You are on page 1of 8

Crime in 2016: Final Year-End Data

By Ames Grawert and James Cullen 1

This analysis finds that Americans are safer today than they have been at almost any time in the past
25 years. 2

Based on new year-end data collected from police departments in the 30 largest cities, crime in 2016
remained at historic lows across the country. Although there are some troubling increases in murder
in specific cities, these trends do not signal the start of a new national crime wave. Whats more
startling, this analysis finds that the increase in murders is even more concentrated than initially
expected. Chicago now accounts for more than 55.1 percent of the total increase in urban murders
up from an earlier projection of 43.7 percent.

Tables 1 and 2 show conclusions similar to previous reports, with slightly different percentages: *

The overall crime rate in the 30 largest cities in 2016 remained largely unchanged from last
year. Specifically, overall crime rose by 0.9 percent, essentially remaining stable.

The murder rate rose in this group of cities last year by 13.1 percent.

Alarmingly, Chicago accounted for 55.1 percent of the total increase in urban murders
more than preliminary data suggested.

A similar phenomenon occurred in 2015, when three cities Baltimore, Chicago, and
Washington, D.C. accounted for more than half (53.5 percent) of the increase in
murders. 3

Some cities are experiencing an increase in murder while other forms of crime remain
relatively low. Concerns about a national crime wave are premature, but these trends suggest
a need to understand how and why murder is increasing in these cities.

Violent crime rates rose slightly. The 4.2 percent increase was driven by Chicago (16.5
percent) and Baltimore (18.6 percent). Violent crime still remains near the bottom of the
nations 30-year downward trend.

The Brennan Centers previous analysis of crime in 2016 is available here, and a previous report
studying crime trends from 1990 to 2016 is available here.

* In addition to providing updated data from city law enforcement agencies, this report incorporates recently-released

information from the FBIs Uniform Crime Reports, and uses it to standardize data reported by city agencies. As a
result, data in Tables 1 and 2 may be compared to most previous Brennan Center reports, including Crime Trends: 1990-
2016 and Crime in 2016: Updated Analysis, but may diverge from figures reported in Crime in 2016: A Preliminary Analysis.

Final Update to Tables 1 & 2 in Crime in 2016: A Preliminary Analysis BRENNAN CENTER FOR JUSTICE | 1
Table 1: Crime in the 30 Largest Cities (2015-2016)
2015 2016 Percent
Percent
2015 Crime 2016 Crime Violent Violent Change in
Change in
City Rate (per Rate (per Crime Crime Violent
Crime
100,000) 100,000) Rate (per Rate (per Crime
Rate
100,000) 100,000) Rate
New York 4 2,078 2,033 -2.2% 560 547 -2.3%
Los Angeles 5 2,939 3,092 5.2% 579 658 13.6%
Chicago 6 3,798 4,172 9.9% 851 992 16.5%
Houston 7 5,321 5,323 0.0% 923 982 6.3%
Philadelphia 8 4,092 4,016 -1.8% 945 891 -5.7%
Las Vegas 9* 3,845 Unavailable Unavailable 850 Unavailable Unavailable
Phoenix 10* 4,020 Unavailable Unavailable 529 Unavailable Unavailable
San Antonio 11 5,545 5,852 5.5% 516 641 24.3%
San Diego 12 2,440 2,348 -3.8% 358 335 -6.5%
Dallas 13 4,074 4,046 -0.7% 634 703 10.9%
San Jose 14 2,720 2,683 -1.4% 293 327 11.5%
Austin 15 4,092 3,849 -5.9% 322 352 9.1%
Charlotte 16 4,421 4,766 7.8% 653 702 7.5%
Jacksonville 17 4,267 Unavailable Unavailable 594 590 -0.6%
San Francisco 18 6,875 6,247 -9.1% 737 669 -9.2%
Indianapolis19* 6,000 Unavailable Unavailable 1,210 Unavailable Unavailable
Columbus20 4,386 Unavailable Unavailable 451 423 -6.3%
Fort Worth 21 4,049 Unavailable Unavailable 463 468 1.1%
El Paso 22* 2,234 Unavailable Unavailable 320 Unavailable Unavailable
Seattle 23 6,100 6,003 -1.6% 578 581 0.6%
Denver 24 4,124 4,112 -0.3% 594 583 -1.8%
Louisville 25 4,768 5,451 14.3% 602 632 5.0%
Detroit 26 5,774 5,531 -4.2% 1,681 1,617 -3.8%
Washington, D.C. 27 5,645 5,659 0.3% 1,129 1,006 -10.9%
Boston 28 2,987 2,823 -5.5% 671 653 -2.7%
Nashville 29 4,830 4,875 0.9% 1,024 1,066 4.1%
Memphis 30 7,290 Unavailable Unavailable 1,660 1,803 8.6%
Oklahoma City 31 4,646 4,608 -0.8% 689 713 3.4%
Baltimore 32 6,470 6,338 -2.0% 1,490 1,767 18.6%
Portland 33* Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable
TOTAL 0.9% 4.2%
Source: Police department and city reports. See endnotes for specific sources. Cities are ordered by population size. 34
* These cities did not respond to requests for data in time for publication. 2015 data shown is derived from the FBIs Uniform Crime Reports.
For these cities, the authors were able to obtain data on violent crime only.

