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Mosquitoes such as female Anopheles and Aedes are carriers of germs that cause malaria

and dengue fever, respectively. When these mosquitoes bite a healthy person, they inject
the germs into his body. Thus mosquitoes spread viruses and other disease causing
microorganisms.

Heating milk to a high temperature of 70 degree Celsius for about 30 seconds and then
cooling it quickly is known as pasteurisation. This method kills most of the bacteria present
in the milk and preserves it.

Mosquitoes such as female Anopheles and Aedes are carriers of germs that cause malaria
and dengue fever, respectively. When these mosquitoes bite a healthy person, they inject
the germs into his body. Thus mosquitoes spread viruses and other disease causing
microorganisms

Microorganisms are found even in places where no other life forms can exist. They form a
hard outer covering called a cyst around them that makes them hardy. Under unfavourable
circumstances, they survive by remaining inside the cyst in an inactive form.

Yeast is used to make bread soft and fluffy. When yeast is mixed with the flour for making
bread, it breaks down sugar and produces alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. When the bread is
being baked, carbon dioxide gas escapes due to the heat, causing the bread to become soft
and fluffy.
Answer : The conversion of sugar into alcohol by yeast is known as fermentation. This
process is used in the preparation of alcoholic beverages like beer and wine. Beer is
produced by the fermentation of sugar in germinating barley and wine is prepared by
fermentation of sugar in grapes.

A virus enters the living cell of an organism and uses the resources inside the host cell for its
reproduction. It duplicates itself and then the host cell dies and finally bursts. The newly
formed virus released from that cell starts invading the other cells. This process is repeated
and in this way, many cells of the host organism are destroyed. As large numbers of host
cells are destroyed, the person becomes ill.

Vaccines are produced from dead or weakened microorganisms such as bacteria or a virus.
When vaccines are administered to a person, his body produces antibodies which fight
against pathogens. These antibodies remain inside the body and provide protection from any
future attack by that particular microorganism.

When salt is added to food, it forces the microorganisms to lose water by the process of
osmosis. Thus, microorganisms are not able to grow in the food. In this way, salt prevents
food spoilage

Dehydration of food means the removal of water from food. It is done by drying the food.
Water is a medium required for the growth of microorganisms. Thus, this technique is useful
as it stops the growth of microorganisms in the food.

Bacteria, protozoa and fungi act as decomposers. These decomposers break down organic
matter present in the bodies of dead plants and animals into simple substances and mix
them in the soil. A plant growing in this soil absorbs the nutrients and passes them to the
animals that consume the plant products. Thus, these microorganisms act as decomposers
and help in recycling the nutrients in the soil.

Viruses do not grow or reproduce by themselves, which makes them nonliving. However,
when a virus enters the living cell of an organism, it makes use of the resources in the host
cell and starts reproducing. This makes viruses living, as reproduction is an important
characteristic of a living organism. Due to this, viruses are considered to be on the
borderline of the living and nonliving.

The three important ways in which bacteria are useful to us are:


1) Formation of curd: When a small amount of curd (known as starter) is added to milk, the
bacteria known as Lactobacillus, convert the milk into curd.

2) Nitrogen fixation: The bacteria known as Rhizobium live in the root nodules of leguminous
plants. These bacteria fix the atmospheric nitrogen and converts it into nitrates that can be
used by the plants.

3) Retting of jute: Bacteria help in separating jute fibres from the rest of the tissues of the
jute plant. These fibres are used in making various articles.

Two ways in which bacteria are harmful to us are:


1) Diseases: Bacteria cause many diseases in humans like cholera and typhoid.

2) Food spoilage: Bacteria spoil food. Examples: putrefaction of meat and rotting of fruits
and vegetables
Communicable diseases spread from one person to another through various means. These
are:
1) Through air: When a person suffering from cold or flu sneezes or coughs, germs are
released that spread through the air.
2) Through contaminated food and water: When houseflies sit on garbage, germs stick
to their bodies. When these houseflies sit on uncovered food or water, they
contaminate the food or water by transferring the germs.
3) Through mosquitoes: Mosquitoes such as the female Aedes carry germs that cause
dengue fever.
4) Through cuts and wounds: Microbes also enter our body through cuts or wounds.
5) Through direct contact: Diseases such as chickenpox can spread through direct
contact from an infected person.

