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Induction motor operating as a

generator 1

An electric train powered by a induction motor


that is directly coupled to the wheels
As the train climbs up a hill, the motor will run at
slightly less than ns, developing a torque
sufficient to overcome both friction and the
force of gravity
What happens when the train begins to move
downhill?
The force of gravity causes the train to
accelerate and because the motor is coupled to
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the wheels, it begins to rotate above ns
Induction motor operating as a
generator 2

As this takes place, the mechanical power is


returned to the 3-phase line in the form of
electrical energy
An induction motor that turns faster than ns acts, as a
generator
Such a machine is called an asynchronous
generator

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Induction motor operating as a
generator 3

An asynchronous generator is made by


connecting an ordinary squirrel-cage motor to a
3-phase line and coupling it to a gasoline
engine
As soon as the engine speed exceeds the
synchronous speed, the motor becomes a
generator, delivering active power P to the
electrical system to which it is connected

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Induction motor operating as a
generator 4

To create its magnetic field, the motor has to


absorb reactive power Q
This power can only come from the ac line, with
the result that the reactive power Q flows in the
opposite direction to the active power P

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Induction motor operating as a
generator 5

The reactive power may be supplied by a group


of capacitors connected to the terminals of the
motor
A 3-phase load can be supplied without using
an external source
The frequency generated is slightly less than
that corresponding to the speed of rotation
The terminal voltage of the generator increases
with the capacitance, but it is limited by
saturation in the iron
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Induction motor operating as a
generator 6

The capacitor bank must be able to supply at


least as much reactive power as the machine
normally absorbs when operating as a motor

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Example:
7

We wish to use a 40 hp, 1760 rpm, 440 V, 3-


phase squirrel cage induction motor as an
asynchronous generator
The rated current of the motor is 41 A and the
full-load power factor is 84%
Calculate the capacitance required per phase if
the capacitors are connected in delta
Apparent power drawn by machine when it
operates as a motor S = 3EI
S = 3(440)(41) = 31.2 kVA
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Example:
8

The corresponding active power absorbed is


P=Scos = 31.2 (0.84) = 26.2 kW
The corresponding reactive power absorbed is
Q = (S2-P2)1/2 = (31.22-26.22)1/2 = 17 kVar
Capacitor bank must supply at least 17/3 = 5.7
kvar/phase
Capacitance current/phase = 5700/440 = 13 A
Capacitance Reactance/phase = 440/13 = 34
Capacitance/phase = fXc = 78 F
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Example:
9

At what speed should the driving engine run to


generate a frequency of 60 Hz
Driving engine must turn at slightly more than
synchronous speed

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Example:
10

Typically the slip should be equal to the full-load


slip when the machine operate as a motor
slip = 1800 1760 = 40 rpm
The engine should therefore run at speed of
N = 1800 + 40 = 1840 rpm

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Complete torque-speed
characteristics of an 11
Induction Machine

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