Final Update to Tables 1 & 2 in Crime in 2016: A Preliminary Analysis BRENNAN CENTER FOR JUSTICE | 2
Table 2: Murder in the 30 Largest Cities (2015-2016)
2015 2016 Percent
2015 Percent
2016 Total Murder Murder Change in
City Total Change in
Murders Rate (per Rate (per Murder
Murders Murder
100,000) 100,000) Rate
New York 35 352 335 -4.8% 4.1 3.9 -5.8%
Los Angeles 36 282 294 4.3% 7.1 7.4 3.3%
Chicago 37 478 781 63.4% 17.5 28.6 63.0%
Houston 38 303 285 -5.9% 13.3 12.6 -5.7%
Philadelphia 39 280 271 -3.2% 17.9 17.2 -3.8%
Las Vegas 40 127 168 32.3% 8.1 10.6 29.9%
Phoenix 41* 112 Unavailable Unavailable 7.2 Unavailable Unavailable
San Antonio 42 94 149 58.5% 6.4 10.0 55.4%
San Diego 43 37 50 35.1% 2.6 3.5 33.1%
Dallas 44 136 172 26.5% 10.4 13.0 24.5%
San Jose45 30 47 56.7% 2.9 4.5 53.8%
Austin 46 23 40 73.9% 2.5 4.1 67.1%
Charlotte47 61 68 11.5% 6.9 7.5 8.5%
Jacksonville48 97 103 6.2% 11.2 11.8 5.1%
San Francisco 49 53 58 9.4% 6.1 6.6 7.6%
Indianapolis 50* 148 Unavailable Unavailable 17.4 Unavailable Unavailable
Columbus 51 77 82 6.5% 9.1 9.5 4.9%
Fort Worth 52 56 65 16.1% 6.7 7.6 13.2%
El Paso 53* 17 Unavailable Unavailable 2.5 Unavailable Unavailable
Seattle 54 23 18 -21.7% 3.4 2.6 -24.0%
Denver 55 53 58 9.4% 7.8 8.3 6.5%
Louisville56 81 118 45.7% 11.9 17.2 44.6%
Detroit 57 295 301 2.0% 43.8 45.4 3.7%
Washington, D.C. 58 162 135 -16.7% 24.1 19.7 -18.3%
Boston 59 38 46 21.1% 5.7 6.8 18.9%
Nashville 60 72 83 15.3% 10.9 12.6 15.3%
Memphis 61 135 190 40.7% 20.5 28.9 40.7%
Oklahoma City 62 73 71 -2.7% 11.6 11.0 -4.6%
Baltimore 63 344 318 -7.6% 55.4 51.3 -7.3%
Portland 64* Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable Unavailable
AVERAGE 14.5% 13.1%
Source: Police department and city reports. See endnotes for specific sources. Cities are ordered by population size. 65
* These cities did not respond to requests for data in time for publication.