The following are the five methods of food preservation:


1) Heating: When food is heated at high temperature, all the microorganisms present
in it are destroyed.
2) Pasteurisation: In this method, milk is heated at a high temperature for 30 seconds
and then quickly cooled. This process kills the microorganisms present in milk.
3) Cooling: It prevents the growth and reproduction of microorganisms because
microorganisms are not able to reproduce at low temperatures.
4) Drying: This process removes water from food. Since, microorganisms need water
for their growth, drying food prevents the growth of microorganisms.
5) Canning: In this method, food is sterilised and then canned in airtight containers.
This prevents the growth of microorganisms
1. The property of metals by which they can be beaten in to thin sheets is called- a. malleability b.
Ductility c. conduction d. Expansion 1. (a)

2. Which one of the following is metal? a. C b. N c. Na d. O 2. (c)

3. Which one of the following is non metal? a. Zn b. Al c. Fe d. N 3. (d)

4. All materials shown property of malleability expect a. Iron b. Graphite c. Aluminium d. Silver 4.
(b)

5. Which one of the following is a good conductor of electricity? a. Iron b. Plastic c. Wood d. Glass
5. (a)

6. The property of metal by which it can be drawn into wires is called a. Conductivity b. malleability
c. Ductility d. Decorating 6. (c)

7. The metals that produce ringing sounds, are said to be- a. malleable b. sonorous c. Lustrous d. hard
7. (b)

8. Which metal is found in liquid state in room temperature? a. Fe b. Zn c. Hg d. Al 8. (c)

9. The solution of ash of magnesium ribbon is- a. Acidic b. Basic c. Neutral d. All of these 9. (b)
10. What is the product when sulphur reacts with oxygen?a. Sulphuric acid b. Sulphur trioxide c.
Sulphurous acid d. Sulphur dioxide 10. (d)

11. When sulphur dioxide is dissolve in water then- a. Sulphur is formed b. Sulphur trioxide is formed c.
Sulphuric acid is formed d. Sulphurous acid is formed. 11. (c)

12. What is the chemical formula of sulphurous acid- a. H2SO4 b. SO2 c. SO3 d. H2SO3 12. (d)

13. The sulphuric acid turns blue litmus paper into- a. Red b. Green c. Yellow d. Dark blue 13. (a)

14. Oxides of non metals are _____ in nature a. Basic b. Acidic c. Neutral d. All of these 14. (b)

15. Sodium metal is stored in- a. Water b. Alcohol c. Kerosene d. Ether 15. (c)

16. Which one of the following metal reacts vigorously with oxygen and water? a. Sodium b. Potassium
c. Calcium d. Magnesium 16. (a)

17. Which metal is present in Calcium Hydroxide? a. C b. O c. Ca d. H 17. (c)

18. Which non-metal catches fire if the exposed to air a. Sodium b. Phosphorous c. Calcium d. Uranium
18. (b)

19. What is the chemical formula of copper sulphate? a. CuSO4 b. CuCO3 c. CuCl2 d. CuO 19. (b)

20. Which gas are produced when metal react with acids a. Oxygen b. Nitrogen c. Hydrogen d. Carbon
dioxide 20 (c)

21. Which one of the following does not react with acids? a. Cu b. Ni c. Cr d. O 21. (d)

22. Which one of the following gas burns with the pop sound? a. Oxygen b. Hydrogen c. Chlorine d.
Hydrogen sulphide 22. (b)

23. Which of the following can be beaten in to thin sheets? a. Zinc b.Phosphorus c. Sulphur d. Oxygen
23. (a)

24. Which of the following statements are correct? a. All metals are ductile b All non metals are ductile c
Generally metals are ductile d. some metals are ductile 24. (c)

25. What happens when dilute sulphuric acid is poured on a copper plate? a. Copper sulphate formed b.
Zinc sulphate formed c. Copper chloride formed d. Zinc sulphate formed. 25. (a)

