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BINARY OPERATIONS

x2 y 2
A binary operation is defined on real numbers by x y= , x , y R and x , y 0.
y x

Evaluate 1. 3 2 2. 5 2 3.2 3 4.4 3

1. XY =X + Y xy , evaluate i. ( 34 ) ii ( 43 ) x , y real n.

2.
2 2
xy=x + y 4 on real numbs. x , y R . Find

i. 3 3 ii . ( 1+ 2 )( 1 2 ) iii . 4(35)
2 2
3. a b=a b +2, a , b R , find i. 31 ii 5 2 iii.3 2 iv . ( 2 2 ) 1

4. mn=|n|m2 +2 ,|n| means the magnitude of the number n. evaluate each of the ff.

i.3 2 ii . 2 3iii . ( 2+ 2 ) 8 iv . 23 v . 3 2 vi.23


a b
5. ab= , a , b 0 , a , b R calculate ( 32 3 )( 3 2 ) . Deduce the value of
b a
a
( 3 2 )( 32 3 ) . If ab=1, show that b= (1 5) . Hence or otherwise, find
2

the values of b for which a=42 5 , leaving your answer in the form p+q r , where
p, q and r are rational numbers.
x+ y
6. x y= x , y R ,x , y 0 . Show that the operation is commutative,
xy , where
associative
PROPERTIES OF BINARY OPERATIONS
Closure Property

A binary operation is said to be closed under a given set, if all the output (images) produced
under the operation belong to the set under which the operation is defined.
Mathematically, an operation defined on the Set S if for any elements x,y S, there is
another element z S such that x y = z then, we say that the operation is closed under S.
If a binary operation produces an element which belongs to the set under which the operation is
defined on, then the operation is said to be closed on the set.
Example 1

The binary operation is defined on the S = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }by x y=xy ( mod 5 ) Where


x , y S determine whether the operation is closed under S.
Solution

1 2 3 4
1 1 2 3 4
2 2 4 1 3
3 3 1 4 2
4 4 3 2 1
From the table, each element produced by the operation belongs to S, therefore the operation
is closed under S.
Example 2

The operation * is defined on the set A = { 1, 2, 3, 4 } by xy=x + y (mod5) , where


x, y A. show whether the operation * is closed under the operation * or not.
Solution

* 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 0
2 3 4 0 1
3 4 0 1 2
4 0 1 2 3

From the table not each element produced by the operation * belongs to set A,
1 * 4 = 0, 2 * 3 = 0, 3 * 2 = 0 and 4 * 1 = 0, but 0 A.
Since 0 A, the operation * is not closed under A.
Example 3
A binary operation is defined on the set B = { x, y, z } by the table below.
x y z
x y z x
y x y z
z z x y

Determine from the table whether the operation is closed or not.


Solution
By inspecting the table, each element in the table belongs to B. Therefore, the operation closed
under B.
Commutative Property

Binary operation is said to be commutative if the order we perform the operation do not affect
the output (image).
Mathematically, a binary operation defined on the set T is commutative if for all x, y T,
xy= yx

In arithmetic, addition and multiplication are commutative, but subtraction and division are not.
For example, 6 + 1 = 7 and 1 + 6 = 7 therefore 6 + 1 = 1 + 6. So addition is commutative.
5 8 = 40 and 8 5 = 40, hence 5 8 = 8 5. Multiplication is commutative.
7 3 = 4 and 3 7 = - 4. We see that 7 3 3 7. Subtraction is not commutative
Again, 6 12 = and 12 6 = 2. We conclude that 6 12 12 6. Division is not
commutative.
Example 4
A binary operation is defined on the set of real numbers by a b = a + b ab, a, b Real.
a. Evaluate
i. 51

ii. (2 3) (4 2)

b. Find the value of q such that


i. 5 q=11

ii. (q 2) 3=(q 4)

c. Show whether operation is commutative or not.


Solution
a. a b = a + b ab
i. 5 1 = 5 + 1 5(1)
=65
=1

ii. (2 3) (4 2)=[2+ 3 2(3)] [4 +2 4 (2)]


(5 6) (6 8)
1 2
1+(2) (1)(2)
3 2
5

b. i. 5 q = - 11
5+q 5(q)=11
5 4 q=11
4 q=11 5
4 q=16
q=164
q=4

ii. (q 2) 3 = q 4
(q+ 2 2q ) 3=q+ 4 4 q
(2 q) 3=4 3 q
(2 q)+3 (2 q)(3)=4 3 q
5 q 6+3 q=4 3 q
2 q 1=4 3 q
2 q+3 q=4 +1
5 q=5
q=5 5
q=1

c. The operation is commutative if;


ab=ba
Taking LHS
a b = a + b ab

taking RHS
b a = b + a ba

a + b = b + a, addition is commutative
and ab = ba, multiplication is commutative
b a = b + a ba
= a + b ba = LHS
a b = b a, the operation is commutative.
Example
10 = + 10 10
= 10.5 5
= 5.5
Similarly, 10 = 10 + - 10
= 10.5 5
= 5.5
10 = 10

Example 5
2
A binary operation defined on the set of N (natural numbers) by a b=a+b +ab ,
where a , b N .

a. Evaluate 2 6
b. Find the value of k for which:
i. 2 k=1 3 k

ii. 5 k =1

c. Is the operation commutative?

