraaya and maintain a slope of maximum 7%. Preliminary alignments for each alternative were determined to evaluate its economic and environmental feasibility.

1. Economic Evaluation

Factors that should be considered are the following:

Road User Cost: The road must minimize the travel time and reduce

vehicle operating cost. This is done by choosing the least distant road and most flat road that reduce driving time vehicle maintenance (fuel, oil, brakes…etc.). Agency Cost: To take into consideration initial cost (reduced by a

balance of cut and fill), maintenance cost, and expropriation (the least possible). Society Cost: The road must not cause dislocation of families and businesses. The road must add economic resources to the area not the contrary.

  • 2. Environmental Evaluation

The environment includes plant, animal, and human communities and encompasses social, physical, natural, and man-made variables that are interrelated to maintain equilibrium. This latter may be disturbed by changing one or more variables by the construction of the new road. Therefore a reduction in the quality of life of animals and/or humans may be a direct effect. The main problem encountered in the study area is the removal of vegetation cover. This effect cannot be avoided since the region is entirely covered by Oak and Pine trees. As a result, the road will have an impact on

wildlife (removal of animal shelters) and human life (by reduction in air quality).

IV.

Highway Classification

Two major considerations in functionally classifying a roadway are access and mobility. Access and mobility are inversely related- that is, as access is increased, mobility is decreased. Roadways are functionally classified first as either urban or rural. Urban or rural area consists of the following:

Principal arterial: main movement (high mobility, limited access) Minor arterial: interconnects principal arterials (moderate mobility, limited

access)

Collectors: connects local roads to arterials (moderate mobility,

moderate access)

Local roads and streets: permits access to

abutting land (high access, limited mobility)

The designed highway is to connect the local roads in the rural area from Zabbougha to Deir Ziraaya and convey the traffic from the local communities; therefore it is classified as Rural Minor Collector System.

  • V. Highway Characteristics

The Following characteristics should be considered in selecting the geometric design standards:

A. Design Hourly Volume

The trip is estimated to be 2500 AADT at the opening year with a growth rate of 2%, and the highway is designed to serve users for 18 years. At 2033, trips will reach a value of 3571 AADT as shown in the calculation below:

AADT 18=AADT initial( 1+ (

r 100 )) n

AAD T initial : Number of trips at opening year.

AADT 18 : Number of years at the end of design period. r: Growth rate (%). n: design period (year).

AAD T 18 =2500∗(1+(2/100))18=3571 veh/day

Concerning the design hourly volume (DHV), the 30 th -highest hourly volume in one year is taken as the design hourly volume, which is equivalent to 12% to 18% of the ADT for rural highways. As an average 15% ADT will be used to determine DHV as shown below:

DHV=0.15AADT 18 =536veh/hour

.

B. Design Speed

Referring to Table 1, the minimum design speed for Rural Collector Road with a DHV over 400 is 40, 50, or 60 mi/h. To take the type of terrain into consideration Table 3 is used with a design volume over 2000 veh/day for a rolling terrain and the minimum design speed obtained is 50 mi/h. The design speed that will be used is 55 mi/h.

  • C. Cross Sectional elements

Lane width

The lane width used in our design will be 12ft since most minor collector roads have their width ranging between 10ft to 12ft. The extra cost for constructing a 12ft lane than 10ft lane will result in a lower maintenance cost for shoulders and pavement surfaces since the abrasive forces will be reduced on road edges. (Reference book)

Shoulder width

The shoulder width will be 6ft since this length will be only used for, first lateral support for the road, second for drainage and sewage connections between towns, third for emergency stops.

Median

In our design the median is substituted by paint-striped film separation. Continuous lines are required, indicating no passing over the other lane.

Sidewalks

No sidewalks are provided since it is usually provided in urban areas.

Guard rails

Guardrails are a must for this road because of the mountainous topography of the area. Drop heights of more than 50ft in valleys on the road edges are presents.

Cross slope

A cross slope of 2% will be used since according to AASHTO this percentage is optimal for drainage and ride comfort combined.

D. Maximum highway grade According to the areas topography the road is on a mountainous terrain,

D. Maximum highway grade

According to the areas topography the road is on a mountainous terrain, it will be designed as a rolling terrain with a max speed of 55mi/h and 7% grade.

Table 1: Maximum Grades

D. Maximum highway grade According to the areas topography the road is on a mountainous terrain,

Table 2: Minimum Design speeds for Functional Classifications

D. Maximum highway grade According to the areas topography the road is on a mountainous terrain,

Table 3: Minimum design speeds for rural collector roads

Table 3: Minimum design speeds for rural collector roads E. Number of lanes (hand calculations) A

E. Number of lanes (hand calculations)

A suitable level of service is the base for selecting the number of lanes via hand calculations that are shown below.

