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BINARY OPERATIONS

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x2 y 2

A binary operation is defined on real numbers by x y= , x , y R and x , y 0.

y x

1. XY =X + Y xy , evaluate i. ( 34 ) ii ( 43 ) x , y real n.

2.

2 2

xy=x + y 4 on real numbs. x , y R . Find

i. 3 3 ii . ( 1+ 2 )( 1 2 ) iii . 4(35)

2 2

3. a b=a b +2, a , b R , find i. 31 ii 5 2 iii.3 2 iv . ( 2 2 ) 1

4. mn=|n|m2 +2 ,|n| means the magnitude of the number n. evaluate each of the ff.

a b

5. ab= , a , b 0 , a , b R calculate ( 32 3 )( 3 2 ) . Deduce the value of

b a

a

( 3 2 )( 32 3 ) . If ab=1, show that b= (1 5) . Hence or otherwise, find

2

the values of b for which a=42 5 , leaving your answer in the form p+q r , where

p, q and r are rational numbers.

x+ y

6. x y= x , y R ,x , y 0 . Show that the operation is commutative,

xy , where

associative

PROPERTIES OF BINARY OPERATIONS

Closure Property

A binary operation is said to be closed under a given set, if all the output (images) produced

under the operation belong to the set under which the operation is defined.

Mathematically, an operation defined on the Set S if for any elements x,y S, there is

another element z S such that x y = z then, we say that the operation is closed under S.

If a binary operation produces an element which belongs to the set under which the operation is

defined on, then the operation is said to be closed on the set.

Example 1

x , y S determine whether the operation is closed under S.

Solution

1 2 3 4

1 1 2 3 4

2 2 4 1 3

3 3 1 4 2

4 4 3 2 1

From the table, each element produced by the operation belongs to S, therefore the operation

is closed under S.

Example 2

x, y A. show whether the operation * is closed under the operation * or not.

Solution

* 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 0

2 3 4 0 1

3 4 0 1 2

4 0 1 2 3

From the table not each element produced by the operation * belongs to set A,

1 * 4 = 0, 2 * 3 = 0, 3 * 2 = 0 and 4 * 1 = 0, but 0 A.

Since 0 A, the operation * is not closed under A.

Example 3

A binary operation is defined on the set B = { x, y, z } by the table below.

x y z

x y z x

y x y z

z z x y

Solution

By inspecting the table, each element in the table belongs to B. Therefore, the operation closed

under B.

Commutative Property

Binary operation is said to be commutative if the order we perform the operation do not affect

the output (image).

Mathematically, a binary operation defined on the set T is commutative if for all x, y T,

xy= yx

In arithmetic, addition and multiplication are commutative, but subtraction and division are not.

For example, 6 + 1 = 7 and 1 + 6 = 7 therefore 6 + 1 = 1 + 6. So addition is commutative.

5 8 = 40 and 8 5 = 40, hence 5 8 = 8 5. Multiplication is commutative.

7 3 = 4 and 3 7 = - 4. We see that 7 3 3 7. Subtraction is not commutative

Again, 6 12 = and 12 6 = 2. We conclude that 6 12 12 6. Division is not

commutative.

Example 4

A binary operation is defined on the set of real numbers by a b = a + b ab, a, b Real.

a. Evaluate

i. 51

ii. (2 3) (4 2)

i. 5 q=11

ii. (q 2) 3=(q 4)

Solution

a. a b = a + b ab

i. 5 1 = 5 + 1 5(1)

=65

=1

(5 6) (6 8)

1 2

1+(2) (1)(2)

3 2

5

b. i. 5 q = - 11

5+q 5(q)=11

5 4 q=11

4 q=11 5

4 q=16

q=164

q=4

ii. (q 2) 3 = q 4

(q+ 2 2q ) 3=q+ 4 4 q

(2 q) 3=4 3 q

(2 q)+3 (2 q)(3)=4 3 q

5 q 6+3 q=4 3 q

2 q 1=4 3 q

2 q+3 q=4 +1

5 q=5

q=5 5

q=1

ab=ba

Taking LHS

a b = a + b ab

taking RHS

b a = b + a ba

a + b = b + a, addition is commutative

and ab = ba, multiplication is commutative

b a = b + a ba

= a + b ba = LHS

a b = b a, the operation is commutative.

