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# Chapter 7

Contents

Chapter 7

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 2 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-1 Drag and Heat Transfer in External Flow
Drag
The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the flow direction
FD (where A frontal area)
Drag coefficient: CD
1
V 2 A
2
Drag force depends on the density of the fluid, the upstream velocity, and the size,
shape, and orientation of the body.
High pressure Low pressure
Total drag coefficient:
+ -
CD CD,friction CD,pressure +
+
-
-
+ -
+ -
Flat plate normal to flow direction: + -

## CD CD,pressure C p , CD,friction 0 Wall shear

Flat plate parallel to flow direction : Drag force acting on a flat plate normal
to flow depends on the pressure only and
CD CD,friction C f , CD,pressure 0 is independent of the wall shear, which
acts normal to flow.

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 3 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-1 Drag and Heat Transfer in External Flow

Heat transfer
1. The average Nusselt number in experimental approach can be expressed in terms
of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers:

Nu C RemL Pr n
2. The fluid properties are evaluated at the film temperature, as
Ts T
Tf
2
3. The average friction and convection coefficients for the entire surface

1 L 1 L
CD CD , x dx, and h hx dx
L 0 L 0
4. The rate of heat transfer is

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 4 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

## Parallel flow over flat pates

The transition from laminar to
turbulent flow is best characterized hx Laminar Transition Turbulent
by the Reynolds number. Cf
f

V
hx , C f ,x
The Reynolds number at a distance
x from the leading edge of a flat x
plate.

Vx Vx
Re x x

Vx
Recr 5 105

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 5 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates
Friction coefficient:
The local friction coefficient and the boundary layer thickness at location x
0.664 5x
Laminar: C f ,x 1/2
and , x 1/2 , Re x 5 105
Re x Re x
0.0592 0.382 x
Turbulent: C f ,x 1/5
and , x , 5 105 Re x 107
Re x Re1/5
x

## The average friction coefficient over the entire plate

1 L 1.328
L 0
Laminar: Cf C f,x dx , Re L 5 105
Re1/L 2
1 L 0.074
Turbulent: C f C f , x dx , 5 105 Re L 107
L 0 Re1/5 L

## Combined laminar and turbulent flow

( when the length of laminar region cannot be neglected. )
5 105 Re L 107
Cf
1
L
0
xcr L

xcr
C f , x laminar dx C f , x turbulent dx
0.074 1742
1/5
Re L

Re L xcr
Recr
V

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 6 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates
Heat transfer coefficient:
The local Nusselt number at location x
hx x
Laminar: Nu x 0.332Re0.5
x Pr
1/ 3
, Re x 5 105 , Pr 0.60
k
hx
Turbulent: Nu x x 0.0296Re0.8 x Pr
1/ 3
, 5 105 Re x 107 , 0.6 Pr 60
k
The average Nusselt number over the entire plate
hL
Laminar: Nu 0.664Re0.5 Re L 5 105 , Pr 0.60
1/ 3
L Pr ,
k
hL
Turbulent: Nu 0.037 Re0.8
L Pr
1/ 3
, 5 105 Re L 107 , 0.6 Pr 60
k
Combined laminar and turbulent flow
( when the length of laminar region cannot be neglected. )

h
1
L 0
xcr L
hx , laminar hx , turbulent dx
xcr 5 105 Re L 107

= 0.037Re0.8
L 871 Pr
hL 0.6 Pr 60
Nu 1/3

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 7 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

## Flat Plate with Unheated Starting Length

The local Nusselt number at location x T Ts for x
Nu x for =0 0.332 Re0.5 1/ 3
x Pr
Laminar: Nu x
3 / 4 1/ 3 1/ 3
1 / x 1 / x 3 / 4

Nu x for =0 0.0296 Re0.8 1/ 3
x Pr
Turbulent: Nu x 1/ 9
1/ 9
1 / x 9 /10 1 / x 9 /10

The average convection coefficients
2 1 / x
3/ 4 T
Laminar: h h
Thermal boundary layer
V
xL
1 / L
Velocity boundary layer

5 1 / x
9 /10
h Ts
Turbulent: h
4 1 / L
x L

for = 0, Laminar: have 2hxL
x
5
Turbulent: have hx L
4

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 8 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

## Uniform Heat Flux

Laminar: Nu x 0.453Re0.5
x Pr
1/ 3

Turbulent: Nu x 0.0308Re0.8
x Pr
1/ 3

When heat flux is prescribed, the rate of heat transfer to or from the plate and the
surface temperature at a distance x are determined from

Q qs As
and
qs
qs hx Ts x T Ts x T
hx

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 9 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

Ex 7.1
Engine oil at 60 flows over a 5-m-long flat plate whose temperature is 20 with a
velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the total drag force and the rate of heat transfer per unit
width of the entire plate.
u 2 m/s
T 60 o C
Q
Oil A Ts 20 o C

