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Electro Mechanical System 1

Introduction
Several types of 3-phase induction motors are
available
It is useful to know something about the basic
construction and characteristics of the various types
of 3-phase induction motors
Special applications of Induction machines
Asynchronous generators
Frequency converters

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Standardization and Classification
of Induction Motors
Electric motors follow two global standards
International Electro-technical Commission (IEC)
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
(NEMA)
Electric motors in IEC standards are divided into
several classes according to its efficiency
IE1 (Standard Efficiency)
IE2 (High Efficiency)
IE3 (Premium Efficiency)
IE4 (Super Premium Efficiency)
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Standardization and Classification
of Induction Motors
The standards are defined for 2,4, 6 and 8 pole
machines for single and three phase 50/60 Hz
machines

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Standardization and Classification
of Induction Motors
The frames of all industrial motors under 500 hp
have standardized dimensions
A 25 hp, 1725 r/min, 60 Hz motor of one
manufacturer can be replaced by that of any other
manufacturer, without having to change
The mounting holes
The shaft height
The type of coupling

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Standardization and Classification
of Induction Motors
The standardization also establishes limiting values
for
Electrical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics
The motors must satisfy minimum requirements for
Starting torque, locked-rotor current, overload
capacity, and temperature rise
Motors are grouped into several categories,
depending upon the environment in which they have
to operate

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Classification according to
environment and cooling methods
There are seven most common enclosure types
defined by NEMA
The enclosure of the motor must protect the
windings, bearings, and other mechanical parts from
moisture, chemicals, mechanical damage and
abrasion from grit

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Classification according to
environment and cooling methods
The seven categories are
Open Drip Proof (ODP)
Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC)
Totally Enclosed Non-ventilated (TENV)
Totally Enclosed Air Over (TEAO)
Totally Enclosed Washed Down (TEWD)
Explosion Proof Enclosure (EXPL)
Hazardous Location (HAZ)

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Open Drip Proof (ODP) Motors
Allows air to circulate
through the windings for
cooling, but prevent drops of
liquid from falling into motor
within a 15 degree angle
from vertical
Typically used for indoor
applications in relatively
clean, dry locations

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Open Drip Proof (ODP) Motors
The maximum allowable
temperature rise may be
60C, 80C, 105C or 125C
depending on the type of
insulation used in the
windings

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Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC)
motor
Medium & high-power
motors that are totally
enclosed are usually cooled
by an external blast of air
An external fan, directly
coupled to the shaft, blows
air over the ribbed motor
frame

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Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (TEFC)
motor
Prevents the free exchange
of air between the inside
and outside of the frame,
but does not make the
frame completely air tight
The TEFC style enclosure is
the most versatile of all,
used on pumps,
fans, compressors, general
industrial belt drive and
direct connected equipment
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Totally Enclosed Non-ventilated
(TENV) Motors
Similar to a TEFC, but
has no cooling
fan and relies on
convention for cooling
No vent openings,
tightly enclosed to
prevent the
free exchange of air, but
not airtight

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Totally Enclosed Non-ventilated
(TENV) Motors
They are designed for
environments exposed
dust and moisture but
not very moist or
explosive locations
Rated below 10 kW
because of heat
dissipation which occurs
in larger machines

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Totally Enclosed Air Over (TEAO)
Motor
Dust-tight fan
and blower duty motors
designed for shaft
mounted fans or belt
driven fans. The motor
must be mounted within
the airflow of the fan

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Totally Enclosed Wash down
(TEWD) Motors
Used for food processing,
packaging,
pharmaceuticals, or
applications where motors
are regularly exposed to
high pressure wash down
Used in chemical or
extreme moist environment
Heat dissipation through
convection
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Explosion Proof Motors
Used in highly inflammable or
explosive surroundings, such
as coal mines, oil refineries,
chemical plants, wood and
plastic processing industry
They are totally enclosed (but
not airtight) and the frames
are designed to withstand the
enormous pressure due to an
internal explosion

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Classification according to electrical
and mechanical properties
Motors with standard locked-motor torque
(NEMA Design B)
Most motors belong to this group
PU locked-rotor torque decreases from 1.3 to
0.7 as the power increases from 20 hp to
200hp
Corresponding locked-rotor current should not
exceed 6.4 times the full-rated current
Used to drive fans, centrifugal pumps, machine
tools etc
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Classification according to electrical
and mechanical properties
High starting-torque Motors (NEMA Design C)
Used when starting conditions are difficult
Pumps and piston-type compressors that have
to start under load
In the range of 20 hp to 200 hp the locked-
rotor torque is 200% of full-load torque (2 PU)
Corresponding locked-rotor current should not
exceed 6.4 times the full-rated current
Motors have a double-cage rotor

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Classification according to electrical
and mechanical properties
The outer cage has lower inductive reactance
and has smaller conductors
The inner cage is buried deep in the rotor and
has large inductive reactance

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Classification according to electrical
and mechanical properties
At standstill, rotor current frequency is equal to
line frequency
Total resistance of rotor is high
Large current flows in the outer cage due to
lower resistance developing large toque
As rotor picks up speed, the rotor frequency
decreases, reducing the inductive reactance
At rated speed, the rotor frequency is 1 Hz and
inductive reactance becomes negligible

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Classification according to electrical
and mechanical properties
The current is only limited by the parallel
resistance of two cages
The resistance at rated speed is lower than at
standstill
Not recommended for starting high inertia load
as I2R losses are concentrated in outer cage
Due to the small size of outer cage conductors,
losses may melt the cage

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Classification according to electrical
and mechanical properties
High-slip Motors (NEMA Design D)
The rated speed of high-slip motors usually lies
between 85% and 95% of synchronous speed
Used to accelerate high-inertia loads such as
centrifugal dryers which take a relatively long
time to reach full speed
The large drop in speed with increasing load is
also ideal to drive impact-type machine tools
that punch holes in sheet metal

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Classification according to electrical
and mechanical properties

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