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KnowledgePhilic Averages and Allegations SPOORTHY

In this Chapter following topics will be covered ab


Solution: 7.5 and ab 6
2
Averages and its applications
All the options give average of 7.5 but Option B
Mixtures and Allegations
satisfies second condition i.e. 12 3 6 .
Introduction
Weighted Average
Suppose there is a group having so many
values, imagine if we represent that entire group by a Suppose there are two sections A and B.
single value, this leads to concept of averages. Average marks of section A is 60 and average marks
The basic formula for the average of n of section B is 80. Find the average marks of entire
numbers n1 , n2 , n3 , nn is students in the two sections. Here, two separate
sections we have,
Total marks of entire class
Average ( An ) Average marks =
Total number of students
n1 n2 n3 .... nn Without knowing number of the students in each
= class, we cannot solve above problem. Assume there
n
are 20 students and 30 students in section A and B
So total of numbers = ( An ) n.
respectively,
So total marks in a section A = 60 20
Solved out problems Total marks in a section B = 80 30
60 20 80 30
Example 1: The average of 16, 18 and 20 is Average of combined class =
16 18 20 54 20 30
Solution: = = 18 = 72.
3 3 So whenever we have two (or) more groups, whose
It means if 3 numbers are replaced by 18 there will individual averages are known, we need to find
not be any change in total of numbers. average (weighted average) of all the groups
= 16 + 18 + 20 = 54 = 18 + 18 + 18 (16+2) +18 + together. Assume there are total n groups, each
(20 2) = 0 group having x1 , x2 , x3 ......xn elements with averages
16 + 2 18
18 + 0 18 A1 , A2 .. An respectively.
20 2 18
Find the number, which adds to above 3 numbers so Weight average is
that average will increase by 2. x1 A1 x2 A2 x3 A3 ...... xn An
18 + 2 20 =
x1 x2 x3 ...... xn
18 + 2 20
18 + 2 20
So 4 number will be, 20 + 2 3 = 26
th
Example 3: 20 boys with average weight 50 kgs and
(Here, 20 is the new average and 3 times 2 added to
30 girls with an average weight 60. Find the average
above 3 numbers).
weight of whole class?
Or after adding one value total of four numbers will
be 20 4 = 80. Before, adding it total of three 20 50 30 60
Solution: = = 56
numbers is 18 3 = 54. Fourth number is, 80 54 = 20 30
26.
Example 4: The average of a batsman in 15
Example 2: The average of two numbers is 7.5 and innings is 30, in the next innings he scored 62 runs,
square root of their product is 6. What are the his new Average is?
numbers? (S.S.C 2012) A 10 and 5 B 12 and 3 C 9
and 6 D 13 and 2

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Solution: Method 1: 2d
Total runs 15 30+62 =
d d
= 48.
New Average = = = 32
(15 1) 16 60 40
Method 2: Take the difference between new score Short-cut: If the distance is constant (or) same,
and old Average i.e. 62 30 = 32 2ab
32 Average speed is = (a and b are speeds).
Now this 32 is spread over 16 innings so = 2, ab
16
new Average is 30 + 2 = 32. In Mixtures:

Applications of Averages Example 6: 6 kg of rice costing rs.12 mixed with 8


kg of rice costing rs.10 find the average cost of the
Numbers: mixture?
The sum of 1st n natural numbers is = Solution: Cost of 6 kg rice = 12 6 = 72
n n 1 n n 1 n 1 Cost of 8 kg rice = 8 10 = 80
, Average is = = . Total 14 kg of rice = rs.152
2 2 n 2 152
Average of 1st 21 natural numbers is Average = = rs.10.85.
14
21 1 11 Ages
= .
2 If the average age of a group of persons is y
Average of 1st 50 natural numbers? Answer: 25.5 years then after n years their average age is y n
We know that the sum of 1st n even years, n years ago average age would have been
consecutive natural numbers is = n n 1 y n years.
n n 1
Average is = n 1 Example 7: The average age of 19 children in a
n school is 30. When teacher also included with age
The sum of 1st n odd consecutive natural numbers is 55, what is the new average age?
n2 Solution: Method 1:
2
= n , Average is = n 19 30+55
n New average is = 31.25.
Example 5: Find the average of 1st 50 even 19 1
numbers and 1st 50 odd numbers? Method 2: Difference is 55 30 = 25.
Solution: Even number average is = 50 + 1 = 51. This 25 spread over 20 people = 25/20 = 1.25.
1st 50 odd numbers average is n = 50 Average increases by 1.25, 30 + 1.25 = 31.25.