A first assumption of two lanes is made and its validity is tested based on the LOS provided. To validate this assumption an acceptable LOS of C is intended.

DH V onedirection =

DHV

  • 536 =268 veh/hr

=

  • 2 2

Class: since the highway will be a constant commuter and will operate at

relatively moderate speeds,

class II is assigned.

Directional split: 50/50 Peak Hour factor: 0.95 No-passing zones: 60% Type of terrain: Rolling

The two-lane two-way segment approach is used in this case. The LOS is then determined by evaluating the Percent Time Spent Following.

Calculating the value of PTSF

PTSF=BPTSF+f d/np

BPTSF=The base percent time spent following for both directions

BPTSF=100[1e 0.000879v p ]

f d /np =adjust PTSF ¿account for the effect of (1)percent of directional distribution¿

(2)percent of no passing zones

vp=passengercar equivalent flow rate for the peak15min periodis computed

v p

=

V

(PHF)(f G )(f HV )

V=demand volume for the entire peak hour , veh/h PHF= peak hour factor ,V /(4)( peak 15min volume) f G=radeadjustment factor for levelrolling terrain f HV =adjustment factor ¿account for heavy vehiclesthe traffic stream ¿ is computed using

f HV =

1

1+P T ( E T 1 ) +P R ( E R 1 )

PTPR the decimal portion of trucks(¿buses)∧RVsthetraffic stream. For example ,if there are 22 percent trucksthe traffic stream,then PT 0.22 ETER the passengercar equivalent for trucksRVsrespectively .

Fg Table 4: for PTSF on two-way segments
Fg
Table 4:
for PTSF on two-way segments

Table 5: EtEr for PTSF

1 f HV = 1+0.05 (1.8−1)+0 ( E R −1 ) =0.96 536 = v p
1
f HV =
1+0.05 (1.8−1)+0 ( E R −1 ) =0.96
536
=
v p
(0.95)(0.77)(0.96) =764 pc /h

Table 6: fd /npfor PTSF

Et ∧ Er for PTSF 1 f HV = 1+0.05 (1.8−1)+0 ( E R −1

BPTSF=100 [1e 0.000879(764) ]=48.9

PTS F=48.9+14.9=63.8

Using Table 7

Table 7: LOS

PTS F = 48.9 + 14.9 = 63.8 Using Table 7 Table 7: LOS The overall

The overall LOS considered is C since:

LOS based on PTSF: C; It is concluded that a two-lane highway is satisfactory for this study.

VI.

Design of Alignments

The key point in the design of horizontal and vertical alignments is the compatibility between them to achieve a safe and attractive highway. This is done by a proper balance between the grades of tangents and with curvatures of horizontal curves and the location of horizontal and vertical curves with respect to each other.

A.Horizontal Alignments

To provide a smooth flow of traffic a minimum radius for horizontal alignments is to be determined based on the design speed, super elevation, and side friction. In addition to that, the radius should be sufficiently large to provide an adequate stopping sight distance in case of an object located at the inside edge of the road blocking the driver’s line of sight.

1.

Minimum Radius

 

2

R=

u

15(e+f s )

With u : Designspeed=55mi/h R: MinimumRadius(ft) e : Superelevation(ft/ft)

For highways located in areas with snow and ice, values ranging from 0.08 to 0.1 are used.

Take e=0.0 8

fs=coeff icient of Side frictio n

Table 8

For design speed u= 55 mi/h, fs = 0.13, obtained by interpolating the coefficients for design speeds 50mi/h and 60mi/h.

Table 8: Coefficient of side friction

2 (55) R= 15(0.08+0.13) =960.32 ft
2
(55)
R=
15(0.08+0.13) =960.32 ft

Take R=961 ft

  • 2. Minimum Radius based on Stopping Sight Distance

In case of a constraint on the inside edge of the road the designer has two options: change the radius of curve to assure adequate SSD or post a lower speed limit on the curve. Since no limit on distance is provided for the object from the inside edge, the distance of the object will be determined based on the minimum radius. First, the stopping sight distance is determined as follows:

SSD=1.47 ut+

2

u

30( a g G)

With

u: Design Speed = 55 mi/h

T: Perception Reaction Type = 2.5 s

g: Gravitational Acceleration = 32.2 ft/s 2

a: Acceleration = 11.4 ft/s 2

G: Maximum Grade (7%)

SSD=1.47552.5+

55

2

30(

11.4

32.2

0.07)

=557.1

SSD=557.1 ft

Second, the horizontal sightline offset HSO is determined below:

1cos ( 28.65 R S)

)

HSO=R¿

With R: is the distance to the centerline of the inside lane =

961lane =96112 =955 ft

2

2

HSO=955 ( 1cos ( 28.65 557.1 )) =40.3 ft

955

Therefore the minimum distance from the obstruction to the centerline of the

inside lane is equal to 40.3 ft.