26. On burning metals react with oxygen to produce- a. Metal hydroxide b. Metal chloride c. Metal oxide d.
Metal sulphate 26. (c)

27. Which gas produced by piece of burning charcoal? a. CO2 b. CO c. H2S d. O2 27. (b)

28. Which non metal is essential for our life and inhale during breathing? a. H b. O c. C d. N 28.
(b)

29. Non metals used in- a. Aeroplanes b. making machinery c. Water boilers d. Fertilisers 29. (d)

30. Which one of the following is applied on wounds as an antiseptic? a. Metals b. Non metals c.
Metalloids d. All of these 30. (b)

31. Which metal is found in plants? a. Fe b. Cr c. Mg d.CO 31. (c)

32. Copper sulphate (CuSO4) possesses a. Red colour b. Blue colour c. Green colour d. Yellow colour
32. (b)

33. Which one of the following are very reactive non metals a. Sodium b. Potassium c. Carbon d.
Phosphorous 33. (d)

34. Which one of the following is the good conducter of electricity? a. Iron rod b. Sulphur c. Coal piece d.
Wood 34. (a)

35. Which material show shiny appearance? a. Coal b. Sulphur c. Aluminium d. Carbon 35. (c)

36. Which material is hard in nature? a. Iron b. Coal c. Oxygen d. Wood 36. (a)
37. Gold is used in- a. Thermometers b. Fuel c. Jewellery d. Machinery 37. (c)

38. Which one of the following metal is used thermometers? a. Copper b. Mercury c. Aluminium d. Iron
38. (b)

39. Which one of the following cant be drawn into wires? a. Fe b. Al c. Cu d. Coal 39. (d)

40. Which substance is present in fuel? a. Copper b. Iron c. Gold d. Carbon 40. (d)

41. Zinc replaces copper from- a. Zinc sulphate b. Copper sulphate c. sulphuric acid d. Copper oxide 41.
(b)

42. Metallic oxides are-a. Acidic is nature b. Neutral c. Basic in nature d. Either acidic or basic 42. (c)

43. Aluminium foil used for wrapping- a. Food b. Clothes c. Plastic d. Wires 43. (a)

44. Which one of the following is used for decorating sweets? a. Aluminium foil b. Copper foil c. Silver foil
d. All of these 44. (c)

45. Which one of the following enhances the growth of plants? a. Industrial gadgets b. Fertilisers c.
Automobiles d. Water boilers 45. (b)

46. Which one of the following is in crackers? a. metals b. Semi metals c. Non-metal d. All of these
46. (c)

47. Hydrogen gas produce when metal react with- a. Acid b. Base c. Salt d. Both acid & base 47. (b)

48. Which of the following cant be beaten into sheets? a. Zinc b. Iron c. Aluminium d. Sulphur 48.
(d)

49. Heat conduction is the property of a. Non-metal b. Metal c. Metalloids d. All of these 49. (b)

50. Moist air is the combination of- a. H2O+CO2+O2 b. H2O+ CO+O2 c. H2O+CO2+H2 d. H2O+O2+H2
50. (a)

Physical state of metals at room temperature


Metals are usually in solid state at room temperature except mercury and gallium, which are
in liquid state at room temperature.
Physical state of non-metals at room temperature
Non-metals occur in all the three states, i.e., solid (sulphur, phosphorous), liquid (bromine)
and gas (oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine) at room temperature.

Metals' reactions with oxygen, water and acids prove that they differ in reactivity. Thus, they
can be arranged in an order of their reactivity. The series of arrangement of metals in an
order of decreasing reactivity is called reactivity series. Highly reactive metals (potassium,
sodium) are placed at the top of the reactivity series, whereas least reactive metals (silver,
gold) are placed at the bottom of the reactivity series.

Advantage of galvanised iron over tinplated iron is that galvanised iron does not rust even if
there is scratch on the coating of zinc layer on iron surface. This is because zinc is more
reactive than iron and reacts with air to form a sacrificial layer of zinc carbonate, which
provides protection against corrosion of iron. In case of tinplated iron, it easily begins to rust
at the place where there is scratch on the tinplated layer. This is because iron is more
reactive than tin and it undergoes oxidation in preference to tin.

