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www.usamts.org

3/4/19. Let 0 < < 1. Define a sequence {an } of real numbers by a1 = 1 and for all

integers k 1,

a2k = ak ,

a2k+1 = (1 )ak .

X

Find the value of the sum a2k a2k+1 in terms of .

k=1

Credit This problem was proposed by Sandor Lehoczky, and modified by Dave Patrick.

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Comments This following solution deftly finds the required sum by directly using the given

recursion relations. Solutions edited by Naoki Sato.

By the definition of {an },

X

X

X

a2k a2k+1 = [ak (1 )ak ] = (1 ) a2k .

k=1 k=1 k=1

P

We can split up the sum k=1 a2k as follows:

X

X

X

a2k = a21 + a22k + a22k+1

k=1 k=1 k=1

X X

= a21 + 2 a2k + (1 )2 a2k

k=1 k=1

X

X

= a21 + 2

a2k + (1 ) 2

a2k

k=1 k=1

X

= a21 + [2 + (1 )2 ] a2k .

k=1

Therefore,

X

[1 2 (1 )2 ] a2k = a21 ,

k=1

so

X a21 1

a2k = 2 2

= .

k=1

1 (1 ) 2(1 )

USA Mathematical Talent Search

Solutions to Problem 3/4/19

www.usamts.org

X X 1

a2k a2k+1 = (1 ) a2k = .

k=1 k=1

2

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