B.Vertical Alignments

Vertical curves are of two types (crest and sag curves) and are used to provide a gradual change from one tangent grade to another to provide a smooth run along them. The minimum length of the crest curved is

calculated based on the stopping sight distance criterion whereas that of sag curves takes into consideration the headlight stopping sight distance, comfort, appearance, and drainage criterion. The main focus will be on the SSD criterion which provides the greatest length. The K factor will be determined for crest and sag curve based on the design speed and will be used in the software to make sure of the suitability of the alignments:

For Crest Curve

Table 9: K value for crest curve

calculated based on the stopping sight distance criterion whereas that of sag curves takes into consideration

For a design speed of 55 mi/h, the design rate of crest curvature is

K a =114

.

This value will be multiplied by the algebraic difference between slopes A to

determine the minimum length.

For Sag curve

Table 10: K value for sag curve

Table 10: K value for sag curve For a design speed of 55 mi/h, the design

For a design speed of 55 mi/h, the design rate of sag curvature is

K a =115

.

C.Transition Curves

In tangent-to-curve transition, if the curve is super-elevated at a rate e, an

appropriate transition length must be provided to prevent unsafe riding

conditions. This length includes the super-elevation runoff and tangent

runout. The sum of these two is the distance required to move from normal

crown configuration to full super-elevation or vice versa.

This transition can be achieved by four methods. Though, the one proposed

is a crowned pavement rotating about the profile of the centerline since it

causes the least distortion.

Length of Super-elevation Runoff

The super elevation runoff length is function of the design speed (55 mi/h)

and

the super-elevation

e (8 )

and determined from Table 11.

Table 11: Super-elevation Runoff Length

Table 11: Super-elevation Runoff Length The length of super-elevation runoff is determined by interpolation between 192ft

The length of super-elevation runoff is determined by interpolation between

192ft and 213ft and is found to be 202.5 ft.

Tangent Runout length

Tangent runout length is function of super-elevation e (8%) and the design

speed u (55 mi/h) and is determined from the Table 12 to be 40ft.

Table 12: Tangent Runout Length for spiral curve

Table 11: Super-elevation Runoff Length The length of super-elevation runoff is determined by interpolation between 192ft

VII.

Road Sign Design

The proposed alignment intersects with existing roads on the starting and

the ending point in a T configuration. The relatively high speed compared to

the existing narrow roads requires the installation of a certain intersection

control. A stop sign is used when an approaching vehicle is required for the

approaching vehicle to stop before entering the intersection.

Stop Sign Size

The Stop sign size to be used is the one required for conventional roads and

equal to 30x30 inches as specified in Figure 6

VII. Road Sign Design The proposed alignment intersects with existing roads on the starting and the

Figure 6: Stop sign sizes

Distance from the intersection to the stop sign

The minimum distance required from the intersection to the stop sign is

calculated by the following formula:

D=SSDD signreadability

Stopping Sight Distance

  • 2 55

2

SSD=0.278 ut+ 30 ( a g u ± G ) =0.278(55 )(2.5)+

30 (0.350.028 ) =352 ft

u

: design speed

55mi/h

t :

perception reaction time

a/ g

¿ f =0.35

.

G: grade

2.5 s

The grade taken is the maximum grade on the road between the two starting

and ending points. This grade will provide the largest SSD between the two.

The grades obtained from the profile on Civil3D were found to be 2.8% and

2.09%. Thus, G=2.8%

Reading ability distance

D signreadability =HReading Ability

H: height of the letter is assumed to be 1/3 of the sign size = 30/3 = 10

inches

Reading Ability: 20 ft/in of letter height

D signreadability =1020=200 ft

D=352200=152 ft .

Therefore, the stop sign should be located at a distance of 152 ft from the

intersection so that the driver will be able to stop the vehicle there.

Reduction in speed sign

The grade taken is the maximum grade on the road between the two starting and ending

Figure 7: speed limit

The designed road includes one horizontal curve on which a reduction in

speed is required. The road was designed based on a speed u= 40mi/h and

the minimum radius was calculated based this speed. This to prevent

discomfort of driver on such curve for the specified design speed 55mi/h.

Therefore a reduction in speed sign is required as the one shown in Figure 7

and the distance from the curve to the sign should be determined as will be

detailed below.

