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Practical No: 1

Aim:To make and test a straight through cable
Introduction:
A straight through cable is a LAN cable i.e. used to connect unlike devices, Such as a
computer to a switch or a hub to a router. It is made by using the CAT5 UTP Cable and
RJ45 Connectors.
This cable is also called a Patch as it can be used in a wireless LAN to connect a computer
to the router in case WIFI is not supported by a particular device.
Material Required:

 CAT5 UTP Cable
 RJ45 Connector
 A cable striper
 Wire Cutter
 Crimper
 Cable Tester

Procedure:
Take a piece of CAT5 Cable and strip of the plastic cover from about one inch from the
open end Unbind the twisted pairs and arranged the wires in the following sequence :-
1) White Orange
2) Orange
3) White Green
4) Blue
5) White Blue
6) Green
7) White Brown
8) Brown
Insert the wires into the RJ45 Connector and crimp using a crimper.
Repeat the process for the other end keeping the order of wires exactly same.
Test the wire using a cable tester.

WHITE ORANGE

WHITE ORANGE

ORANGE ORANGE

WHITE GREEN WHITE GREEN

BLUE BLUE

WHITE BLUE WHITE BLUE

GREEN GREEN

WHITE BROWN WHITE BROWN

BROWN BROWN

Practical No: 2
Aim: To make and test a cross over cable
Introduction:
A cross over cable is a LAN Cable i.e. used to connect two similar devices, Such as a
computer to computer, router to router and hub to hub. This cable is made using CAT5 UTP
Wire and RJ45 Connector. This cable is also called non-modem as it is used to transfer data
between two computers without connecting them to a modem.
Material Required:

 CAT5 UTP Cable
 RJ45 Connector
 A cable striper
 Wire Cutter
 Crimper
 Cable Tester

Procedure:
Take a piece of CAT5 Cable and strip of the plastic cover from about one inch from the
open end Unbind the twisted pairs and arranged the wires in the following sequence :-
1) White Orange
2) Orange
3) White Green
4) Blue
5) White Blue
6) Green
7) White Brown
8) Brown
Insert the wires into the RJ45 Connector and crimp using a crimper.
To make a cross over cable the pin configuration is similar to the straight through cable but
for the other end. We swap pin1 with pin 3 and pin2 with pin 6.
Test the wire using a cable tester.

WHITE ORANGE WHITE GREEN ORANGE GREEN WHITE GREEN WHITE ORANGE BLUE BLUE WHITE BLUE WHITE BLUE GREEN ORANGE WHITE BROWN WHITE BROWN BROWN BROWN .

Material Required:  CAT5 UTP Cable  RJ45 Connector  A cable striper  Wire Cutter  Crimper  Cable Tester Procedure: Take a piece of CAT5 Cable and strip of the plastic cover from about one inch from the open end Unbind the twisted pairs and arranged the wires in the following sequence :- 1) White Orange 2) Orange 3) White Green 4) Blue 5) White Blue 6) Green 7) White Brown 8) Brown Insert the wires into the RJ45 Connector and crimp using a crimper. used to connect a computer to the console port to the network router this cable is also called a yost cable and it enables the network engineer to perform the programming operation on a router. .e. Practical No: 3 Aim: To make and test a roll overcable Introduction: A roll over cable is a network cable i. To make a roll over cable the pin configuration is reverse of both ends. Test the wire using a cable tester.

WHITE ORANGE BROWN ORANGE WHITE BROWN WHITE GREEN GREEN BLUE WHITE BLUE WHITE BLUE BLUE GREEN WHITE GREEN WHITE BROWN ORANGE BROWN WHITE ORANGE .

2) To create the 5-router ring: Topology Rapid Configuration. This can be found in the Sm_Int_Model_List palette in the Object Palette. 3) Insert two workstations Sm_Int_wkstn and connect each other with 10BaseT wires: Open the Object Palette by clicking on .5. Press OK.  Select the link to connect the routers.Y)=(5.  Drag the two Sm_Int_wkstn workstations. We’ll check out that the REQUEST packet went through the three routers between peers.  Press OK to create the network. Lab Description: A network is created with a 5-routers-ring-backbone and 2 workstations (A and B) directly opposite. and the REPLY packet came back using the same path (the routing protocol for this Lab is RIP). Configuration: Ring.  In the Node Model combo box. pick up the router CS_4000_3s_e6_fr2_sl2_tr2.  Click on Select Models and choose internet_toolbox in the combo box. Link Model: PPP_DS1  Number: 5 routers. This Lab explains yet another application: ICMP ECHO REQUEST/ECHO REPLY (aka Ping). and drop them into the Grid. In a second scenario. The destination computer is supposed to answer with an ECHO REPLY message. A will send an ECHO REQUEST to B. Change the attributes: .  The center for the ring is (X. one of this links will fail.5). and we will study how this change the ping traces. to select the library where we want to pick up the routers and links from. and is used for network troubleshooting and control messaging. It is used to notify that a datagram did not reach its destination either because the destination host was not found (UNREACHABLE HOST) or because the IP packets travelled across too many routers (TTL EXCEEDED). Practical No: 4 Aim: To study ICMP Ping traces and link failures Introduction: ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) is encapsulated inside the IP protocol. The Project Editor will be launched with a blank Grid. An ECHO REQUEST message is sent to an IP address to find out if the communication between peers is working. and B will answer with an ECHO REPLY. and press OK.  On the Popup window. Creating the Scenario: 1) Open a new Project in OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition (File New Project) using the following parameters (use default values for the remainder):  Project Name: mukesh023_Ping  Scenario Name: NoFailure  Network Scale: Campus Press Next several times to end the Start up Wizard.  The radius length is 2.