Alloy is a mixture (or a solid solution) of two or more metals, or one or more metals along
with a nonmetal. Alloys are generally made by combining two metals in their molten state.
Sometimes, they are also made by combining the powders of two metals.
Metals, which are nonreactive and present in free state in nature, are called noble metals.
These metals are placed at the bottom of the reactivity series. Silver, gold and platinum are
called noble metals. Noble metals do not react with water, acids and alkalis and are
nonreactive in nature. Therefore, noble metals are mainly used for making ornaments as
these ornaments retain their shine for a long time.

No, a wire cannot be drawn out of wood. Wires can be drawn out from ductile substances like
metals. As wood is highly brittle in nature and a non-ductile substance, it cannot be drawn
into thin wires.

Yes, alloying can be used to lower the melting point. Solder, an alloy of tin and lead, has a
low melting point than that of tin and lead. Thus, this property of solder is helpful for copper
wires to be used as a fuse in an electrical circuit. Hence, alloying helps to change the
properties of a metal.

The property of a substance to be hammered into thin sheets is called malleability. The
property of a substance to be stretched into thin wires is called ductility. The property of
malleability and ductility differs in metals and nonmetals. Most of the metals have high
degree of malleability and ductility for example, aluminium, copper, gold, etc. However,
nonmetals are highly brittle and do not exhibit these properties for example, coal and
graphite (both contain carbon).

Advantage of galvanised iron over tinplated iron is that galvanised iron does not rust even if
there is scratch on the coating of zinc layer on iron surface. This is because zinc is more
reactive than iron and reacts with air to form a sacrificial layer of zinc carbonate, which
provides protection against corrosion of iron. In case of tinplated iron, it easily begins to rust
at the place where there is scratch on the tinplated layer. This is because iron is more
reactive than tin and it undergoes oxidation in preference to tin.

Alloy is a mixture (or a solid solution) of two or more metals, or one or more metals along
with a non metal. Alloys are generally made by combining two metals in their molten state.
Sometimes, they are also made by combining the powders of two metals.

Metals, which are nonreactive and present in free state in nature, are called noble metals.
These metals are placed at the bottom of the reactivity series. Silver, gold and platinum are
called noble metals. Noble metals do not react with water, acids and alkalis and are
nonreactive in nature. Therefore, noble metals are mainly used for making ornaments as
these ornaments retain their shine for a long time.

No, a wire cannot be drawn out of wood. Wires can be drawn out from ductile substances like
metals. As wood is highly brittle in nature and a non-ductile substance, it cannot be drawn
into thin wires.

Yes, alloying can be used to lower the melting point. Solder, an alloy of tin and lead, has a
low melting point than that of tin and lead. Thus, this property of solder is helpful for copper
wires to be used as a fuse in an electrical circuit. Hence, alloying helps to change the
properties of a metal.

Aluminium reacts with air and forms a thin layer of aluminium oxide on it. This layer of oxide
prevents further reactions and protects the metal from corrosion. If this oxide layer formation
is more uniform, the metal below the layer would be well protected. This can be formed with
the help of a process called anodising. In this process, electric current is passed through
sulphuric acid, utilising aluminium as anode. Oxygen is liberated at anode and it reacts with
aluminium and forms a uniform oxide layer of aluminium, which protects the metal from
corrosion. This is how anodising of aluminium is done.

Metals react with water to form oxides or hydroxides with release of hydrogen gas.
1. Sodium and potassium react vigorously even with cold water producing hydroxides with
release of enormous heat.

Sodium Water Sodium hydroxide Hydrogen

Potassium Water Potassium hydroxide Hydrogen

2. Magnesium does not react with cold water, but reacts with hot water or steam to form
magnesium oxide.

Magnesium Water Magnesium oxide Hydrogen


3. Aluminium reacts with water to form a thin layer of aluminium oxide on it. This thin
coating of aluminium oxide on aluminium acts as a barrier and stops further reactions.