Distance from the horizontal curve to the sign

The driver approaching the curve coming from Zabougha to Deir Zeraaya at

55 mi/h with a grade of -2.8% will be studied as it represents the most

critical case. The distance from station (6+47) (point of curve) to the

reduction in speed sign is determined by the following equation:

Distance

D=D signreadability + D Pereption Reaction +D ¿ reduce the speed ¿55¿40¿

D signreadability =200 ft (the same one as previously determined )

D perception Reaction =0.278 (55)(2.5)=38.2ft

Distance

2

2

u A

u B

30 ( g a ±G ) =

55 40

2

2

D ¿ reduce the speed ¿55¿40¿=

30(0.350.028) =147.5 ft

D=−200+38.2+147.5=−14.3 ft

This indicates that the reduction in speed sign can be kept at the point of

curve

(station 6+47)

since the sign can be seen before the driver has to act.

Similarly the sign can be installed at point of tangent PT (at station 14+00)

on the other side of the road.

VIII.

Pavement design

Several design methods have been used to for flexible pavements to

generally account for the strain criteria that limit both the horizontal and

vertical strains below those that will cause excessive cracking and

deformation. AASHTO design method is used in the scope of this study.

Design Considerations

  • i. Pavement Performance

Performance is represented by both the structural and functional

performance. Structural performance is related to the physical, traffic loading

conditions and mainly includes raveling, faulting and cracking. Functional

performance is an indication of how effectively the pavement serves the

user.

Based on roughness and distress, a procedure is developed to quantify the

pavement performance by the present serviceability index PSI, on a scale of

0 to 5.

The initial serviceability index

p i =4.5

The

terminal serviceability index

p t =2.5

ii.

Traffic Load

In the AASHTO design method, the traffic load is determined in terms of the

number of repetitions of an 18,000-lb single axle load applied to the

pavement on two sets of dual tires.

ESAL calculation

ESALi=fdGrnAADTi365¿FEi

ESALi=Equivalent accumulated 18,000 lb singleaxle load for theaxle category i

fd=design lane factor

AADTi=first year annual averagedaily traffic for axle category i

Grn=growth factor for a given growth rate rdesign period n

A typical value of 2% annual growth rate is to be taken to account for the

growth of traffic loads over the design period of 18 years.

Trucks

ESA L TRUCKS =f d G rn AAD T t 365N T F EI ; f D =1 ; AADT will be takenone directio n

AAD T t =

2500

2

5 =63

G rn =21.41

Table 13

Truck factor=N T F EI =0.35

ESA L T RUCKS =121.4163365.035=172313

Cars

ESA L CAR =f d G rn AADT t 365N T F EI ;

f D =1

F EI =0.00002

N T =2

G rn =21.41 Table 13

ESA L CAR =121.41( 2500 63 ) 36520.00002=371(negligible )

2

Table 13: Growth Factors

Table 13: Growth Factors ESA L = ESA L = 0.172 ∗ 10 iii. Roadbed Soils

ESA L Total =ESA L TRUCKS =0.17210 6

iii.

Roadbed Soils

A CBR=8 is determined for the subgrade soil. The AASHTO design method

uses

M r (Modulus of resilience)

to define the soils properties.

  • M r =1500CBR(for finegraine soils; soaked CBRof 10less)

  • M r =15008=12000lb/i n

2

iv.

Materials of Construction

The quality of the material used is determined in terms of the layer

coefficient, a , which is used to convert the actual thickness of the layer to

an equivalent structural number SN. Correlating graphs are used to

determine these coefficients.

Base

lb CBR=100→Mr=31000 ( 2 ) →a 2 =0.14 Figure 8 in
lb
CBR=100→Mr=31000 (
2 ) →a 2 =0.14
Figure 8
in

Figure 8: Base layer Coefficients

Subbase

CBR=22→ M r =13500 (

2 ) a 3 =0.1

lb

i n

Figure 9

Figure 9: Subbase coefficients Surface Course Hot-Mix asphalt concrete is used to surface the pavement. The

Figure 9: Subbase coefficients

Surface Course

Hot-Mix asphalt concrete is used to surface the pavement. The structural

layer coefficient

a 1

for the surface course correlates with the resilient

68 ° F modulus of asphalt concrete at which is of
68 ° F
modulus of asphalt concrete at
which is of

45000

(

lb

i n

2

)

.

Figure 10: Asphalt Concrete coefficient

v. Environment

Part of the highway design considerations is the environmental side. The two

main factors are temperature and rainfall. The effects of temperature

include stresses, effect of freezing and thawing and other. The effect of

rainfall is due to water penetration to underlying materials.

vi. Drainage

The effect of water on the strength of the base material and roadbed is

avoided by providing a suitable drainage layer and by modifying the

structural layer coefficient. This is done by incorporating drainage factors for

the base and subbase.