L5m

Solution

## 1. Given Engine oil flow over an isothermal flat plate.

L = 5 m, T = 60, Ts = 20, u = 2 m/s

## 2. Find The total drag force

The rate of heat transfer per unit width of the entire plate.
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 10 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

3. Schematic
u 2 m/s
T 60 o C
Q
Oil A Ts 20 o C

L5m

2. Recr=5105

## 5. Properties - The film temperature of the engine oil: T f (Ts T ) / 2 40 o C

- The density of the oil: 876kg/m
3

## - The Prandtl number: Pr 2870

- The thermal conductivity of the oil: k 0.144 W/m o C
- The kinematic viscosity: 242 106 m2 /s
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 11 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

6. Solve
(a) The total drag force
To determine the friction coefficient, the Reynolds number must first be determined.
The Reynolds number at the end of the plate is

u L (2 m/s)(5 m)
Re L5 m 6
4.13 104 < Re cr ( 5 105 )
v 242 10 m /s2

Thus we have laminar flow over the entire plate, and the average friction
coefficient is determined from

## C f 1.328Re L0.5 4 0.5

5 m 1.328 (4.13 10 ) 0.00653

## u2 (876 kg/m3 )(2 m/s) 2

FD C f A 0.00653 (5 1 m ) 2
57.2 N
2 2
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 12 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

(b) The rate of heat transfer per unit width of the entire plate

From Newtons law of cooling that the rate of convection heat transfer to the plate is

Qconv hA T Ts

To determine the average Nusselt number by using the laminar flow relations for a
flat plate
hL
Nu 0.664 Re0.5 0.664 (4.13 10 4 ) 0.5 2,870 1,918
1/3 1/3
L Pr
k
Then,
k 0.144 W/m o C
h Nu= (1,918) 55.2 W/m 2 o C
L 5m
and the rate of heat transfer per unit width of the entire plate is

## Qconv hA(T Ts ) (55.2 W/m 2 o C)(5 1 m 2 )(60 20) o C

=11,040 W=11.04 kW

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 13 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

Ex 6.2

The local atmospheric pressure in Denver, Colorado (elevation 1610 m), is 83.4 kPa.
Air at this pressure and 20 flows with a velocity of 8 m/s over a 1.5 m 6 m flat
plate whose temperature is 134. Determine the rate of heat transfer from the plate if
the air flows parallel to the 6m long side.

Solution

## 1. Given Airflow over an isothermal flat plate

L = 6 m, T = 20, Ts = 134, u = 8 m/s, P = 83.4 kPa

## 2. Find The rate of heat transfer from the plate.

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 14 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

3. Schematic
Patm 83.4 kPa
T 20 o C, V 8 m/s
Q
air Ts 134 o C

1.5 m
6m

## 4. Assumption 1. Steady state condition

2. Recr=5105
4. Air is an ideal gas.

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 15 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

## 5. Properties The properties of air at the film temperature of Tf = (Ts+T)/2 = 77

The Prandtl number: Pr = 0.706
The thermal conductivity of the air: k = 0.0297 W/mK
The kinematic viscosity at atmospheric pressure: = 2.0610-5 m2/s
2 p1 p1
From the ideal gas law, p 2
1 p
1 2 2

## The kinematic viscosity in Denver: = 2.5010-5 m2/s

6. Solve
When air flow is parallel to the long side, we have Lc = m, and the
Reynolds number at the end of the plate becomes
V Lc (8 m/s)(6 m)
Re L 5
1.92 106 Re cr (5 105 )
v 2.50 10 m /s2

Thus, we have combined laminar and turbulent flow, and the average Nusselt number
for the entire plate is determined from
hL
Nu Pr1/3 (0.037 Re0.8
L 871) 0.706 [0.037(1.92 10 )
1/3 6 0.8
871] 2, 727
k
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 16 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates

## Convection heat transfer coefficient

k 0.0297 W/m o C
h Nu (2, 727) 13.5 W/m 2 o C
L 6m
Convection heat transfer area

A wL (1.5 m)(6 m) = 9 m 2

## Q hA(Ts T ) (13.5 W/m 2 o C)(9 m 2 )(134 20) o C 13,850 W

7. Comment
If we disregarded the laminar region and assumed turbulent flow over entire plate,
we would get Nu = 3,520 from
hL
Nu 0.037 Re4L 5 Pr1 3 (0.6 Pr 60, 5 105 Re L 107 )
k
which is 28% higher than value we calculated above. Note that, in this example,
the length of laminar region is xcr = Recr/V = 1.563 m, which is not negligible.

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 17 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres
Drag
Friction drag : This is due to the boundary layer surface shear stress.
Form (or pressure) drag : This is due to a pressure gradient in the flow direction
resulting from formation of the wake.