Solution

a b=a+ b2+ ab

a. 2 6=2+ 62 + (2 )( 6 )
2+ 3612
36 14
22

b. i. 2 k=1 3 k
2+k 2 +2 k =1+ ( 3 k )2+ (1 ) (3 k )

2+k 2 +2 k =1+9 k 23 k
2 2
2+1+2 k +3 k +k 9 k =0
3+5 k 8 k 2=0
2
33 k +8 k 8 k =0
3 ( 1k )+ 8 k (1k ) =0
( 3+8 k )( 1k )=0
3+8 k =0 or 1 k = 0
8 k =3k =1
3
k= k =1
8
3
Since the operation is defined on natural numbers, k , k=1
8

b. ii. 5 k =1

2
5+k +5 k =1

51+5 k + k 2=0

2
4 +5 k +k =0

4 +4 k +k + k 2=0

4 (1+k ) +k ( 1+k ) =0

( 4 +k ) ( 1+k ) =0

4 +k =01+ k=0

k =4k =1

5 k =1 has no solution since natural numbers are not negative.

c. The operation is commutative if


a b=b a

LHS a b=a+ b2+ ab=( a+b 2 ) +ab

RSH b a=b+ a2+ ba=( b+a 2) +ab

2 2 2 2
Comparing a bb a (a+ b )(b+ a ) , even though ab = ba, the operation is not
commutative.
Associative Property

Arithmetically, addition and multiplication are associative, whereas subtraction and division are
not.

A binary operation defined on the Set S is associative if for all x, y ,z S ,


( xy )z =x( yz)

Example 6

A binary operation is defined on the set of real numbers by x y =x+ y + xy .

a. Evaluate ( 3 4 ) 53 (4 5)
b. Find the values of k for which 1 { k ( k +1 ) }=23
c. Is associative?

Solution

a. ( 3 4 ) 5=( 3+4 +3 4 ) 5
( 7+12 ) 5
19 5
19+5+19 5
24+ 95
119

3 ( 4 5 )=3 ( 4+ 5+4 5 )

3 ( 9+20 )

3 29

3+29+3 29

32+ 87

119

b. 1 { k ( k +1 ) }=23

1 { k +k +1+ k ( k +1 ) }=23
1 ( 2k + 1+ k 2 +k ) =23
+2
1+3 k

1

1+ ( 1+3 k +k 2) + 1 ( 1+3 k + k 2 )=23


2+3 k +k 2+1+3 k + k 2=23

2
3+6 k + 2k =23

20+ 6 k +2 k 2=0

2 ( 10+3 k +k 2 ) =0

10+ 3 k +k 2=0

10+ 5 k2 k + k 2=0

5 (2+ k )+ k (2+ k )=0

( 5+k )(2+ k )=0

k =5, 2

c. The operation is commutative if


( x y ) z=x ( y z )

LHS ( x+ y+ xy ) z=( x + y + xy ) + z+ ( x+ y + xy ) z
x+ y+ z + xy + xz + yz + xyz

RHS x ( y + z + yz )=x + ( y + z + yz )+ x ( y + z + yz )

x+ y+ z + yz + xy + xz + xyz

By comparing the LHS and RHS ( x y ) z=x ( y z ) the operation is associative.

Example 7

A binary operation defined on R by a b=a+ ab , where a , b R .


a. Evaluate ( 1 2 ) 31 ( 2 3 )
b. Find the value of k for which {2 k } ( k 1 )=8 k
c. Is the operation associative?

Solution

a. ( 1 2 ) 3=( 1+1 2 ) 3
( 1+ 2 ) 3
33
3+3 ( 3 )
3+9
12

1 ( 2 3 )=1 (2+ 2 3)

1 ( 2+ 6 )
18
1+ 1 ( 8 )
1+ 8

b. {2 k } ( k 1 )=8 k
{2+ (2 ) k } ( k1 ) =8 k
(22 k ) ( k 1 )=8 k
(22 k ) + (22 k ) ( k 1 )=8 k
22 k2 ( k 1 )2 k ( k 1 )= 8k

22 k2 k +22 k 2 +2 k=8 k
(2+ 2 )+ (2 k 2 k +2 k )2 k 2=8 k
2 k 2 k 2=8 k
2 k + 8 k2 k 2=0
6 k 2 k 2=0
2 k ( 3k )=0
2 k=0 k=0 OR
3k=0 k =3
k =0,3

c. The operation is associative if for all a , b , c R ,


( a b ) c=a (b c )

LHS ( a b ) c=( a+ ab ) c
[ ( a+ab )+ c ] + ( a+ab ) c
( a+c +ab)+ac +abc
a+c +ab +ac +abc

RHS a ( b c )=a ( b +bc )


a+ ( b+ bc )+ a ( b+bc )
a+b+ bc+ ab+abc
Comparing LHS and RHS
Since b c , the operation is not associative.

Distributive property

Two binary operations and are defined on the set , is said to be distributive over , for
all a , b , c R , if and only if
a ( b c )= ( a b ) (a c) Right distributive

( b c ) a= ( b a ) (c a) Left distributive

In our everyday arithmetic, multiplication distribute over addition and over subtraction.
Example 8
Two binary operations and are defined on the set of real numbers by:
xy=3 xy and x y=x + y

Determine whether:
i. is distributive over
ii. is distributive over
Solution
i. x( y z )=( x y ) (xz )

LHS x( y z )=x( y + z )

3 x( y+z)

3 xy+ 3 xz

RHS ( xy ) ( xz )=3 xy 3 xz

3 xy+ 3 xz

xz
Comparing LHS and RHS, x( y z)=( xy ) ), so distribute over

ii. x ( yz )=( x y )( x z )

LHS x ( yz )=x ( 3 yz )

x+3 yz

RHS ( x y )( x z )=( x + y )( x + z )

3 ( x + y ) ( x+ z )

3 ( x2 +xz + xy + yz )

2
3 x +3 xz +3 xy+ 3 yz

Comparing LHS and RHS x ( yz ) ( x y )(x z) so is not distributive over

Example 9
Two binary operations and defined on the set of real numbers by:
a+b
a b= a b=2+ xy where a , b R , determine whether:
ab

i. is distributive over
ii. is distributive over