 Right-click on the flow line and click Edit Attributes. the workstations won’t have any profile defined (We don’t need any. Select Mean Outcome: 20 and press OK.  RIP Stop Time: 10000. press the right button and select Abort Demand Definition to stop drawing wires.. because the only traffic demand we want is Ping). By doing this. as seen at the picture below: . The parameters to be set can be found in IP Ping Parameters row 0 (Pattern: Default): a) Interval (sec): 90 b) Count: 1000 c) Record Route: Enabled  Press OK to accept the changes 4) Using the ip_ping_traffic object from the Object Palette  (internet_toolbox). and then set: a) Ping Pattern: Default b) Start Time: constant(1000)  Chose RIP as routing protocol for the scenario: a) On the Project Editor. b) Protocols RIP Configure Start Time. This can be found in the internet_toolbox palette.  RIP Sim Efficiency: Disabled. draw an ICMP ping demand from one host to the other:  Select the ip_ping_traffic object in the palette.  Connect the two workstations to the two routers directly opposite using 10BaseT wires from the same palette. The first step is to place an IP Attribute Config control. The RIP protocol will begin creating routing tables at this moment.  Edit the control properties (right click Edit Attributes).  Change the node names and give them appropriate names. Exit the simulation window by clicking on Close. b) Select Application Supported Profiles rows: 0. Protocols IP Routing Configure Routing Protocols.  IP Routing Table Export/Import: Export. 1. All this information is at the PING REPORT.. 2) Click on Run. Routing Tables will be updated during all the simulation (the simulation is finished before RIP stops). b) In the Global Attributes tab. Review the ECHO and ECHO REPLY paths. RIP messages will be sent all the time during the simulation.  When finished. click Results Open Simulation Log. 2.  Click on one workstation (start) and then to the other one (end). Results analysis: Once the simulation is over. and the routers the packets have gone through. Check out that only RIP is selected and press OK. c) Repeat this process for the two workstations. We will export routing tables to a file at the end. and set this values: a) Duration: 1 hour(s). a) Right-click on the station and press Edit Attributes. At the Project Editor. Setting up the simulation: 1) Click on configure/run simulation at the Project Editor.  Now the network is complete and is time to set the ICMP traffic.

Output: with failure Without failure Without failure With failure .

The RFC 2091 supports Triggered Extension.  It is used in middle-size networks with no more than 15 hops. even if there are no changes in the network. all routers send UDP messages to the surrounding routers.  Uses the hop count metric. with a specific link that is going to fail during the simulation and stops working in the future: With Failure And Recovery.  It was released in BSD Unix for the first time.  It is a Intra-Domain and Vector-Distance protocol based in the Bellman-Ford algorithm. and every router in the network will know how to route each IP packet it receives. indicating the distance. Practical No: 5 Aim: To study RIP routing protocol and create timed link failures and recoveries. The first version was RIPv1. and restarts working as before.  It is defined in RFC 1058 (RIPv1) and RFC 2453 (RIPv2). where all the links will work. Introduction: The RIP Protocol (Routing Information Protocol) is. RIPv2 extended it using classless routing and other advantages. a classful routing protocol.  The messages that routers send each other are sent to the multicast address to reduce the hosts processing load. The purpose of this scenario is to represent with a bar chart the routing table updates and to see the evolution of the routing tables. and this route will be the shortest. All routers in the network have a routing table to indicate the link to forward IP packets .  No authentication is required. to the other routers. Each router has two LANs attached. Every 30 seconds. in a nutshell:  Designed to reach a stable routing table with the less Administrator management as possible. Creating the Scenario: 1) Open a new project in OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition (File New Project) with the following parameters (leave default values for the remainder): . where the link that failed is recovered later. After several iterations the protocol will converge. We are going to design three scenarios: No Failure.  RIP messages are encapsulated inside UDP (port 520) and are sent once every 30 seconds. If there’s no shorter link then the routing tables will be updated. Lab Description: Four routers are connected each other in a ring topology. The router that receives the UDP message increases 1 unit the distance and will lookup in its tables if there’s a shortest path to the destination. expressed in hops. With Failure.

OPNET manages the name nodes to make a succession. Components list Rename all the components as seen in picture L4. After that. Click OK. right click on the Grid and Choose Individual Statistics. copy the whole structure and paste it three times. The fastest way to create the scenario is to create first Router 1. Check the following options:  IP Routing Parameters Routing Table Export  Status: Enabled  Export Time(s) Specification row 0 Time: End of Simulation  Apply Changes to Selected Objects (To perform changes on all the routers of the scenario). click on configure/run simulation . and the Object Palette where can be found. . Qty Component Palette Description 4 ethernet4_slip8_gtwy internet_toolbox Routers 8 100BaseT_LAN internet_toolbox LAN network model Failure 1 Failure Recovery utilities and Recovery Control 4 PPP_DS3 links To connect the routers each other 8 100BaseT internet_toolbox To connect the routers with the LANs.  Project Name: mukesh023_RIP  Scenario Name: SenseFallida  Network Scale: Campus Use the Next button in the Start up Wizard until the end. Hereinafter we will refer them by their name. This sets RIP protocol for all the routers in the scenario. and connect them with wires. 4) Statistics: From the Project Editor.  Global Statistics RIP Traffic Sent (bits/sec)  Global Statistics RIP Traffic Received (bits/sec)  Node Statistics Route Table Total Number of Updates 5) Simulation configuration: In the Project Editor. right click on any and Edit Attributes. 3) Exporting routing tables to the Simulation Log: Select all the routers of the scenario. Finally. and use the following parameters: a) Duration: 10 minute(s). LAN 1 and LAN 2 with their names. A new blank grid shall open in the Project Editor. 2) Deploying devices and controls upon the Grid: The following table summarizes all the nodes that have to be deployed in the scenario. b) On the Global Attributes tab.  IP Dynamic Routing Protocol: RIP.2. deploy a Failure Recovery control and rename it. connect the routers with PPP_DS3. We can do this also in the Project Editor doing Protocols IP Routing Configure Routing Protocols and setting RIP in all interfaces. Select the following statistics in the Choose Results dialog.