The

m i factors depend on:

The percentage of time during which the pavement structure will be

nearly saturated 25

The quality of drainage which depends on the time it takes to drain the

base layer to 50% of saturation

¿1 day

Table 14: Drainage coefficients and Quality

v. Environment Part of the highway design considerations is the environmental side. The two main factors

m 2 ( base ) =m 3 ( subbase ) =1

Table 14: Drainage coefficients and Quality

vii. Reliability

Reliability design levels

(R )

determine assurance levels that the pavement

designed will sustain the accounted loads and survive for its design period.

The highway is an rural collector; the average value is 85%. Table 15: Design

Reliability levels

Table 15: Design Reliability levels

vii. Reliability Reliability design levels determine assurance levels that the pavement designed will sustain the accounted

2

The variance S 0

, accounts for the chance variation in the traffic forecast

and the chance variation in actual pavement performance for a given design

period traffic. An average standard deviation

S 0 =0.45

is taken since the

designed pavement is flexible. Table 16: Standard Deviation

Table 16: Standard Deviation

vii. Reliability Reliability design levels determine assurance levels that the pavement designed will sustain the accounted

viii.

Structural Design

A structural number SN is to be determined to adequately carry the

projected design ESAL.

SN=a 1 D 1 +a 2 D 2 m 2 +a 3 D 3 m 3

Where;

mi=drainage coefficient for layeri

a1,a2,a 3=layer coefficientsrepresentativeof surface ,base,subbase course ,respectively

D1 , D 2, D 3=actual thickne ssinches of surface , base ,subbasecourses ,respectively

Figure 11: Typical pavement structural section The overall and particular SN’s for each layer and the

Figure 11: Typical pavement structural section

The overall and particular SN’s for each layer and the respective depths shall

be determined.

A basic design equation is given in the 1993 guide (AASHTO):

log 10W 18=ZRSo+9.36 log 10(1+SN)0.20+log 10

[

4.21.5 ]

Δ PSI

0.4+ [

5.19 ] +2.32log 10 M r 8.07
1094

(SN+1)

Where;

W 18= predicted number of 18,000lb singleaxle load applications

So=overall standard deviation

ZR=standardnormal deviation for a givenreliability

Δ PSI=pipt

SN =structural numberindicative of the total pavement thickness

A nomogram is made to project this equation. Figure 12: Design Chart for

flexible pavement

Figure 11: Typical pavement structural section The overall and particular SN’s for each layer and the

Figure 12: Design Chart for flexible pavement

S N 1 =1.45→a 1 D 1 =1.45→D 1 =

1.45

0.44

=3.29¿

¿

Taking D 1 =3.5→S N =3.50.44=1.54

1

¿

S N 2 =2→ S N +a 2 D 2 m 2 =2

1

1.54+0.14D 2 1=2

D 2 =3.28¿

¿

Taking D 2 =4→S N =1.54+0.1441=2.1

2

¿

S N 3 =2.15→S N +a 3 D 3 m 3 =2.15

1

2.1+0.1D 3 1=2.15

D 3 =0.5(too small)

The subbase is not neededthis case;the base shallbe thicker¿ provide the required SN

Taking D 2 =5¿

S N 3 =0.443.5+0.1451=2.24>2.15acceptable

S N = 1.45 →a D = 1.45 →D = 1.45 0.44 = 3.29 ∈ ¿

Figure 13: Designed pavement

IX.

Drainage Design

  • i. Surface Drainage

Surface drainage is inevitable to design to remove diminish the effect of

water from the pavement and right of way.

Transverse Slope

To remove the surface water in the shortest possible time, a suitable

crowning of the highway is done at its centerline. A 2% cross slope, adequate

for driver’s comfort especially with respect to the driver’s effort in steering, is

made all the way in both sides including the paved shoulders.

Longitudinal Slope

The slope is provided by the alignment grade.

Curbs and gutters

No curbs or gutters will be provided since no sewer system is available in the

area of study.

Drainage Structures

Since no waterways are present across or below the right of way of the

highway, drainage structures are not needed.

Calculation of surface drainage

Using Rationale Method

Q=CIA;Q= peak rate of runoff (f t 3 /s)

A=Drainage area∈(acres)

I=averange intensityprecipitation¿hr

Area

C=Runoff coefficient

The area is taken that of the road including the shoulders

A Road =LengthWidth

A Road =4554 ft(122+62)ft=163944 f t 2 =3.76 acres

Intensity

The intensity curve is found to be in Lebanon:

I=

a25.4

( t c +9.2 ) 0.795

Table 17: a factor values

T (Year )

2

5

10

25

50

100

a

30.64

40.88

48.62

58.86

66.6

74.43

t c =time of concentration(hr)relevant ¿ the catchment area.

a=coefficient , taken from the statistical analysis of the rainfall data, and

related to the return period as given in the below table.

