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Choice of Motor Speed

The synchronous speed of induction motors changes


by quantum jumps depending upon the frequency
and the number of poles
It is impossible to build a conventional induction
motor having an acceptable efficiency running at
2000 rpm on a 60 Hz supply
It require 2 poles for ns of 3600 rpm
The slip of (3600 2000)/3600 = 0.444 means that
44.4% of the power supplied would be dissipated as
heat

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Choice of Motor Speed
It is preferable to use a high-speed motor and
gearbox
There are several advantages to using a gearbox
For a given output power, the size and cost of a high-
speed motor is less and its efficiency and power factor
are higher
The locked-rotor torque of a high-speed motor is
always greater than similar low-speed motor
Gearbox is mandatory for speed below 100 rpm and
above 3600 rpm

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Choice of Motor Speed

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Two Speed Motors
The stator of a squirrel-cage induction motor can be
designed so that it can operate at two different
speeds
Used in drill presses, blowers and pumps

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Two Speed Motors
One way to obtain two speeds is to wind the stator
with two separate windings having 4 and 6 poles
The problem is that only one winding is in operation
at a time and so only half the copper in the slots is
being utilized
Special windings have been invented whereby the
speed is changed by simply changing the external
stator connections

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Two Speed Motors
The synchronous speeds obtained are usually in the
ratio 2:1 (3600/1800 r/min. 1200/600 r/min. etc.)
The lower speed is produced by the creation of
consequent poles

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Two Speed Motors
Consider, one phase of a two-
pole, 3-phase motor
When the two poles are
connected in series to a 60 Hz
ac source, current I1 flows into
terminal 1 and current I2 ( = I1)
flows out of terminal 2
ns = 120f/p = 3600 rpm

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Two Speed Motors
Connecting the two poles in
parallel
Current I1 flows into terminal 1,
current I2 flows into terminal 2
As a result, two N poles are
created by the windings
Every N pole must have a S
pole, so two S poles will
appear, called consequent
poles
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Two Speed Motors
The new connection produces
4 poles in all, and the
synchronous speed is 1800
r/min
Number of poles are doubled
by changing the stator
connections
It is upon this principle that 2-
speed motors are built

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Two Speed Motors
Connections for a 2-speed, 4-pole/8-
pole, 3-phase motor
Six leads, numbered l to 6, are
brought out from the stator winding

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Two Speed Motors
For high speed
Power applied to 1, 2 and 3
4, 5 and 6 are open-circuit
4 poles/phase produced
For low speed
Power applied to 4, 5 and 6
1, 2 and 3 are short-circuited
8 poles/phase produced having
same polarity

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Induction Motor characteristics
under various load conditions
Complete Torque vs Speed
characteristics are shown
Only a part of Torque vs
Speed characteristics are of
interest as Motors run close to
synchronous speed supplying
torque which varies from zero
to full-load

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Induction Motor characteristics
under various load conditions
Between these limits the
torque-speed characteristics
are linear
Slope of line depends on rotor
resistance
Lower resistance Steeper
slope

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Induction Motor characteristics
under various load conditions
At rated frequency
s = kTR/E2
k: constant, depends on
construction of motor
T: Torque
R: Rotor resistance
E: line voltage

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Induction Motor characteristics
under various load conditions
If characteristics of motor
under given load are known,
speed, power, torque can be
predicted for other load
conditions
2
Tx R x En
sx sn
Tn R n E x
n = initial conditions
x = new conditions
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Example:
A 3-phase, 208 V induction motor having a
synchronous speed of 1200 rpm runs at 1140 rpm
when connected to a 215 V line and driving a
constant load
Calculate the speed if the voltage increases to 240 V
Slip at 215 V is (1200 1140)/1200 = 0.05

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Example:
At 240 V, rotor resistance and load remains
unchanged
2 2
En 215
sx sn 0.05 0.04
E x 240
Slip speed = 0.04 x 1200 = 48 rpm
Speed at 240 V = 1200 - 48 = 1152 rpm

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Example:
A 3-phase, 4-pole wound rotor induction motor has
rating of 110 kW, 1760 rpm, 2.3 kV, 60 Hz
Three external resistors of 2 are connected in wye
across the rotor slip-rings
Under these conditions the motor develops a torque
of 300 N.m at a speed of 1000 rpm
Calculate the speed for a torque of 400 N.m
ns = 120 x 60/4 = 1800
sn = (1800 1000)/1800 = 0.444

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Example:
All other conditions are fixed, for torque of 400 N.m
sx = sn(Tx/Tn) = 0.444(400/300) = 0.592
Slip Speed = 0.592 x 1800 = 1066 rpm
n = 1800 1066 = 734 rpm

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Example:
Calculate the value of the external resistors so that
the motor develops 10 kW at 200 rpm
Tx = 9.55P/n = 9.55 x 10000/200 = 478 N.m
sx = (1800 200)/1800 = 0.89

Tx Rx 478 Rx
s x = sn 0.89 = 0.444
Tn Rn 300 2

Rx = 2.5

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Starting an Induction Motor
High-inertia loads prolong the starting period
The starting current is high during this interval
Overheating becomes a major problem
For high power motors, this prolonged starting period
may even overload the transmission line
Induction motors are often started on reduced
voltage
This limits the power drawn by the motor, and
reduces the line voltage drop and heating rate of the
windings
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Starting an Induction Motor
Following rule apply for a motor that is not loaded
mechanically
Rule 1 - The heat dissipated in the rotor during the
starting period (from zero speed to final rated speed)
is equal to the final kinetic energy stored in all the
revolving parts
A flywheel is speeded up to store 5000 J of energy,
rotor will dissipate 5000 J of heat
This rule holds true, irrespective of the stator voltage
or the torque-speed curve of the motor
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Plugging an Induction Motor
In some industrial applications, the induction motor
and its load have to be brought to a quick stop
This can be done by interchanging two stator leads,
so that the revolving field suddenly turns in the
opposite direction to the rotor
During this plugging period, the motor acts as a
brake
It absorbs kinetic energy from the still-revolving load,
causing its speed to fall

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Plugging an Induction Motor
The power Pm is entirely dissipated as heat in the
rotor
Rotor continues to receive Pr from stator, which is
also dissipated as heat

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Plugging an Induction Motor
Plugging produces I2R losses in the rotor that even
exceed those when the rotor is locked
Motors should not be plugged too frequently
because high rotor temperatures may melt the rotor
bars or overheat the stator winding

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Plugging an Induction Motor
Rule 2 - The heat dissipated in the rotor during the
plugging period (initial rated speed to zero speed) is
three times the original kinetic energy of all the
revolving parts

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Braking with DC
An induction motor can
also be brought to a
quick stop by circulating
dc current in the stator
winding
DC Injection Braking
Any two terminals can
be connected to the dc
source

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Braking with DC
The direct current produces stationary N, S poles in
the stator
The number of poles created is equal to the number
of poles which the motor develops normally
A 3-phase, 4-pole motor produces 4 dc poles
When the rotor sweeps past the stationary field, an
ac voltage is induced in the rotor bars

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Braking with DC
The voltage produces an ac current and the resulting
rotor l2R losses are dissipated at the expense of the
kinetic energy stored in the revolving parts
The advantage of dc braking is that it produces far
less heat than does plugging

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