Click on Close when the three simulations are over (wait for Simulation runs to go to be 0).  The IP addresses of all the interfaces are generated automatically during the simulation. choose File Model Files Refresh Model Directories. This is precisely what we will do in the second scenario. We first want to study the effect of a router failure. When we set IP Interface Addressing Mode: Auto Addressed/Export we made all this information to be able for analysis. we want it to continue updating the routing tables when there are changes. (Q2). the routers maintain their routing tables and are not going to be updated anymore if there are no network failures. click OK (do not run the simulation yet). the 3 simulations will run in sequence. a) An editor will pop up with the Generic Data File we choose. Right click on each scenario and select Draw Style Bar. they won’t change at all. Right click on the Failure object.  The two graphics appear now. the link will recover.e. This contains the IP addresses of all the active interfaces in our network model. 1) In the Project Editor. we have to choose Stacked Statistics and All Scenarios to show the graphics of all scenarios at the same time. so once all the routes are set. but with overlaid charts to compare results. 3) Run the simulation of the three scenarios at the same time: In the Project Editor. the RIP protocol will stop after the “Stop Time”. Results Compare Results. Click OK to close the dialog. Use the filename <your_name>_RIP-NoFailure-ip_addresses. Click OK. 3) Comparing the routing tables: . When we click OK now. set rows: 1 and unfold the branch of the new row. OPNET will search the models directory and update the file list. This will export the routing tables to a file when the simulation ends. But instead of this. We will export this data into a Generic Data File (gdf). to see how RIP can learn new routes.  Select the statistic Total Number of Updates for Router1 and click on Show. and call it With Failure. Scenarios Manage Scenarios… Change values of column Results and click <collect> or <recollect> on every scenario. This file is generated automatically during the simulation. We have established a failure for Router 2 – Router 1 link. 360 seconds after the simulation start). If this attribute is enabled.  In the System window: File Open. 2) Obtaining the IP addresses of the interfaces (needed to study the routing tables).. expand the Link Failure/Recovery Specification branch.  In the Project Editor.  IP Routing Table Export/Import: Export. Don’t forget that the System window can be open in the Project Editor if its closed (Windows System). Results analysis 1) Compare the number of updates of the routing tables done by the RIP protocol (Q1). Scenario Duplicate Scenario. IP Interface Addressing Mode: Auto Addressed / Export  RIP Sim Efficiency: Disabled.. Creating the second and third scenarios In the scenario we just build up. 180 seconds after the simulation start. (a) On the System window. 2) Creating the third scenario: Now we create the third scenario: WithFailureAndRecovery with the same parameters as the second but 180 seconds after the link failure (i. by programming a controlled link failure to study routing changes. and choose Generic Data File. and Edit Attributes. Repeat the steps as before but this time use Status: Recovery. When finished.  RIP Stop Time: 10000 will ensure that the tables won’t stop updating during the simulation.

Output: . • Click on the COMMON ROUTE TABLE entry for the router. The routing tables export is not saved until the end. for instance Router 1. Steps to visualize the routing tables of a router. because we are using the Once at End of Simulation option. Results Open Simulation Log. for the two scenarios : • In the Project Editor.

Traffic sent: Traffic received .

Create and Configure the Network Initialize the Network: 1. The Object Palette dialog box should now be on top of your project workspace. open it by clicking . Close the Object Palette and then save your project. make sure that Create Empty Scenario is selected ⇒ Click Next ⇒ Select Campus from the Network Scale list ⇒ Click Next three times ⇒ Click Finish. there is a reduction in the amount of information that must be transmitted to and stored in each node. Select the Protocols menu ⇒ OSPF ⇒ Configure Interface Cost. . Assign 5 to the Cost field ⇒ Check the Selected links button. PRACTICAL NO. Right-click when you are finished placing the last object. Procedure: Create a New Project 1. do the following: i. This means that a router within a domain does not necessarily need to know how to reach every network within that domain—it may be sufficient for it to know how to get to the right area. We need to assign link costs to match the following graph: 2. To assign the costs to the links of our network. as shown ⇒ Click OK. 6 Aim: To configure and analyze the performance of the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol. Overview: OSPF introduces another layer of hierarchy into routing by allowing a domain to be partitioned into areas. Select Project and click OK ⇒ mukesh023_OSPF. iii. Configure the Link Costs: 1. a. If it is not there. In addition. 3. Switch the palette configuration so it contains the internet_toolbox. 2. Start Riverbed Modeler Academic Edition ⇒ Choose New from the File menu. Select all links in your network that correspond to the links with a cost of 5 in the above graph by shift-clicking on them. 3. ii. To add an object from a palette. Rename the routers as shown below. Add to the project workspace eight routers of type slip8_gtwy. click its icon in the object palette ⇒ Move your mouse to the workspace and click to place the object ⇒ You can keep on left-clicking to create additional objects. In the Startup Wizard: Initial Topology dialog box. OSPF allows multiple routes to the same destination to be assigned the same cost and will cause traffic to be distributed evenly over those routers. 2. Thus. and the scenario No_Areas ⇒ Click OK. Use bidirectional PPP_DS3 links to connect the routers. Select the routers item from the pull-down menu on the object palette.