Final Update to Tables 1 & 2 in Crime in 2016: A Preliminary Analysis BRENNAN CENTER FOR JUSTICE | 3
ENDNOTES

1 The authors thank Noah Atchison and Maria Barrera for their research.
2This report updates crime data in three previous studies. For original analysis, see MATTHEW FRIEDMAN, AMES
GRAWERT, & JAMES CULLEN, BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, CRIME IN 2016: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS (2016),
https://www.brennancenter.org/publication/crime-2016-preliminary-analysis; MATTHEW FRIEDMAN, AMES GRAWERT,
& JAMES CULLEN, BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, CRIME IN 2016: UPDATED ANALYSIS (2016),
https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/crime-2016-updated-analysis; MATTHEW FRIEDMAN, AMES GRAWERT, &
JAMES CULLEN, BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, CRIME TRENDS: 1990-2016 (2017),
https://www.brennancenter.org/publication/crime-trends1990-2016.
3See AMES GRAWERT & JAMES CULLEN, BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, CRIME IN 2015: A FINAL ANALYSIS (2016),
https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/crime-2015-final-analysis.
4NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPT, COMPSTAT CITYWIDE (2017),
http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/crime_statistics/cs-en-us-city.pdf.
5LOS ANGELES POLICE DEPT, COMPSTAT CITYWIDE PROFILE 1 (2017),
http://assets.lapdonline.org/assets/pdf/cityprof.pdf.
6 CITY OF CHICAGO, CRIMES - 2001 TO PRESENT (2017), https://data.cityofchicago.org/view/5cd6-ry5g.
7See HOUSTON POLICE DEPT, CRIME STATISTICS (2017), http://www.houstontx.gov/police/cs/index-2.htm. Houston
reports data monthly, and the authors added together data from each month to arrive at totals for 2016.
8 PHILADELPHIA POLICE DEPT, CRIME INCIDENTS 2006-PRESENT (2017), https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B-

oNK20OF0P_bEwxdURCbnlzbzg.
9 At the time of publication, Las Vegas had released only data on homicides. Accordingly, data on crime in Las Vegas in
2016 appear in Table 2, but not Table 1. See LAS VEGAS METRO. POLICE DEPT, CRIME STATISTICS (2017),
http://www.lvmpd.com/ProtectYourself/CrimeStatistics/tabid/566/Default.aspx. For 2015 data, the authors relied on
final FBI data. See UNITED STATES DEPT OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, CRIME IN THE UNITED
STATES tbl.8, 2015 (2016), https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/tables/table-
8/table_8_offenses_known_to_law_enforcement_by_state_by_city_2015.xls/view.
10The authors were unable to locate a public, reliable, government source for 2016 crime statistics, and city officials did
not respond to requests for information. For 2015 data, the authors relied on final FBI data. See UNITED STATES DEPT
OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES tbl.8, 2015 (2016),
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/tables/table-
8/table_8_offenses_known_to_law_enforcement_by_state_by_city_2015.xls/view.
11 SAN ANTONIO POLICE DEPT, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS: UCR BY YEAR (2017),

http://www.sanantonio.gov/SAPD/Uniform-Crime-Reports (select 2016 from available tabs).


12 AUTOMATED REGL JUSTICE INFO. SYS., CRIME STATISTICS AND MAPS, SAN DIEGO (2017),

http://crimestats.arjis.org/default.aspx (from the drop-down boxes, select Jan / 2016 for Begin Date, Oct / 2016
for End Date, and San Diego for Agency).
13DALLAS OPEN DATA, DALLAS POLICE PUBLIC DATA RMS INCIDENTS (2017),
https://www.dallasopendata.com/Public-Safety/Dallas-Police-Public-Data-RMS-Incidents-2016/kri5-kf4b.
14 SAN JOSE POLICE DEPT, PART I CRIMES REPORTED (2017), http://www.sjpd.org/CrimeStats/crimestats.html.
15AUSTIN POLICE DEPT, CHIEFS MONTHLY REPORTS (2017), http://www.austintexas.gov/page/chiefs-monthly-
reports.
16CHARLOTTE-MECKLENBURG POLICE DEPT, INDEX OFFENSE STATISTICS JANUARY-DECEMBER 2016 COMPARED TO
PREVIOUS YEAR, (2017), http://charlottenc.gov/CMPD/Safety/Documents/CrimeStats/CS16YrEnd-Summary.pdf.
17 MAJOR CITIES CHIEFS ASSOCIATION, VIOLENT CRIME SURVEY TOTALS: YEAR END COMPARISON (2017) (on file

with the authors). Data from this publication includes information on violent crime only.

