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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

Midterm Exam 1
October 2, 2012

Name:

Instructions
1. This examination is closed book and closed notes. All your belongings
except a pen or pencil and a calculator should be put away and your
bookbag should be placed on the floor.
2. You will find one page of useful formulae on the last page of the exam.
3. Please show all your work in the space provided on each page. If you
need more space, feel free to use the back side of each page.
4. Academic dishonesty (i.e., copying or cheating in any way) will
result in a zero for the exam, and may cause you to fail the
class.

In order to receive maximum credit,


each solution should have:
1. A labeled picture or diagram, if appropriate.
2. A list of given variables.
3. A list of the unknown quantities (i.e., what you are solving for).
4. Graphical representations of the motion (e.g., position, velocity, acceler-
ation vs. time), if appropriate.
5. A labeled 1D or 2D coordinate axis system, if appropriate.
6. The full equation or equations needed to solve the problem
(e.g., appropriate equations of motion).
7. An algebraic solution of the unknown variables in terms of the
known variables.
8. A final numerical solution, including units, with a box around it.
9. An answer to additional questions posed in the problem, if any.

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

1. One game at the amusement park has you push a puck up a long, frictionless ramp. You
win a stuffed animal if the puck, at its highest point, comes to within 10 cm of the end
of the ramp without going off. You give the puck a push, releasing it with a speed of
6.0 m{s when it is 9 m from the end of the ramp. The pucks speed after traveling 2.5 m
is 5.0 m{s. Are you a winner?

Solution:

This is a 1D kinematics question. We are given the pucks initial velocity vDi , and
its velocity after it has traveled 2.5 m. We are also given the length of the ramp,
xf , and we are asked to find whether the puck stops within 10 cm of the end of the
ramp. To solve this problem we need the 1D kinematic equation relating velocities,
distance, and acceleration. We need to find the acceleration from the two velocities
and the two speeds at the start of the pucks trip up the slide:

vf2  vi2  2apxf  xiq (1)


2apxf  xi q  vi2  vf2 (2)
vi2  vf2
a 
2pxf  xi q
(3)

a 
p6 m{sq2  p5 m{sq2
2p2.5q
(4)

a  2.2 m{s2 (5)


(6)

We can use the same equation again, using the starting and ending velocity and the
acceleration that we just found, where vf  0:

vf2  vi2  2apxf  xi q (7)

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

0  vi2  2apxf  xi q (8)


2apxf  xi q  vi2 (9)
vi2
p xf  xi q  2a
(10)

 p6 m{sq2
2p2.2 m{s2 q
(11)

 8.2 m (12)
(13)

Unfortunately, you do not win! The puck stops well before the winning distance. To
win, the puck has to stop at a distance between 8.9 and 9 m.

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

2. As a science project, you drop a watermelon off the top of the Empire State Building,
350 m above the sidewalk. It so happens that Superman flies by at the instant you
release the watermelon. Superman is headed straight down with a constant speed of
40 m{s. How fast is the watermelon going when it passes Superman?

Solution:

This is a 1D kinematics question. We are given the watermelon and Supermans


starting position at 350 m and Supermans constant velocity of 40 m{s. We also
know that the acceleration of gravity is 9.8m{s2 .
To solve this problem we need use the 1D kinematic equations for the watermelon
and Superman:

xSf  xSi vSi t


1
2
aS ptq2  xSi vSi t, (14)

xW f  xW i vW i t
1
2
aW ptq2  xW i
1
2
aW ptq2 . (15)

Were trying to find the speed of the watermelon just as it passes Superman, or when
the xSf  xW f . Setting these two equations equal to each other, we have:

vSi t  xW i aW ptq2
1
xSi (16)
2
(17)

Since the initial positions are the same, xSi  xW i, and this equation becomes:

vSi t  aW ptq2
1
(18)
2
(19)

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

We can factor t, and substitute aW  g, and the equation simplifies to:


vSi  12 gt (20)
(21)

Solving for the time, t:

t 
2vSi
g
 2p40 mq
9.8 m{s2
 8.2 sec (22)

(23)

To find the velocity of the watermelon:

 vi at
vf (24)
vf  gt (25)
vf  9.8 m{s2 p8.2 secq  80.4 m{s (26)
(27)

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

3. Let A~  9  3 ~  7 5
, B ~  3A
, and D ~  2B.
~
(a) Write vector D ~ in component form.
~ B,
(b) Draw a coordinate system and on it show vectors A, ~ and D.
~
~
(c) What are the magnitude and direction of vector D?

Solution:
~ in component form we first multiplyA
(a) To write D ~ by 3 and B
~ by 2.