Example

10 = + 10 10

= 10.5 5

= 5.5

Similarly, 10 = 10 + - 10

= 10.5 5

= 5.5

10 = 10

Example 5

2

A binary operation defined on the set of N (natural numbers) by a b=a+b +ab ,

where a , b N .

a. Evaluate 2 6

b. Find the value of k for which:

i. 2 k=1 3 k

ii. 5 k =1

Solution

a b=a+ b2+ ab

a. 2 6=2+ 62 + (2 )( 6 )

2+ 3612

36 14

22

b. i. 2 k=1 3 k

2+k 2 +2 k =1+ ( 3 k )2+ (1 ) (3 k )

2+k 2 +2 k =1+9 k 23 k

2 2

2+1+2 k +3 k +k 9 k =0

3+5 k 8 k 2=0

2

33 k +8 k 8 k =0

3 ( 1k )+ 8 k (1k ) =0

( 3+8 k )( 1k )=0

3+8 k =0 or 1 k = 0

8 k =3k =1

3

k= k =1

8

3

Since the operation is defined on natural numbers, k , k=1

8

b. ii. 5 k =1

2

5+k +5 k =1

51+5 k + k 2=0

2

4 +5 k +k =0

4 +4 k +k + k 2=0

4 (1+k ) +k ( 1+k ) =0

( 4 +k ) ( 1+k ) =0

4 +k =01+ k=0

k =4k =1

a b=b a

2 2 2 2

Comparing a bb a (a+ b )(b+ a ) , even though ab = ba, the operation is not

commutative.

Associative Property

Arithmetically, addition and multiplication are associative, whereas subtraction and division are

not.

( xy )z =x( yz)

Example 6

a. Evaluate ( 3 4 ) 53 (4 5)

b. Find the values of k for which 1 { k ( k +1 ) }=23

c. Is associative?

Solution

a. ( 3 4 ) 5=( 3+4 +3 4 ) 5

( 7+12 ) 5

19 5

19+5+19 5

24+ 95

119

3 ( 4 5 )=3 ( 4+ 5+4 5 )

3 ( 9+20 )

3 29

3+29+3 29

32+ 87

119

b. 1 { k ( k +1 ) }=23

1 { k +k +1+ k ( k +1 ) }=23

1 ( 2k + 1+ k 2 +k ) =23

+2

1+3 k

1

2+3 k +k 2+1+3 k + k 2=23

2

3+6 k + 2k =23

20+ 6 k +2 k 2=0

2 ( 10+3 k +k 2 ) =0

10+ 3 k +k 2=0

10+ 5 k2 k + k 2=0

k =5, 2

( x y ) z=x ( y z )

LHS ( x+ y+ xy ) z=( x + y + xy ) + z+ ( x+ y + xy ) z

x+ y+ z + xy + xz + yz + xyz

RHS x ( y + z + yz )=x + ( y + z + yz )+ x ( y + z + yz )

x+ y+ z + yz + xy + xz + xyz

Example 7

a. Evaluate ( 1 2 ) 31 ( 2 3 )

b. Find the value of k for which {2 k } ( k 1 )=8 k

c. Is the operation associative?

Solution

a. ( 1 2 ) 3=( 1+1 2 ) 3

( 1+ 2 ) 3

33

3+3 ( 3 )

3+9

12

1 ( 2 3 )=1 (2+ 2 3)

1 ( 2+ 6 )

18

1+ 1 ( 8 )

1+ 8

b. {2 k } ( k 1 )=8 k

{2+ (2 ) k } ( k1 ) =8 k

(22 k ) ( k 1 )=8 k

(22 k ) + (22 k ) ( k 1 )=8 k

22 k2 ( k 1 )2 k ( k 1 )= 8k

22 k2 k +22 k 2 +2 k=8 k

(2+ 2 )+ (2 k 2 k +2 k )2 k 2=8 k

2 k 2 k 2=8 k

2 k + 8 k2 k 2=0

6 k 2 k 2=0

2 k ( 3k )=0

2 k=0 k=0 OR

3k=0 k =3

k =0,3

( a b ) c=a (b c )

LHS ( a b ) c=( a+ ab ) c

[ ( a+ab )+ c ] + ( a+ab ) c

( a+c +ab)+ac +abc

a+c +ab +ac +abc

a+ ( b+ bc )+ a ( b+bc )

a+b+ bc+ ab+abc

Comparing LHS and RHS

Since b c , the operation is not associative.

Distributive property

Two binary operations and are defined on the set , is said to be distributive over , for

all a , b , c R , if and only if

a ( b c )= ( a b ) (a c) Right distributive

( b c ) a= ( b a ) (c a) Left distributive

In our everyday arithmetic, multiplication distribute over addition and over subtraction.

Example 8

Two binary operations and are defined on the set of real numbers by:

xy=3 xy and x y=x + y

Determine whether:

i. is distributive over

ii. is distributive over

Solution

i. x( y z )=( x y ) (xz )

LHS x( y z )=x( y + z )

3 x( y+z)

3 xy+ 3 xz

RHS ( xy ) ( xz )=3 xy 3 xz

3 xy+ 3 xz

xz

Comparing LHS and RHS, x( y z)=( xy ) ), so distribute over

ii. x ( yz )=( x y )( x z )

LHS x ( yz )=x ( 3 yz )

x+3 yz

RHS ( x y )( x z )=( x + y )( x + z )

3 ( x + y ) ( x+ z )

3 ( x2 +xz + xy + yz )

2

3 x +3 xz +3 xy+ 3 yz

Example 9

Two binary operations and defined on the set of real numbers by:

a+b

a b= a b=2+ xy where a , b R , determine whether:

ab

i. is distributive over

ii. is distributive over

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