In Time and Speed Example 8: The average age of 30 students is 12


years find the age of teacher, if he included average
Total distance travelled is increased by 0.5 years?
Average speed = .
Total time taken Solution: Method 1: Age of the teacher is 31 12.5
Problem 8: A person travels at 60kmph on the 30 12 = 27.5 years.
journey from P to Q and returns at 40 km ph. find Method 2: Age of the teacher is = 12.5 + 30 0.5 =
his average speed for the journey? 12.5 + 15 = 27.5 years.
Solution: Let the distance between P and Q is d.
Total distance travelled is = d + d = 2d Total time Allegations and Mixtures
d d
taken is = (time = d/s) Introduction
60 40
The allegation rule is very useful in
problems on weighted averages and mixtures. Just
recollect weighted averages formula, if there are two

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KnowledgePhilic Averages and Allegations SPOORTHY

groups having x1 elements with average A1 and x 2 Applications of Allegations


elements with average A2 respectively, weighted
In Average price of goods:
average A is A person buys 20 kg of rice at rs.40 kg and 10 kg of
x1 A1 x2 A2 rice at rs.25 what is the average price?
A=
x1 x2 20 x 25
= , x = 35.
Ax1 Ax2 x1 A1 x2 A2 10 40 x
x1 A A1 x2 A2 A In Percentages:
x A A A sales man makes a profit of 40% by selling 20%
1= 2
x2 A A1 of his articles and a profit of 25% by selling 10% of
his articles. Find net percentage profit?
Above equation is called the allegation equation.
20 x 25
Graphical representation, = x = 35%
A1 A2 10 40 x

In Average speed:
A A car travels at 40 km/hour for 20 km and 25
km/hour for 10 km. find the average speed of the car
in entire journey? Answer: 35 km/hour
A2 A : A A1
In Mixtures:
Example 9: Two sections in a school having Milk container A containing 20 liters is mixed with
average of 20 marks and 30 marks respectively, on 40% of water and milk container B containing 10
combining them the resultant group have average liters is mixed with 25% of water. It we combines
marks of 26. Find the ratio of the students in two both the mixtures find the percentage of water in
sections? final mixture?
x1 30 26 4 2 20 x 25
Solution: = = = = x = 35%
x2 26 20 6 3 10 40 x
Graphical representation,
In Profit and Loss:
20 30 How many kgs of rice costing rs.6 per kg must be
mixed with 30 kgs of rice costing rs.4.2 per kg, so
that 40% gain may be obtained by selling the
26 mixture at rs.7 per kg?
Solution: You need to consider cost price not selling
price so
4 : 6
Selling price = 140% X cost price.
2 : 3 Cost price = 7/1.4 = rs.5
6 4.2
Example 10: On combining the two classes
students having average marks 65 and 80 5
respectively, the overall average obtained is 70. Find
the number of students in the second class if first
class has 50 students? 0.8 : 1
Solution: Ratio of the students in two classes 2: 1. So, there are in the ratio 0.8: 1 = x: 30.
Then, students in the second class are () 50 = 25. 0.8 8 x
, = , x = 24
1 10 30

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Mixture of Liquids: Glass A contains milk and milk left after nth operation
water in the ratio 3: 4, Glass B contains milk and =
water in the ratio 4: 1, in what ratio they should mix water left after nth operation
so that total mixture have milk and water in the ratio Milk becomes 0.729 (or 72.9%) times of total
3: 2? quantity and remaining is water that equals = 1
Solution: Milk in glass A = 3/7, milk in glass B = 0.729 = 0.271 (or 27.1%) times of total quantity of
4/5 and milk in a mixture is = 3/5. cask.
3
3/7 4/5 2
1 0.9
3