6. Repeat step 4 for all links with a cost of 20. . 7. i. Configure the Traffic Demands: 1. Select the Traffic menu ⇒ Create Traffic Flows ⇒ IP Unicast… ⇒ Create Traffic Demands⇒ Check the To other selected nodes from RouterA button as shown ⇒ Keep the color as blue ⇒ Click Create.5. Save your project. Now you can see the lines representing the traffic demands as shown. i. 2. To show these lines: Select the View menu ⇒ Select Demands ⇒ Select Show All. Select both RouterB and RouterH by shift-clicking on them. Repeat step 4 for all links with a cost of 10. 3. Select the Traffic menu ⇒ Create Traffic Flows ⇒ IP Unicast… ⇒ Create Traffic Demands⇒ Check the To other selected nodes from RouterB button as shown ⇒ Change the color to red ⇒ Click Create. Select both RouterA and RouterC by shift-clicking on them.

Two new scenarios will be created. Click on and the Configure Simulation window should appear. Click somewhere in the project workspace to disable the selected routers and select the Protocols menu ⇒ IP ⇒ Addressing ⇒ Select Auto-Assign IP Addresses. The first new scenario will define two new areas in addition to the backbone area. . 2. Save your project. The Areas Scenario: 1...1: i. Click Run and then save your project. 3. Area 0. as shown: 4. Also. 6.0.0. Configure the Routing Protocol and Addresses: 1. 5.e. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name Areas ⇒ Click OK.4. Select the three links that connect RouterA. 2.0 minutes. 5. RouterB. Select RouterA and RouterB only ⇒ Select the Protocols menu ⇒ IP ⇒ Routing ⇒ Select Export Routing Table… ⇒ Click Selected nodes on the Export Routing… dialog box ⇒ Click OK on the Status… dialog box. we didn’t enforce load balancing for any routes. Click somewhere in the project workspace to disable the selected routers and then select the Protocols menu ⇒ IP ⇒ Routing ⇒ Configure Routing Protocols. ⇒ Click OK on the Auto-Assign IP Addresses dialog box.0. Check the OSPF check box ⇒ Uncheck the RIP check box ⇒ Uncheck the Visualize Routing Domains check box. and RouterC by shiftclicking on them ⇒ Select the Protocols menu ⇒ OSPF ⇒ Configure Areas ⇒ Assign the value 0. 2. one area)..0. Save your project. all routers belong to one level of hierarchy (i. The second one will be configured to balance the load for the traffic demands between RouterB and RouterH. as shown ⇒ Click OK. Set the duration to be 10. Configure the Simulation Here we need to configure some of the simulation parameters: 1. Duplicate the Scenario In the network we just created. To hide these lines: Select the View menu ⇒ Select Demand Objects ⇒ Select Hide All.1 to the Area Identifier.

4. RouterG. The resulting route will appear on the network as shown: .ii. To display the route for the traffic demand between RouterA and RouterC: Select the Protocols menu ⇒ IP ⇒ Demands ⇒ Display Routes for Configured Demands ⇒ Expand the hierarchies as shown and select RouterA and then RouterC ⇒ Go to the Display column and pick Yes ⇒ Click Close. Switch to Scenario ⇒ Select No_Areas.0. and RouterH but assign the value 0. 2. Go back to the No_Areas scenario.0. In the new scenario. Area 0.0.1 to the value of the Area ID attribute ⇒ Click OK.0. 3. Right-click on RouterC ⇒ Edit Attributes ⇒ Expand the IP Routing Parameters hierarchy ⇒ Expand the OSPFv3 Parameters hierarchy ⇒ Expand the Loopback Interfaces hierarchy ⇒ Set Number of Rows value to 1 ⇒ Expand the row hierarchy ⇒ Set Status value to Enabled ⇒ Assign 0.2: i. select both RouterB and RouterH by shift-clicking on them. and give it the name Balanced ⇒ Click OK.0. Run a simulation and then save your project. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu. Run a simulation and then save your project. View the Results The No_Areas Scenario: 1. Under the Scenarios menu. The Balanced Scenario: 1. 2. Select the Protocols menu ⇒ IP ⇒ Routing ⇒ Configure Load Balancing Options ⇒ Make sure that the option is Packet-Based and the radio button Selected Routers is selected as shown ⇒ Click OK.0. Click somewhere in the project workspace to disable the selected links and then repeat step 2-i for the three links that connect RouterF.2 to their Area Identifier. 3. 3. 5. 4.

4. Save your project. (Note: Depending on the order in which you created the network topology. The Areas Scenario: 1. Display the route for the traffic demand between RouterB and RouterH. The route is as shown: 3. the RouterB-RouterA- RouterD-RouterF-RouterH path). Repeat step 2 to show the route for the traffic demand between RouterB and RouterH. 2. the other “equal-cost” path can be used. . that is. The Balanced Scenario: 1. 2. Display the route for the traffic demand between RouterA and RouterC. The route is as shown: 3. Go to scenario Areas. The route is as shown below. Go to scenario Balanced. Save your project.