It is calculated by Kirpich

formula (SI units) below:

Tc=

  • 1 L 1.15

52

H 0.38

Where,

Tc=Time of concentration(min)

L=Lengthof drainage area (m)4554 ft=1388m

H=Differenceelevation betweentheupstreamreachoutlet (m)=3450 ft3377 ft=73 ft=22.25m

Tc=24.3mins=0.4 hr

→I=

58.8625.4 0.795 =247.5 mm =9.47

(0.4+9.2)

hr

¿

hr

Runoff Coefficient

The area of concern, that is the road, has a coefficient of 0.85.

Table 18: Runoff Coefficients

Table 18: Runoff Coefficients Q = 0.85 ∗ 9.47 ∗ 3.76 = 30.26 f t /

Q=0.859.473.76=30.26 f t 3 /sec

ii.

Subsurface Drainage

Components

Subsurface drainage systems are classified into five general categories:

Longitudinal drains

Pipes in trenches within the pavement structures and parallel to the center

line of the highway. In this case they function for removal only of water

seeping into the pavement and not for lowering the water table since no

drawdown under the road level is needed.

Transverse drains

They are placed below the pavement in a direction perpendicular to the

centerline. Since the main disadvantage of this system is the unevenness of

the pavement, due to heaving of the pavement except for these drains, in

such areas that are susceptible to frost action such as the area of this

project.

Horizontal Drains

They shall be used to relieve pore pressures at slopes of cuts and

embankments on the highway.

Well systems

They are drilled into the ground and used to lower ground table and relieve

pore pressures. They are not needed in the scope of this project.

Determination of Discharge Quantity

The net amount of water to be discharged consists of the following

components:

Water due to infiltration

Ground water: not to account for.

Water due to thawing of ice lenses

Water flowing vertically from the pavement structure: not to account

for.

Water due to infiltration,

q i

W q i =I c ( N W c + W

C s ) +K p

c

; Where

q i =designinfiltrationrate (ft 3/day / ft2of drainage layer)

I c =crack infiltr ation rate(ft 3/day /ft of crack)

(2.4 ft 3 /day /ft isrecommended )

Nc=number of contributinglongitudinal cracksjoints=N lanes +1=2+1=3

Wc=length of contributing transverse cracks(ft)taking18 ft

W=widthof granular basesubbase subjected ¿ infiltration (ft )=122+62=36 ft

Cs=spacing of thetransverse cracksjoints(ft )40ft recommended

Kp=rate of infiltration(f t 3 /day /f t 2 )assumed 0.03

q i =2.4 ( 3

  • 36 + 3640 ) +0.03=0.26 f t 3 /d ay /f t 2

18

Water from ice lenses

Assuming surface course weighs

weighs 130 lb/ f t 3 then:

155 lb/ f t 3

and the granular material

σ p

=

  • 3.5 155+ 12 130=99.4 lb/f t 2

12

5

Permeability assumed 0.075 ft/day and the high level of the high range of

frost vulnerability is used.

Water from ice lenses Assuming surface course weighs weighs 130 lb / f t then: 155

Figure 14: Design inflow rate of melt water from ice lenses

q

m

k =0.5

q m =0.50.075=0.14 f t 3 /day /f t 2

Net Inflow

Design of longitudinal collectors

Pipe location

The pipes are placed at a level of moderate depth. Shallowness is not

advised since it is a snowy area and the pipes are subject to frost

penetration. On the other hand, very deep trenches are very costly due to

excavation charges. The lateral location of the pipe is defined to be on the

edges of the shoulders since shoulders are paved.

Pipe diameter

The diameter

D p

of the collector pipe depends on the gradient g, the

amount of water per running foot ( q d ¿

that should be transmitted through

the pipe, Manning’s roughness coefficient of the pipe material, and the

distance between the outlets Lo.

q d =q n L

qd=flow ratedrain(ft3 /day /ft)

qn=ne t inflow(ft 3/day /ft 2)

L=the length of the flow path(ft )=36 ft

q d =0.436=14.4 f t 3 /day /f t 2

Assumptions:

L 0 =500ft(distancebetween dischargeoutlets)

Corrugated pipes are

used

n f =0.024

The minimum grade from the road of

1

(Civil 3D values) is taken to

determine the largest required diameter:

Figure 15: Nomogram Relating Collector Pipe Size with flow rate, outlet spacing and pipe gradient D

Figure 15: Nomogram Relating Collector Pipe Size with flow rate, outlet spacing and pipe gradient

D p =10inches;this value shallbe rouded up¿ the nearest available pipe ¿ ¿

  • X. Environmental Impact Statement

    • i. Project purpose and need

The objective of the proposed road design is to connect the studied area to

the nearby area and to ensure the access for each village. This area also

needs a road to release any congested traffic within local roads that are

narrow and won’t provide for the forecasted future traffic volumes.

ii.