## u2 where A = frontal area

Cylinder: A = LD
FD CD A Sphere: A = D2
2

u ( x)
p p
0 0
x x
u x
x
midplane D wake

## Separation Flow reversal

Vortices
Stagnation point point
Note :
With increasing Reynolds Number, the effect of separation, and therefore form drag, becomes more important.
u D
The critical Reynolds number : Re , Recr 2 105
v

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 18 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres
Average drag coefficient for cross flow over a smooth circular cylinder
and sphere

## Re 1 : There is no flow separation in this regime.

Re 10 : Separation starts occurring on the rear of the body.
10 Re 103 : The region of separation increases with increasing Re.
103 Re 105 : The drag coefficient remains relatively constant,
105 Re 106 : There is a sudden drop in the drag coefficient due to
the transition to turbulent regime.

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 19 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres

## Heat transfer coefficient at cylinder & sphere

Cylinder
Churchill & Bernstein
5/8 4/5
0.62Re Pr0.5 Re
1/3

Nu d 0.3 d
d
100 Re d 107
1/4
1
0.4 2/3 282,000 Re d Pr 0.2
1
Pr
Where all properties are evaluated at the film temperature.

Sphere
Whitaker

hD
1/4
3.5 Re d 80,000
Nu spd 2 0.4Re1/2 0.06Re 2/3 Pr 0.4
0.7 Pr 380
k s

Where all properties are evaluated at the free-stream temperature T except for s

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 20 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres

Compact form of the average Nusselt number for flow across cylinders

## Nu f C Re nf Pr1/3 4,000~40,000 0.193 0.618

40,000~400,000 0.0266 0.805

(titled 45)

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 21 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres

## Hexagon 5000~19,500 0.160 0.638

D (titled 45)
Nu f C Re nf Pr1/3 19,500~100,000 0.0385 0.782

(where Re f V D / )
D Vertical
4000~15,000 0.228 0.731
plate

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 22 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres

Ex 7.3

## Assume that a person can be approximated as a cylinder of 0.3-m

diameter and 1.8-m height with a surface temperature of 24.
Calculate the body heat loss while this person is subjected to a 15
m/s wind whose temperature is -5.

Solution

## 1. Given Person can be approximated as a cylinder

L = 0.3 m, l = 1.8 m, T = -5, Ts = 24, u = 15 m/s

## 2. Find The body heat loss

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 23 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres

3. Schematic D 0.3 m

Air
V 15 m/s
T 5 o C
L 1.8 m

Ts 24 o C

2. Recr=5105

## 5. Properties The properties of air at the film temperature of Tf = (Ts+T)/2 = 9.5

The Prandtl number: Pr = 0.7337
The thermal conductivity of the air: k = 0.024352 W/mK
The kinematic viscosity at atmospheric pressure: = 1.421610-5 m2/s

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 24 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres

6. Solve
The heat transfer rate from the cylinder, approximating the person, is given as
q hAs (Ts T ) where As = Dl

Reynolds number
VD (15 m/s)(0.3 m)
Re d 6
313,548
v 14.216 10 m /s 2

## h must be estimated from a correlation appropriate.

4/5
0.62 Re Pr 1/2 1/3 Re
5/8

Churchill and Bernstein: Nu d 0.3 d
1/4 1 d

1 (0.4 / Pr) 2/3 282,000

## this relation appropriates under the below condition

100 Re d 107
Re d Pr 0.2

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 25 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres

hence,
1/4
0.62 313,548 0.7337 313,548 5/8
1/2 1/3

## Nu d 0.3 1/4 1 493.176

1 0.4 / 0.7337 2/3 282,000

Convection heat transfer coefficient is
k 24.352 103 W/m K
h Nu d 493.176 40.03 W/m 2 K
D 0.3 m

## Q 40.03 W/m 2 K 0.3 m 1.8 m 24 5 K 1969.4 W

7. Comment
Properties are obtained from Table A-15 by using the interpolation method.

The wind-chill factor will make you feel colder. In an engineering sense, the
increased Reynolds number results in the enhanced Nu number & h.

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 26 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-4 Flow Across Tube Banks
Flow across Tube Banks

SL SL
V , T1
V , T1 SD
efficiency
ST umax < ST
D noise A1
A1 AT AT

Vmax D Vmax D
Re D
S D S L2 ST / 2
2

## The maximum velocity for in-line arrangement. A1 ST L

where
AT ST D L
VA1 Vmax AT or VST Vmax ST D
ST
Vmax V
ST D

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 27 School of Mechanical Engineering

7-4 Flow Across Tube Banks
The maximum velocity for staggered arrangement.
ST
If 2AD > AT : Vmax V
ST D
S ST D / 2
If 2AD < AT : Vmax ST
V
2 SD D
D

0.25

## Arrangement Range of ReD C m n

0~100 0.9 0.4 0.36
100~1000 0.52 0.5 0.36
In-line
1000~2105 0.27 0.63 0.36
2105~2106 0.033 0.8 0.4
0~500 1.04 0.4 0.36
500~1000 0.71 0.5 0.36
Staggered
1000~2105 0.35(ST/SL)0.2 0.6 0.36
2105~2106 0.031(ST/SL)0.2 0.8 0.36

All properties except Prs are evaluated at Tm Tinlet Toutlet / 2. Prs is evaluated at Ts .