. One PPP_server. project Name :mukesh023_VPN Scenario Name :NoFirewall Click quit on the set up wizard. 3 CONFIGURE THE NODES i Assign Default to the Application Definitions Attributes of Application node. The virtual link is created within the router at the entrance to the tunnel by providing it with the IP address of the router at the far end of the tunnel. A VPN is an example of providing a controlled connectivity over a public network. 2 Assign Ethernet2_slips_firewall to the model attribute for router C. but it also filters the packets that flow through it.Page Response Time(sec) 2 Choose Individual Statistics of sales A node & check the following: i Client DB – Traffic Received (bytes/sec) ii Client Http – Traffic Received (bytes/sec) 3 Repeat Step 2 for Sales B node &Save project. IP32_Cloud. three Ethernet 4_slip8_glwy routers & two ppp_wkatn hosts. FIREWALL_VPN SCENARIO 1 Select Duplicate Scenario & name it Firewall_VPN. Profile Config. It forwards packets from one network to another. OVERVIEW A firewall is a specially programmed router that sits between a site and the rest of the network. for the Database application & assign No to the proxy server deployed attribute. `FIREWALL SCENARIO 1 Select Duplicate Scenario & name it Firewall. 2INITIALIZE THE NETWORK i Add following objects : Application Config. iv Set Prefix Name = Sales Person to Application : Supported profiles attribute for Sales A and Sales B nodes. PRACTICAL NO. ii Rename the objects and connect them using PPP DS1 links. Click OK. CREATE AND CONFIGURE THE NETWORK 1 Create new project. Expand row 1. 3 Add one Ethernet 4_slip8_gtwy and one IP VPN config. CHOOSE THE STATISTICS 1 Choose Individual Statistics & check the following: i Global Statistics – DB Query – Response Time (sec) ii Global Statistics – HTTP. ii Assign Sample Profiles to Profile Configuration Attribute of profiles node. 2 Remove the link between router C & the server. 7 Aim: To study the role of firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs) in providing security to shared public networks such as Internet. 3 Expand the hierarchy of the proxy server Information attribute. VPNs utilize a concept called an IP tunnel-a virtual point-to-point link between a pair of nodes that are actually separated by an arbitrary number of networks. A firewall allows the system administrator to implement a security policy in one centralized place. iii Assign all to Application: Supported Services attribute of the Server node.

2 Expand the Remote client List Hierarchy –Set router to 1 – Expand row 0 hierarchy – Edit the values of client Node Name & set it to Sales A. RUN THE SIMULTATION To run the simulation for the three scenarios simultaneously: 1 Go to the scenarios menu – Select Manage Scenarios. VIEW THE RESULTS 1 Select compare. 5 Rename the new router to router D & IP VPN config object to VPN. 4 Press show and resulting graph is shown. for each scenario. CONFIGURE THE VPN 1 Expand the VPN Configuration Hierarchy – Set rows to 1 – Expand row 0 hierarchy – Edit the value of Tunnel Source Name and write down Router A – Edit the value of Tunnel Destination name to Router D. 3 Click OK to run the three simulations. Click Close – Save your Project. 4 After the three simulation runs complete. Output: Average DB Query Response Time: . 6 Create two graphs similar to the previous ones to depict the Traffic Received by the Client Http for Sales A and Sales B. 5 Create a graph similar to the previous one for Sales B. 4 Use two PPP DS1 links to connect the new router to router C and to the server. 3 Change AS is to time_average of compare results. 2 Expand the Sales A hierarchy – Select Traffic Received Statistics for client DB hierarchy. Results from the Result menu. 2 Change the values under the Results column to <collect> for the three scenarios.

Average Point-to-point throughput of the link: Average Utilization of the link: .

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it should look like the network on Figure below. 2. From the drop-down menu choose Star and click OK.g. Click OK. Click OK 3. Right-click on node_16. In this Lab. the students will design a 16-station LAN using first a simple hub. Close the Object Pallete dialog box. Start the OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition . PRACTICAL NO. The first simulation scenario will consist of 16 networked stations (PCs) and one hub. Procedure: Create a New Project In this first phase you will open and name your project and name the first simulation scenario. and Radius = 42 . Click Finish. 4. The performance of the local area network in the two scenarios will then be compared. Select Project and click OK . Periphery Node Model = ethernet_station. make sure that Create Empty Scenario is selected . 4. Choose Office from the Network Scale List . Choose New from the File menu 2. 8 Aim: Implementing Switched Local Area Networks Overview: This Lab is designed to demonstrate the need for implementation of switches in the design of local area networks.. Number =16. Link Model = 10BaseT. Rapid Configuration. From the Model List drop-down menu choose ethernet and click OK. Y=50. 5. and then a switch and two hubs. In the Startup Wizard:Initial Topology dialog box. Create the Network To create our switched LAN: 1. In the Rapid Configuration dialog box. xy123_Lab1) . Select Topology . In this first phase you will specify the geographic size of the network. Click the Select Models button in the Rapid Configuration dialog box. Edit Attributes . 1. Now that you have created the network. 3.1 . Name the scenario OnlyHub. Click Next . set the following six values: Center Node Model = ethernet16_hub. which is the hub . Name the project mukeshjoshi121_Lab1(e.Change the name attribute to Hub1 and click OK. Click Next three times . Fig. Remember that 10BaseT link represents an Ethernet connection operating at 10Mbps.

The traffic model follows a well-known ON-OFF model. Click Apply and then Cancel Duplicate the Scenario The network we just created utilizes only one hub to connect the 16 stations. and OFF state in which there is no traffic. Ethernet Delay – this represents the end-to-end delay of all packets received by all the stations. . 3. Traffic Sent (in packets/sec) by the traffic sources across all nodes d. b. We need to create another network that utilizes a switch and see how this will affect the network performance. The duration of ON and OFF states is random. Configure the network nodes Here you will configure the traffic generated by the stations. 1. In this example. a. Expand the hierarchies of the Traffic Generation Parameters attribute and the Packet Generation Arguments attribute . choose the following 4 statistics: a. Save your project Note here that we have introduced a traffic generation at each node. Click OK to close the attribute editing window. 2. in which each node switches between On state in which the traffic is generated. the duration of OFF state is 0. To do that we will create a duplicate of the current network. 2. Configure the Simulation Here we need to configure the duration of the simulation: 1. Collision count is the total number of collisions encountered by the hub during packet transmissions. Make sure to save your project. Now all stations in the network are selected. Right-click anywhere in the project workspace and select Choose Individual Statistics DES from the pop-up menu.0 minutes 3. Set the following four values: Fig 2 4. This is important to avoid reconfiguring each node individually. 3. Edit Attributes. Right-click on any of the 16 stations (node_0 to node_15) . Traffic Received (in packets/sec) by the traffic sinks across all nodes c. 2. Choose Statistics To choose the statistics to be collected during the simulation: 1. Click on the Configure / Run Simulation button. Check the Apply Changes to Selected Objects check box. Click OK. Right-click on any of the 16 stations . and in this example follows exponential distribution. Set the duration to be 2.6. Select Similar Nodes. In the Choose Results dialog box.