The alternatives to the proposed project

Alternative#1: Alignment passing through the villages

This is the most feasible alignment in terms of slopes, accessibility and

environmental effect. The village area has less green areas to be affected by

the excavations required for this highway. But this road would make a longer

path for the connection towards Deir Ziraaya and would make excessive

expropriation costs and neighborhood disturbance.

Alternative#2: Alignment passing about the villages

The second alignment consists of going North West Zabbougha village.

Considering the topography, this road will have to pass on the edges of a

steep sloped valley which will be so costly to achieve the required grade for

safety. Moreover, having snow and heavy rain falls during winter can induce

fatalities.

Alternative#3: Alignment between the two regions

The third alignment has a start point at the boundaries of Zabbougha on the

side nearest to Deir Ziraaya. This alternative is the optimal one since it

requires little expropriation, makes the shortest path, and least landscape

disruption

Alternative#4: Do Nothing

Do nothing is not an option in our case since the area is in perpetual

expansion. Zabougha, being a link between all the villages in the area, will

have to enlarge its roads to cope with the increasing demand.

Alternative#3 is selected.

iii.

Environmental Effect

Water Quality

Ground water reservoirs are contaminated with fuel residues, heavy metals,

oils and garbage leaching carried by the rain precipitates that come from

impervious surfaces towards permeable soils and then to the ground water.

Air Quality

Negative impacts Air is polluted from combusted fuel emissions whenever

vehicles are operating. These emissions include particulate emissions such

as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

Positive impacts this highway will provide escape for congestions and high

volume traffics in nearby areas and thus reduce the effect of heat island

around crowded centers.

Noise Impact

Negative impacts Engines noise, breaking, horn and other factors contribute

to noise polluting the surrounding area. This effect is magnified due to the

fact that the project entails a bit high operating speeds resulting in higher

noise levels.

Positive impacts Noise effect will diffuse from other crowded centers towards

the new highway and therefore reduce noise in other nearby regions.

Ecological Impact

The ecological impact is how the project will affect the environment of the

area of studied. It is undeniable that highways are the biggest source of

pollution. Removal of forest cover when applying the designed alignment will

result certainly in reduction of air and water quality. The wildlife also will be

disturbed since noise pollution is an issue and birds are the main animals in

Zabbougha area. Intrusion of asphalt surfaces to the animals’ natural habitat

can cause the migration of local species which alters the fauna diversity.

iv.

Analysis of short-term as differentiated from long term impact

It is inevitable that the negative environmental effects of this project are

permanent and extend on both the short and long term. On the other hand,

this road offers a long term benefit, for at least 18 years, for proliferating

region in terms of population and traffic volumes. It also will provide more

dynamicity to the economy and jobs within the area.

  • v. Economic Impact

Even though this region has low commercial and industrial activities, this

project has still a beneficial aspect over the economy by providing more

accessibility to the area and therefore more possibilities for economic

activities to exist and grow. The road will enhance the region’s economy

through giving additional paths for transport and transit, especially for rural

agricultural activities.

Additionally to what is previously stated, the road is providing shorter travel

distances and therefore fewer costs for trips I terms of vehicle operation

costs (fuel, diesel

..

)

and in terms of time spent.

XI.

Cost Estimations

  • i. Cost of Expropriation

Estimated area of expropriation is the area of the road:

A Road =LengthWidth

A Road =4554 ft(122+62)ft=163944 f t 2 =15231m 2

Estimated cost $/m 2 =200 $/m 2

cost ofExpropriation =20015231=3,046,200 $

ii.

Computing Overhaul Payment

The mass haul diagram is obtained from civil 3D. The objective is to balance

between cut and fill and to increase the free-haul distance to decrease the

overhaul payment that must be paid to the contractor. The mass haul

diagram obtained is shown in figure and the calculation will be shown below.

A = Length ∗ Width A = 4554 ft ∗ ( 12 ∗ 2 + 6

Figure 16: Mass-haul Diagram (Civil3D)

Calculations Zone I

Step 1: Determine the number of cubic yards of overhaul

The overhaul volume is between

stations(12+12.96)(12+52.29) and stations

(0+00)

&

(1+12.96)

is equal to 1095.66 yd 3

.

Step 2: determine the overhaul distance

The method of moments is used to compute the weighted average of the

overhaul distances from the balance line to the station where free haul

begins.