Aluminium Water Aluminium oxide Hydrogen


From the above examples, we can say that sodium and potassium are highly reactive,
magnesium is less reactive and aluminium is least reactive. This shows that different
metals have different reactivity with water.

Important uses of copper are:


i. Copper is commonly used in electric cables and wires. It is also used as coil in many
electrical appliances.
ii. ii. It is used to prepare utensils, calorimeters and car radiators. iii. It is also used to
form alloys such as brass, bronze, which are hard and corrosion resistant with many
uses.

Aluminium reacts with air and forms a thin layer of aluminium oxide on it. This layer of oxide
prevents further reactions and protects the metal from corrosion. This is how aluminium
protects itself against corrosion. But this oxide layer is not uniform and may lead to corrosion
over a period of time. If it is more uniform, the metal below the layer would be well -
protected. This can be made with the help of a process called anodising. In this process,
electric current is passed through sulphuric acid, utilising aluminium as anode. Oxygen,
which is liberated at anode, reacts with aluminium and forms a uniform oxide layer of
aluminium, which protects the metal from corrosion. This is why anodising of aluminium is
essential.

Three important uses of hydrogen are:


i. Hydrogen is mainly used in the manufacture of ammonia, which is further used to
prepare fertilisers like urea, ammonium sulphate etc.
ii. It is used in the extraction of metals such as copper, lead, tungsten, tin for example,
hydrogen is used as a reducing agent in the reduction of tungsten oxide to purify
tungsten during extraction.
iii. It is used in cutting and welding of metals in industries. When hydrogen is burnt in
oxygen, an oxyhydrogen flame is obtained by which cutting and welding of metal is
performed.
Three uses of silicon are:
i. Silicon is widely used in electronic and computer industries for the manufacturing
of transistors, integrated chips and solar cells.
ii. Silicones, a compound of silicon, is used in the manufacturing of grease, polish
and waterproof materials. They are also used as insulating materials in electrical
equipments.
iii. Silicon carbide, a component of silicon, is used as an abrasive material.

Silver is the best conductor of electricity, but it is highly expensive. This makes it cost
ineffective to be used in electrical wiring. Thus, electric wires are not made of silver.

Most of the metals are sonorous in nature i.e., they produce ringing sound when hammered.
This property of metals makes it suitable to be used in the manufacturing of bells. On the
other hand, wood is not sonorous and cannot produce ringing sound when hammered.
Therefore, wood it is not used in manufacturing of bells.

If copper was high up in the reactivity series, it would have been a highly reactive metal.
Further, it would be difficult to store it because highly reactive metals react vigorously with
air, water and acids. Such a reactive metal cannot be used for preparing cooking vessels,
electrical wires or all other applications, where copper is generally used.

Silverwares become black due to the formation of a thin layer of silver sulphide on them by
reacting with hydrogen sulphide present in the air.

Fifty years ago, the presence of hydrogen sulphide in the air was very less due to pollution
free environment. Thus, silver objects did not become black faster. Now a days, industrial
revolution and excessive usage of automobiles have increased the percentage of sulphur in
air. This has further increased the percentage of hydrogen sulphide leading to fading or
blackening of silver objects faster.

Aluminium is above iron in the reactivity series. However, its reactions with oxygen and
water seem to indicate that it is less reactive than iron due to the following reason:
Aluminium reacts with air and forms a thin layer of aluminium oxide on it.

Aluminium Oxygen Aluminium oxide

Aluminium Water Aluminium oxide Hydrogen


This layer of oxide prevents further reactions, making aluminium less reactive. This layer
also protects the metal from corrosion. This is how aluminium protects itself against
corrosion.
The alloy that is used extensively during the construction of buildings is steel, which is an
alloy of iron and carbon. Steel is very strong and its usage makes the building strong and
sturdy.

The tablets do contain iron but the iron is in the ionic form ( as soluble ferrous ion). Such an
iron in ionic form is easily absorbed by our body. It does not retain the property of hardness,
which a metallic iron has. Therefore, iron tablets are not hard or look like metallic iron.