Final Update to Tables 1 & 2 in Crime in 2016: A Preliminary Analysis BRENNAN CENTER FOR JUSTICE | 4
18SF OPENDATA, MAP: CRIME INCIDENTS FROM 1 JAN 2003 (2017), https://data.sfgov.org/Public-Safety/Map-Crime-
Incidents-from-1-Jan-2003/gxxq-x39z/data.
19The authors were unable to locate a public, reliable, government source for 2016 crime statistics, and city officials did
not respond to requests for information. For 2015 data, the authors relied on final FBI data. See UNITED STATES DEPT
OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES tbl.8, 2015 (2016),
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/tables/table-
8/table_8_offenses_known_to_law_enforcement_by_state_by_city_2015.xls/view.
20 MAJOR CITIES CHIEFS ASSOCIATION, VIOLENT CRIME SURVEY TOTALS: YEAR END COMPARISON (2017) (on file

with the authors). Data from this publication includes information on violent crime only.
21MAJOR CITIES CHIEFS ASSOCIATION, VIOLENT CRIME SURVEY TOTALS: YEAR END COMPARISON (2017) (on file
with the authors). Data from this publication includes information on violent crime only.
22The authors were unable to locate a public, reliable, government source for 2016 crime statistics, and city officials did
not respond to requests for information. For 2015 data, the authors relied on final FBI data. See UNITED STATES DEPT
OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES tbl.8, 2015 (2016),
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/tables/table-
8/table_8_offenses_known_to_law_enforcement_by_state_by_city_2015.xls/view.
23SEATTLE POLICE DEPT, SEASTAT 4 (Jan 18, 2017),
https://www.seattle.gov/Documents/Departments/Police/SeaStat/SEASTAT_2017JAN18_YEAR_END_FINAL.pdf
.
24 DENVER POLICE DEPT, CITYWIDE DATA UNIFORM CRIME REPORTING, PART 1: CRIMES IN THE CITY AND COUNTY

OF DENVER BASED ON UCR STANDARDS (2017),


https://www.denvergov.org/content/dam/denvergov/Portals/720/documents/statistics/2016/Xcitywide_Reported_O
ffenses_2016.pdf
25 See LOUISVILLEKY.GOV, METRO. POLICE, CRIME DATA (2017), http://portal.louisvilleky.gov/dataset/crimedataall-

data.
26CITY OF DETROIT, DPD: ALL CRIME INCIDENTS 2009-PRESENT (2017), https://data.detroitmi.gov/Public-
Safety/DPD-All-Crime-Incidents-2009-Present-Map-Provision/up3m-9ahm.
27METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPT, DISTRICT CRIME DATA AT A GLANCE: 2017 YEAR-TO-DATE CRIME COMPARISON
(2017), http://mpdc.dc.gov/page/district-crime-data-glance. The citys crime statistics page warns against comparing
data to the FBIs Uniform Crime Reports. This reports methodology, as in previous Brennan Center reports using data
from both the FBI and local police departments, is designed to account for this variation.
28BOSTON REGIONAL INTELLIGENCE CENTER, PART ONE CRIME REPORTED BY THE BOSTON POLICE DEPARTMENT
(2017), http://bit.ly/2h5MhoO.
29See NASHVILLE METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT, COMPSTAT WEEKLY ANALYSIS 52, 8 (2017),
http://compstat.nashville.gov/2016/20161231_CompStat_Report.pdf.
30 MAJOR CITIES CHIEFS ASSOCIATION, VIOLENT CRIME SURVEY TOTALS: YEAR END COMPARISON (2017) (on file