= 20
= =
0.729
.
1 0.9
3 3
3/5 2 0.271
1 1
20
x : y Practice set -1
x 4 / 5 3 / 5 1/ 5 7
= = =
y 3/ 53/ 7 6/3 6 1. The average marks of all the students in three
sections A, B and C in a school are 30, 40 and
50 marks respectively. The number of students
Simple Interest:
in these three sections is 40, 60 and 80
A person has rs.5000. He invests a part of it at 3%
respectively. Find the average marks of entire
per annum and rest of the amount at 8% per annum
class? A 36. 5 B 40 C 42.22 D 35
at simple interest. His total income in 3 years is
rs.900. Find the sum interested at different rates of
2. The average of a batsman in 15 innings is 30,
interest? th
Solution: Rs.900 gaining in 3 years, it means in 1 after he scored some runs in 16 innings,
year it 900/3 = 300. average is increased by 3 runs, find the runs in
PTR 16th innings? A 78 B 64 C 80 D 96
= 900, R = 6%.
100 3. The average of a batsman after 20 innings was
3% 8% 52 runs. If after 21st innings, average increased
6% by 3 runs, find runs in 21st innings? A 110 B 120
C 124 D 115

8-6 : 6-3 4. The average age of jury of 5 is 40. If a member


aged 35 resigns and a man aged 25 becomes a
2 : 3 member, then the average age of the new jury is
Therefore, amount on 3%, = (2/5) 5000 = 2000. (S.S.C 2012) A 30 B 38 C 40 D 42
Amount on 8%, = 3/5 5000 = 3000.
5. 50 boxes with equal weights were loaded in a
Example 11: 3 liters of milk are drawn from a cask ship. 5 more boxes each weighting 105 kg were
containing 30 liters of milk and it replaced by water. later added, making the average weight of all the
The above process is repeated 3 times. 55 boxes as 95 kg. The weight of each of the 50
1. Find the final quantity of milk left in the cask. boxes first loaded is (S.S.C 2012) A 95 kg B 92
2. Find the ratio of milk to water finally. kg C 98 kg D 94 kg
Solution: 1. Milk left in the cask is =
Capacity x 1 fraction of milk withdrawn
n
6. A motor car goes to a place at a speed of 20
n Number of process times. km/hr and returns from there at a speed of 30
3
km/hr. The average speed (in km/hr) of the car
2
20 1 0.1 20 0.9
= 20 1
3 3 in the entire journey is (S.S.C 2012) A 24 B 24.5
20 C 26 D 25
2. Ratio of milk to water is,

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7. Two kinds of apples which cost rs.20 per kg and The ages of A, B and C in order (in years) are
rs.30 per kg are mixed in the ratio 3: 4 then find (S.S.C 2013) A 22, 18, 20 B 22, 20, 18 C 18, 22,
the cost of the mixture per kg? A 26 B 25.71 C 20 D None
25.50 D 24.75
17. The average age of students in a class is 30
8. The temperature recorded in a city for the first 3 years. If 4 new students with an average 24
o o o
days is 32 c , on 4th day 34 c , on 5th day 28 c , years joined in the class, now average of the
o entire class becomes 27 years. How many
on 6th day 30 c find the average temperature of students were there initially? A 2 B 4 C 6 D 10
all the six days? A 32.5 B 33 C 31.33 D 32
18. The average of three numbers A, B and C is 27,
9. The average age of 29 students is 12 years, when and average of B, C and D is 24 if D is equal to
42 years old teacher included, find new average? 1/3rd of A, what are the values of A and D?
A 13.5 B 14 C 12.5 D 13 A 9, 3 B 13.5, 4.5 C 12, 4 D None
10. The average age of 39 students is 21. If the age 19. Three years ago, the average age of A, B and C
of the teacher is also included the average age of was 27 years, and that of B and C five years ago
the class becomes 21.6. Find the age of teacher? was 20 years. As present age is (S.S.C 2012) A
A 45 B 44 C 48 D 50 40 Years B 48 Years C 30 Years D 35 Years
11. The average age of a group of 30 boys is 12 20. If 30 liters of 40% milk solution is mixed with
years. When 2 new boys join them, the average 20 liters of 25% milk solution, then find the
increases by year. What is the average age (in concentration of milk in the resulting solution
years) of the two new boys? (S.S.C 2012) A 14 (in %)? A 35% B 32% C 34% D 36%
B 16 C 12 D 13
21. The average marks in a class of 30 students are
12. The average age of Naveen, Kittu, Avinash,
42. What will be the average marks of the rest of
Mittu and Siddu is 30 years. The average age of students, if the average marks of the 20 students
Mittu and Kittu is 25 years. What is the average are 45? A 32 B 35 C 38 D 36
age of Naveen, Avinash and Siddu? A 31.33 B
32 C 33 D 34 22. A person was asked to calculate the arithmetic
mean of 10 positive integers, each of which had
13. The average age of wife and husband, who were 2 digits. By mistake, he interchanged the digits,
married 8 years ago, was 20 years. Including a say x and y, in one of these 10 positive integers.
child present average age of the family is 21. As a result, his answer for the arithmetic mean
Present age of child? A 6 B 2 C 5 D 7 was 1.8 more than what it should have been.
Then y x is: A 3 B 2 C 4 D None
14. Five years ago average age of the family of five
members was 27 years. Including a child present 23. The average of first three numbers is double of
average age is same today. What is the age of the fourth number. If the average of all the four
child now? A 2 B 3 C 4 D 5 numbers is 12, find the 4th number. (S.S.C
2013) A 16 B 48/7 C 20 D 18/7
15. The average age of ram and his two children is
17 years and the average age of rams wife and 24. The mean of 100 items was 46. Later on it was
same children is 16 years. If the age of ram is 33 discovered that an item 16 was misread as 61
years, the age of his wife is (in years) (S.S.C and another item 43 was misread as 34. It was
2013) A 31 B 32 C 35 D 30 also found that the number of items was 90 and
not 100. Then what is the correct mean?
16. The average age of A and B is 20 years. If A is
(S.S.C 2012) A 52 B 52.7 C 50 D 50.7
to be replaced by C, the average would be 19
years. The average age of C and A is 21 years.