~  3  9  3  3
3A  27  9
(28)
~
2B  2  p7q 2  5
 14 10
(29)
(30)

Next we add the x- and y-components:

~
D 3A~  2B~ (31)
 p27  9q  p14 10q (32)
 p27 14q p9  10q (33)
 41  19. (34)

(b)

~ is given by
(c) The magnitude of the vector D

a
|D~ |  412 p19q2 (35)
 45.2, (36)

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

and the direction (measured positive counter-clockwise from the x-axis) is equal to



 tan1  tan1  24.9or 335.1.


Dy 19
(37)
Dx 41

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

4. The figure shows three ropes tied together in a knot. One of your friends pulls on a
rope with 3.0 units of force and another pulls on a second rope with 5.0 units of force.
How hard and in what direction must you pull on the third rope to keep the knot from
moving?

Solution:
This is a vector problem that uses x- and y- components of vectors. The three vectors
must be balanced. This means that the x- and y - components of the three vectors
must be balanced.


F 0 (38)
x
Fy  0 (39)
(40)

The 3 unit force vector is only in the x-direction. The 5 unit force vector has x-
and y- components. The x-component of the 5 unit force vector is found from SOH-
CAH-TOA:

cos  F5x (41)


Fx 5 cos  5 cosp60q  2.5 units (42)
sin 
Fy
(43)
5
Fy  5 sin  5 sinp60q  4.33 units (44)
(45)

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

Now we add the x-components:



Fx  2.5 3  0.5 (46)
(47)

For the unknown vector to balance the other forces on the knot,

Fx  0.5 (48)
Fy  4.33 (49)
(50)

To find the magnitude of the force,


a
|D~ |  p.5q2 p4.33q2 (51)
 4.36 units (52)

and the direction (measured positive counter-clockwise from the x-axis) is equal to



 tan1  tan1  83.4 S of W or  263.4.


Dy 4.33
(53)
Dx .5

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

5. A stunt-man drives a car at a speed of 35 m{s off a 25 m high cliff. The road leading to
the cliff is inclined upward at an angle of 15 .
(a) How far from the base of the cliff does the car land?
(b) What is the cars impact speed?

Solution:

This is a 2D projectile motion problem. We are given the initial height of the car
above the ground, yi  25 m, its initial velocity, vi  35.0 m{s, and the angle above
the horizontal with which the car leaves the cliff,  15 . We are asked about the
final distance from the base of the cliff and the cars impact speed.
a) To solve the problem we first determine the initial velocity of the ball in the
horizontal (x) and vertical (y) dimensions:

vxi  vi cos  p35 m{sq  cos p15 q  33.8 m{s, (54)


vyi  vi sin  p35 m{sq  sin p15 q  9.1 m{s. (55)

Next, we use the vertical kinematic equation of projectile motion to find the time it
takes the car to hit the ground, resulting in yf  0:

yf  0  yi vyi t  g ptq2 ,
1
2
(56)

g ptq2  vyi t  yi  0,
1
(57)
2
4.9t2  9.1t  25  0 (58)
(59)

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

Using the quadratic equation and substituting in values,


?2
t 
b 
b  4ac
(60)
a 2a
9.1  p9.1q  4p4.9qp25q
t 
2

2p4.9q
(61)

t  3.4 sec (62)


(63)

Next, we use the horizontal kinematic equation of projectile motion to find the
distance the car lands from the bottom of the cliff:

xf  xi vxit (64)
 vxit (65)
 p33.8 m{sqp3.4 secq (66)
 114 m (67)
(68)

b)To find the impact speed, we need to find the final x- and y- components of velocity.
The x-component of the final velocity is:

vf x  vix  33.8 m{s (69)


(70)

The y-component of the final velocity is:

vf y  viy  gt  9.1 m{s  p9.8 m{s2qp3.4 secq (71)


 24.2 m{s (72)
(73)

To find the magnitude of the velocity or the impact speed,


a
|~v|  p33.8q2 p24.2q2 (74)
 41.6 m{s (75)
(76)

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

6. You are watching an archery tournament when you start wondering how fast an arrow
is shot from the bow. Remembering your physics, you ask one of the archers to shoot
an arrow parallel to the ground. You find the arrow stuck in the ground 50 m away,
making a 2 angle with the ground. How fast was the arrow shot?