with the authors). Data from this publication includes information on violent crime only.
31OKC.GOV, POLICE DEPARTMENT, CRIME STATS, INFORMATION & MAPPING (2017),
https://www.okc.gov/departments/police/crime-prevention-data/crime-stats.
32OPEN BALTIMORE, BPD PART 1 VICTIM BASED CRIME DATA (2017), https://data.baltimorecity.gov/Public-
Safety/BPD-Part-1-Victim-Based-Crime-Data/wsfq-mvij (from the raw spreadsheet, data was exported and then filtered
by date to remove all years other than 2015 and 2016, and then filtered again by crime type to include only Part 1 index
crimes).
33Portland recently revised its crime reporting system, and data are available for 2016. See PORTLAND OREGON POLICE
BUREAU, MONTHLY NEIGHBORHOOD OFFENSE STATISTICS, 2017 https://www.portlandoregon.gov/police/71978.
However, due to this recent update, Portland does not have full data available for 2015, and did not report to the UCR
for that year either. Therefore, the authors were not able to establish a baseline to estimate Portlands crime rates in 2016.

Final Update to Tables 1 & 2 in Crime in 2016: A Preliminary Analysis BRENNAN CENTER FOR JUSTICE | 5
34This report uses the same definitions of offenses, and of crime and violent crime, as in previous Brennan Center
reports. See MATTHEW FRIEDMAN, AMES GRAWERT, & JAMES CULLEN, BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, CRIME TRENDS:
1990-2016 2, 5, 8 (2017), https://www.brennancenter.org/publication/crime-trends1990-2016.

Cities are listed in descending order of size, based on the population reported in the FBIs 2015 Uniform Crime
Reporting Program (UCR) release. Crime data from 2015 are also drawn from the most recent UCR release. See
UNITED STATES DEPT OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES, 2015,
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015. Historic population and crime figures were also
updated in the process of writing this report.

Crime data from 2016, on the other hand, were drawn directly from city sources in many case CompStat reports.
Since 2015 and 2016 data come from different sources, there is some difficulty when comparing these statistics.
CompStat data, for example, is reported using local definitions of crimes, which may vary between cities, whereas UCR
reports represent final data, and are standardized between cities. There may also be differences in geographic coverage,
with CompStat figures reporting crime rates according to one definition of the city limits, while the UCR looks at the
county level, or vice-versa. To ensure an accurate comparison, the authors took into account historic variations between
UCR and CompStat data in the following manner.

First, the authors determined how UCR-reported crime data differed from CompStat-reported crime data for 2015. For
most cities, UCR data for that year closely resembled CompStat data, making it likely that final UCR data for 2016 would
also resemble CompStat data.

For some cities, where the UCR data varied from CompStat data by 10 percent or more in past years, the authors
adjusted 2016 CompStat data to project what the 2016 UCR release would show. The authors made these adjustments
by assuming that the difference between the number of crimes reported in the UCR and the number of crimes reported
in CompStat would be the same in 2016 as it was in 2015. (The ratios between CompStat and UCR data have been
historically consistent, making this a safe assumption.) The following data points were adjusted accordingly:

New York: larceny, aggravated assault


Chicago: aggravated assault
Detroit: aggravated assault
Washington, D.C.: burglary
Memphis: aggravated assault
Jacksonville: murder, robbery, aggravated assault
Louisville: aggravated assault
To provide the most accurate possible information to the reader, the percentage changes in crime, violent crime, and
murder rates displayed in Tables 1 and 2 were calculated from raw, unrounded data. Therefore, they may not appear to
match calculations made using the rounded figures displayed in these tables.
35NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPT, COMPSTAT CITYWIDE (2017),
http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/crime_statistics/cs-en-us-city.pdf.
36LOS ANGELES POLICE DEPT, COMPSTAT CITYWIDE PROFILE 1 (2017),
http://assets.lapdonline.org/assets/pdf/cityprof.pdf.
37 CITY OF CHICAGO, CRIMES - 2001 TO PRESENT (2017), https://data.cityofchicago.org/view/5cd6-ry5g.
38See HOUSTON POLICE DEPT, CRIME STATISTICS (2017), http://www.houstontx.gov/police/cs/index-2.htm. Houston
reports data monthly, and the authors added together data from each month to arrive at totals for 2016.
PHILADELPHIA POLICE DEPT, CRIME INCIDENTS 2006-PRESENT (2017), https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B-
39