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25. A person divides his total route of journey into 33. From a vessel containing 100 l of wine, 10 l are
three equal parts and decides to travel the three drawn out and an equal amount of water is
parts with speeds of 40, 30 and 15 km/hr added. From the mixture, 10 l is again drawn out
respectively. Find his average speed during the and same quantity of water is added. What is the
whole journey? A 22 B 20 C 24 D 28 final ratio of water and wine? A 81: 100 B 81:
19 C 19: 81 D None
26. There were 35 students in a hostel. If the number
of students increases by 7, the expences of the 34. 8 liters are drawn from a cask full of wine and is
mess increase by Rs.42 per day while the then filled with water. This operation is
average expenditure per head diminishes by performed three more times. The ratio of the
Rs.1. Find the original expenditure of the mess? quantity of wine now left in cask to that of the
A 420 B 400 C 480 D 540 water is 16: 65. How much wine did the cask
hold originally?
Allegations A 18 liters B 24 liters C 32 liters D 42 liters

27. Two verities of sugar at rs.5 per kg and rs.6 per 35. Tea worth of rs.126/kg and rs.135/kg are mixed
kg are mixed together in the ratio1: 2 find the with third variety in the ratio 1: 1: 2. If the
average price of the mixture? A 5.33 B 6.66 C 6 mixture is worth of rs.153/kg, find the cost of
D 5.66 third variety? A 130.5 B 172.5 C 175.5 D 150

28. In a club, the average age of the members is 30 36. Average salary of all the workers in a workshop
years, the average age of the male members is is rs.8000. The average salary of 7 technicians is
34 years and that of the female members is 26 rs.12000 and the average salary of the rest is
years. The percentage of the male members is rs.6000. The total number of workers in the
(S.S.C 2012) A 30% B 40% C 50% D 60% workshop is? A 14 B 7 C 21 D None

