Chapter 7
Flat plate parallel to flow direction : Drag force acting on a flat plate normal
to flow depends on the pressure only and
CD CD,friction C f , CD,pressure 0 is independent of the wall shear, which
acts normal to flow.
Heat transfer
1. The average Nusselt number in experimental approach can be expressed in terms
of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers:
Nu C RemL Pr n
2. The fluid properties are evaluated at the film temperature, as
Ts T
Tf
2
3. The average friction and convection coefficients for the entire surface
1 L 1 L
CD CD , x dx, and h hx dx
L 0 L 0
4. The rate of heat transfer is
V
hx , C f ,x
The Reynolds number at a distance
x from the leading edge of a flat x
plate.
Vx Vx
Re x x
Vx
Recr 5 105
xcr
C f , x laminar dx C f , x turbulent dx
0.074 1742
1/5
Re L
Re L xcr
Recr
V
h
1
L 0
xcr L
hx , laminar hx , turbulent dx
xcr 5 105 Re L 107
= 0.037Re0.8
L 871 Pr
hL 0.6 Pr 60
Nu 1/3
5 1 / x
9 /10
h Ts
Turbulent: h
4 1 / L
x L
for = 0, Laminar: have 2hxL
x
5
Turbulent: have hx L
4
Turbulent: Nu x 0.0308Re0.8
x Pr
1/ 3
When heat flux is prescribed, the rate of heat transfer to or from the plate and the
surface temperature at a distance x are determined from
Q qs As
and
qs
qs hx Ts x T Ts x T
hx
Ex 7.1
Engine oil at 60 flows over a 5-m-long flat plate whose temperature is 20 with a
velocity of 2 m/s. Determine the total drag force and the rate of heat transfer per unit
width of the entire plate.
u 2 m/s
T 60 o C
Q
Oil A Ts 20 o C
L5m
Solution
3. Schematic
u 2 m/s
T 60 o C
Q
Oil A Ts 20 o C
L5m
6. Solve
(a) The total drag force
To determine the friction coefficient, the Reynolds number must first be determined.
The Reynolds number at the end of the plate is
u L (2 m/s)(5 m)
Re L5 m 6
4.13 104 < Re cr ( 5 105 )
v 242 10 m /s2
Thus we have laminar flow over the entire plate, and the average friction
coefficient is determined from
(b) The rate of heat transfer per unit width of the entire plate
From Newtons law of cooling that the rate of convection heat transfer to the plate is
Qconv hA T Ts
To determine the average Nusselt number by using the laminar flow relations for a
flat plate
hL
Nu 0.664 Re0.5 0.664 (4.13 10 4 ) 0.5 2,870 1,918
1/3 1/3
L Pr
k
Then,
k 0.144 W/m o C
h Nu= (1,918) 55.2 W/m 2 o C
L 5m
and the rate of heat transfer per unit width of the entire plate is
Ex 6.2
The local atmospheric pressure in Denver, Colorado (elevation 1610 m), is 83.4 kPa.
Air at this pressure and 20 flows with a velocity of 8 m/s over a 1.5 m 6 m flat
plate whose temperature is 134. Determine the rate of heat transfer from the plate if
the air flows parallel to the 6m long side.
Solution
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 14 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates
3. Schematic
Patm 83.4 kPa
T 20 o C, V 8 m/s
Q
air Ts 134 o C
1.5 m
6m
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 15 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates
Thus, we have combined laminar and turbulent flow, and the average Nusselt number
for the entire plate is determined from
hL
Nu Pr1/3 (0.037 Re0.8
L 871) 0.706 [0.037(1.92 10 )
1/3 6 0.8
871] 2, 727
k
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 16 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates
A wL (1.5 m)(6 m) = 9 m 2
7. Comment
If we disregarded the laminar region and assumed turbulent flow over entire plate,
we would get Nu = 3,520 from
hL
Nu 0.037 Re4L 5 Pr1 3 (0.6 Pr 60, 5 105 Re L 107 )
k
which is 28% higher than value we calculated above. Note that, in this example,
the length of laminar region is xcr = Recr/V = 1.563 m, which is not negligible.
u ( x)
p p
0 0
x x
u x
x
midplane D wake
Sphere
Whitaker
hD
1/4
3.5 Re d 80,000
Nu spd 2 0.4Re1/2 0.06Re 2/3 Pr 0.4
0.7 Pr 380
k s
Where all properties are evaluated at the free-stream temperature T except for s
Compact form of the average Nusselt number for flow across cylinders
(where Re f V D / )
D Vertical
4000~15,000 0.228 0.731
plate
Ex 7.3
Solution
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 23 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres
3. Schematic D 0.3 m
Air
V 15 m/s
T 5 o C
L 1.8 m
Ts 24 o C
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 24 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres
6. Solve
The heat transfer rate from the cylinder, approximating the person, is given as
q hAs (Ts T ) where As = Dl
Reynolds number
VD (15 m/s)(0.3 m)
Re d 6
313,548
v 14.216 10 m /s 2
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 25 School of Mechanical Engineering
7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres
hence,
1/4
0.62 313,548 0.7337 313,548 5/8
1/2 1/3
7. Comment
Properties are obtained from Table A-15 by using the interpolation method.
The wind-chill factor will make you feel colder. In an engineering sense, the
increased Reynolds number results in the enhanced Nu number & h.
SL SL
V , T1
V , T1 SD
efficiency
ST umax < ST
AD
D noise A1
A1 AT AT
< AD
All properties except Prs are evaluated at Tm Tinlet Toutlet / 2. Prs is evaluated at Ts .