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# USA Mathematical Talent Search

## Solutions to Problem 3/4/19

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3/4/19. Let 0 < < 1. Define a sequence {an } of real numbers by a1 = 1 and for all
integers k 1,

a2k = ak ,
a2k+1 = (1 )ak .

X
Find the value of the sum a2k a2k+1 in terms of .
k=1

Credit This problem was proposed by Sandor Lehoczky, and modified by Dave Patrick.

Comments This following solution deftly finds the required sum by directly using the given
recursion relations. Solutions edited by Naoki Sato.

## Solution by: Tony Jin (10/CA)

By the definition of {an },

X
X
X
a2k a2k+1 = [ak (1 )ak ] = (1 ) a2k .
k=1 k=1 k=1
P
We can split up the sum k=1 a2k as follows:

X
X
X
a2k = a21 + a22k + a22k+1
k=1 k=1 k=1

X X
= a21 + 2 a2k + (1 )2 a2k
k=1 k=1

X
X
= a21 + 2
a2k + (1 ) 2
a2k
k=1 k=1

X
= a21 + [2 + (1 )2 ] a2k .
k=1

Therefore,

X
[1 2 (1 )2 ] a2k = a21 ,
k=1
so
X a21 1
a2k = 2 2
= .
k=1
1 (1 ) 2(1 )
USA Mathematical Talent Search
Solutions to Problem 3/4/19
www.usamts.org

## Finally, the sum we seek is

X X 1
a2k a2k+1 = (1 ) a2k = .
k=1 k=1
2