1. 10. click its icon in the object palette . Click OK. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name HubAndSwitch . Right-click on the new hub . To add the Hub. 4. Open the Object Palette by clicking on Make sure that Ethernet is selected in the pull-down menu on the object palette. 2. select it and choose Cut from the Eidt menu (or simply hit the Delete key). Change the name attribute to Hub2 and click OK. Save the Project. Fig 3. Edit Attributes . 8. (they are circled in the figure below). Compare to the following figure. Click to drop the hub at a location you select. use the 10BaseT link available in the Object Palette. add the Switch 6. Right-click on the switch . Hints: • To remove a link. Close the Object Palette 7. Change the values under the Results column to <collect> (or <recollect>) for both scenarios. Right click to indicate you are done deploying hub objects 5. • To add a new link. Run the Simulation To run the simulation for both scenarios simultaneously: 1. 3. . Similarly. We need to place a hub and a switch in the new scenario. Edit Attributes . Change the name attribute to Switch and click OK 9. Reconfigure the network of the HubAndSwitch scenario so that it looks like the following one. 2. You can select multiple links and delete them all at once. Select Manage Scenarios from the Scenarios menu. Move your mouse to the workspace .

Select the Traffic Sent (packets/sec) statistics and click Show. Save your project. Change the drop-down menu in the lower-right part of the Compare Results dialog box from As Is to time_average. Select the Collision Count (packets/sec) statistics and click Show. Click OK to run the two simulations. 4. (Or right click in the workspace). Select the Traffic Received (packets/sec) statistics and click Show. Expand the hierarchies as shown below . Change As Is to time_average . Select the Collision Count statistics for Hub2 . Click Add. View the Results To view and analyze the results: 1. 6. 2. 4.Fig 4 3. On the resulting graph right-click anywhere on the graph area . Select Compare Results from the Results menu. Select the Delay (packets/sec) statistics and click Show. click Close. 5. 7. 5. Save your project. After the two simulations runs complete. Choose Add Statistics . one for each scenarios. 3. 8. .

and locations of the hosts. researchers. indicating that the subnet contains no objects. Sample Profiles provides patterns of applications employed by users such as engineers. and a 10BaseT link to connect the LAN with the Switch . Create a New Project 1. 4. Application Config is used to specify applications that will be used to configure users profiles. 2. Double-click on the Engineering node. and a subnet. 2. In the Startup Wizard: Initial Topology dialog box.click Ok. 2. Change the name attribute to Applications . Start OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition . make sure that Create Empty Scenario is selected . 3. If it is not there open it by clicking Make sure that the internet_toolbox is selected from the pull down menu on the object palette. left-click to place the object. Change the Profile Configuration attribute to Sample Profiles . taking into consideration the users. Profile Config describes the activity patterns of a user or group in terms of the applications used over a period of time. Right-click on Application Config node . Select Project and click OK . click Next . The Object Palette dialog box should be now on the top of your project space. a. click OK Create and configure the Network Initialize the Network: 1. Change the name attribute to Profiles . Right-click on the subnet node . Click OK. Change the Application Definitions attribute to Default . Add to the project workspace the following objects from the palette: Application Config. To add an object from the palette. Right-click on the Profile Config node . click Next twice . ethernet16Switch. choose Miles from the Size drop-down menu and assign 1 for both X Span and Y Span . Open the Object Palette and make sure it is still set to internet_toolbox. 2. Edit Attributes . services. salespeople.Edit Attributes . Click OK. move your mouse to the workspace . 3. The workspace should contain the following three objects: Configure the services: 1. Right-click when finished. You must define the applications using the Application Config before using this object. . Choose New from the File menu. and multimedia users. Configure a subnet: 1. Change the name attribute to Engineering and click OK. Close the palette. You get an empty workspace. Name the project <mukesh023>__NetDesign and the scenario SimpleNetwork . Add the following items to the subnet workspace: 10BaseT LAN. click on its icon in the object palette . Edit Attributes . 9 Aim: Implementing a Network Design The objective of this lab is to demonstrate the basics of designing a network. PRACTICAL No. Profile Config.

to create the new subnets. click the Go to the higher level button .5. 8. The object we just created is equivalent to a 10-workstation star topology LAN. Rename the ethernet16Switch to Switch 7. Right-click on the 10BaseT LAN node . 3. Set the Profile Name to Engineer. Edit attributes . Make three copies of the Engineering subnet we just created.from the Edit menu select Paste three times. Now you have completed the configuration of the Engineering Department subnet. You should get a table in which you should do the following: a. From the Edit menu. Set the number of rows to 1 b. Save your project Configure All Departments: 1. Click on the Engineering node . 2. 6. select Copy . Click in the Value column for the Application: Supported Profiles attribute. Note: Engineer is one of the “sample” profiles provided within the Profile Config object. placing the subnet in the workspace after each.observe that the Number of Workstations attribute has a value of 10. and select Edit. c. Change the name attribute to LAN . The subnet should look like the one in figure below. To go back to the main project space. Rename (right-click on the subnet and select Set Name) and arrange the subnets as shown below: . The traffic generated from the users of this LAN resembles that generated by “engineers”. Click OK twice.