oNK20OF0P_bEwxdURCbnlzbzg.
40At the time of publication, Las Vegas had released only data on homicides. Accordingly, Las Vegas statistics appear in
Table 2, but not Table 1. See LAS VEGAS METRO. POLICE DEPT, CRIME STATISTICS (2017),
http://www.lvmpd.com/ProtectYourself/CrimeStatistics/tabid/566/Default.aspx.

Final Update to Tables 1 & 2 in Crime in 2016: A Preliminary Analysis BRENNAN CENTER FOR JUSTICE | 6
41The authors were unable to locate a public, reliable, government source for 2016 crime statistics, and city officials did
not respond to requests for information. For 2015 data, the authors relied on final FBI data. See UNITED STATES DEPT
OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES tbl.8, 2015 (2016),
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/tables/table-
8/table_8_offenses_known_to_law_enforcement_by_state_by_city_2015.xls/view.
42 SAN ANTONIO POLICE DEPT, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS: UCR BY YEAR (2017),

http://www.sanantonio.gov/SAPD/Uniform-Crime-Reports (select 2016 from available tabs).


43 AUTOMATED REGL JUSTICE INFO. SYS., CRIME STATISTICS AND MAPS, SAN DIEGO (2017),

http://crimestats.arjis.org/default.aspx (from the drop-down boxes, select Jan / 2016 for Begin Date, Dec / 2016
for End Date, and San Diego for Agency).
44DALLAS OPEN DATA, DALLAS POLICE PUBLIC DATA RMS INCIDENTS (2017),
https://www.dallasopendata.com/Public-Safety/Dallas-Police-Public-Data-RMS-Incidents-2016/kri5-kf4b.
45 SAN JOSE POLICE DEPT, PART I CRIMES REPORTED (2017), http://www.sjpd.org/CrimeStats/crimestats.html.
46AUSTIN POLICE DEPT, CHIEFS MONTHLY REPORTS (2017), http://www.austintexas.gov/page/chiefs-monthly-
reports.
47CHARLOTTE-MECKLENBURG POLICE DEPT, INDEX OFFENSE STATISTICS JANUARY-DECEMBER 2016 COMPARED TO
PREVIOUS YEAR, (2017), http://charlottenc.gov/CMPD/Safety/Documents/CrimeStats/CS16YrEnd-Summary.pdf.
48 MAJOR CITIES CHIEFS ASSOCIATION, VIOLENT CRIME SURVEY TOTALS: YEAR END COMPARISON (2017) (on file

with the authors). Data from this publication includes information on violent crime only.
49SF OPENDATA, MAP: CRIME INCIDENTS FROM 1 JAN 2003 (2017), https://data.sfgov.org/Public-Safety/Map-Crime-
Incidents-from-1-Jan-2003/gxxq-x39z/data.
50The authors were unable to locate a public, reliable, government source for 2016 crime statistics, and city officials did
not respond to requests for information. For 2015 data, the authors relied on final FBI data. See UNITED STATES DEPT
OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES tbl.8, 2015 (2016),
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/tables/table-
8/table_8_offenses_known_to_law_enforcement_by_state_by_city_2015.xls/view.
51MAJOR CITIES CHIEFS ASSOCIATION, VIOLENT CRIME SURVEY TOTALS: YEAR END COMPARISON (2017) (on file
with the authors). Data from this publication includes information on violent crime only.
52 MAJOR CITIES CHIEFS ASSOCIATION, VIOLENT CRIME SURVEY TOTALS: YEAR END COMPARISON (2017) (on file

