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Torque vs.

Speed
3-Phase induction motor has full load torque T and
starting torque 1.5T
Max. torque (2.5T) is called breakdown torque of the
motor

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Torque vs. Speed
If load is increased beyond the breakdown Torque,
the motor will stall and come to a rapid stop
At full load the motor runs at a speed n

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Torque vs. Speed
Small motors (10 kW) develop breakdown torque at
a speed nd of about 80% of synchronous speed ns
Big motors (1000 kW and more ) attain their
breakdown torque at about 98% of synchronous
speed ns

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
The torque-speed characteristics is greatly affected
by change in resistance of the rotor
The only characteristic which is unchanged is the
breakdown torque
The rotor resistance of a squirrel cage rotor is
essentially constant, except that it increases with
temperature
The resistance increases with increase in load
because the temperature rises

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
In designing the squirrel cage rotor, the rotor
resistance can be selected by using copper,
Aluminum or other metals in the rotor bars and end
rings

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
Torque speed curve of a 10kW (13.4hp), 50Hz, 380V
induction motor
Synchronous speed of 1000 rpm
Full load torque of 100 N.m

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
Full load current is 20A
Locked rotor current is 100A
The rotor has an arbitrary resistance R

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
Increase the rotor resistance by a factor of 2.5 by
using higher resistive material such as bronze for
rotor bars and end rings

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
The starting torque doubles from 100 Nm to 200 Nm
The locked rotor current decreases from 100A to
90A

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
Motor develops its breakdown torque at a speed nd
of 500 rpm
Compared to original nd of 800 rpm

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
Resistance is doubled to 5R, the locked rotor torque
attains a maximum value of 250 Nm for a
corresponding current of 70A

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
Further increase in resistance to 25R
The locked rotor current drops to 20A
The starting torque also drops
The motor develops the same starting torque 100
Nm as it did when the locked rotor current was 100 A

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Effect of Rotor Resistance

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
A high rotor resistance is
desirable because it
produces a high starting
torque and a relatively low
starting current
Unfortunately it produces
a rapid fall in speed with
increasing load

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
Slip at rated torque is high,
the motor I2R losses are
high
Efficiency is low and motor
tends to overheat

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Effect of Rotor Resistance
Under running conditions it is preferable to have low
resistance
The speed decreases very less with increasing load
Slip at rated torque is small
The efficiency is high and the motor tends to run cool

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Wound Rotor Motor
High starting and low running resistance can be
obtained by using a wound rotor induction motor
Such a rotor allows variation in the rotor resistance
as desired by means of external rheostat

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Operating Characteristics

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Sector Motor
The stator of a standard 3-
phase, 4-pole, wye-
connected motor having a
synchronous speed of 1800
rpm is cut in half
Half of the winding is
removed
Two complete N and S
poles left (per-phase)

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Sector Motor
The stator terminal
connected to 3-phase, 60Hz
source will move the Rotor
close to 1800 rpm
Voltage can be reduce to
half, because the stator
winding has half the original
number of turns

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Sector Motor
This sector motor delivers
20% of its rated power
The sector motor produces
the same revolving field as in
the original 3-phase motor
Instead of making one
complete turn, the field
continuously travels from one
end to the other

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Linear Motor
Sector motor can be laid out flat, without effecting
shape or speed of magnetic field to make linear
induction motor
The flux travel at a linear synchronous speed given
by vs = 2wf
vs = linear synchronous speed [m/s]
w = width of one pole-pitch [m]
f = frequency [Hz]
Linear speed does not depend upon number of poles
but pole pitch (Distance between adjacent poles)
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Linear Motor
If a flat squirrel cage rotor
is brought near, the field
drags it along
Practically, a simple
aluminum or copper
plate is used as a rotor
In practical applications
the rotor is stationary
while stator moves like in
high-speed trains

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Travelling Waves
The impression is that when the flux
reaches the end of a linear stator,
there is a delay before it restarts
The linear induction motor produces
a travel wave of flux which moves
continuously and smoothly
The flux cuts off sharply at the
extremities A and B of the stator
As fast as N and S poles disappears
at the end, it builds up again at the
left
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Magnetic Levitation
Sweeping a permanent
magnet across a
conducting ladder, tends
to drag the ladder along
with it
Horizontal forces is also
accompanied by a
vertical force which tends
to push the magnet away
from the ladder

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Magnetic Levitation
N-pole is swept across
the top of conductor 2
Maximum voltage will be
induced due to maximum
flux density
If the magnet moves
slowly, current reaches its
maximum when the
magnet is at the top

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Magnetic Levitation
Returning currents from 1
and 3 creates nnn and
sss as shown
Front half is repelled
upward while rear half is
attracted downwards
Due to slow motion nnn
and sss poles are
symmetrical with respect
to centre of the magnet

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Magnetic Levitation
Resulting vertical force is
nil
If magnet moves very
rapidly
Centre of magnet is
ahead of conductor 2
when current in it is
maximum
The N-pole is now
directly above nnn pole
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Magnetic Levitation
Results in a strong vertical
force which tends to push
the magnet upwards
This is called principle of
magnetic levitation

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Maglev

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