1. 5. For the Database Server add one row to support the following service: Database Access (Light). 2. Web Browsing (Heavy HTTP1. 3. Database. You will see that we need servers that support the following applications: Web browsing. Inspect each row under the Applications hierarchy. Close the Object Palette 4. Telnet. Edit the attributes of its LAN . one ethernet16_switch. . Email. c. For the File Server add two rows to support the following services: File Transfer (Light) and File Print (Light). a. 6. Rename the servers and the switch as follows: 5. Right-click on each one of the above servers and Edit the value of the Application: Supported Services attribute. Open the Object Palette and add a new subnet . is under the Profile Configuration hierarchy. add three ethernet_servers. From the Object Palette.1). Go back to he project space by clicking the Go to the higher level button.4. Save the project. Edit the value of the Application: Supported Profile attribute . Configure the Servers: Now we need to implement a subnet that contains the servers. File Transfer. Double-click the Research node . and File Print.1). Email (Light) and Telnet Session (Light) b. Click OK twice . Repeat step 4 with the E-Commerce node and assign to its Profile Name the profile E- Commerce Customer. The servers have to support the applications defined in the profiles we deployed. You can double-check these applications by editing the attributes of our Profile node.go to the higher level by clicking the button. 7. Repeat step 4 with the Sales node and assign to its Profile Name the profile Salesperson.rename the new subnet to Servers . 6. double- click the Servers node to enter its workspace. and three 10BaseT links to connect the servers with the switch. which in turn. Change the value of the Profile Name from Engineer to Researcher . For the Web Server add four rows to support the following services: Web Browsing (Light HTTP1.

In the Choose Results dialog box. . Click OK. Right-click anywhere in the project workspace and select Choose Individual Statistics from the pop-up menu. 3. Do this by choosing them from the drop-down menu as follows: 2. choose Global statistics => HTTP => Page Response Time (seconds). Choose the Statistics To test the performance of our network we will collect one of the many available statistics as follows: 1. Now your network should resemble the following one: 4. Save the project Connect the Subnets: Now all subnets are ready to be connected together. Close the Object Palette. 1. Configure the Simulation Here we need to configure the duration of the simulation . 3. Page response time is the required time to retrieve the entire page. Open the Object Palette and add four 100BaseT links to connect the subnets of the departments to the Servers subnet. As you create each link. 2. Save the project. make sure that it is configured to connect the “switches” in both subnets to each other.7.

In real networks. We will create a duplicate of the SimpleNetwork scenario but with background utilisation in the 100BaseT links. Set the duration to be 30. Right-click on anyone of them . Edit Attributes . the links usually have some existing background traffic. Press OK Duplicate the Scenario In the network we just created we assumed that there is no background traffic already in the links. Click on the Configure/Run Simulation button 2. For the Intensity (bps). Select all the 100BaseT links simultaneously (click on all of them while holding the Shift key) . . Average Packet Size (bytes) => choose Ethernet for BOTH directions.0 minutes 3. Link utilisation is the percentage of the used link bandwidth. choose Edit from the pop-up menu and enter the following variables 5.1. 4. click OK. Click OK 6. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name BusyNetwork . 1. 2. Check the Apply Changes to Selected Objects check box. Edit . Click on the value of Background Load . 3. Repeat step 4 and 5 for defining the background load in the opposite direction your window of background load table should look like below.

Compare to the following figure. Change the values under the Results column to <collect> for both scenarios. Click OK to run the two simulations. After the two simulation runs complete (one for each scenario). Save the project View the Results To view and analyse the results: 1. 2. Select the Page Response Time (seconds) statistics and click Show. . Select Compare Results from the Results menu 2. Save your project Run the Simulation To run the simulation for both scenarios simultaneously: 1. 3. Change the drop-down menu in the lower-right part of the Compare Results dialog box from As Is to time_average. click Close. Select Manage Scenarios.8. Go to the Scenarios menu . 5. 3. 6.

QoS Attribute Config. five ethernet_wkstn. Profile Config. Add to the project workspace the following objects from the palette: Application Config. 3. Make sure that the internet_toolbox item is selected from the pull-down menu on the object palette. In the Startup Wizard: Initial Topology dialog box. WFQ. These specifications can be referenced by the individual nodes using symbolic names. Start OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition _ Choose New from the File menu. and two ethernet4_slip8_gtwy routers. 10 Aim:Queuing Disciplines: Order of packet Transmission and Dropping The objective of this lab is to examine the effect of different queuing disciplines on packet delivery and delay for different services. Connect both routers together with a bidirectional PPP_DS1 link. and custom queuing. Create and Configure the Network Initialize the Network: 1. Connect the workstations and the server to the routers using bidirectional 10Base_T links as shown. Select Project and click OK _ Name the project mukesh023_Queues. and the scenario FIFO _ Click OK. Note that The QoS Attribute Config node defines attribute configuration details for protocols supported at the IP layer. Open the Object Palette dialog box. 4. 2. 3. . priority queuing. PRACTICAL No. It defines different queuing profiles such as FIFO. make sure that Create Empty Scenario is selected _ Click Next _ Select Campus from the Network Scale list _ Click Next three times _ Click OK. one ethernet_server. Rename the objects you added as shown and then save your project. 2. 5. Create a New Project 1.