with the authors). Data from this publication includes information on violent crime only.
53The authors were unable to locate a public, reliable, government source for 2016 crime statistics, and city officials did
not respond to requests for information. For 2015 data, the authors relied on final FBI data. See UNITED STATES DEPT
OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES tbl.8, 2015 (2016),
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015/tables/table-
8/table_8_offenses_known_to_law_enforcement_by_state_by_city_2015.xls/view.
54SEATTLE POLICE DEPT, SEASTAT 4 (Jan 18, 2017),
https://www.seattle.gov/Documents/Departments/Police/SeaStat/SEASTAT_2017JAN18_YEAR_END_FINAL.pdf
.
55DENVER POLICE DEPT, CITYWIDE DATA UNIFORM CRIME REPORTING, PART 1: CRIMES IN THE CITY AND COUNTY
OF DENVER BASED ON UCR STANDARDS (2017),
https://www.denvergov.org/content/dam/denvergov/Portals/720/documents/statistics/2016/Xcitywide_Reported_O
ffenses_2016.pdf
56 See LOUISVILLEKY.GOV, METRO. POLICE, CRIME DATA (2017), http://portal.louisvilleky.gov/dataset/crimedataall-

data.
57CITY OF DETROIT, DPD: ALL CRIME INCIDENTS 2009-PRESENT (2017), https://data.detroitmi.gov/Public-
Safety/DPD-All-Crime-Incidents-2009-Present-Map-Provision/up3m-9ahm.

Final Update to Tables 1 & 2 in Crime in 2016: A Preliminary Analysis BRENNAN CENTER FOR JUSTICE | 7
58METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPT, DISTRICT CRIME DATA AT A GLANCE: 2017 YEAR-TO-DATE CRIME COMPARISON
(2017), http://mpdc.dc.gov/page/district-crime-data-glance. The citys crime statistics page warns against comparing
data to the FBIs Uniform Crime Reports. This reports methodology, as in previous Brennan Center reports using data
from both the FBI and local police departments, is designed to account for this variation.
59BOSTON REGIONAL INTELLIGENCE CENTER, PART ONE CRIME REPORTED BY THE BOSTON POLICE DEPARTMENT
(2017), http://bit.ly/2h5MhoO.
60See NASHVILLE METROPOLITAN POLICE DEPARTMENT, COMPSTAT WEEKLY ANALYSIS 52, 8 (2017),
http://compstat.nashville.gov/2016/20161231_CompStat_Report.pdf.
61MAJOR CITIES CHIEFS ASSOCIATION, VIOLENT CRIME SURVEY TOTALS: YEAR END COMPARISON (2017) (on file
with the authors). Data from this publication includes information on violent crime only.
62OKC.GOV, POLICE DEPARTMENT, CRIME STATS, INFORMATION & MAPPING (2017),
https://www.okc.gov/departments/police/crime-prevention-data/crime-stats.
63OPEN BALTIMORE, BPD PART 1 VICTIM BASED CRIME DATA (2017), https://data.baltimorecity.gov/Public-
Safety/BPD-Part-1-Victim-Based-Crime-Data/wsfq-mvij (from the raw spreadsheet, data was exported and then filtered
by date to remove all years other than 2015 and 2016, and then filtered again by crime type to include only Part 1 index
crimes).
64Portland recently revised its crime reporting system, and data are available for 2016. See PORTLAND OREGON POLICE
BUREAU, MONTHLY NEIGHBORHOOD OFFENSE STATISTICS, 2017 https://www.portlandoregon.gov/police/71978.
However, due to this recent update, Portland does not have full data available for 2015, and did not report to the UCR
for that year either. Therefore, the authors were not able to establish a baseline to estimate Portlands crime rates in 2016.
65Cities are listed in descending order of size, based on the population reported in the most recently UCR report.
Crime data from 2015 are based on the FBIs 2015 Uniform Crime Reports (UCR). See UNITED STATES DEPT
OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES, 2015,
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2015/crime-in-the-u.s.-2015. For more details on the methodology used in this
report, see note 34.

Final Update to Tables 1 & 2 in Crime in 2016: A Preliminary Analysis BRENNAN CENTER FOR JUSTICE | 8