Solution:

This is a 2D projectile motion problem. We are told that the arrow is pointed in the
horizontal direction initially, that the range, or horizontal distance the arrow travels
is xf  50 m, and that the angle at which the arrow hits the ground with respect to
the horizontal is  15 . We are asked to find the initial speed of the arrow.
a) To start the problem, lets use the kinematic equation for x where the initial
position, xi  0:

xf  xi vix t  vix t (77)


(78)

Then, lets use the kinematic equation for y where the initial velocity viy  0:
vyf  vyi  gt  gt (79)
(80)

Since the velocity in the x-direction is a constant, lets set vix  vf x  vx.
Now, use the angle at which the arrow hits the ground to relate vx and vy .

tan  vvy (81)


x

vx  tan
vy

(82)
(83)

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

From the equation above, we know that vy  gt, which gives

vx  tan
vy
 gt (84)
tan
(85)

Plugging this into the equation for xf , we get

xf  vxt  tan
gt

t (86)

 gt
2
(87)
tan
(88)

Find the time by rearranging the equation to get

t2  xf tan
(89)
d d g

t 
xf tan
t 
p50 mq tanp2q t  0.4 sec
9.8 m{s2
(90)
g

To find the initial velocity,

 tan
vx
vy

 gt
tan
(91)

vx 
vy
 p 9.8 m{s2 qp0.4 secq
tanp2q
(92)
tan
vx  112 m{s (93)
(94)

Note: We drop the negative sign on g because were keeping track of the positive
and negative values, and we know that vx is positive. The negative in the equation
would result from the fact that the velocity is in the negative y-direction and the
angle is in the 4th quadrant.

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

7. As the earth rotates, what is the speed of (a) a physics student in Miami, Florida, at
latitude 25 , and (b) a physics student in Fairbanks, Alaska, at latitude 66 ? Ignore the
revolution of the earth around the sun. The radius of the earth is 6390 km.

Solution:
This is a uniform angular acceleration problem in which we are given the radius of
the earth, re  6390 km, and the latitude (angle with respect to the equator) of
each physics student.

(a) From the geometry of the problem, the linear distance of the student from the
rotational axis of the earth is

r  re sin p90  q (95)


 p6390 kmq  sinp65q (96)
 5791 km. (97)

The speed of the student in Miami is just equal to the circumference divided by the
period, T , which is just one day:

v  2r
(98)
T


2  5791 km
 1 day
 24  3600 sec
1 day
(99)

 0.421 km s1 (100)


 421 m{s. (101)

(b) This solution proceeds just like above but with  66. In this case the radius
is 2600 km, and v  0.189 m{s  189 km s1 .

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

8. A rock stuck in the tread of a 56.0 cm diameter bicycle wheel has a tangential speed of
2.80 m{s. When the brakes are applied, the rocks tangential deceleration is 1.30 m{s2 .
(a) What are the magnitudes of the rocks angular velocity and angular acceleration at
t  1.70 s?
(b) At what time is the magnitude of the rocks acceleration equal to g?

Solution:
This is a non-uniform angular acceleration problem. We are given the size of the
wheel, r  28 cm  0.28 m, the initial tangential speed of the rock, vi  2.80 m{s, and
the tangential deceleration of the rock when the brakes are applied, aT  1.30 m{s2 .

(a) In order to determine the final angular velocity, f of the rock after t  1.70 sec,
we first have to determine the initial angular velocity:

m{s
wi  vri  2.8
0.28 m
 10 rad{sec. (102)

The angular acceleration is a constant and given by:

 1.30 m{s 2
  4.64 rad{sec2.
aT
(103)
r 0.28 m
Finally, using the appropriate rotational kinematic equation and substituting, we
obtain

f  i t (104)
 10 rad{sec  p4.64 rad{sec2 q  p1.7 secq (105)
 2.11 rad{sec. (106)

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

(b) In order to find the time at which the magnitude of the angular acceleration of
the rock equals g, wea first need to find the linear velocity of the rock at that time.
We want |~a|  g  a2T a2r , where aT is given in the problem and ar  v 2 {r.
Substituting and solving for v we get

d  2
2
g  a2T
v
r
(107)

v4
g 2
 a2T
r2
(108)
v4  r2pg2  a2Tq (109)
v  r1{2pg2  a2Tq1{4 (110)
 p0.28 mq1{2  rp9.8 m{s2q2  p1.30 m{s2q2s1{4 (111)
 1.65 m{s. (112)

To find the time at which the rock reaches this velocity, we use the 1D kinematic
equation for velocity and solve for the time:

vf  vi  aT t (113)
vi  vf
t  aT
(114)
2.80 m{s  1.65 m{s
 1.30 m{s2
(115)

 0.88 sec. (116)

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Physics 130 General Physics - McColgan Fall 2012

Kinematics and Mechanics

xf  xi vxit 12 axptq2
vxf  vxi ax t
2
vxf  vxi2 2axpxf  xiq
yf  yi vyi t
1 2
ay t
2
vyf  vyi ay t
2
vyf  vyi2 2ay pyf  yiq
f  i i t
1
t2
2
f  i t
f 2  i 2 2
s  r
c  2r
v
2r
T
vt  r
v2
ar   2r
r
at  r

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