Configure the Applications: Application Config is used to specify applications that will be used to configure users profiles. iii) Go to the VoIP Application row _ Expand the Description hierarchy _ Assign PCM Quality Speech to Voice.000) to File Size. and VoIP Application. Click OK and then save your project. Configure the Profiles: Profile Config describes the activity patterns of a user or group of users in terms of the applications used over a period of time. Video Application. Right-click on the Profiles node _ Edit Attributes _ Expand the Profile Configuration hierarchy _ Set rows to 3. ii) Go to the Video Application row _ Expand the Description hierarchy _ Assign Low Resolution Video to Video Conferencing _ Click on the Low Resolution Video value and choose Edit _ Edit the value of the Type of Service field (the Configure TOS/DSCP window appears) _ From the dropdown menu. 1. Right-click on the Applications node _ Edit Attributes _ Expand the Application Definitions hierarchy _ Set rows to 3 _ Name the rows: FTP Application. assign Streaming Multimedia (4) to ToS _Press Enter twice. i) Go to the FTP Application row _ Expand the Description hierarchy _ Assign High Load to Ftp _ Click on the High Load value and choose Edit from the drop-down menu _ Assign Constant(10) to Inter-Request Time _ Assign Constant(1. 1. Press Enter twice. Click on PCM Quality Speech and make sure that the ToS assigned to it is Interactive Voice (6). Note that Type of Service (ToS) is assigned to the IP packets and It represents a session attribute that allows packets to be provided the appropriate service in the IP queues. Name and set the attributes of row 0 as shown: . i. Keep the Type of Service (ToS) as Best Effort (0).000. 2.

Right-click on the FTP Client _ Edit Attributes _ Expand the Application: Supported Profiles hierarchy _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Profile Name to FTP Profile _ Click OK. Name and set the attributes of row 1 as shown iii. Configure the Workstations and Servers: 1. It is recommended that you check out the configuration of the FIFO.ii. and WFQ profiles. . Name and set the attributes of row 2 as shown below: 2. Configure the Queues: We will keep the default queuing profiles that are defined in our Queues object. Click OK and then save your project. PQ.

menu choose IP . Right-click on the VoIP East _ Edit Attributes. In the Choose Results dialog box. 7. QoS . Right-click on the Video Client _ Edit Attributes _ Expand the Application: Supported Profiles hierarchy _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Profile Name to Video Profile _ Click OK. Save your project. 3. ii) Edit the Application: Supported Services value _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Service Name to VoIP Application _ Click OK twice. Right-click on the Video Server _ Edit Attributes _ Edit the Application: Supported Services value _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Service Name to Video Application _ Click OK twice. i) Expand the Application: Supported Profiles hierarchy _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Profile Name to VoIP Profile. Click on the link connecting the East and West routers to select it _ From the Protocols. the link is colored based on the QoS scheme used. 3. Make sure the selected items are as shown in the following QoS Configuration dialog box _ Click OK. 2. ii) Edit the Application: Supported Services value _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Service Name to VoIP Application _ Click OK twice. 5. 6. we will collect one of the many available statistics as follows: 1.2. Right-click anywhere in the project workspace and select Choose Individual Statisticsfrom the pop-up menu. Configure QoS. Right-click on the FTP Server _ Edit Attributes _ Edit the Application: Supported Services value _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Service Name to FTP Application _ Click OK twice. 4. Choose the Statistics To test the performance of the applications defined in the network. Right-click on the VoIP West _ Edit Attributes. Save your project. select the following global statistic: i) IP=>Traffic Dropped (packets/sec) . 2. i) Expand the Application: Supported Profiles hierarchy _ Set rows to 1 _ Set Profile Name to VoIP Profile. Configure the Routers: 1. Note: Since the Visualize QoS Configuration radio button is checked.

Save your project. 2. 3. Under the point-to-point hierarchy. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name PQ _ Click OK. 3. 5. Select Duplicate Scenario from the Scenarios menu and give it the name WFQ _ Click OK. Configure the Simulation Here we need to configure the duration of the simulation: 1. QoS . Packet End-to-End delay. Make sure the selected items are as shown in the following QoS Configuration dialog box _ Click OK. Right click and choose Individual DES statistics. Set the duration to be 200 seconds. Make sure the Qos Scheme is set Weighted Fair Queuing and Qos profile is ToS Based _ Click OK. 2. . Configure QoS. 2. Save your project. QoS . we used the FIFO queuing discipline in the routers. Change the values under the Results column to <collect> (or <recollect>) for the three scenarios. Duplicate the Scenario In the network we just created. Save your project. Click OK and then save your project. Click on the link connecting the East and West routers to select it _ From the Protocols menu choose IP .ii) FTP=> Traffic received (packets/sec) iii) Video Conferencing => Traffic received (Bytes/sec) iv) Voice=> Packet Delay variation. Click on the link connecting the East and West routers to select it _ From the Protocols menu choose IP . click Close. 1. we will create two more scenarios to test the Priority Queuing (PQ) and Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) disciplines. 1.. 2. After the simulation completes the three runs. Put the simulation period to 200 seconds for all scenarios 3. Click on and the Configure Simulation window should appear. Run the Simulation To run the simulation for the three scenarios simultaneously: 1.) 4. A. Go to the Scenarios menu _ Select Manage Scenarios. one for each scenario. B. Click on the link that connects east Router to West Router. choose (queuing delay . To analyze the effect of different queuing disciplines. Traffic received (Bytes/sec) 3. Click Apply and then save your project. Click OK to run the three simulations. 3. 4. Configure QoS.

Note: The shown graph is the result of zooming into the region of interest on the original graph. Create graphs for Queuing Delay for West Router.View the Results To view and analyze the results: 1. Create graphs for Voice Packet End-to-End Delay and Voice Packet Delay Variation..East Router link . 2. The resulting graph should resemble the one below.. Create the graph for Video Conferencing Traffic Received: 4. 3. Create the graph for Voice Traffic Received: 5.. 6. Select Compare Results from the Results menu. Select the IP Traffic Dropped statistic and click Show.