29. In an automated plant assembly line, the rate of 37. A total amount of Rs.204 was collected from
rejection of components was 10% on July 1st and boys and girls of class of 150 students. If each
6% on July 2nd. The combined rate of rejection boy contributes Rs.1 and each girl contributes
for the two days was 9%. The ratio of Rs.1.50, then find the number of girls in the
production volumes on July 1st and on July 2nd class? A 42 B 64 C 105 D 108
is: A 1: 3 B 3: 1 C 2: 1 D 1: 2 Key
Practice set -1
30. There are some cows and hens. If there are total 1. C
88 heads and 226 legs. Find the difference 2. A
between cows and hens?A 63 B 25 C 35 D 38
3. D
31. In a school with 600 students, the average age of
4. B
the boys is 12 years and that of girls is 11 years. 5. D
If the average age of the school is 11 years and 9 6. A
months, then the number of girls in the school is 7. B
(S.S.C 2012) A 250 B 350 C 450 D 150 8. C
9. D
32. Two vessels contain milk and water in the ratio 10. A
3: 2 and 7: 3. Find the ratio in which the 11. B
contents of the two vessels have to be mixed to 12. A
get a new mixture in which the ratio of milk and 13. D
water is 2: 1? (S.S.C 2012) A 4: 1 B 1: 4 C 2: 1
14. A
D 1: 2
15. D
16. A

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17. B 5. The average of 9 numbers is 11. If each of these


18. B 9 numbers is multiplied by 5 and then 5 is added
19. A to each of these resultant numbers, then the new
20. C average is:
21. D (A) 45 (B) 30 (C) 55 (D) 60
22. A
23. B 6. Average percentage scored by Nandini in her
24. D seven semesters is 78. How much she must score
25. C in her eighth semester so as to have her overall
26. A average as 80? A 80 B 92 C 94 D
None
27. D
28. C 7. Varun mixed 50 Kgs of sugar costing 20 rs/kg
29. B with 70 Kgs of sugar costing 32 rs/kg. Find the
30. D average cost of the mixture?
31. D A 29 B 30 C 27 D None
32. D
33. C 8. The average score of Sehwag after 48 innings is
34. B 48 and in the 49th innings Sehwag scores 97
35. C runs. In the 50th innings the minimum number of
36. C runs required to increase his average score by 2
37. D runs than it was before 50th innings:
(A) 99 (B) 149 (C) 151 (D) 150
Practice set 2
9. When a student weighing 45 kgs left a class, the
1. The average score of Sehwag in 10 innings was average weight of the remaining 59 students
77 runs. In the 11th innings he had scored zero increased by 200g. What is the average weight
runs. The average score of Sehwag decreased by of the remaining 59 students? A 56.8 B 57
after 11th innings: C 56 D 59
(A) 7.7 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5
10. The average of all the prime numbers and
2. A shopkeeper mixes two verities of sugar composite numbers upto 100 is:
costing rs 25/Kg and rs 20/Kg in a certain ratio (A) 51 (B) 50.50 (C) 49.50 (D) 55
such that the cost of the mixture is rs 23/Kg then
find the ratio in which the 2 types of sugar were 11. Average cost of 5 apples and 4 mangoes is rs.36.
mixed? The average cost of 7 apples and 8 mangoes is
A 2: 3 B 3: 2 C 1: 1 D 2: 1 rs.48. Find the total cost of 24 apples and 24
mangoes
3. Consider a sequence of seven consecutive A 1044 B 2088 C 1056 D 1120
integers, the average of first five integers is n.
12. In a village the average age of n people is 42
The average of all seven integers is:
years. But after the verification it was found that
(A) n (B) n +1 (C) n + (2/7) (D) None
the age of a person had been considered 20 years
4. The average age of 10 students in a class is less than the actual age, so the new average,
increased by 2 year when two students aged 12 after correction, increased by 1, the value of n is:
year and 14 year are replaced by 2 girls. Find the (A) 19 (B) 20 (C) 21 (D) 22
average age of the two girls?
A 25 B 46 C 23 D 32 13. The average price of 10 books is Rs.12 while the
average price of 8 of these books is Rs.11.75. Of