From station

(12+12.96)

to station (12+52.29) , the volume moved is 1095.66

yd 3 and the average distance to the free-haul station is

112.96/2=56.48 ft

.

Similarly, from station 0+00 to station 1+12.96, the volume moved is

1095.66 yd3

and the average distance to the free-haul station is

112.96/2=56.48 ft

.

Totaloverhaul distance=56.48+56.48=112.96 ft

.

Step 3: Compute overhaul cost due to the contractor

Overhaul cost=contract price ($ / y d 3 station)x overhaul( y d 3 ) x stations

¿8 x1095.66 x112.96/100=$9901.

Zone II

Step 1: Determine the number of cubic yards of overhaul

The overhaul volume is between stations (15+33.25) & (16+80.13) and

station (26+80.22) & (28+18.29) is equal to 4001.65 y d 3

.

Step 2: determine the overhaul distance

The method of moments is used to compute the weighted average of the

overhaul distances from the balance line to the station where free haul

begins.

From station

15+33.25

¿

) to station

(16+00) , the volume moved is

1373.57 yd3

and the average distance to the free-haul station is

66.75/2+80.13=113.5ft .

From station

(16+00)

to station

(16+80.13) , the volume moved is

2628 yd

3 and the average distance to the free-haul station is

80.13/2=40.06ft .

Overhaul distance moved between (15+33.25)

&

(16+80.13)

is:

[(1373.57)(113.5)+(2628)(40.06)]/4001.65=65.26 ft

.

Similarly, from station

(28+18.29)

to station

(28+00) , the volume moved is

382.18 yd 3

and the average distance to the free-haul station is

18.29/2+100+19.78=128.925 ft.

From station

(28+00) to station (27+00 ) , the volume moved is

3001.23 yd 3

and the average distance to the free-haul station is

100/2+19.78=69.78 ft

From station

.

(27+00)

to station

(26+80.22) , the volume moved is

618.24 y d 3

and the average distance to the free-haul station is

19.78/2=9.89 ft

.

Overhaul distance moved between

(26+80.22)

&

(28+18.29)

[(382.18 )(128.925)+(3001.23)(69.78)+(618.24)(9.89)]

  • 4001.65 =66.17 ft

.

is

TotalOverhauldistance=65.26+66.17=131.43 ft.

Step 3: Compute overhaul cost due to the contractor

Overhaul cost=contract price ($/ yd3 station)x overhaul( yd 3)x stations

¿8 x 4001.65 x 131.43/100=$42075. $51,976.

XII.

Comments on Civil3D simulation

Design speed

As has been shown in the calculations above, the design speed is found to be

55 miles/hr and induced a very large horizontal curve radius. In Civil3D a

design speed of 40 miles/hr has been assigned to cope with the narrow curvy

alignment path available. On the other hand, the road starts and ends by

intersecting local roads and therefore low operating speeds are found there

resulting, overall, in moderate speed.

XIII.

Conclusion

This report is an outcome of a study based on AASHTO standards and

principles learned in CEN443.

The final results are presented by an alignment of total length of 4554 feet

extending from Zabbougha to Deir Ziraaya in a rolling terrain. No buildings or

other structures are removed to clear the path for this road that has 36 feet

in width. The mass haul diagram yields a maximum difference of 320 cubic

yards and the expected costs of excavation is about 52,000 dollars, added to

3.05 million dollars as expenses for expropriation.

XIV.

Task Distribution

AutoCAD Civil3D

Roukoz Abi Khalil

Jeffrey

Fadlallah

Emilio El Hajj

Saly

Jabbour

Introduction

Saly Jabbour

Emilio El

Hajj

Data Collection

Roukoz Abi Khalil

Emilio El

Hajj

Principles of Highway

Jeffrey Fadlallah

Saly Jabbour

Engineering

Highway classification

Saly Jabbour

Emilio El

Hajj

Highway Characteristics

Roukoz Abi Khalil

Jeffrey

Fadlallah

Emilio El Hajj

Saly

Jabbour

Design of Alignment

Jeffrey Fadlallah

Road sign Design

Jeffrey Fadlallah

Roukoz Abi

Khalil

Pavement Design

Saly Jabbour

Jeffrey

Fadlallah

Drainage Design

Saly Jabbour

Roukoz Abi

 

Khalil

Environmental Impact Statement

Saly Jabbour

Emilio El

Hajj

Overhaul Payment

Jeffrey Fadlallah

Cost Estimations

Saly Jabbour

Roukoz Abi

Khalil

Comments and Conclusion

Saly Jabbour

Bibliography

Garber, N. J. (2009). Traffic and highway engineering. Cengage Learning.

Lebanon, M. o. (n.d.). National Action Programme.