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the remaining two books, if the price of one average is decreased by 1. The seventh
book is 60% more than the price of the other, observation is:
what is the price of each of these two books? A5 B7
A 10 and 8 B 10 and 16 C 8 and 14 C6 D 11
D None
22. The average of marks obtained by 120
14. The average of all the perfect squares upto 100 candidates in a certain examination is 35. If the
is: average of passed candidates is 39 and that of
(A) 1000 (B) 100 (C) 38.5 (D) 385 the failed candidates is 15. The number of
candidates who passed the examination is:
15. There are two vessels A and B in which the ratio A 150 B 120
of milk and water are as 5:2 and 8:7 C 110 D None
respectively. Two gallons are drawn from vessel
A and 3 gallons from vessel B, and are mixed in 23. The average weight of liquid in 100 bottles is
another empty vessel. What is the ratio of milk 500 gm. The total weight of all the bottels is 20
and water in it? kg. The average weight of a bottle with liquid is:
A 106: 69 B 103: 72 (A) .65 kg (B) 0.7 kg (C) 70 ml (D) None
C 89: 86 D None
24. The average age of three children of Santosh is
16. The average temperature of all 7 days of the
12 years and their ratio of ages is 3: 4: 5. The
week is 30, that of the first 3 days is 28 and of
the next 3 days is 31. What is the temperature on average age of the youngest and eldest child is if
the last day of the week? he had only 3 children:
A 33 B 23 C 27 D 36 (A) 10 (B) 24 (C) 9 (D) 12

17. The average age of 30 students is 30 years. 25. The average weight of 20 cars is 180 kg. If an
When the average age of class teacher also old Car is removed from this group of four
included, the average age of the whole class wheelers, the new average becomes 178 kg. The
increases by 1 year. The age of the class teacher weight of the removed Car is:
is: (A) 220 (B) 182 (C) 218 (D) 152
(A) 31 (B) 60 (C) 61 (D) 65
26. The average of any 5 consecutive odd natural
18. The average weight of 15 persons is increased numbers is k. If two more such numbers, just
by 2 kg when in place of a person having weight
next to the previous 5 numbers are added, the
70 kg another new person is included. The
weight of the new person is: new average becomes:
A 100 kg B 98 kg C 102 kg D none (A) k + 2 (C) k + 4
(B) k + 5 (D) k + 3
19. The average of 7 consecutive odd numbers if the
smallest of those numbers is denoted by k: 27. The average income of A, B, and C is Rs.12,
(A) k + 7 (C) k + 6 000 per month and the average income of B, C
(B) k + 5 (D) 7k and D is Rs. 15, 000 per month. If the average
salary of D is twice that of A, then the average
20. The average of a, b and c is 79 and the average salary of B and C is (in Rs):
of a andc is also 79. Then the value of b is: (A) 13, 500 (C) 18, 000
(A) 0 (B) 79 (C) -79 (D) 100 (B) 8, 000 (D) 9, 000

21. The average of 6 observations is 12. A new 28. The average of the first five prime numbers
seventh observation is included and the new greater than 20 is:

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A 31.01 B 32.20 12. B


C 33.00 D None 13. B
14. C
29. The average monthly salary of all employees in 15. A
a factory is rs.600 and that of 16 officers is 16. A
rs.3000. If the average monthly salary of 17. C
workers is rs.550, the number of workers, 18. A
leaving aside officers, in the factory is? 19. C
A 744 B 768 20. B
C 842 D None 21. A
22. D
30. The average of 7, 14, 21, 28, 77 is: 23. B
(A) 11 (B) 66 (C) 42 (D) 66 24. D
25. C
31. The average weight of all the 11 players in 26. A
Indian cricket team is 50 kg. If the average 27. A
28. B
weight of first six lightest weight players is 49 29. D
kg and that of the six heaviest players is 52 kg. 30. C
The average weight (in kgs) of the player which 31. B
lies in the sixth position in the list of players 32. A
when all the 11 players are arranged in the order 33. B
of increasing or decreasing weights:
(A) 55 (B) 56 (C) 51 (D) 52

32. Two vessels A and B contain milk and water


mixed in the ratio 8: 5 and 5: 2 respectively. The Wishing you a good luck for all the aspirants of
ratio in which these two mixtures be mixed to competitive exams.
get a new mixture containing milk and water in
the ratio 9: 4? A 2: 7 B 3: 5 C 5: 2 D 5: 7
Regards
33. Two classes took the same test. One class of 20 SPOORTHY STUDY CIRCLE
students made an average grade of 80%, the Hyderabad
other class of 30 students made an average grade Mob: 9000976930
of 70%. The average grade for all students in
both classes is: A 75% B 74% C 78% D 79%

Practise Set -2 KEY

1. B
2. B
3. B
4. C
5. D
6. C
7. C
8. B
9. B
10. A
11. B

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